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1.  Evaluation of a Subunit H5 Vaccine and an Inactivated H5N2 Avian Influenza Marker Vaccine in Ducks Challenged with Vietnamese H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus 
The protective efficacy of a subunit avian influenza virus H5 vaccine based on recombinant baculovirus expressed H5 haemagglutinin antigen and an inactivated H5N2 avian influenza vaccine combined with a marker antigen (tetanus toxoid) was compared with commercially available inactivated H5N2 avian influenza vaccine in young ducks. Antibody responses, morbidity, mortality, and virus shedding were evaluated after challenge with a Vietnamese clade 1 H5N1 HPAI virus [A/VN/1203/04 (H5N1)] that was known to cause a high mortality rate in ducks. All three vaccines, administered with water-in-oil adjuvant, provided significant protection and dramatically reduced the duration and titer of virus shedding in the vaccinated challenged ducks compared with unvaccinated controls. The H5 subunit vaccine was shown to provide equivalent protection to the other two vaccines despite the H5 antibody responses in subunit vaccinated ducks being significantly lower prior to challenge. Ducks vaccinated with the H5N2 marker vaccine consistently produced antitetanus toxoid antibody. The two novel vaccines have attributes that would enhance H5N1 avian influenza surveillance and control by vaccination in small scale and village poultry systems.
doi:10.1155/2010/489213
PMCID: PMC3447282  PMID: 23074648
2.  Evaluation of a ceftiofur-washed whole cell Streptococcus suis bacterin in pigs 
Abstract
The efficacy of currently available washed whole cell Streptococcus suis bacterins is generally poor. We developed and tested the efficacy of a novel ceftiofur-washed whole cell bacterin. Sixty-six, 2-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs were randomly divided into 5 groups. Three groups were vaccinated 28 and 14 d prior to challenge. The 3 ceftiofur-washed whole cell bacterins each contained 1 of 3 different adjuvants (Montanide ISA 25, Montanide ISA 50, and Saponin). Pigs exhibiting severe central nervous system disease or severe joint swelling and lameness were euthanized immediately and necropsied. All remaining pigs were necropsied at 14 d post inoculation. The ceftiofur-washed whole cell S. suis bacterin with Montanide ISA 50 adjuvant significantly (P < 0.05) reduced bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia, and mortality associated with S. suis challenge. Further work on this novel approach to bacterin production is warranted.
PMCID: PMC1142148  PMID: 15352553
3.  Antibody responses and resistance to challenge in volunteers vaccinated with live attenuated, detergent split and oil adjuvant A2/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) influenza vaccines* 
The Journal of Hygiene  1972;70(3):531-543.
Forty-nine subjects were vaccinated with either live attenuated, detergent split, or oil adjuvant A2/Hong Kong influenza vaccines, or a saline influenza B vaccine as control. Respiratory symptoms occurred more frequently in subjects who received the live vaccine but in total there was little difference between the symptoms in the four groups. Antibody titres in nasal washings and serum were measured by haemagglutination inhibition, neuraminidase inhibition and virus neutralization tests. The oil adjuvant vaccine stimulated larger antibody responses than the other procedures. Six weeks after vaccination the volunteers were challenged with partially attenuated live A2/Hong Kong influenza virus administered intranasally. The live attenuated and oil adjuvant vaccines provided the best protection against challenge.
PMCID: PMC2130202  PMID: 4506997
4.  Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of Plasmodium vivax CS Derived Long Synthetic Peptides Adjuvanted with Montanide ISA 720 or Montanide ISA 51 
We assessed the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a mixture of three synthetic peptides derived from the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720 or Montanide ISA 51. Forty healthy malaria-naive volunteers were allocated to five experimental groups (A–E): four groups (A–D) were immunized intramuscularly with 50 and 100 μg/dose injections of a mixture of N, R, and C peptides formulated in the two different adjuvants at 0, 2, and 4 months and one group was administered placebo. Vaccines were immunogenic, safe, well tolerated, and no serious adverse events related to the vaccine occurred. Seroconversion occurred in > 90% of the vaccines and antibodies recognized the sporozoite protein on immunofluorescent antibody test. Vaccines in Montanide ISA 51 showed a higher sporozoite protein recognition and interferon production. Results encourage further testing of the vaccine protective efficacy.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2011.09-0516
PMCID: PMC3032485  PMID: 21292873
5.  Safety and Enhanced Immunogenicity of a Hepatitis B Core Particle Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Vaccine Formulated in Adjuvant Montanide ISA 720 in a Phase I Trial  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(6):3587-3597.
Highly purified subunit vaccines require potent adjuvants in order to elicit optimal immune responses. In a previous phase I trial, an alum formulation of ICC-1132, a malaria vaccine candidate comprising hepatitis B core (HBc) virus-like particle containing Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein epitopes, was shown to elicit Plasmodium falciparum-specific antibody and cellular responses. The present study was designed as a single-blind, escalating-dose phase I trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of single intramuscular doses of ICC-1132 formulated in the more potent water-in-oil adjuvant Montanide ISA 720 (ICC-1132/ISA 720). The vaccine was safe and well tolerated, with transient injection site pain as the most frequent complaint. All vaccinees that received either 20 μg or 50 μg of ICC-1132/ISA 720 developed antiimmunogen and anti-HBc antibodies. The majority of volunteers in these two groups developed sporozoite-specific antibodies, predominantly of opsonizing immunoglobulin G subtypes. Peak titers and persistence of parasite-specific antibody following a single injection of the ISA 720 formulated vaccine were comparable to those obtained following two to three immunizations with alum-adsorbed ICC-1132. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ICC-1132/ISA 720 vaccinees proliferated and released cytokines (interleukin 2 and gamma interferon) when stimulated with recombinant P. falciparum CS protein, and CS-specific CD4+ T-cell lines were established from volunteers with high levels of antibodies to the repeat region. The promising results obtained with a single dose of ICC-1132 formulated in Montanide ISA 720 encourage further clinical development of this malaria vaccine candidate.
doi:10.1128/IAI.73.6.3587-3597.2005
PMCID: PMC1111818  PMID: 15908388
6.  Long-term Efficacy of Oil-adjuvant Influenza Vaccine in an Industrial Population 
The mild influenza epidemic of mixed A and B strains early in 1966 provided an opportunity to assess the efficacy of an oil-adjuvant influenza vaccine which had been administered more than two years earlier to 1,341 volunteers at two U.K. Atomic Energy Authority establishments. At the 5% confidence level, a statistically significant reduction in sickness absence due to influenza was found in this vaccinated group when compared with a control group of 918 employees. This trend was observed at both establishments. Some confirmation was thus obtained of serological predictions that protection would last two to three years or longer after inoculation. There was some indication that the vaccine might be more effective in older workers. This trial suggests the need for more long-term evaluation of oil-adjuvant influenza vaccines.
PMCID: PMC1008510  PMID: 6017141
7.  Toll-like receptor agonists influence the magnitude and quality of memory T cell responses after prime-boost immunization in nonhuman primates 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2006;203(5):1249-1258.
There is a remarkable heterogeneity in the functional profile (quality) of T cell responses. Importantly, the magnitude and/or quality of a response required for protection may be different depending on the infection. Here, we assessed the capacity of different Toll like receptor (TLR)-binding compounds to influence T helper cell (Th)1 and CD8+ T cell responses when used as adjuvants in nonhuman primates (NHP) with HIV Gag as a model antigen. NHP were immunized with HIV Gag protein emulsified in Montanide ISA 51, an oil-based adjuvant, with or without a TLR7/8 agonist, a TLR8 agonist, or the TLR9 ligand cytosine phosphate guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN), and boosted 12 wk later with a replication-defective adenovirus-expressing HIV-Gag (rAD-Gag). Animals vaccinated with HIV Gag protein/Montanide and CpG ODN or the TLR7/8 agonist had higher frequencies of Th1 responses after primary immunization compared to all other vaccine groups. Although the rAD-Gag boost did not elevate the frequency of Th1 memory cytokine responses, there was a striking increase in HIV Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses after the boost in all animals that had received a primary immunization with any of the TLR adjuvants. Importantly, the presence and type of TLR adjuvant used during primary immunization conferred stability and dramatically influenced the magnitude and quality of the Th1 and CD8+ T cell responses after the rAD-Gag boost. These data provide insights for designing prime-boost immunization regimens to optimize Th1 and CD8+ T cell responses.
doi:10.1084/jem.20052433
PMCID: PMC2121207  PMID: 16636134
8.  The requirement for potent adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of protein vaccines can be overcome by prior immunization with a recombinant adenovirus 
A central goal in vaccinology is the induction of high and sustained antibody responses. Protein-in-adjuvant formulations are commonly used to achieve such responses. However, their clinical development can be limited by the reactogenicity of some of the most potent pre-clinical adjuvants and the cost and complexity of licensing new adjuvants for human use. Also, few adjuvants induce strong cellular immunity which is important for protection against many diseases, such as malaria. We compared classical adjuvants such as alum to new pre-clinical adjuvants and adjuvants in clinical development such as Abisco®100, CoVaccine HT™, Montanide®ISA720 and SE-GLA, for their ability to induce high and sustained antibody responses and T cell responses. These adjuvants induced a broad range of antibody responses when used in a three-shot protein-in-adjuvant regime using the model antigen ovalbumin and leading blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate antigens. Surprisingly, this range of antibody immunogenicity was greatly reduced when a protein-in-adjuvant vaccine was used to boost antibody responses primed by a human adenovirus serotype 5 (AdHu5) vaccine recombinant for the same antigen. This AdHu5-protein regime also induced a more cytophilic antibody response and demonstrated improved efficacy of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) protein vaccines against a Plasmodium yoelii blood-stage challenge. This indicates that the differential immunogenicity of protein vaccine adjuvants may be largely overcome by prior immunization with recombinant adenovirus, especially for adjuvants that are traditionally considered poorly immunogenic in the context of subunit vaccination, and may circumvent the need for more potent chemical adjuvants.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1101004
PMCID: PMC3160495  PMID: 21813775
9.  A Schistosoma japonicum chimeric protein with a novel adjuvant induced a polarized Th1 immune response and protection against liver egg burdens 
Background
Schitosomiasis japonica is still a significant public health problem in China. A protective vaccine for human or animal use represents an important strategy for long-term control of this disease. Due to the complex life cycle of schistosomes, different vaccine design approaches may be necessary, including polyvalent subunit vaccines. In this study, we constructed four chimeric proteins (designated SjGP-1~4) via fusion of Sj26GST and four individual paramyosin fragments. We tested these four proteins as vaccine candidates, and investigated the effect of deviating immune response on protection roles in mice.
Methods
The immunogencity and protection efficacy of chimeric proteins were evaluated in mice. Next, the chimeric protein SjGP-3 was selected and formulated in various adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206, IMS 1312 and ISA 70M. The titers of antigen-specific IgG, IgE and IgG subclass were measured. The effect of adjuvant on cytokine production and percentages of CD3+CD8-IFN-γ+ cells and CD3+CD8-IL-4+ cells were analyzed at different time points. Worm burdens and liver egg counts in different adjuvant groups were counted to evaluate the protection efficacy against cercarial challenge.
Results
Immunization of mice with chimeric proteins provided various levels of protection. Among the four proteins, SjGP-3 induced the highest level of protection, and showed enhanced protective efficacy compared with its individual component Sj26GST. Because of this, SjGP-3 was further formulated in various adjuvants to investigate the effect of adjuvant on immune deviation. The results revealed that SjGP-3 formulated in veterinary adjuvant ISA 70M induced a lasting polarized Th1 immune response, whereas the other adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206 and IMS 1312, generated a moderate mixed Th1/Th2 response after immunization but all except for IMS 1312 shifted to Th2 response after onset of eggs. More importantly, the SjGP-3/70M formulation induced a significant reduction in liver egg deposition at 47.0–50.3% and the number of liver eggs per female at 34.5–37.2% but less effect on worm burdens at only 17.3–23.1%, whereas no effect of the formulations with other adjuvants on the number of liver eggs per female was observed.
Conclusion
Construction of polyvalent subunit vaccine was capable to enhance immunogenicity and protection efficacy against schistosomiasis. There was correlation of the polarized Th1 response with reduction of liver egg burdens, supporting the immune deviation strategy for schistosomiasis japonica vaccine development.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-54
PMCID: PMC2685138  PMID: 19419545
10.  Immune Responses of Sheep to Quadrivalent Double Emulsion Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines: Rate of Development of Immunity and Variations among Other Ruminants 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(11):4367-4371.
Despite representing the majority of the world's foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-susceptible livestock, sheep and goats have generally been neglected with regard to their epidemiological role in the spread of FMD. In the present investigations, FMD virus quadrivalent double emulsion (Montanide ISA 206) vaccines were tested in sheep. The oil adjuvant elicited a better immune response at any time than did aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine, and the response developed quicker. The animals maintained their neutralizing antibody titers at >3 log10 for the duration of the trial (90 days). Sheep were found to be late responders to serotypes A, C, and Asia-1; a clear upward shift in titer was observed at 60 days postvaccination. However, development of the immune response to serotype O in sheep was superior to that in cattle and goats.
doi:10.1128/JCM.40.11.4367-4371.2002
PMCID: PMC139720  PMID: 12409434
11.  A Novel Vaccine Using Nanoparticle Platform to Present Immunogenic M2e against Avian Influenza Infection 
Using peptide nanoparticle technology, we have designed two novel vaccine constructs representing M2e in monomeric (Mono-M2e) and tetrameric (Tetra-M2e) forms. Groups of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were immunized intramuscularly with Mono-M2e or Tetra-M2e with and without an adjuvant. Two weeks after the second boost, chickens were challenged with 107.2 EID50 of H5N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus. M2e-specific antibody responses to each of the vaccine constructs were tested by ELISA. Vaccinated chickens exhibited increased M2e-specific IgG responses for each of the constructs as compared to a non-vaccinated group. However, the vaccine construct Tetra-M2e elicited a significantly higher antibody response when it was used with an adjuvant. On the other hand, virus neutralization assays indicated that immune protection is not by way of neutralizing antibodies. The level of protection was evaluated using quantitative real time PCR at 4, 6, and 8 days post-challenge with H5N2 LPAI by measuring virus shedding from trachea and cloaca. The Tetra-M2e with adjuvant offered statistically significant (P < 0.05) protection against subtype H5N2 LPAI by reduction of the AI virus shedding. The results suggest that the self-assembling polypeptide nanoparticle shows promise as a potential platform for a development of a vaccine against AI.
doi:10.1155/2011/126794
PMCID: PMC3447297  PMID: 23074652
12.  Evaluation of Montanide™ ISA 71 VG Adjuvant during Profilin Vaccination against Experimental Coccidiosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e59786.
Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein plus Montanide™ ISA 70 VG (ISA 70) or Montanide™ ISA 71 VG (ISA 71) water-in-oil adjuvants, or with profilin alone, and comparative RNA microarray hybridizations were performed to ascertain global transcriptome changes induced by profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone and by profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone. While immunization with profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone altered the levels of more total transcripts compared with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone (509 vs. 296), the latter was associated with a greater number of unique biological functions, and a larger number of genes within these functions, compared with the former. Further, canonical pathway analysis identified 10 pathways that were associated with genes encoding the altered transcripts in animals immunized with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone, compared with only 2 pathways in profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone. Therefore, ISA 71 was selected as a candidate adjuvant in conjunction with profilin vaccination for in vivo disease protection studies. Vaccination with profilin/ISA 71 was associated with greater body weight gain following E. acervulina infection, and decreased parasite fecal shedding after E. maxima infection, compared with profilin alone. Anti-profilin antibody levels were higher in sera of E. maxima- and E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. Finally, the levels of transcripts encoding interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and IL-17A were increased in intestinal lymphocytes from E. acervulina-, E. maxima-, and/or E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. None of these effects were seen in chickens injected with ISA 71 alone indicating that the adjuvant was not conferring non-specific immune stimulation. These results suggest that profilin plus ISA 71 augments protective immunity against selective Eimeria species in chickens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059786
PMCID: PMC3620231  PMID: 23593150
13.  Effects on Immunogenicity by Formulations of Emulsion-Based Adjuvants for Malaria Vaccines 
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2012;19(10):1633-1640.
New malaria vaccines are urgently needed to improve vaccine protective efficacy. PfCelTOS is a recombinant malaria vaccine antigen that has shown protective efficacy in a small-animal challenge model when combined with a water-in-oil emulsion adjuvant (Montanide ISA 720). In this report, we show that PfCelTOS vaccines containing GLA-SE (a stable oil-in-water emulsion combined with a Toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4] agonist) elicit strong Th1-type immune responses in BALB/c mice. These responses include higher antigen-specific IgG2a antibody titers and more gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production than those seen with a PfCelTOS vaccine containing Montanide ISA 720. Furthermore, reducing the emulsion dose from 2% to 1% or 0.5% (vol/vol) squalene in GLA-SE did not compromise immunogenicity. Emulsion dose titration in the absence of formulated GLA caused some reduction in humoral and cellular immune responses compared to those with the 2% squalene emulsion dose.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00235-12
PMCID: PMC3485880  PMID: 22896687
14.  Homo- and Heterosubtypic Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Exposure on H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(1):e15987.
Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Although they are often infected with multiple AI viruses, the significance and extent of acquired immunity in these populations is not understood. Pre-existing immunity to AI virus has been shown to modulate the outcome of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in multiple domestic avian species, but few studies have addressed this effect in wild birds. In this study, the effect of pre-exposure to homosubtypic (homologous hemagglutinin) and heterosubtypic (heterologous hemagglutinin) low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses on the outcome of a H5N1 HPAI virus infection in wood ducks (Aix sponsa) was evaluated. Pre-exposure of wood ducks to different LPAI viruses did not prevent infection with H5N1 HPAI virus, but did increase survival associated with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. The magnitude of this effect on the outcome of the H5N1 HPAI virus infection varied between different LPAI viruses, and was associated both with efficiency of LPAI viral replication in wood ducks and the development of a detectable humoral immune response. These observations suggest that in naturally occurring outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI, birds with pre-existing immunity to homologous hemagglutinin or neuraminidase subtypes of AI virus may either survive H5N1 HPAI virus infection or live longer than naïve birds and, consequently, could pose a greater risk for contributing to viral transmission and dissemination. The mechanisms responsible for this protection and/or the duration of this immunity remain unknown. The results of this study are important for surveillance efforts and help clarify epidemiological data from outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI virus in wild bird populations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015987
PMCID: PMC3017094  PMID: 21253608
15.  Modulation of Antibody Responses against Gnathostoma spinigerum in Mice Immunized with Crude Antigen Formulated in CpG Oligonucleotide and Montanide ISA720 
This study aimed to investigate the antibody responses in mice immunized with Gnathostoma spinigerum crude antigen (GsAg) incorporated with the combined adjuvant, a synthetic oligonucleotide containing unmethylated CpG motif (CpG ODN 1826) and a stable water in oil emulsion (Montanide ISA720). Mice immunized with GsAg and combined adjuvant produced all antibody classes and subclasses to GsAg except IgA. IgG2a/2b/3 but not IgG1 subclasses were enhanced by immunization with CpG ODN 1826 when compared with the control groups immunized with non-CpG ODN and Montanide ISA or only with Montanide ISA, suggesting a biased induction of a Th1-type response by CpG ODN. After challenge infection with live G. spinigerum larvae, the levels of IgG2a/2b/3 antibody subclasses decreased immediately and continuously, while the IgG1 subclass remained at high levels. This also corresponded to a continuous decrease of the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio after infection. Only IgM and IgG1 antibodies, but not IgG2a/2b/3, were significantly produced in adjuvant control groups after infection. These findings suggest that G. spinigerum infection potently induces a Th2-type biased response.
doi:10.3347/kjp.2013.51.6.637
PMCID: PMC3916451  PMID: 24516267
Gnathostoma spinigerum; CpG oligonucleotide; Th1-type response; Th2-type response; nematode; immunity
16.  Efficacy of a killed gpX deleted pseudorabies virus vaccine. 
Ten inactivated vaccines containing one of four adjuvants and varying concentrations of pseudorabies virus (PRV) antigens were compared in order to select a vaccine suitable for commercial production. A genetically engineered strain of PRV lacking the gene coding for glycoprotein X (gpX) was used in these vaccines. Vaccinated pigs were challenged intranasally with virulent PRV to determine the efficacy of vaccines. Vaccination of pigs with one dose of experimental vaccines adjuvanted with 50% Montanide ISA 50 or 20% Syntrogen induced a protective immunity at least equal to that induced by two commercially available killed PRV vaccines also evaluated. An experimental vaccine containing 20% Syntrogen was selected and further evaluated according to United States Department of Agriculture licensing requirements. None of the pigs vaccinated with this vaccine produced gpX antibodies detectable by the HerdChek: Anti-PRV-gpX assay. Therefore, this assay could differentiate PRV vaccine induced antibodies from antibodies induced by natural exposure when used in conjunction with this killed gpX deleted PRV vaccine.
PMCID: PMC1255690  PMID: 2174294
17.  Immunogenicity of a virosomally-formulated Plasmodium falciparum GLURP-MSP3 chimeric protein-based malaria vaccine candidate in comparison to adjuvanted formulations 
Malaria Journal  2011;10:359.
Background
In clinical trials, immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIVs) have shown great potential as a versatile antigen delivery platform for synthetic peptides derived from Plasmodium falciparum antigens. This study describes the immunogenicity of a virosomally-formulated recombinant fusion protein comprising domains of the two malaria vaccine candidate antigens MSP3 and GLURP.
Methods
The highly purified recombinant protein GMZ2 was coupled to phosphatidylethanolamine and the conjugates incorporated into the membrane of IRIVs. The immunogenicity of this adjuvant-free virosomal formulation was compared to GMZ2 formulated with the adjuvants Montanide ISA 720 and Alum in three mouse strains with different genetic backgrounds.
Results
Intramuscular injections of all three candidate vaccine formulations induced GMZ2-specific antibody responses in all mice tested. In general, the humoral immune response in outbred NMRI mice was stronger than that in inbred BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. ELISA with the recombinant antigens demonstrated immunodominance of the GLURP component over the MSP3 component. However, compared to the Al(OH)3-adjuvanted formulation the two other formulations elicited in NMRI mice a larger proportion of anti-MSP3 antibodies. Analyses of the induced GMZ2-specific IgG subclass profiles showed for all three formulations a predominance of the IgG1 isotype. Immune sera against all three formulations exhibited cross-reactivity with in vitro cultivated blood-stage parasites. Immunofluorescence and immunoblot competition experiments showed that both components of the hybrid protein induced IgG cross-reactive with the corresponding native proteins.
Conclusion
A virosomal formulation of the chimeric protein GMZ2 induced P. falciparum blood stage parasite cross-reactive IgG responses specific for both MSP3 and GLURP. GMZ2 thus represents a candidate component suitable for inclusion into a multi-valent virosomal malaria vaccine and influenza virosomes represent a versatile antigen delivery system suitable for adjuvant-free immunization with recombinant proteins.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-10-359
PMCID: PMC3265551  PMID: 22166048
Influenza virosomes; GMZ2 immunogenicity; Vaccine candidate; Plasmodium falciparum malaria
18.  Evaluation of Clumping Factor A Binding Region A in a Subunit Vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Mastitis in Mice ▿  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2010;17(11):1746-1752.
The present study evaluated the potential of recombinant binding region A of clumping factor A (rClfA-A) to be an effective component of a vaccine against mastitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus in the mouse. rClfA-A and inactivated S. aureus were each emulsified in Freund's adjuvant, mineral oil adjuvant, and Seppic adjuvant; phosphate-buffered saline was used as a control. Seven groups of 12 mice each were immunized intraperitoneally three times at 2-week intervals. The titers of IgG and subtypes thereof (IgG1 and IgG2a) in the rClfA-A-immunized group were more than 1,000-fold higher than those in the killed-bacteria-immunized group (P < 0.01). Of the three adjuvants used, mineral oil adjuvant induced the highest antibody levels for both antigens (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the anti-rClfA-A antibody capacities for bacterial adhesion and opsonizing phagocytosis were significantly greater in the rClfA-A-immunized group than in the killed-bacteria-immunized group (P < 0.05). Lactating mice immunized with either rClfA-A or inactivated vaccine were challenged with S. aureus via the intramammary route. The numbers of bacteria recovered from the murine mammary glands 24 h after inoculation were significantly lower in the rClfA-A group than in the killed-bacteria-immunized group (P < 0.001). Histologic examination of the mammary glands showed that rClfA-A immunization effectively preserved tissue integrity. Thus, rClfA-A emulsified in an oil adjuvant provides strong immune protection against S. aureus-induced mastitis in the mouse.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00162-10
PMCID: PMC2976091  PMID: 20826613
19.  Intranasal Immunization with a Formalin-Inactivated Human Influenza A Virus Whole-Virion Vaccine Alone and Intranasal Immunization with a Split-Virion Vaccine with Mucosal Adjuvants Show Similar Levels of Cross-Protection 
The antigenicity of seasonal human influenza virus changes continuously; thus, a cross-protective influenza vaccine design needs to be established. Intranasal immunization with an influenza split-virion (SV) vaccine and a mucosal adjuvant induces cross-protection; however, no mucosal adjuvant has been assessed clinically. Formalin-inactivated intact human and avian viruses alone (without adjuvant) induce cross-protection against the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. However, it is unknown whether seasonal human influenza formalin-inactivated whole-virion (WV) vaccine alone induces cross-protection against strains within a subtype or in a different subtype of human influenza virus. Furthermore, there are few reports comparing the cross-protective efficacy of the WV vaccine and SV vaccine-mucosal adjuvant mixtures. Here, we found that the intranasal human influenza WV vaccine alone induced both the innate immune response and acquired immune response, resulting in cross-protection against drift variants within a subtype of human influenza virus. The cross-protective efficacy conferred by the WV vaccine in intranasally immunized mice was almost the same as that conferred by a mixture of SV vaccine and adjuvants. The level of cross-protective efficacy was correlated with the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titer in the nasal wash and bronchoalveolar fluids. However, neither the SV vaccine with adjuvant nor the WV vaccine induced cross-reactive virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity. These results suggest that the intranasal human WV vaccine injection alone is effective against variants within a virus subtype, mainly through a humoral immune response, and that the cross-protection elicited by the WV vaccine and the SV vaccine plus mucosal adjuvants is similar.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00016-12
PMCID: PMC3393367  PMID: 22552600
20.  Development and Characterization of Protective Haemophilus parasuis Subunit Vaccines Based on Native Proteins with Affinity to Porcine Transferrin and Comparison with Other Subunit and Commercial Vaccines ▿  
Haemophilus parasuis is the agent responsible for causing Glässer's disease, which is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis, and meningitis in pigs. In this study, we have characterized native outer membrane proteins with affinity to porcine transferrin (NPAPT) from H. parasuis serovar 5, Nagasaki strain. This pool of proteins was used as antigen to developed two vaccine formulations: one was adjuvanted with a mineral oil (Montanide IMS 2215 VG PR), while the other was potentiated with a bacterial neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens. The potential protective effect conferred by these two vaccines was compared to that afforded by two other vaccines, consisting of recombinant transferrin-binding protein (rTbp) A or B fragments from H. parasuis, Nagasaki strain, and by a commercially available inactivated vaccine. Five groups of colostrum-deprived piglets immunized with the vaccines described above, one group per each vaccine, and a group of nonvaccinated control animals were challenged intratracheally with a lethal dose (3 × 108 CFU) of H. parasuis, Nagasaki strain. The two vaccines containing rTbps yielded similar results with minimal protection against death, clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, and H. parasuis invasion. In contrast, the two vaccines composed of NPAPT antigen and commercial bacterin resulted in a strong protection against challenge (without deaths and clinical signs), mild histopathological changes, and no recovery of H. parasuis, thus suggesting their effectiveness in preventing Glässer's disease outbreaks caused by serovar 5.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00314-10
PMCID: PMC3019774  PMID: 20926701
21.  Intranasal Immunization of Ferrets with Commercial Trivalent Influenza Vaccines Formulated in a Nanoemulsion-Based Adjuvant ▿ ‡ 
NB-1008 is a surfactant-stabilized soybean oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant with influenza virus antigen incorporated into the NE by simple mixing. Intranasal administration of the antigen with NE adjuvant efficiently produces both mucosal and serum antibody responses as well as a robust cellular Th1 immune response. To demonstrate the adjuvant effect of the W805EC NE, a killed commercial influenza vaccine for intramuscular administration (Fluzone or Fluvirin) was mixed with the W805EC NE adjuvant and administered intranasally to naïve ferrets. After a single intranasal immunization, the adjuvanted influenza vaccine elicited elevated serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) geometric mean titers (GMTs) ranging from 196 to 905 for the three hemagglutinin (HA) antigens present in the vaccine, which are approximately 19- to 90-fold higher titers at 1/50 the standard intramuscular commercial nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine dose. Seroconversion rates of 67% to 100% were achieved against each of the three viral strains present. The adjuvanted nasal influenza vaccine also produced significant cross immunity to five other H3N2 influenza virus strains not present in the vaccine and produced sterile immunity after challenge with homologous live virus. No safety issues were observed in 249 ferrets receiving the adjuvanted influenza vaccine. These findings demonstrate the ability of W805EC NE to adjuvant nasally administered influenza vaccine and provide a basis for studying the intranasal W805EC-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in humans.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00035-11
PMCID: PMC3147313  PMID: 21543588
22.  Nasal and circulating antibody responses to influenza vaccination and their importance in resistance to infection 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1973;49(569):200-202.
Small groups of volunteers were inoculated intranasally with live-attenuated, and parenterally with detergent-split-saline or with whole-virus-oil-adjuvant influenza A2/HK (H3N2) vaccines after the prevalence of Hong Kong strains. Antibody titres in nasal secretions and serum were measured by HI, antineuraminidase and neutralization tests. The oil adjuvant vaccine produced large rises in antibodies and the other two vaccines produced small rises. The volunteers given oil adjuvant and live vaccine were both well protected against challenge with a partly attenuated strain. Statistical analysis showed that resistance to infection was predicted best by high titres of antibody in the serum, but the presence of antibody did not seem to explain completely resistance to infection.
PMCID: PMC2495394  PMID: 4802537
23.  Phase 1 Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of the Plasmodium falciparum Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine AMA1-C1/ISA 720 in Australian Adults 
Vaccine  2010;28(10):2236-2242.
A Phase 1 trial was conducted in malaria-naïve adults to evaluate the recombinant protein vaccine apical membrane antigen 1 – Combination 1 (AMA1-C1) formulated in Montanide® ISA 720 (SEPPIC, France), a water-in-oil adjuvant. Vaccinations were halted early due to a formulation issue unrelated to stability or potency. Twenty-four subjects (12 in each group) were enrolled and received 5 or 20 μg protein at 0 and 3 months and 4 subjects were enrolled and received one vaccination of 80 μg protein. After first vaccination, nearly all subjects experienced mild to moderate local reactions and 6 experienced delayed local reactions occurring at day 9 or later. After the second vaccination, 3 subjects experienced transient grade 3 (severe) local reactions; the remainder experienced grade 1 or 2 local reactions. All related systemic reactogenicity was grade 1 or 2, except 1 instance of grade 3 malaise. Anti-AMA1-C1 antibody responses were dose dependent and seen following each vaccination, with mean antibody levels 2-3 fold higher in the 20 μg group compared to the 5 μg group at most time points. In vitro growth-inhibitory activity was a function of the anti-AMA1 antibody titer. AMA1-C1 formulated in ISA 720 is immunogenic in malaria-naïve Australian adults. It is reasonably tolerated, though some transient, severe, and late local reactions are seen.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.049
PMCID: PMC2847846  PMID: 20051276
24.  Recombinant OspA protects dogs against infection and disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(9):3543-3549.
Twenty-two specific-pathogen-free beagles were vaccinated with recombinant OspA (ospA gene derived from Borrelia burgdorferi B31) alone or with adjuvant (QuilA, Montanide ISA25, or aluminum hydroxide) at 6 weeks of age. Thirteen dogs were used as nonvaccinated controls with or without adjuvant. Three dogs were kept as contact controls and received neither vaccine nor challenge. Six weeks or 6 months after the first vaccination, the vaccinated (20 of 22) and nonvaccinated dogs (13) were challenged by exposure to adult ticks (Ixodes scapularis) naturally that were infected with B. burgdorferi (tick infection rate, > or = 60%) and that were collected from Westchester County, N.Y. Protection from infection was evaluated by culture for B. burgdorferi from skin biopsies taken near the sites of tick bites. Skin biopsies were taken at monthly intervals for 3 months. B. burgdorferi was not isolated from any of the vaccinated dogs. In contrast, 12 of 13 control dogs challenged by exposure to the ticks were culture positive. The histopathology of the joint capsules 3 months after the challenge was used to evaluate protection from arthritis. Eight of 13 control dogs showed synovitis in single or multiple joints, while only 1 of the 22 vaccinated dogs had a single focus of mild inflammation in a single joint. At the time of the challenge, the vaccinated dogs had antibody to B. burgdorferi, which was demonstrable by kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting (immunoblotting), and a serum growth inhibition assay. The vaccinal antibody declined gradually after the challenge, especially in dogs vaccinated with OspA without adjuvants. Antibodies in the challenge control dogs were only detectable by 4 to 6 weeks after the challenge and remained at high levels until the termination of the study. Contact control dogs showed no antibody responses or histopathologic lesions and were culture negative. By Western blot analysis, antibodies to OspA first appeared in the sera of vaccinated dogs 3 weeks after the first vaccination. The absence of additional bands after the challenge suggests that infection in vaccinated dogs was blocked. Results from this study show that vaccination with recombinant OspA protected dogs against infection and disease after an experimental challenge with B. burgdorferi by exposure to ticks.
PMCID: PMC173491  PMID: 7642289
25.  Timing of Plasmid Cytokine (IL-2/Ig) Administration Affects HIV-1 Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-Seronegative Subjects 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2011;204(10):1541-1549.
Background. To investigate the potential immunostimulatory effect of interleukin (IL) 2 as a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine adjuvant, we conducted a study of a plasmid coding for a fusion protein of IL-2 and immunoglobulin (IL-2/Ig).
Methods. This phase I trial evaluated an HIV-1 DNA vaccine with the plasmid cytokine adjuvant (IL-2/Ig) in 70 HIV-negative adults. Subjects received placebo (group C), adjuvant alone (group A), vaccine alone (group D), increasing doses of adjuvant concurrent with vaccine (groups T1–T4), or adjuvant given 2 days after vaccine (group T5).
Results. No significant differences in adverse events were observed between treatment groups. Cellular immune responses to envelope protein EnvA peptides were detected by interferon (IFN) γ and IL-2 enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays in 50% and 40% of subjects, respectively, in T4, and in 100% and 80% in T5. The median responses for groups T4 and T5, respectively, were 90 and 193 spot-forming cells (SFCs)/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P = .004; T4 vs T5) for the IL-2 ELISPOT assay and 103 and 380 SFCs/106 PBMCs (P = .003; T4 vs T5) for the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. A trend to more durable cellular immune responses in T5 was observed at 1 year (T5 vs T4/D; P = .07). Higher anti-Env antibody responses were detected with T5 than with T4.
Conclusions. Plasmid IL-2/Ig significantly increased immune responses when administered 2 days after the DNA vaccine, compared with simultaneous administration. These observations have important implications for the development of cytokine augmentation strategies.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00069030.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jir615
PMCID: PMC3222108  PMID: 21940420

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