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1.  Improved Antisense Oligonucleotide Design to Suppress Aberrant SMN2 Gene Transcript Processing: Towards a Treatment for Spinal Muscular Atrophy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e62114.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by loss of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in reduced SMN protein. Humans possess the additional SMN2 gene (or genes) that does produce low level of full length SMN, but cannot adequately compensate for loss of SMN1 due to aberrant splicing. The majority of SMN2 gene transcripts lack exon 7 and the resultant SMNΔ7 mRNA is translated into an unstable and non-functional protein. Splice intervention therapies to promote exon 7 retention and increase amounts of full-length SMN2 transcript offer great potential as a treatment for SMA patients. Several splice silencing motifs in SMN2 have been identified as potential targets for antisense oligonucleotide mediated splice modification. A strong splice silencer is located downstream of exon 7 in SMN2 intron 7. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting this motif promoted SMN2 exon 7 retention in the mature SMN2 transcripts, with increased SMN expression detected in SMA fibroblasts. We report here systematic optimisation of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMO) that promote exon 7 retention to levels that rescued the phenotype in a severe mouse model of SMA after intracerebroventricular delivery. Furthermore, the PMO gives the longest survival reported to date after a single dosing by ICV.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062114
PMCID: PMC3632594  PMID: 23630626
2.  Splicing regulation of the Survival Motor Neuron genes and implications for treatment of spinal muscular atrophy 
Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. The reduced SMN levels are due to loss of the survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1) gene. Humans carry a nearly identical SMN2 gene that generates a truncated protein, due to a C to T nucleotide alteration in exon 7 that leads to inefficient RNA splicing of exon 7. This exclusion of SMN exon 7 is central to the onset of the SMA disease, however, this offers a unique therapeutic intervention in which corrective splicing of the SMN2 gene would restore SMN function. Exon 7 splicing is regulated by a number of exonic and intronic splicing regulatory sequences and trans-factors that bind them. A better understanding of the way SMN pre-mRNA is spliced has lead to the development of targeted therapies aimed at correcting SMN2 splicing. As therapeutics targeted toward correction of SMN2 splicing continue to be developed available SMA mouse models can be utilized in validating their potential in disease treatment.
PMCID: PMC2921696  PMID: 20515750
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA); Survival Motor Neuron (SMN); pre-mRNA Splicing; Intronic Splicing Enhancer (ISE); Exonic Splicing Enhancer (ESE); RNA Therapy
3.  Splicing of a Critical Exon of Human Survival Motor Neuron Is Regulated by a Unique Silencer Element Located in the Last Intron 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2006;26(4):1333-1346.
Humans have two nearly identical copies of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) gene, SMN1 and SMN2. In spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), SMN2 is not able to compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to exclusion of exon 7. Here we describe a novel inhibitory element located immediately downstream of the 5′ splice site in intron 7. We call this element intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1). Deletion of ISS-N1 promoted exon 7 inclusion in mRNAs derived from the SMN2 minigene. Underlining the dominant role of ISS-N1 in exon 7 skipping, abrogation of a number of positive cis elements was tolerated when ISS-N1 was deleted. Confirming the silencer function of ISS-N1, an antisense oligonucleotide against ISS-N1 restored exon 7 inclusion in mRNAs derived from the SMN2 minigene or from endogenous SMN2. Consistently, this oligonucleotide increased the levels of SMN protein in SMA patient-derived cells that carry only the SMN2 gene. Our findings underscore for the first time the profound impact of an evolutionarily nonconserved intronic element on SMN2 exon 7 splicing. Considering that oligonucleotides annealing to intronic sequences do not interfere with exon-junction complex formation or mRNA transport and translation, ISS-N1 provides a very specific and efficient therapeutic target for antisense oligonucleotide-mediated correction of SMN2 splicing in SMA.
doi:10.1128/MCB.26.4.1333-1346.2006
PMCID: PMC1367187  PMID: 16449646
4.  Antisense oligonucleotide mediated therapy of spinal muscular atrophy 
Translational neuroscience  2013;4(1):10.2478/s13380-013-0109-2.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA results from deletions or mutations of survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), an essential gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy, can compensate for SMN1 loss if SMN2 exon 7 skipping is prevented. Among the many cis-elements involved in the splicing regulation of SMN exon 7, intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1) has emerged as the most effective target for an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated splicing correction of SMN2 exon 7. Blocking of ISS-N1 by an ASO has been shown to fully restore SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in SMA patient cells as well as in vivo. Here we review how ISS-N1 targeting ASOs that use different chemistries respond differently in the various SMA mouse models. We also compare other ASO-based strategies for therapeutic splicing correction in SMA. Given that substantial progress on ASO-based strategies to promote SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in SMA has been made, and that similar approaches in a growing number of genetic diseases are possible, this report has wide implications.
doi:10.2478/s13380-013-0109-2
PMCID: PMC3832262  PMID: 24265944
Antisense oligonucleotide; splicing; ISS-N1; ASO; SMA; SMN; PMO; MOE
5.  A humanized Smn gene containing the SMN2 nucleotide alteration in exon 7 mimics SMN2 splicing and the SMA disease phenotype 
Human Molecular Genetics  2010;19(21):4239-4252.
Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. In humans, SMN1 and SMN2 encode the SMN protein. In SMA patients, the SMN1 gene is lost and the remaining SMN2 gene only partially compensates. Mediated by a C>T nucleotide transition in SMN2, the inefficient recognition of exon 7 by the splicing machinery results in low levels of SMN. Because the SMN2 gene is capable of expressing SMN protein, correction of SMN2 splicing is an attractive therapeutic option. Although current mouse models of SMA characterized by Smn knock-out alleles in combination with SMN2 transgenes adequately model the disease phenotype, their complex genetics and short lifespan have hindered the development and testing of therapies aimed at SMN2 splicing correction. Here we show that the mouse and human minigenes are regulated similarly by conserved elements within in exon 7 and its downstream intron. Importantly, the C>T mutation is sufficient to induce exon 7 skipping in the mouse minigene as in the human SMN2. When the mouse Smn gene was humanized to carry the C>T mutation, keeping it under the control of the endogenous promoter, and in the natural genomic context, the resulting mice exhibit exon 7 skipping and mild adult onset SMA characterized by muscle weakness, decreased activity and an alteration of the muscle fibers size. This Smn C>T mouse represents a new model for an adult onset form of SMA (type III/IV) also know as the Kugelberg–Welander disease.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq343
PMCID: PMC2951869  PMID: 20705738
6.  A short antisense oligonucleotide masking a unique intronic motif prevents skipping of a critical exon in spinal muscular atrophy 
RNA biology  2009;6(3):341-350.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Most SMA cases are associated with the low levels of SMN owing to deletion of Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1). SMN2, a nearly identical copy of SMN1, fails to compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to predominant skipping of exon 7. Hence, correction of aberrant splicing of SMN2 exon 7 holds the potential for cure of SMA. Here we report an 8-mer antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to have a profound stimulatory response on correction of aberrant splicing of SMN2 exon 7 by binding to a unique GC-rich sequence located within intron 7 of SMN2. We confirm that the splicing-switching ability of this short ASO comes with a high degree of specificity and reduced off-target effect compared to larger ASOs targeting the same sequence. We further demonstrate that a single low nanomolar dose of this 8-mer ASO substantially increases the levels of SMN and a host of factors including Gemin 2, Gemin 8, ZPR1, hnRNP Q and Tra2-β1 known to be down-regulated in SMA. Our findings underscore the advantages and unmatched potential of very short ASOs in splicing modulation in vivo.
PMCID: PMC2734876  PMID: 19430205
survival motor neuron (SMN); SMN1; SMN2; alternative splicing; intron 7; exon 7; ISS-N1; GC-rich sequence; antisense oligonucleotide (ASO); 8-mer ASO; SMA
7.  Development of a Single Vector System that Enhances Trans-Splicing of SMN2 Transcripts 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(10):e3468.
RNA modalities are developing as a powerful means to re-direct pathogenic pre-mRNA splicing events. Improving the efficiency of these molecules in vivo is critical as they move towards clinical applications. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by loss of SMN1. A nearly identical copy gene called SMN2 produces low levels of functional protein due to alternative splicing. We previously reported a trans-splicing RNA (tsRNA) that re-directed SMN2 splicing. Now we show that reducing the competition between endogenous splices sites enhanced the efficiency of trans-splicing. A single vector system was developed that expressed the SMN tsRNA and a splice-site blocking antisense (ASO-tsRNA). The ASO-tsRNA vector significantly elevated SMN levels in primary SMA patient fibroblasts, within the central nervous system of SMA mice and increased SMN-dependent in vitro snRNP assembly. These results demonstrate that the ASO-tsRNA strategy provides insight into the trans-splicing mechanism and a means of significantly enhancing trans-splicing activity in vivo.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003468
PMCID: PMC2565107  PMID: 18941511
8.  Spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein biogenesis defects and motor neuron selectivity in spinal muscular atrophy 
Brain research  2012;1462:93-99.
The SMN protein is essential and participates in the assembly of macromolecular complexes of RNA and protein in all cells. The best-characterized function of SMN is as an assembler of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). SMN performs this function as part of a complex with several other proteins called Gemins. snRNPs are assembled in the cytoplasm in a stepwise manner and then are imported to the nucleus where they participate globally in the splicing of pre-mRNA. Mutations in the SMN1 gene result in the motor neuron disease, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Most of these mutations result in a reduction in the expression levels of the SMN protein, which, in turn, results in a reduction in snRNP assembly capacity. This review highlights current studies that have investigated the mechanism of SMN-dependent snRNP assembly, as well as the downstream effects on pre-mRNA splicing that result from a decrease in SMN.
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.051
PMCID: PMC3448484  PMID: 22424789
spinal muscular atrophy; survival motor neuron; SMN; SMA; snRNP; Gemin
9.  Changes in intranuclear mobility of mature snRNPs provide a mechanism for splicing defects in spinal muscular atrophy 
Journal of Cell Science  2012;125(11):2626-2637.
It is becoming increasingly clear that defects in RNA metabolism can lead to disease. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant mortality, results from insufficient amounts of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN is required for the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs): essential components of the spliceosome. Splicing abnormalities have been detected in models of SMA but it is unclear how lowered SMN affects the fidelity of pre-mRNA splicing. We have examined the dynamics of mature snRNPs in cells depleted of SMN and demonstrated that SMN depletion increases the mobility of mature snRNPs within the nucleus. To dissect the molecular mechanism by which SMN deficiency affects intranuclear snRNP mobility, we employed a panel of inhibitors of different stages of pre-mRNA processing. This in vivo modelling demonstrates that snRNP mobility is altered directly as a result of impaired snRNP maturation. Current models of nuclear dynamics predict that subnuclear structures, including the spliceosome, form by self-organization mediated by stochastic interactions between their molecular components. Thus, alteration of the intranuclear mobility of snRNPs provides a molecular mechanism for splicing defects in SMA.
doi:10.1242/jcs.096867
PMCID: PMC3403233  PMID: 22393244
Nuclear dynamics; SnRNPs; Spinal muscular atrophy; Splicing speckles
10.  3′ Splice Site Sequences of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Related SMN2 Pre-mRNA Include Enhancers for Nearby Exons 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:617842.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a human genetic disease which occurs because of the deletion or mutation of SMN1 gene. SMN1 gene encodes the SMN protein which plays a key role in spliceosome assembly. Although human patients contain SMN2, a duplicate of SMN1, splicing of SMN2 produces predominantly exon 7 skipped isoform. In order to understand the functions of splice site sequences on exon 7 and 8, we analyzed the effects of conserved splice site sequences on exon 7 skipping of SMN2 and SMN1 pre-mRNA. We show here that conserved 5′ splice site sequence of exon 7 promoted splicing of nearby exons and subsequently reduced splicing of distant exons. However, to our surprise, conserved 3′ splice site sequence of exon 7 and 8 did not promote splicing of nearby exons. By contrast, the mutation inhibited splicing of nearby exons and subsequently promoted splicing of distant exons. Our study shows that 3′ splice sites of exon 7 and 8 contain enhancer for their splice site selection, in addition to providing cleavage sites.
doi:10.1155/2014/617842
PMCID: PMC3925570  PMID: 24616638
11.  A Multi-Exon-Skipping Detection Assay Reveals Surprising Diversity of Splice Isoforms of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Genes 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49595.
Humans have two near identical copies of Survival Motor Neuron gene: SMN1 and SMN2. Loss of SMN1 coupled with the predominant skipping of SMN2 exon 7 causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a neurodegenerative disease. SMA patient cells devoid of SMN1 provide a powerful system to examine splicing pattern of various SMN2 exons. Until now, similar system to examine splicing of SMN1 exons was unavailable. We have recently screened several patient cell lines derived from various diseases, including SMA, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Batten disease. Here we report a Batten disease cell line that lacks functional SMN2, as an ideal system to examine pre-mRNA splicing of SMN1. We employ a multiple-exon-skipping detection assay (MESDA) to capture simultaneously skipping of multiple exons. Our results show surprising diversity of splice isoforms and reveal novel splicing events that include skipping of exon 4 and co-skipping of three adjacent exons of SMN. Contrary to the general belief, MESDA captured oxidative-stress induced skipping of SMN1 exon 5 in several cell types, including non-neuronal cells. We further demonstrate that the predominant SMN2 exon 7 skipping induced by oxidative stress is modulated by a combinatorial control that includes promoter sequence, endogenous context, and the weak splice sites. We also show that an 8-mer antisense oligonucleotide blocking a recently described GC-rich sequence prevents SMN2 exon 7 skipping under the conditions of oxidative stress. Our findings bring new insight into splicing regulation of an essential housekeeping gene linked to neurodegeneration and infant mortality.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049595
PMCID: PMC3501452  PMID: 23185376
12.  Restoration of Full-Length SMN Promoted by Adenoviral Vectors Expressing RNA Antisense Oligonucleotides Embedded in U7 snRNAs 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(12):e8204.
Background
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease that leads to specific loss of motor neurons. It is caused by deletions or mutations of the survival of motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1). The remaining copy of the gene, SMN2, generates only low levels of the SMN protein due to a mutation in SMN2 exon 7 that leads to exon skipping.
Methodology/Principal Findings
To correct SMN2 splicing, we use Adenovirus type 5–derived vectors to express SMN2-antisense U7 snRNA oligonucleotides targeting the SMN intron 7/exon 8 junction. Infection of SMA type I–derived patient fibroblasts with these vectors resulted in increased levels of exon 7 inclusion, upregulating the expression of SMN to similar levels as in non–SMA control cells.
Conclusions/Significance
These results show that Adenovirus type 5–derived vectors delivering U7 antisense oligonucleotides can efficiently restore full-length SMN protein and suggest that the viral vector-mediated oligonucleotide application may be a suitable therapeutic approach to counteract SMA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008204
PMCID: PMC2781471  PMID: 19997596
13.  Delivery of bifunctional RNAs that target an intronic repressor and increase SMN levels in an animal model of spinal muscular atrophy 
Human Molecular Genetics  2009;18(9):1600-1611.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by the loss of survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1). A nearly identical copy gene, SMN2, is present in all SMA patients, which produces low levels of functional protein. Although the SMN2 coding sequence has the potential to produce normal, full-length SMN, ∼90% of SMN2-derived transcripts are alternatively spliced and encode a truncated protein lacking the final coding exon (exon 7). SMN2, however, is an excellent therapeutic target. Previously, we developed bifunctional RNAs that bound SMN exon 7 and modulated SMN2 splicing. To optimize the efficiency of the bifunctional RNAs, a different antisense target was required. To this end, we genetically verified the identity of a putative intronic repressor and developed bifunctional RNAs that target this sequence. Consequently, there is a 2-fold mechanism of SMN induction: inhibition of the intronic repressor and recruitment of SR proteins via the SR recruitment sequence of the bifunctional RNA. The bifunctional RNAs effectively increased SMN in human primary SMA fibroblasts. Lead candidates were synthesized as 2′-O-methyl RNAs and were directly injected in the central nervous system of SMA mice. Single-RNA injections were able to illicit a robust induction of SMN protein in the brain and throughout the spinal column of neonatal SMA mice. In a severe model of SMA, mean life span was extended following the delivery of bifunctional RNAs. This technology has direct implications for the development of an SMA therapy, but also lends itself to a multitude of diseases caused by aberrant pre-mRNA splicing.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp076
PMCID: PMC2667287  PMID: 19228773
14.  Gemin3 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1999;147(6):1181-1194.
The survival of motor neurons (SMN) gene is the disease gene of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a common motor neuron degenerative disease. The SMN protein is part of a complex containing several proteins, of which one, SIP1 (SMN interacting protein 1), has been characterized so far. The SMN complex is found in both the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, where it is concentrated in bodies called gems. In the cytoplasm, SMN and SIP1 interact with the Sm core proteins of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), and they play a critical role in snRNP assembly. In the nucleus, SMN is required for pre-mRNA splicing, likely by serving in the regeneration of snRNPs. Here, we report the identification of another component of the SMN complex, a novel DEAD box putative RNA helicase, named Gemin3. Gemin3 interacts directly with SMN, as well as with SmB, SmD2, and SmD3. Immunolocalization studies using mAbs to Gemin3 show that it colocalizes with SMN in gems. Gemin3 binds SMN via its unique COOH-terminal domain, and SMN mutations found in some SMA patients strongly reduce this interaction. The presence of a DEAD box motif in Gemin3 suggests that it may provide the catalytic activity that plays a critical role in the function of the SMN complex on RNPs.
PMCID: PMC2168095  PMID: 10601333
helicase; nuclear bodies; DnRNP biogenesis; splicing; spinal muscular atrophy
15.  Alternative splicing in spinal muscular atrophy underscores the role of an intron definition model 
RNA Biology  2011;8(4):600-606.
Humans have two nearly identical copies of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) gene: SMN1 and SMN2. The two SMN genes code for identical proteins; however, SMN2 predominantly generates a shorter transcript due to skipping of exon 7, the last coding exon. Skipping of SMN2 exon 7 leads to production of a truncated SMN protein that is highly unstable. The inability of SMN2 to compensate for the loss of SMN1 results in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the second most prevalent genetic cause of infant mortality. Since SMN2 is almost universally present in SMA patients, correction of SMN2 exon 7 splicing holds the promise for cure. Consistently, SMN2 exon 7 splicing has emerged as one of the best studied splicing systems in humans. The vast amount of recent literature provides a clue that SMN2 exon 7 splicing is regulated by an intron definition mechanism, which does not require cross-exon communication as prerequisite for exon inclusion. Our conclusion is based on the prominent role of intronic cis-elements, some of them have emerged as the frontrunners among potential therapeutic targets of SMA. Further, the widely expressed T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1), a member of the glutamine rich domain containing RNA-binding proteins, has recently been found to regulate SMN exon 7 splicing by binding to intron 7 sequences away from the 5′ splice site (ss). These findings make a strong argument for an “intron definition model,” according to which regulatory sequences within a downstream intron are capable of enforcing exon inclusion even in the absence of a defined upstream 3′ ss of an alternatively spliced exon.
doi:10.4161/rna.8.4.16224
PMCID: PMC3225979  PMID: 21654213
SMN1; SMN2; SMA; TIA1; Splicing; ISS-N1; hnRNPA1
16.  Identification of Novel Compounds That Increase SMN Protein Levels Using an Improved SMN2 Reporter Cell Assay 
Journal of biomolecular screening  2012;17(4):10.1177/1087057111431605.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive loss of motor neuron function. It is caused by the homozygous loss of the SMN1 (survival of motor neuron 1) gene and a decrease in full-length SMN protein. SMN2 is a nearly identical homolog of SMN1 that, due to alternative splicing, expresses predominantly truncated SMN protein. SMN2 represents an enticing therapeutic target. Increasing expression of full-length SMN from the SMN2 gene might represent a treatment for SMA. We describe a newly designed cell-based reporter assay that faithfully and reproducibly measures full-length SMN expression from the SMN2 gene. This reporter can detect increases of SMN protein by an array of compounds previously shown to regulate SMN2 expression and by the overexpression of proteins that modulate SMN2 splicing. It also can be used to evaluate changes at both the transcriptional and splicing level. This assay can be a valuable tool for the identification of novel compounds that increase SMN2 protein levels and the optimization of compounds already known to modulate SMN2 expression. We present here preliminary data from a high-throughput screen using this assay to identify novel compounds that increase expression of SMN2.
doi:10.1177/1087057111431605
PMCID: PMC3870337  PMID: 22233647
spinal muscular atrophy; survival of motor neuron; SMN1; SMN2; cell-based assay; high-content screening; HTS
17.  Trans-splicing-mediated improvement in a severe mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy 
Spinal Muscular Atrophy is a leading genetic cause of infantile death and occurs in approximately 1/6000 live births. SMA is caused by the loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1), however, all patients retain at least one copy of a nearly identical gene called SMN2. While SMN2 and SMN1 are comprised of identical coding sequences, the majority of SMN2 transcripts are alternatively spliced, encoding a truncated protein that is unstable and non-functional. Considerable effort has focused upon modulating the SMN2 alternative splicing event since this would produce more wildtype protein. Recently we reported the development of an optimized trans-splicing system that involved the co-expression of a SMN2 trans-splicing RNA and an anti-sense RNA that blocks a downstream splice site in SMN2 pre-mRNA. Here we demonstrate that in vivo delivery of the optimized trans-splicing vector increases an important SMN-dependent activity, snRNP assembly, in disease-relevant tissue in the SMA mouse model. A single injection of the vector into the intracerebral-ventricular space in SMA neonates also lessens the severity of the SMA phenotype in a severe SMA mouse model, extending survival ~70%. Collectively, these results provide the first in vivo demonstration that SMN2 trans-splicing leads to a lessening of the severity of the SMA phenotype and provide evidence for the power of this strategy for reprogramming genetic diseases at the pre-mRNA level.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4489-09.2010
PMCID: PMC2836862  PMID: 20053895
Survival Motor Neuron (SMN); Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA); trans-splicing; RNA; neurodegeneration; therapeutics
18.  Gemin4 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2000;148(6):1177-1186.
The survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein, the product of the neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) gene, is localized both in the cytoplasm and in discrete nuclear bodies called gems. In both compartments SMN is part of a large complex that contains several proteins including Gemin2 (formerly SIP1) and the DEAD box protein Gemin3. In the cytoplasm, the SMN complex is associated with snRNP Sm core proteins and plays a critical role in spliceosomal snRNP assembly. In the nucleus, SMN is required for pre-mRNA splicing by serving in the regeneration of spliceosomes. These functions are likely impaired in cells of SMA patients because they have reduced levels of functional SMN. Here, we report the identification by nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry of a novel component of the SMN complex that we name Gemin4. Gemin4 is associated in vivo with the SMN complex through a direct interaction with Gemin3. The tight interaction of Gemin4 with Gemin3 suggests that it could serve as a cofactor of this DEAD box protein. Gemin4 also interacts directly with several of the Sm core proteins. Monoclonal antibodies against Gemin4 efficiently immunoprecipitate the spliceosomal U snRNAs U1 and U5 from Xenopus oocytes cytoplasm. Immunolocalization experiments show that Gemin4 is colocalized with SMN in the cytoplasm and in gems. Interestingly, Gemin4 is also detected in the nucleoli, suggesting that the SMN complex may also function in preribosomal RNA processing or ribosome assembly.
PMCID: PMC2174312  PMID: 10725331
gems; nucleoli; SMN; spinal muscular atrophy; snRNP biogenesis
19.  SMN deficiency causes tissue-specific perturbations in the repertoire of snRNAs and widespread defects in splicing 
Cell  2008;133(4):585-600.
Summary
The survival of motor neurons protein (SMN) is essential for the biogenesis of small nuclear RNA (snRNA)-ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), the major components of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. Though it is ubiquitously expressed, SMN deficiency causes the most common motor neuron degenerative disease, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). We show here that SMN deficiency, similar to that which occurs in severe SMA, has unexpected cell type-specific effects on the repertoire of snRNAs and mRNAs. It alters the stoichiometry of snRNAs and causes widespread pre-mRNA splicing defects in numerous transcripts of diverse genes, preferentially those containing a large number of introns, in SMN-deficient mouse tissues. These findings reveal a key role for the SMN complex in RNA metabolism and in splicing regulation, and indicate that SMA is a general splicing disease that is not restricted to motor neurons.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.03.031
PMCID: PMC2446403  PMID: 18485868
20.  Intron 7 conserved sequence elements regulate the splicing of the SMN genes 
Human genetics  2009;126(6):833-841.
Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. In humans there are two nearly identical SMN genes, SMN1 and SMN2. The SMN2 gene generates a truncated protein, due to a C to T nucleotide alteration in exon 7, which leads to inefficient RNA splicing of exon 7. This exclusion of SMN exon 7 is central to the onset of the SMA disease. Exon 7 splicing is regulated by a number of exonic and intronic splicing regulatory sequences and the trans-factors that bind them. Here we identify conserved intronic sequences in the SMN genes. Five regions were examined due to conservation and their proximity to exons 6 through 8. Using mutagenesis two conserved elements located in intron 7 of the SMN genes that affect exon 7 splicing have been identified. Additional analysis of one of these regions showed decreased inclusion of exon 7 in SMN transcripts when deletions or mutations were introduced. Furthermore, multimerization of this conserved region was capable of restoring correct SMN splicing. Together these results describe a novel intronic splicing enhancer sequence located in the final intron of the SMN genes. This discovery provides insight into the splicing of the SMN genes using conserved intonic sequence as a tool to uncover regions of importance in pre-messenger RNA splicing. A better understanding of the way SMN pre-mRNA is spliced can lead to the development of new therapies.
doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0733-7
PMCID: PMC2891348  PMID: 19701774
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA); Survival Motor Neuron (SMN); pre-mRNA Splicing; Intronic Splicing Enhancer
21.  Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Why do low levels of SMN make motor neurons sick? 
Nature reviews. Neuroscience  2009;10(8):597-609.
Many neurogenetic disorders are caused by the mutation of ubiquitously expressed genes. Spinal muscular atrophy is one such disorder and is caused by loss or mutation of the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1), leading to reduced SMN protein levels and a selective dysfunction of motor neurons. SMN, in collaboration with partner proteins, functions in the assembly of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which are important for pre-mRNA splicing. It has also been suggested that SMN might function in the assembly of other RNP complexes. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular dysfunction that gives rise to SMA and its specificity to a particular group of neurons. The first hypothesis states that the loss of SMN’s well-known function in snRNP assembly causes an alteration in the splicing of a specific gene (or genes). A second hypothesis proposes that SMN is critical for the transport of mRNA in neurons and disruption of this function results in SMA.
doi:10.1038/nrn2670
PMCID: PMC2853768  PMID: 19584893
22.  Antisense Oligonucleotides Delivered to the Mouse CNS Ameliorate Symptoms of Severe Spinal Muscular Atrophy 
Science translational medicine  2011;3(72):72ra18.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene that result in a deficiency of SMN protein. One approach to treat SMA is to use antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to redirect the splicing of a paralogous gene, SMN2, to boost production of functional SMN. Injection of a 2′-O-2-methoxyethyl–modified ASO (ASO-10-27) into the cerebral lateral ventricles of mice with a severe form of SMA resulted in splice-mediated increases in SMN protein and in the number of motor neurons in the spinal cord, which led to improvements in muscle physiology, motor function and survival. Intrathecal infusion of ASO-10-27 into cynomolgus monkeys delivered putative therapeutic levels of the oligonucleotide to all regions of the spinal cord. These data demonstrate that central nervous system–directed ASO therapy is efficacious and that intrathecal infusion may represent a practical route for delivering this therapeutic in the clinic.
doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3001777
PMCID: PMC3140425  PMID: 21368223
23.  Antisense-mediated exon inclusion 
Exon skipping induced by gene mutations is a common mechanism responsible for many genetic diseases. A practical approach to correct the aberrant splicing of defective genes is to use antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). The recognition of splice sites and the regulation of splicing involve multiple positive or negative cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors. Base-pairing of ASOs to a negative element in a targeted pre-mRNA blocks the binding of splicing repressors to this cis-element and/or disrupts an unfavorable secondary structure; as a result, the ASO restores exon inclusion. For example, we have recently shown that appropriate 2’-O-(2-methoxyethyl) (MOE) phosphorothioate-modified ASOs can efficiently correct survival motor neuron 2 (SMN2) exon 7 splicing in a cell-free splicing assay, in cultured human cells—including patient fibroblasts—and in both peripheral tissues and the CNS of SMA mouse models. These ASOs are promising drug leads for SMA therapy.
doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-767-5_20
PMCID: PMC3390937  PMID: 22454070
Exon skipping; antisense oligonucleotide; MOE; splicing; SMN2; SMA; ESS; ISS; cis-acting element; in vitro splicing assay; minigene; exon 7 inclusion; RT-PCR; ICV; ICV infusion; mouse tissue; spinal cord; CNS
24.  A Negatively Acting Bifunctional RNA Increases Survival Motor Neuron Both In Vitro and In Vivo 
Human Gene Therapy  2008;19(11):1307-1315.
Abstract
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder and is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by the loss of survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1). In humans, a nearly identical copy gene is present called SMN2, but this gene cannot compensate for the loss of SMN1 because of a single silent nucleotide difference in SMN2 exon 7. This single-nucleotide difference attenuates an exonic splice enhancer, resulting in the production of an alternatively spliced isoform lacking exon 7, which is essential for protein function. SMN2, however, is a critical disease modifier and is an outstanding target for therapeutic intervention because all SMA patients retain SMN2 and SMN2 maintains the same coding sequence as SMN1. Therefore, compounds or molecules that increase SMN2 exon 7 inclusion hold great promise for SMA therapeutics. Bifunctional RNAs have been previously used to increase SMN protein levels and derive their name from the presence of two domains: an antisense RNA sequence specific to the target RNA and an untethered RNA segment that serves as a binding platform for splicing factors. This study was designed to develop negatively acting bifunctional RNAs that recruit hnRNPA1 to exon 8 and block the general splicing machinery from the exon 8. By blocking the downstream splice site, this could competitively favor the inclusion of SMN exon 7 and therefore increase full-length SMN production. Here we identify a bifunctional RNA that stimulated full-length SMN expression in a variety of cell-based assays including SMA patient fibroblasts. Importantly, this molecule was also able to induce SMN expression in a previously described mouse model of SMA and demonstrates a novel therapeutic approach for SMA as well as a variety of diseases caused by a defect in splicing.
doi:10.1089/hum.2008.067
PMCID: PMC2940461  PMID: 19848583
25.  Mouse Survival Motor Neuron Alleles That Mimic SMN2 Splicing and Are Inducible Rescue Embryonic Lethality Early in Development but Not Late 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(12):e15887.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by low survival motor neuron (SMN) levels and patients represent a clinical spectrum due primarily to varying copies of the survival motor neuron-2 (SMN2) gene. Patient and animals studies show that disease severity is abrogated as SMN levels increase. Since therapies currently being pursued target the induction of SMN, it will be important to understand the dosage, timing and cellular requirements of SMN for disease etiology and potential therapeutic intervention. This requires new mouse models that can induce SMN temporally and/or spatially. Here we describe the generation of two hypomorphic Smn alleles, SmnC-T-Neo and Smn2B-Neo. These alleles mimic SMN2 exon 7 splicing, titre Smn levels and are inducible. They were specifically designed so that up to three independent lines of mice could be generated, herein we describe two. In a homozygous state each allele results in embryonic lethality. Analysis of these mutants indicates that greater than 5% of Smn protein is required for normal development. The severe hypomorphic nature of these alleles is caused by inclusion of a loxP-flanked neomycin gene selection cassette in Smn intron 7, which can be removed with Cre recombinase. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate these as inducible Smn alleles. When combined with an inducible Cre mouse, embryonic lethality caused by low Smn levels can be rescued early in gestation but not late. This provides direct genetic evidence that a therapeutic window for SMN inductive therapies may exist. Importantly, these lines fill a void for inducible Smn alleles. They also provide a base from which to generate a large repertoire of SMA models of varying disease severities when combined with other Smn alleles or SMN2-containing mice.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015887
PMCID: PMC3012126  PMID: 21249120

Results 1-25 (437099)