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1.  Coil Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysms 
Executive Summary
To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of coil embolization compared with surgical clipping to treat intracranial aneurysms.
The Technology
Endovascular coil embolization is a percutaneous approach to treat an intracranial aneurysm from within the blood vessel without the need of a craniotomy. In this procedure, a microcatheter is inserted into the femoral artery near the groin and navigated to the site of the aneurysm. Small helical platinum coils are deployed through the microcatheter to fill the aneurysm, and prevent it from further expansion and rupture. Health Canada has approved numerous types of coils and coil delivery systems to treat intracranial aneurysms. The most favoured are controlled detachable coils. Coil embolization may be used with other adjunct endovascular devices such as stents and balloons.
Intracranial Aneurysms
Intracranial aneurysms are the dilation or ballooning of part of a blood vessel in the brain. Intracranial aneurysms range in size from small (<12 mm in diameter) to large (12–25 mm), and to giant (>25 mm). There are 3 main types of aneurysms. Fusiform aneurysms involve the entire circumference of the artery; saccular aneurysms have outpouchings; and dissecting aneurysms have tears in the arterial wall. Berry aneurysms are saccular aneurysms with well-defined necks.
Intracranial aneurysms may occur in any blood vessel of the brain; however, they are most commonly found at the branch points of large arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. In 85% to 95% of patients, they are found in the anterior circulation. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are less frequent, and are more difficult to treat surgically due to inaccessibility.
Most intracranial aneurysms are small and asymptomatic. Large aneurysms may have a mass effect, causing compression on the brain and cranial nerves and neurological deficits. When an intracranial aneurysm ruptures and bleeds, resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the mortality rate can be 40% to 50%, with severe morbidity of 10% to 20%. The reported overall risk of rupture is 1.9% per year and is higher for women, cigarette smokers, and cocaine users, and in aneurysms that are symptomatic, greater than 10 mm in diameter, or located in the posterior circulation. If left untreated, there is a considerable risk of repeat hemorrhage in a ruptured aneurysm that results in increased mortality.
In Ontario, intracranial aneurysms occur in about 1% to 4% of the population, and the annual incidence of SAH is about 10 cases per 100,000 people. In 2004-2005, about 660 intracranial aneurysm repairs were performed in Ontario.
Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms
Treatment of an unruptured aneurysm attempts to prevent the aneurysm from rupturing. The treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm aims to prevent further hemorrhage. There are 3 approaches to treating an intracranial aneurysm.
Small, asymptomatic aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter may be monitored without any intervention other than treatment for underlying risk factors such as hypertension.
Open surgical clipping, involves craniotomy, brain retraction, and placement of a silver clip across the neck of the aneurysm while a patient is under general anesthesia. This procedure is associated with surgical risks and neurological deficits.
Endovascular coil embolization, introduced in the 1990s, is the health technology under review.
Literature Review
The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the International Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) Database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant systematic reviews. OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Embase were searched for English-language journal articles that reported primary data on the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of treatments for intracranial aneurysms, obtained in a clinical setting or analyses of primary data maintained in registers or institutional databases. Internet searches of Medscape and manufacturers’ databases were conducted to identify product information and recent reports on trials that were unpublished but that were presented at international conferences. Four systematic reviews, 3 reports on 2 randomized controlled trials comparing coil embolization with surgical clipping of ruptured aneurysms, 30 observational studies, and 3 economic analysis reports were included in this review.
Safety and Effectiveness
Coil embolization appears to be a safe procedure. Complications associated with coil embolization ranged from 8.6% to 18.6% with a median of about 10.6%. Observational studies showed that coil embolization is associated with lower complication rates than surgical clipping (permanent complication 3-7% versus 10.9%; overall 23% versus 46% respectively, p=0.009). Common complications of coil embolization are thrombo-embolic events (2.5%–14.5%), perforation of aneurysm (2.3%–4.7%), parent artery obstruction (2%–3%), collapsed coils (8%), coil malposition (14.6%), and coil migration (0.5%–3%).
Randomized controlled trials showed that for ruptured intracranial aneurysms with SAH, suitable for both coil embolization and surgical clipping (mostly saccular aneurysms <10 mm in diameter located in the anterior circulation) in people with good clinical condition:Coil embolization resulted in a statistically significant 23.9% relative risk reduction and 7% absolute risk reduction in the composite rate of death and dependency compared to surgical clipping (modified Rankin score 3–6) at 1-year.
The advantage of coil embolization over surgical clipping varies widely with aneurysm location, but endovascular treatment seems beneficial for all sites.
There were less deaths in the first 7 years following coil embolization compared to surgical clipping (10.8% vs 13.7%). This survival benefit seemed to be consistent over time, and was statistically significant (log-rank p= 0.03).
Coil embolization is associated with less frequent MRI-detected superficial brain deficits and ischemic lesions at 1-year.
The 1- year rebleeding rate was 2.4% after coil embolization and 1% for surgical clipping. Confirmed rebleeding from the repaired aneurysm after the first year and up to year eight was low and not significantly different between coil embolization and surgical clipping (7 patients for coil embolization vs 2 patients for surgical clipping, log-rank p=0.22).
Observational studies showed that patients with SAH and good clinical grade had better 6-month outcomes and lower risk of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after coil embolization compared to surgical clipping.
For unruptured intracranial aneurysms, there were no randomized controlled trials that compared coil embolization to surgical clipping. Large observational studies showed that:
The risk of rupture in unruptured aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter is about 0.05% per year for patients with no pervious history of SAH from another aneurysm. The risk of rupture increases with history of SAH and as the diameter of the aneurysm reaches 10 mm or more.
Coil embolization reduced the composite rate of in hospital deaths and discharge to long-term or short-term care facilities compared to surgical clipping (Odds Ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.6–3.1, p<0.001). The improvement in discharge disposition was highest in people older than 65 years.
In-hospital mortality rate following treatment of intracranial aneurysm ranged from 0.5% to 1.7% for coil embolization and from 2.1% to 3.5% for surgical clipping. The overall 1-year mortality rate was 3.1% for coil embolization and 2.3% for surgical clipping. One-year morbidity rate was 6.4% for coil embolization and 9.8% for surgical clipping. It is not clear whether these differences were statistically significant.
Coil embolization is associated with shorter hospital stay compared to surgical clipping.
For both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, the outcome of coil embolization does not appear to be dependent on age, whereas surgical clipping has been shown to yield worse outcome for patients older than 64 years.
Angiographic Efficiency and Recurrences
The main drawback of coil embolization is its low angiographic efficiency. The percentage of complete aneurysm occlusion after coil embolization (27%–79%, median 55%) remains lower than that achieved with surgical clipping (82%–100%). However, about 90% of coiled aneurysms achieve near total occlusion or better. Incompletely coiled aneurysms have been shown to have higher aneurysm recurrence rates ranging from 7% to 39% for coil embolization compared to 2.9% for surgical clipping. Recurrence is defined as refilling of the neck, sac, or dome of a successfully treated aneurysm as shown on an angiogram. The long-term clinical significance of incomplete occlusion following coil embolization is unknown, but in one case series, 20% of patients had major recurrences, and 50% of these required further treatment.
Long-Term Outcomes
A large international randomized trial reported that the survival benefit from coil embolization was sustained for at least 7 years. The rebleeding rate between year 2 and year 8 following coil embolization was low and not significantly different from that of surgical clipping. However, high quality long-term angiographic evidence is lacking. Accordingly, there is uncertainty about long-term occlusion status, coil durability, and recurrence rates. While surgical clipping is associated with higher immediate procedural risks, its long-term effectiveness has been established.
Indications and Contraindications
Coil embolization offers treatment for people at increased risk for craniotomy, such as those over 65 years of age, with poor clinical status, or with comorbid conditions. The technology also makes it possible to treat surgical high-risk aneurysms.
Not all aneurysms are suitable for coil embolization. Suitability depends on the size, anatomy, and location of the aneurysm. Aneurysms more than 10 mm in diameter or with an aneurysm neck greater than or equal to 4 mm are less likely to achieve total occlusion. They are also more prone to aneurysm recurrences and to complications such as coil compaction or parent vessel occlusion. Aneurysms with a dome to neck ratio of less than 1 have been shown to have lower obliteration rates and poorer outcome following coil embolization. Furthermore, aneurysms in the middle cerebral artery bifurcation are less suitable for coil embolization. For some aneurysms, treatment may require the use of both coil embolization and surgical clipping or adjunctive technologies, such as stents and balloons, to obtain optimal results.
Information from 3 countries indicates that coil embolization is a rapidly diffusing technology. For example, it accounted for about 40% of aneurysm treatments in the United Kingdom.
In Ontario, coil embolization is an insured health service, with the same fee code and fee schedule as open surgical repair requiring craniotomy. Other costs associated with coil embolization are covered under hospitals’ global budgets. Utilization data showed that in 2004-2005, coil embolization accounted for about 38% (251 cases) of all intracranial aneurysm repairs in the province. With the 2005 publication of the positive long-term survival data from the International Subarachnoid Aneursym Trial, the pressure for diffusion will likely increase.
Economic Analysis
Recent economic studies show that treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms smaller than 10 mm in diameter in people with no previous history of SAH, either by coil embolization or surgical clipping, would not be effective or cost-effective. However, in patients with aneurysms that are greater than or equal to 10 mm or symptomatic, or in patients with a history of SAH, treatment appears to be cost-effective.
In Ontario, the average device cost of coil embolization per case was estimated to be about $7,500 higher than surgical clipping. Assuming that the total number of intracranial aneurysm repairs in Ontario increases to 750 in the fiscal year of 2007, and assuming that up to 60% (450 cases) of these will be repaired by coil embolization, the difference in device costs for the 450 cases (including a 15% recurrence rate) would be approximately $3.8 million. This figure does not include capital costs (e.g. $3 million for an angiosuite), additional human resources required, or costs of follow-up. The increase in expenditures associated with coil embolization may be offset partially, by shorter operating room times and hospitalization stays for endovascular repair of unruptured aneurysms; however, the impact of these cost savings is probably not likely to be greater than 25% of the total outlay since the majority of cases involve ruptured aneurysms. Furthermore, the recent growth in aneurysm repair has predominantly been in the area of coil embolization presumably for patients for whom surgical clipping would not be advised; therefore, no offset of surgical clipping costs could be applied in such cases. For ruptured aneurysms, downstream cost savings from endovascular repair are likely to be minimal even though the savings for individual cases may be substantial due to lower perioperative complications for endovascular aneurysm repair.
The two Guidance documents issued by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (UK) in 2005 support the use of coil embolization for both unruptured and ruptured (SAH) intracranial aneurysms, provided that procedures are in place for informed consent, audit, and clinical governance, and that the procedure is performed in specialist units with expertise in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms.
For people in good clinical condition following subarachnoid hemorrhage from an acute ruptured intracranial aneurysm suitable for either surgical clipping or endovascular repair, coil embolization results in improved independent survival in the first year and improved survival for up to seven years compared to surgical clipping. The rebleeding rate is low and not significantly different between the two procedures after the first year. However, there is uncertainty regarding the long-term occlusion status, durability of the stent graft, and long-term complications.
For people with unruptured aneurysms, level 4 evidence suggests that coil embolization may be associated with comparable or less mortality and morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and less need for discharge to short-term rehabilitation facilities. The greatest benefit was observed in people over 65 years of age. In these patients, the decision regarding treatment needs to be based on the assessment of the risk of rupture against the risk of the procedure, as well as the morphology of the aneurysm.
In people who require treatment for intracranial aneurysm, but for whom surgical clipping is too risky or not feasible, coil embolization provides survival benefits over surgical clipping, even though the outcomes may not be as favourable as in people in good clinical condition and with small aneurysms. The procedure may be considered under the following circumstances provided that the aneurysm is suitable for coil embolization:
Patients in poor/unstable clinical or neurological state
Patients at high risk for surgical repair (e.g. people>age 65 or with comorbidity), or
Aneurysm(s) with poor accessibility or visibility for surgical treatment due to their location (e.g. ophthalmic or basilar tip aneurysms)
Compared to small aneurysms with a narrow neck in the anterior circulation, large aneurysms (> 10 mm in diameter), aneurysms with a wide neck (>4mm in diameter), and aneurysms in the posterior circulation have lower occlusion rates and higher rate of hemorrhage when treated with coil embolization.
The extent of aneurysm obliteration after coil embolization remains lower than that achieved with surgical clipping. Aneurysm recurrences after successful coiling may require repeat treatment with endovascular or surgical procedures. Experts caution that long-term angiographic outcomes of coil embolization are unknown at this time. Informed consent for and long-term follow-up after coil embolization are recommended.
The decision to treat an intracranial aneurysm with surgical clipping or coil embolization needs to be made jointly by the neurosurgeon and neuro-intervention specialist, based on the clinical status of the patient, the size and morphology of the aneurysm, and the preference of the patient.
The performance of endovascular coil embolization should take place in centres with expertise in both neurosurgery and endovascular neuro-interventions, with adequate treatment volumes to maintain good outcomes. Distribution of the technology should also take into account that patients with SAH should be treated as soon as possible with minimal disruption.
PMCID: PMC3379525  PMID: 23074479
2.  Endovascular Treatment for Ruptured Distal Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm 
A 42-year-old woman presented with Hunt and Hess grade (HHG) III subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured left distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm. Computed tomography showed a thin SAH on the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and small vermian intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in the fourth ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the aneurysm on the postmeatal segment of left distal AICA, a branching point of rostrolateral and caudomedial branch of the left distal AICA. Despite thin caliber, tortuous running course and far distal location, the AICA aneurysm was obliterated successfully with endovascular coils without compromising AICA flow. However, the patient developed left side sensorineural hearing loss postoperatively, in spite of definite patency of distal AICA on the final angiogram. She was discharged home without neurologic sequela except hearing loss and tinnitus.
Endovascular treatment of distal AICA aneurysm, beyond the meatal loop, is feasible while preserving the AICA flow. However, because the cochlear hair cell is vulnerable to ischemia, unilateral hearing loss can occur, possibly caused by the temporary occlusion of AICA flow by microcatheter during endovascular treatment.
PMCID: PMC3997923  PMID: 24765609
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Cerebellar artery; Endovascular; Hearing loss
3.  Posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms: Anatomical variations and surgical strategies 
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms are associated with multiple anatomical variations of the parent vessel. Complexities in their surgical clipping relate to narrow corridors limited by brain-stem, petrous-occipital bones, and multiple neurovascular structures occupying the cerebellomedullary and cerebellopontine cisterns.
The present study focuses on surgical considerations during clipping of saccular PICA aneurysms.
Setting and Design:
Tertiary care, retrospective study.
Materials and Methods:
In 20 patients with PICA aneurysms, CT angiogram/digital substraction angiogram was used to correlate the site and anatomical variations of aneurysms located on different segments of PICA with the approach selected, the difficulties encountered and the final outcome.
Statistical Analysis:
Comparison of means and percentages.
Aneurysms were located on PICA at: vertebral artery/basilar artery (VA/BA)-PICA (n=5); anterior medullary (n=4); lateral medullary (n=3); tonsillomedullary (n=4); and, telovelotonsillar (n=4) segments. The Hunt and Hess grade distribution was I in 15; II in 2; and, III in 3 patients (mean ictus-surgery interval: 23.5 days; range: 3-150 days). Eight patients had hydrocephalus. Anatomical variations included giant, thrombosed aneurysms; 2 PICA aneurysms proximal to an arteriovenous malformation; bilobed or multiple aneurysms; low PICA situated at the foramen magnum with a hypoplastic VA; and fenestrated PICA. The approaches included a retromastoid suboccipital craniectomy (n=9); midline suboccipital craniectomy (n=6); and far-lateral approach (n=5). At a follow-up (range 6 months-2.5 years), 13 patients had no deficits (modified Rankin score (mRS) 0); 2 were symptomatic with no significant disability (mRS1); 1 had mild disability (mRS2); 1 had moderately severe disability (mRS4); and 3 died (mRS6). Three mortalities were caused by vasospasm (2) and, rupture of unclipped second VA-BA junctional aneurysm (1).
PICA aneurysms may present with only IVth ventricular blood without subarachnoid hemorrhage. PICA may have multiple anomalies and its aneurysms may be missed on CT angiograms. Surgical approach is influenced by VA-BA tortuosity and variations in anatomy, location of the VA-BA junction and the PICA aneurysm relative to the brain-stem, and the pattern of collateral supply. The special category of VA-PICA junctional aneurysms and its management; and, the multiple anatomical variations of PICA aneurysms, merit special surgical considerations and have been highlighted in this study.
PMCID: PMC3358952  PMID: 22639684
Anatomical variations; aneurysm; basilar artery; far lateral approach; posterior inferior cerebellar artery; radiology; subarachnoid hemorrhage; suboccipital craniectomy; surgery
4.  Multiple non-branching dissecting aneurysms of the mid-basilar trunk presenting with sequential subarachnoid hemorrhages 
We describe a rare case of a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to a ventral dissecting mid-basilar aneurysm that was treated surgically. One week after surgery, the patient experienced sudden deterioration due to a new SAH caused by the development of a new aneurysm of the basilar trunk distinct from the previously clipped aneurysm.
Case Description:
A 54-year-old woman with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage was found to have a small, broad-based aneurysm arising from the ventral aspect of the mid-basilar artery. This complicated lesion was treated with a microsurgical clipping via a translabyrinthine pre-sigmoidal sub-temporal approach. One week postoperatively, the patient suffered a new SAH and was found to have developed a distinct basilar artery aneurysm. The patient was returned to the Operating Room for microsurgical clipping via the previous craniotomy. After surgery, the patient made a slow, but steady, recovery. She underwent repeated angiographic imaging, demonstrating a stable appearance. Two years post surgery, the patient had returned to work and had no obvious neurological deficit, with the exception of unilateral iatrogenic hearing loss.
We describe a rare case of multiple aneurysms originating in relation to a mid-basilar dissection, resulting in multiple episodes of SAH. These are difficult and dangerous lesions that can be treated with open microsurgical reconstruction or possibly via an endovascular approach. The intricate location of the lesions poses a particular challenge to neurosurgeons attempting to directly treat mid-basilar lesions.
PMCID: PMC3205486  PMID: 22059122
Aneurysm; basilar trunk; dissecting aneurysm; subarachnoid hemorrhage
5.  Vascular Anomalies and the Risk of Multiple Aneurysms Development and Bleeding 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2004;8(1):15-20.
The pathogenesis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is still debated and the prognosis remains severe, especially in multiple aneurysms, where the therapeutic management is complex. The aim of this study was to look for vascular anomalies and assess their relationship with aneurysm formation and bleeding in patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms. A prospective angiographical review was performed on 141 patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms seen from 1992 to 2000. Three hundred and fifty three aneurysms were studied. In 88% of the patients vascular anomalies were found.
The most common were: asymmetric caudal basilar fusion (43.2%), variations of the anterior communicating artery (AcoA) complex (31.2%), symmetric caudal basilar fusion (26.2%), antero-inferior cerebellar artery-postero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA-PICA) (15.6%), extradural origin of the PICA (10.6%), cavernous origin of the ophthalmic artery or dorsal ophthalmic artery (dOPH) (3.5%). Some aneurysm locations were associated with a high rate of vascular anomalies, e.g.: posterior cerebral aneurysm with asymmetric caudal fusion, AcoA aneurysm with AcoA complex variation, basilar tip aneurysm with extradural PICA or symmetric caudal fusion, PI-CA aneurysm with AICA-PICA, para-ophthalmic aneurysm with dOPH. These aneurysm locations bled proportionally more frequently when associated with the related vascular anomaly. In conclusion, these results suggest that vascular anomalies are associated with aneurysm development and bleeding.
PMCID: PMC3572516  PMID: 20594507
multiple intracranial aneurysms, cerebral angiography, vascular anomalies, sub arachnoid hemorrhage, anatomy
6.  Ruptured peripheral aneurysms in a collateral pathway associated with stenosis of a major cerebral artery: Report of two cases 
While hemodynamic stress can result in aneurysm formation, it rarely contributes to the development of peripheral aneurysms in collateral pathways. We report two patients with ruptured distal aneurysms in a collateral pathway associated with stenosis of a major cerebral artery.
Case Description
A 67-year-old man presented with intracerebral hemorrhage in the right frontal lobe. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed severe stenosis of the right middle cerebral artery and two aneurysms in the collateral pathway of the right anterior cerebral artery. The ruptured aneurysm was trapped and resected; histologically, it was a true saccular aneurysm. The unruptured aneurysm was clipped and the patient was discharged without additional neurological deficits. The second patient was a 73-year-old woman with subarachnoid hemorrhage. DSA revealed three arterial dilations. On the 7th day of hospitalization, one of the aneurysms in a posterior inferior cerebellar artery–anterior inferior cerebellar artery anastomosis that functioned as a collateral pathway in the presence of severe basilar artery stenosis was found to be enlarged. It was treated by selective aneurysmal coil embolization with parent artery preservation. Her postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged without any neurological deficits.
We document the successful treatment of two patients with ruptured aneurysms in the peripheral portion of a collateral pathway. We discuss the histology of peripheral aneurysms and present a review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC3130464  PMID: 21748034
Coil embolization; collateral pathway; histology; peripheral aneurysm; posterior inferior cerebellar artery–anterior inferior cerebellar artery anastomosis; true aneurysm
7.  Ruptured Intracranial Mycotic Aneurysm in Infective Endocarditis: A Natural History 
Case Reports in Medicine  2010;2010:168408.
Mycotic aneurysms are a rare cause of intracranial aneurysms that develop in the presence of infections such as infective endocarditis. They account for a small percentage of all intracranial aneurysms and carry a high-mortality rate when ruptured. The authors report a case of a 54-year-old man who presented with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve and acute stroke. He subsequently developed subarachnoid hemorrhage during antibiotic treatment, and a large intracranial aneurysm was discovered on CT Angiography. His lesion quickly progressed into an intraparenchymal hemorrhage, requiring emergent craniotomy and aneurysm clipping. Current recommendations on the management of intracranial Mycotic Aneurysms are based on few retrospective case studies. The natural history of the patient's ruptured aneurysm is presented, as well as a literature review on the management and available treatment modalities.
PMCID: PMC2946581  PMID: 20885918
8.  Idiopathic Lenticulostriate Artery Pseudoaneurysm Protruding into the Lateral Ventricle: A Case Report 
We report a rare case of an idiopathic pseudoaneurysm causing intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). A 28-year-old man presented with sudden onset of severe headache. He underwent external ventricular drainage for an isolated IVH in the right lateral ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed that the aneurysm (7.5×4.5 mm) arose from the distal part of the medial lenticulostriate artery. Following removal of the external ventricular drainage catheter, the aneurysm decreased in size (4.0×2.3 mm). However, follow-up DSA revealed a slightly enlarged aneurysm (4.2×3.2 mm) with morphologic change. The aneurysm was clipped via the interhemispheric transcallosal approach, but postoperative DSA revealed a residual aneurysm sac beside the clips. Given the risk of rebleeding, a second operation was planned for complete resection of the aneurysm. After revised craniotomy and careful dissection of the caudate nucleus, the aneurysm sac was completely resected. Histopathological examination revealed that the aneurysm was a pseudoaneurysm. The patient recovered without any neurological sequel and was discharged.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an idiopathic lenticulostriate artery pseudoaneurysm protruding into the right lateral ventricle and causing an IVH that was successfully treated with microsurgical resection.
PMCID: PMC3804666  PMID: 24167808
Intraventricular pseudoaneurysm; Intraventricular hemorrhage; Lenticulostriate artery
9.  Distal Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm Masquerading as a Cerebellopontine Angle Tumor: Case Report and Review of Literature 
Skull Base  2004;14(2):101-106.
We present the case of a distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm masquerading as a cerebellopontine angle tumor in a 60-year-old right-handed man with previously undiagnosed polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). The patient presented with a 2-month history of progressive right-sided hearing loss, intermittent severe headache, and sudden onset of complete facial paralysis 3 weeks before admission. Magnetic resonance imaging, including postgadolinium images, showed a 1.2-cm heterogenously enhancing mass that slightly enlarged the right internal auditory canal. A right suboccipital craniotomy was performed, and a partially thrombosed fusiform AICA aneurysm was discovered just anterior to the VII/VIII nerve complex. The aneurysm was trapped and opened, and a thrombectomy was performed. Postoperatively, the patient experienced abdominal pain; liver function tests were abnormal. Investigation revealed a small retroperitoneal hemorrhage and aneurysms of the celiac axis and gastroduodenal arteries. Further investigation revealed an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a diagnosis of PAN was made. PAN is a well-identified factor in the genesis of peripheral vascular aneurysms. Aneurysms involving the hepatic, renal, coronary, pancreatic, and tibial arteries have been described. PAN is an extremely rare cause of intracranial aneurysm. Patients who present with aneurysms in unusual locations (e.g., distal AICA) should be investigated for vasculopathy and collagen vascular disorders.
PMCID: PMC1151678  PMID: 16145591
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery; aneurysm; peripheral vascular aneurysms; polyarteritis nodosa
10.  Analysis of Clinical and Radiological Outcomes in Microsurgical and Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Apex Aneurysms 
We aimed to analyze clinical and radiological outcomes retrospectively in patients with basilar apex aneurysms treated by coiling or clipping.
Outcomes of basilar bifurcation aneurysms were assessed retrospectively in 77 consecutive patients (61 women, 16 men), ranging in age from 25 to 79 years (mean, 53.7 years) from 1999 to 2007.
Forty-nine patients out of 77 patients (63.6%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhages of the 49 patients treated with coiling, 27 (55.1%) showed complete occlusion of the aneurysm sac. Of these, 13 patients (26.5%) developed coil compaction on angiographic or MRI follow-up, with recoiling required in 9 patients (18.4%). Procedural complications of coiling were acute infarction in nine patients and the bleeding of the aneurysms in six patients. The remaining 28 patients underwent microsurgery: twenty-six of these (92.9%) with microsurgery followed up with conventional angiography. Complete occlusion of the aneurysm sac was achieved in 19 patients (73.1%). Operation-related complications of microsurgery were thalamoperforating artery injuries in three patients, retraction venous injury in two, postoperative epidural hemorrhage (EDH) in one, and transient partial or complete occulomotor palsy in 14 patients. Glasgow Outcome Scores (GOS) were 4 or 5 in 21 of 28 (75%) patients treated with microsurgery at discharge, and at 6 month follow-up, 20 of 28 (70.9%) maintained the same GOS. In comparison, GOS of four or 5 was observed in 36 of 49 (73.5%) patients treated with coiling at discharge and at 6 month follow-up, 33 of 49 patients (67.3%) maintained the GOS from discharge.
Basilar top aneurysms were still challenging lesions based on our series. Endovascular or microsurgery endowed with its inborn risks and procedural complications for the treatment of basilar apex aneurysms individually. Microsurgery provided better outcome in some specific basilar apex aneurysms. For reaching the most favorable outcome, endovascular modality as well as microsurgery was inevitably considered for each specific basilar apex aneurysm.
PMCID: PMC2682118  PMID: 19444348
Aneurysm; Basilar artery; Endovascular; Microsurgery
11.  Rupture of a Large Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Following Proximal Occlusion 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2005;11(1):51-58.
Proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery is regarded as a safe and effective method of treating aneurysms of the vertebral artery or the vertebrobasilar junction unsuitable for treatment by neck clipping. Complications known to develop after this procedure include ischemic lesions of the perforators and other areas. There are only a limited number of reports on early rupture of aneurysm following proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery for the treatment of unruptured aneurysm. We recently encountered a case of large aneurysm of the vertebral artery identified after detection of brainstem compression. This patient underwent proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery with a coil and developed a fatal rupture of the aneurysm ten days after proximal occlusion.
The patient was a 72-year-old woman who had complained of dysphagia and unsteadiness for several years. An approximately 20 mm diameter aneurysm was detected in her left vertebral artery. She underwent endovascular treatment, that is, her left vertebral artery was occluded with coils at a point proximal to the aneurysm. Her initial post-procedure course was uneventful. However, she suddenly developed right-side hemiparesis nine days after procedure. At that time, CT scan suggested sudden thrombosis of the aneurysm. Right vertebral angiography revealed a small part of the aneurysm. She was treated conservatively. Ten days after the procedure, she suffered massive subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Both the present case and past reports suggest that proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery is effective in treating relatively large aneurysms unsuitable for treatment by neck clipping or trapping. However, when the bifurcation of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is distal to the occluded point in cases where the PICA bifurcates from the aneurysm or the neck region, blood supply to the aneurysm may persist because anterograde blood flow to the PICA may be preserved. Therefore, clinicians must consider the possibility of aneurysm rupture after proximal occlusion in the following cases:
1) when the aneurysm is large or giant, but non-thrombosed;
2) when thrombosis occurs soon after the procedure;
3) when postoperative angiography shows partial filling of the aneurysm with contrast agent through the contralateral vertebral artery of basilar artery or the cervical muscle branches.
PMCID: PMC3403788  PMID: 20584435
large unruptured aneurysm, vertebral artery, proximal occlusion, subarachnoid haemorrhage
12.  Comparison of Incidence and Risk Factors for Shunt-dependent Hydrocephalus in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients 
The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of ventricular shunt placement for shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDHC) after clipping versus coiling of ruptured aneurysms.
Materials and Methods
A retrospective review was conducted in 215 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who underwent surgical clipping or endovascular coiling during the period from May 2008 to December 2011. Relevant clinical and radiographic data were analyzed with regard to the incidence of hydrocephalus and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VPS). Patients treated with clipping were assigned to Group A, while those treated with coiling were assigned to Group B.
Of 215 patients (157 clipping, 58 coiling), no significant difference in the incidence of final VPS was observed between treatment modalities (15.3% vs. 10.3%) (p = 0.35). Independent risk factors for VPS for treatment of chronic hydrocephalus were as follows: (1) older than 65 years, (2) poorer Hunt-Hess grade IV and V, (3) Fisher grade III and IV, and (4) particularly initial presence of an intraventricular hemorrhage.
In this study comparing two modalities for treatment of aneurysm, there was no difference in the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus requiring VPS. A significantly higher rate of shunt dependency was observed for age older than 65 years, poor initial neurological status, and thick SAH with presence of initial intraventricular hemorrhage. By understanding these factors related to development of SDHC and results, it is expected that management of aneurysmal SAH will result in a better prognosis.
PMCID: PMC4102754  PMID: 25045646
Acute hydrocephalus; Chronic hydrocephalus; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Lumbar drain
13.  A review of the management of posterior communicating artery aneurysms in the modern era 
Technical advancements have significantly improved surgical and endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. In this paper, we review the literature with regard to treatment of one of the most common intra-cranial aneurysms encountered by neurosurgeons and interventional radiologists.
Anterior clinoidectomy, temporary clipping, adenosine-induced cardiac arrest, and intraoperative angiography are useful adjuncts during surgical clipping of these aneurysms. Coil embolization is also an effective treatment alternative particularly in the elderly population. However, coiled posterior communicating artery aneurysms have a particularly high risk of recurrence and must be followed closely. Posterior communicating artery aneurysms with an elongated fundus, true posterior communicating artery aneurysms, and aneurysms associated with a fetal posterior communicating artery may have better outcome with surgical clipping in terms of completeness of occlusion and preservation of the posterior communicating artery. However, as endovascular technology improves, endovascular treatment of posterior communicating artery aneurysms may become equivalent or preferable in the near future. One in five patients with a posterior communicating artery aneurysm present with occulomotor nerve palsy with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of recovery include time to treatment, partial third nerve deficit, and presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Both surgical and endovascular therapy offer a reasonable chance of recovery. Based on level 2 evidence, clipping appears to offer a higher chance of occulomotor nerve palsy recovery; however, coiling will remain as an option particularly in elderly patients or patients with significant comorbidity.
PMCID: PMC3011114  PMID: 21206898
Cerebral aneurysm; clipping; coiling; posterior communicating artery
14.  Endovascular management of distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms: Report of two cases and review of the literature 
Aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), especially those located in the distal portion of the AICA, are rare. There are few reported cases treated with surgery or endovascular embolization.
Case Description:
We report two cases of fusiform distal AICA aneurysms presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Parent artery occlusion with coils and n-butyl cyanoacrilate (n-BCA) resulted in complete aneurysm occlusion and prevented rebleeding. Both patients presented postprocedure neurological deficits, but have made a good recovery at 4 and 10 months, respectively.
Occlusion of the parent artery for the treatment of ruptured fusiform distal AICA aneurysms is effective but has significant neurological risks.
PMCID: PMC3130468  PMID: 21748047
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm; coil; endovascular therapy; meatal; parent artery occlusion; postmeatal
15.  Endovascular Treatment of Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysms : Techniques and Outcomes in 15 Patients 
It is technically difficult to treat wide-necked intracranial aneurysms by the endovascular method. Various tools and techniques have been introduced to overcome the related technical limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiologic and clinical results of wide-necked intracranial aneurysm treatment using the endovascular method.
Fifteen aneurysms in 15 patients were treated by the endovascular method from October 2009 to August 2010. Seven patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), seven patients had unruptured aneurysms, and one patient had an intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage due to an incompletely clipped aneurysm. The mean dome-to-neck ratio was 1.1 (range, 0.6-1.7) and the mean height-to-neck ratio was 1.1 (range, 0.6-2.0). We used double microcatheters instead of a stent or a balloon for the first trial. When we failed to make a stable coil frame with two coils, we used a stent-assisted technique.
All aneurysms were successfully embolized. Eleven aneurysms (73%) were embolized by the double microcatheter technique without stent insertion, and four aneurysms (27%) were treated by stent-assisted coil embolization. One case had subclinical procedure-related intraoperative hemorrhage. Another case had procedure-related thromboembolism in the left distal anterior cerebral artery. During the follow-up period, one patient (7%) had a recanalized aneurysmal neck 12 months after coil embolization. The recurrent aneurysm was treated by stent-assisted coil embolization.
We successfully treated 15 wide-necked intracranial aneurysms by the endovascular method. More clinical data with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish the use of endovascular treatment for wide-necked aneurysm.
PMCID: PMC3079106  PMID: 21519497
Intracranial aneurysm; Embolization; Stent
16.  Infective endocarditis with cerebrovascular complications: timing of surgical intervention 
Management of infective endocarditis (IE) with cerebrovascular complications is difficult due to absence of concrete evidence. These patients usually have multiple neurological deficits and the optimal timing for cardiac operation remains controversial. The aims of this study were to present cases and discuss the treatment options for IE with cerebrovascular complications. From 1998 to 2010, 51 patients underwent operations for IE at our institution. From a review of medical records, 10 patients (19.6%) with preoperative neurological complications were identified. Data on these 10 patients were analysed. Cerebrovascular complications included cerebral infarction (n = 4, 40.0%), mycotic aneurysm (n = 1, 10.0%), mycotic aneurysm plus cerebral infarction (n = 3, 30.0%), meningitis (n = 1, 10.0%) and mycotic aneurysm with cerebral haemorrhage plus meningitis (n = 1, 10.0%). Of 5 patients having mycotic aneurysms, 3 underwent clipping before cardiac operations. The mean interval from craniotomy to cardiac operations was 26.7 ± 21.8 days. A cardiac operation was performed initially on seven patients. The mean interval from the onset of neurological deficit to cardiac operation was 7.4 ± 9.8 days. The mortality rate was 10.0%. Postoperative deterioration was not observed. Management of IE with cerebrovascular complications should be based on case-by-case multidisciplinary assessment of potential risks and benefits of intracranial and cardiac operations.
PMCID: PMC3420269  PMID: 22108940
Infective endocarditis; Cerebrovascular complications; Surgical intervention
17.  Coexistence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and surgically identified pituitary apoplexy: a case report and review of the literature 
A ruptured aneurysm associated with a pituitary apoplexy is rare. We present the first case report of the coexistence of a ruptured posterior communicating aneurysm with a surgically discovered pituitary apoplexy where the pituitary apoplexy had not been diagnosed by a pre-operative computerized tomography scan.
Case presentation
A 31-year-old right-handed Chinese woman began to experience severe headache, vomiting and blurred vision which continued for two days. On admission to the hospital, a brain computerized tomography scan demonstrated a small amount of increased signal in the basal cisterns; no evidence of intrasellar and suprasellar lesions was seen. The appearance of her brain suggested aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. She had nuchal rigidity and reduced vision. There was no extra-ocular palsy and no other neurological deficit. Our patient had no stigmata of Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly. During an interview for further history, she reported normal menses and denied reduced vision.
Cerebral digital subtraction angiography was subsequently performed, which revealed a 6mm left posterior communicating aneurysm. Urgent left pterional craniotomy was performed. The left ruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm was completely dissected prior to clipping. At surgery, a suprasellar mass was discovered, the tumor bulging the diaphragma sella and projecting anteriorly under the chiasm raising suspicion of a pituitary tumor. The anterior part of the tumor capsule was opened and a necrotic tumor mixed with dark old blood was removed. The appearance suggested pituitary apoplexy.
Histopathology revealed pituitary adenoma with evidence of hemorrhagic necrosis. Our patient made a good recovery.
Our case report proves that pituitary apoplexy can be coexistent with the rupture of a posterior communicating aneurysm. This association should be considered when evaluating any case of aneurysm. A normal computerized tomography scan does not exclude pituitary apoplexy. Pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging interpretation is required if a pituitary apoplexy is suspected. Craniotomy allows a coexisting aneurysm and pituitary apoplexy to be simultaneously treated.
PMCID: PMC4155771  PMID: 24885333
Aneurysm; Pituitary apoplexy; Pituitary adenoma; Subarachnoid hemorrhage
18.  Bony Protuberances on the Anterior and Posterior Clinoid Processes Lead to Traumatic Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm Following Craniofacial Injury 
Traumatic intracranial aneurysms are rare, comprising 1% or less of all cerebral aneurysms. The majority of these aneurysms arise at the skull base or in the distal anterior and middle cerebral arteries or their branches following direct mural injury or acceleration-induced shearing force. We present a 50-year-old patient in whom subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was developed as a result of traumatic aneurysm rupture after a closed craniofacial injury. Through careful evaluation of the three-dimensional computed tomography and conventional angiographies, the possible mechanism of the traumatic internal carotid artery trunk aneurysm is correlated with a hit injury by the bony protuberances on the anterior and posterior clinoid processes. This traumatic aneurysm was successfully obliterated with clipping and wrapping technique. The possibility of a traumatic intracranial aneurysm should be considered when patient with SAH demonstrates bony protuberances on the clinoid process as a traumatic aneurysm may result from mechanical injury by the sharp bony edges.
PMCID: PMC3070895  PMID: 21494363
Anterior clinoid process; Posterior clinoid process; Traumatic aneurysm; Craniofacial injury
19.  Endovascular Coil Embolization After Clipping: Endovascular Treatment of Incompletely Clipped or Recurred Cerebral Aneurysms 
The presence of a cerebral aneurysm remnant after surgical clipping is associated with a risk of regrowth or rupture. For these recurred aneurysms, coil embolization can be considered as a treatment option. We retrospectively reviewed cases of ruptured or regrown aneurysms after clipping treated by endovascular coil embolization.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a retrospective review of patients with ruptured or recurred aneurysm after clipping, who underwent coil embolization between January 1995 and December 2013. We evaluated clinical information and the outcomes of these cases.
Eight patients were treated by endovascular coil embolization after surgical clipping. Six aneurysms were located in the anterior communicating artery, one in the posterior communicating artery, and one in the middle cerebral artery bifurcation. All patients were initially treated by surgical clipping because of a ruptured aneurysm. Aneurysm recurrence at the initial clipping site was detected in all cases. The median interval from initial to second presentation was 42 months. In four patients, aneurysms were detected before rupture and the four remaining patients presented with recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage. All patients were treated by coil embolization and showed successful occlusion of aneurysms without complications.
Endovascular coil embolization can be a safe and successful treatment option for recurred aneurysms after clipping.
PMCID: PMC4205253  PMID: 25340029
Intracranial aneurysm; Recurrence; Coil embolization; Clipping
20.  Endovascular Treatment of AICA Flow Dependent Aneurysms 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2012;18(4):449-457.
Peripheral anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysms are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cerebral aneurysms. To our knowledge 34 flow-related cases including the present study have been reported in the literature.
Three patients harbouring four flow dependent aneurysms were referred to our institution. Two patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one presented with cerebellar manifestations. They were all treated by endovascular embolization of the aneurysm as well as the parent artery using liquid embolic material. Two cases were embolized using NBCA, Onyx was used in the third case.
No bleeding or rebleeding were encountered during the follow-up period which ranged from five to nine months.
One patient developed facial palsy, cerebellar symptoms and sensorineural hearing loss. The remaining two cases did not develop any post treatment neurological complications.
Endovascular management of flow-dependent AICA aneurysms by parent artery occlusion is feasible and efficient in terms of rebleeding prevention.
Post embolization neurological complications are unpredictable. This depends upon the adequacy of collaterals from other cerebellar arteries.
PMCID: PMC3520559  PMID: 23217640
posterior fossa aneurysms, flow dependent aneurysms, AICA aneurysms
21.  Enterprise stent for waffle-cone stent-assisted coil embolization of large wide-necked arterial bifurcation aneurysms 
Large wide-necked arterial bifurcation aneurysms present a unique challenge for endovascular coil embolization treatment. One technique described in the literature deploys a Neuroform stent into the neck of the aneurysm in the shape of a waffle-cone, thereby acting as a scaffold for the coil mass. This case series presents four patients with large wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms treated with the closed-cell Enterprise stent using the waffle-cone technique.
Case Description:
Four patients (59 ± 18 years of age) with large wide-necked arterial bifurcation aneurysms (three basilar apex and one MCA bifurcation) were treated with the waffle-cone technique using the Enterprise stent as a supporting device for stent-assisted coil embolization. Three of the patients presented with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (Hunt-Hess 2-3; Fisher Grade 3-4). There was no procedural morbidity or mortality associated with treatment itself. One aneurysm was completely obliterated, and three had small residual necks. One patient developed an area of PCA infarct and visual field cut one month after the procedure and required recoiling of the residual neck. The flared ends of the Enterprise stent remodeled the aneurysm neck by conforming to the shape of the neck without any technical difficulty, resulting in a stable scaffold holding the coils into the aneurysm.
The closed cell construction, flexibility, and flared ends of the Enterprise stent allow it to conform to the waffle-cone configuration and provide a stable scaffold for coil embolization of large wide-necked arterial bifurcation aneurysms. We have had excellent initial results using the Enterprise stent with the waffle-cone technique. However, this technique is higher risk than standard treatment methods and therefore should be reserved for large wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms where Y stenting is needed, but not possible, and surgical clip ligation is not an option.
PMCID: PMC3589841  PMID: 23493649
Aneurysm; coil; embolization; enterprise; stent; waffle-cone; wide-necked
22.  Monitoring of brain oxygenation in surgery of ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms 
The occurrence of brain ischemic lesions, due to temporary arterial occlusion or incorrect placement of the definitive clip, is a major complication of aneurysm surgery. Temporary clipping is a current technique during surgery and there is no reliable method of predicting the possibility of ischemia due to extended regional circulatory interruption. Even with careful inspection, misplacement of the definitive clip can be difficult to detect. Brain tissue oxygen concentration (PtiO2) was monitored during surgery of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), for detection of changes in brain oxygenation due to reduced blood flow, as a predictor of ischemic events, during temporary clipping and after definitive clipping.
PtiO2 was monitored during surgery of 13 patients harboring MCA aneurysms presenting with SAH, using a polarographic microcatheter (Licox, GMS, Kiel, Germany) placed in the territory of MCA.
A decrease in PtiO2 values was verified in every period of temporary clipping. Brain infarction occurred in 2 patients; in both cases, there was a decrease in PtiO2 greater than 80% from basal value, a minimum value of less than 2 mmHg persisting for 2 or more minutes during temporary clipping, and an incomplete recovery of PtiO2 after definitive clipping. In 2 patients, incomplete recovery of values after definitive clipping led to verification of inappropriate placement and repositioning of the clip.
The results suggest that intraoperative monitoring of PtiO2 may be a useful method of detection of changes in brain tissue oxygenation during MCA aneurysm surgery. Postoperative infarction in the territory of MCA developed in cases with an abrupt decrease of PtiO2 and a very low and persistent minimum value, during temporary clipping, and an incomplete recovery after definitive clipping. Verification of clip position should be considered when there is an incomplete recovery or a persistent fall in PtiO2 after definitive clipping.
PMCID: PMC3115273  PMID: 21697985
Aneurysm; middle cerebral artery; monitoring; PtiO2; ruptured; surgery
23.  Risk of Shunt Dependent Hydrocephalus after Treatment of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms : Surgical Clipping versus Endovascular Coiling According to Fisher Grading System 
The amount of hemorrhage observed on a brain computed tomography scan, or a patient's Fisher grade (FG), is a powerful risk factor for development of shunt dependent hydrocephlaus (SDHC). However, the influence of treatment modality (clipping versus coiling) on the rate of SDHC development has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we compared the risk of SDHC in both treatment groups according to the amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
We retrospectively reviewed 839 patients with aneurysmal SAH for a 5-year-period. Incidence of chronic SDHC was analyzed using each treatment modality according to the FG system. In addition, other well known risk factors for SDHC were also evaluated.
According to our data, Hunt-Hess grade, FG, acute hydrocephalus, and intraventricular hemorrhage were significant risk factors for development of chronic SDHC. Coiling group showed lower incidence of SDHC in FG 2 patients, and clipping groups revealed a significantly lower rate in FG 4 patients.
Based on our data, treatment modality might have an influence on the incidence of SDHC. In FG 4 patients, the clipping group showed lower incidence of SDHC, and the coiling group showed lower incidence in FG 2 patients. We suggest that these findings could be a considerable factor when deciding on a treatment modality for aneurysmal SAH patients, particularly when the ruptured aneurysm can be occluded by either clipping or coiling.
PMCID: PMC2982908  PMID: 21113357
Shunt dependent hydrocephalus; Fisher grading system; Subarachnoid hemorrhage
24.  Giant Intracranial Aneurysms: Evolution of Management in a Contemporary Surgical Series 
Neurosurgery  2011;69(6):1261-1271.
Many significant microsurgical series of patients with giant aneurysms predate changes in practice during the endovascular era.
A contemporary surgical experience is presented to examine changes in management relative to earlier reports, to establish the role of open microsurgery in the management strategy, and to quantify results for comparison with evolving endovascular therapies.
During a 13-year period, 140 patients with 141 giant aneurysms were treated surgically. 100 aneurysms (71%) were located in the anterior circulation, and 41 aneurysms were located in the posterior circulation.
108 aneurysms (77%) were completely occluded, 14 aneurysms (10%) had minimal residual aneurysm, and 16 aneurysms (11%) were incompletely occluded with reversed or diminished flow. 3 patients with calcified aneurysms were coiled after unsuccessful clipping attempts. 18 patients died in the perioperative period (surgical mortality, 13%). Bypass-related complications resulted from bypass occlusion (7 patients), aneurysm hemorrhage due to incomplete aneurysm occlusion (4 patients), or aneurysm thrombosis with perforator or branch artery occlusion (4 patients). 13 patients were worse at late follow-up (permanent neurological morbidity, 9%; mean length of follow-up, 23±1.9 months). Overall, good outcomes (GOS 5 or 4) were observed in 114 patients (81%) and 109 patients (78%) were improved or unchanged after therapy.
A heavy reliance on bypass techniques plus indirect giant aneurysm occlusion distinguishes this contemporary surgical experience from earlier ones, and obviates the need for hypothermic circulatory arrest. Experienced neurosurgeons can achieve excellent results with surgery as the “first-line” management approach and endovascular techniques as adjuncts to surgery.
PMCID: PMC3529163  PMID: 21734614
bypass; direct clipping; giant aneurysm; indirect aneurysm occlusion; microsurgery
25.  Glue Embolization of Ruptured Anterior Thalamoperforating Artery Aneurysm in Patient with Both Internal Carotid Arteries Occlusion 
Thalamoperforating artery aneurysms are rarely reported in the literature. We report an extremely rare case of ruptured distal anterior thalamoperforating artery aneurysm which was treated by endovascular obliteration in a patient with occlusion of both the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) : A 72-year-old woman presented with severe headache and loss of consciousness. Initial level of consciousness at the time of admission was drowsy and the Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14. Brain computed tomography (CT) scan was performed which revealed intracerebral hemorrhage in right basal ganglia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraventricular hemorrhage. The location of the aneurysm was identified as within the globus pallidus on CT angiogram. Conventional cerebral angiogram demonstrated occlusion of both the ICAs just distal to the fetal type of posterior communicating artery and the aneurysm was arising from right anterior thalamoperforating artery (ATPA). A microcatheter was navigated into ATPA and the ATPA proximal to aneurysm was embolized with 20% glue. Post-procedural ICA angiogram demonstrated no contrast filling of the aneurysm sac. The patient was discharged without any neurologic deficit. Endovascular treatment of ATPA aneurysm is probably a more feasible and safe treatment modality than surgical clipping because of the deep seated location of aneurysm and the possibility of brain retraction injury during surgical operation.
PMCID: PMC3115150  PMID: 21716902
Anterior thalamoperforating artery; Aneurysm; Glue embolization

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