We describe a rare case of a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to a ventral dissecting mid-basilar aneurysm that was treated surgically. One week after surgery, the patient experienced sudden deterioration due to a new SAH caused by the development of a new aneurysm of the basilar trunk distinct from the previously clipped aneurysm.
A 54-year-old woman with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage was found to have a small, broad-based aneurysm arising from the ventral aspect of the mid-basilar artery. This complicated lesion was treated with a microsurgical clipping via a translabyrinthine pre-sigmoidal sub-temporal approach. One week postoperatively, the patient suffered a new SAH and was found to have developed a distinct basilar artery aneurysm. The patient was returned to the Operating Room for microsurgical clipping via the previous craniotomy. After surgery, the patient made a slow, but steady, recovery. She underwent repeated angiographic imaging, demonstrating a stable appearance. Two years post surgery, the patient had returned to work and had no obvious neurological deficit, with the exception of unilateral iatrogenic hearing loss.
We describe a rare case of multiple aneurysms originating in relation to a mid-basilar dissection, resulting in multiple episodes of SAH. These are difficult and dangerous lesions that can be treated with open microsurgical reconstruction or possibly via an endovascular approach. The intricate location of the lesions poses a particular challenge to neurosurgeons attempting to directly treat mid-basilar lesions.
Aneurysm; basilar trunk; dissecting aneurysm; subarachnoid hemorrhage
Mycotic aneurysms are a rare cause of intracranial aneurysms that develop in the presence of infections such as infective endocarditis. They account for a small percentage of all intracranial aneurysms and carry a high-mortality rate when ruptured. The authors report a case of a 54-year-old man who presented with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve and acute stroke. He subsequently developed subarachnoid hemorrhage during antibiotic treatment, and a large intracranial aneurysm was
discovered on CT Angiography. His lesion quickly progressed into an intraparenchymal hemorrhage, requiring emergent craniotomy and aneurysm clipping. Current recommendations on the management of intracranial Mycotic Aneurysms are based on few retrospective case studies. The natural history of the patient's ruptured aneurysm is presented, as well as a literature review on the management and available treatment modalities.
Aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), especially those located in the distal portion of the AICA, are rare. There are few reported cases treated with surgery or endovascular embolization.
We report two cases of fusiform distal AICA aneurysms presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Parent artery occlusion with coils and n-butyl cyanoacrilate (n-BCA) resulted in complete aneurysm occlusion and prevented rebleeding. Both patients presented postprocedure neurological deficits, but have made a good recovery at 4 and 10 months, respectively.
Occlusion of the parent artery for the treatment of ruptured fusiform distal AICA aneurysms is effective but has significant neurological risks.
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm; coil; endovascular therapy; meatal; parent artery occlusion; postmeatal
Traditionally, surgery of the anterior circulation aneurysms of the cerebral vasculature is dictated by the site of the lesion, excluding such midline lesions as anterior communication artery aneurysms. Few reports address the issue of using a single craniotomy to obliterate multiple aneurysms located in both hemispheres.
A 51 year-old Caucasian right handed housewife lady (weight 61 kg, height 159 cm) presented with a headache of acute onset which proved to be caused by acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral computed tomographic angiography revealed multiple aneurysms. The patient underwent a right pterional craniotomy to obliterate right middle cerebral, distal basilar and left carotid bifurcation aneurysms. The post-operative course was uneventful.
Despite technical difficulties of approaching cerebral vasculature through a contralateral craniotomy, this policy is advised in selected cases in which the benefits of unilateral craniotomy outweigh the risks of brain retraction.
The pathogenesis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is still debated and the prognosis remains severe, especially in multiple aneurysms, where the therapeutic management is complex. The aim of this study was to look for vascular anomalies and assess their relationship with aneurysm formation and bleeding in patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms. A prospective angiographical review was performed on 141 patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms seen from 1992 to 2000. Three hundred and fifty three aneurysms were studied. In 88% of the patients vascular anomalies were found.
The most common were: asymmetric caudal basilar fusion (43.2%), variations of the anterior communicating artery (AcoA) complex (31.2%), symmetric caudal basilar fusion (26.2%), antero-inferior cerebellar artery-postero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA-PICA) (15.6%), extradural origin of the PICA (10.6%), cavernous origin of the ophthalmic artery or dorsal ophthalmic artery (dOPH) (3.5%). Some aneurysm locations were associated with a high rate of vascular anomalies, e.g.: posterior cerebral aneurysm with asymmetric caudal fusion, AcoA aneurysm with AcoA complex variation, basilar tip aneurysm with extradural PICA or symmetric caudal fusion, PI-CA aneurysm with AICA-PICA, para-ophthalmic aneurysm with dOPH. These aneurysm locations bled proportionally more frequently when associated with the related vascular anomaly. In conclusion, these results suggest that vascular anomalies are associated with aneurysm development and bleeding.
multiple intracranial aneurysms, cerebral angiography, vascular anomalies, sub arachnoid hemorrhage, anatomy
A 47-year-old man presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and right cerebellar hematoma was referred for evaluation. Cerebral angiography revealed a distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm associated with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Successful obliteration and complete removal of the aneurysm and AVM were obtained using transcortical approach under the guidance of neuronavigation system. The association of a peripheral AICA aneurysm and a cerebellar AVM by the same artery is unique. The reported cases of conventional surgery for this disease complex are not common and their results are variable. Less invasive surgery using image-guided neuronavigation system would be helpful and feasible for a peripheral aneurysm combining an AVM of the posterior fossa in selective cases.
Aneurysm; Anterior inferior cerebellar artery; Arteriovenous malformation; Neuronavigation
Traumatic intracranial aneurysms are rare, comprising 1% or less of all cerebral aneurysms. The majority of these aneurysms arise at the skull base or in the distal anterior and middle cerebral arteries or their branches following direct mural injury or acceleration-induced shearing force. We present a 50-year-old patient in whom subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was developed as a result of traumatic aneurysm rupture after a closed craniofacial injury. Through careful evaluation of the three-dimensional computed tomography and conventional angiographies, the possible mechanism of the traumatic internal carotid artery trunk aneurysm is correlated with a hit injury by the bony protuberances on the anterior and posterior clinoid processes. This traumatic aneurysm was successfully obliterated with clipping and wrapping technique. The possibility of a traumatic intracranial aneurysm should be considered when patient with SAH demonstrates bony protuberances on the clinoid process as a traumatic aneurysm may result from mechanical injury by the sharp bony edges.
Anterior clinoid process; Posterior clinoid process; Traumatic aneurysm; Craniofacial injury
Dissecting aneurysms involving the basilar artery (BA) are lesions with significant morbidity and mortality. Their management is controversial and often difficult. There is no generally approved strategy.
Two cases of huge dissections involving the BA presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage in one case and mass effect in both cases. The dissection of case 1 involved the upper two thirds of the BA distal to the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA). Another dissection of case 2 involved the bilateral vertebral arteries (VA) distal to bilateral PICA and extended to upper third of the BA. After making a basket with coils inside the pseudoaneursym, proximal dissection was totally occluded in case 1. Dissection on the bilateral VA distal to the bilateral PICA and proximal BA was occluded in case 2 with a small residual dissection on the left VA. Case 1 had an excellent recovery with a durable image and clinical result. But recanalization and regrowth occurred in case 2, which might have originated from the residual dissection on the left VA, induced acute mass effect and sudden coma six weeks after the initial treatment. The residual and regrown dissection had to be occluded in a second intervention. The patient died two days later.
BA occlusion is safe and efficient for dissections involving the BA as in our case and the literature. Proximal occlusion might be enough for huge and long lesions like ours. It seems that completely dense packing of proximal dissection is the key point to prevent recanalization.
basilar artery, dissection, endovascular intervention, recanalization
We aimed to analyze clinical and radiological outcomes retrospectively in patients with basilar apex aneurysms treated by coiling or clipping.
Outcomes of basilar bifurcation aneurysms were assessed retrospectively in 77 consecutive patients (61 women, 16 men), ranging in age from 25 to 79 years (mean, 53.7 years) from 1999 to 2007.
Forty-nine patients out of 77 patients (63.6%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhages of the 49 patients treated with coiling, 27 (55.1%) showed complete occlusion of the aneurysm sac. Of these, 13 patients (26.5%) developed coil compaction on angiographic or MRI follow-up, with recoiling required in 9 patients (18.4%). Procedural complications of coiling were acute infarction in nine patients and the bleeding of the aneurysms in six patients. The remaining 28 patients underwent microsurgery: twenty-six of these (92.9%) with microsurgery followed up with conventional angiography. Complete occlusion of the aneurysm sac was achieved in 19 patients (73.1%). Operation-related complications of microsurgery were thalamoperforating artery injuries in three patients, retraction venous injury in two, postoperative epidural hemorrhage (EDH) in one, and transient partial or complete occulomotor palsy in 14 patients. Glasgow Outcome Scores (GOS) were 4 or 5 in 21 of 28 (75%) patients treated with microsurgery at discharge, and at 6 month follow-up, 20 of 28 (70.9%) maintained the same GOS. In comparison, GOS of four or 5 was observed in 36 of 49 (73.5%) patients treated with coiling at discharge and at 6 month follow-up, 33 of 49 patients (67.3%) maintained the GOS from discharge.
Basilar top aneurysms were still challenging lesions based on our series. Endovascular or microsurgery endowed with its inborn risks and procedural complications for the treatment of basilar apex aneurysms individually. Microsurgery provided better outcome in some specific basilar apex aneurysms. For reaching the most favorable outcome, endovascular modality as well as microsurgery was inevitably considered for each specific basilar apex aneurysm.
Aneurysm; Basilar artery; Endovascular; Microsurgery
Data suggests that hemorrhagic presentations occur in 20% of internal carotid artery dissections and 50% of vertebral artery dissections. A Finnish study has reported favorable outcomes in only 32% of patients.
We aimed to review the epidemiology and management outcomes in a Chinese population.
We reviewed the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage registry of patients who presented with intracranial dissecting aneurysms at a neurosurgical center in Hong Kong over a five-year period.
A total of 23 patients with intracranial dissecting aneurysms were identified, accounting for 8% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Forty-eight percent of the patients identified were treated by main trunk occlusion and 39% were treated by embolization or stent-assisted embolization or stent alone. Thirteen percent were managed by craniotomy and trapping or wrapping. Favorable outcomes at six months were achieved in 67%.
Patients with intracranial dissecting aneurysms account for a significant proportion of the cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage in our population. Carefully selected endovascular and microsurgical treatments can lead to management outcomes similar to patients with saccular aneurysms.
Cerebral aneurysm; dissection; embolization; stent; subarachnoid hemorrhage
The amount of hemorrhage observed on a brain computed tomography scan, or a patient's Fisher grade (FG), is a powerful risk factor for development of shunt dependent hydrocephlaus (SDHC). However, the influence of treatment modality (clipping versus coiling) on the rate of SDHC development has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we compared the risk of SDHC in both treatment groups according to the amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
We retrospectively reviewed 839 patients with aneurysmal SAH for a 5-year-period. Incidence of chronic SDHC was analyzed using each treatment modality according to the FG system. In addition, other well known risk factors for SDHC were also evaluated.
According to our data, Hunt-Hess grade, FG, acute hydrocephalus, and intraventricular hemorrhage were significant risk factors for development of chronic SDHC. Coiling group showed lower incidence of SDHC in FG 2 patients, and clipping groups revealed a significantly lower rate in FG 4 patients.
Based on our data, treatment modality might have an influence on the incidence of SDHC. In FG 4 patients, the clipping group showed lower incidence of SDHC, and the coiling group showed lower incidence in FG 2 patients. We suggest that these findings could be a considerable factor when deciding on a treatment modality for aneurysmal SAH patients, particularly when the ruptured aneurysm can be occluded by either clipping or coiling.
Shunt dependent hydrocephalus; Fisher grading system; Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Simultaneous occurrence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is very rare and only two cases have been previously reported in the literatures. We present a case of 68-yr-old man with a history of untreated hypertension, who suffered from sudden onset of headache followed by right hemiparesis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed SAH in the basal cistern and remote ICH at the left putamen. Cerebral angiography showed a saccular aneurysm at the anterior communicating artery. No other vascular anomaly could be found at left putaminal area. Nine days after the ictal attack of SAH, the neck of aneurysm was clipped via the left frontotemporal craniotomy. Because of the ICH at the left frontal lobe and intraventricular hematoma on postoperative CT, we performed hematoma removal and external ventricular drainage 3 hours after the first operation. Postoperative neurological status had been improved to be drowsy and he was discharged in a severely disabled state 4 weeks after surgery. We suggest that the rupture of aneurysm possibly caused a rapid increase in blood pressure and subsequently resulted in hypertensive ICH.
Perioperative hypothermia has been reported to increase the occurrence of cardiovascular complications. By increasing sympathetic nervous system activity, perioperative hypothermia also has the potential to increase cardiac injury and dysfunction associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
The Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial randomized patients undergoing cerebral aneurysm surgery to intraoperative hypothermia (n = 499, 33.3 ± 0.8°C) or normothermia (n = 501, 36.7 ± 0.5°C). Cardiovascular events (hypotension, arrhythmias, vasopressor use, myocardial infarction, etc.) were prospectively followed until 3 month follow-up and were compared between hypothermic and normothermic patients. A subset of 62 patients (hypothermia, n = 33; normothermia, n = 29) also had preoperative and postoperative (within 24 h) measurement of cardiac troponin-I and echocardiography to explore the association between perioperative hypothermia and subarachnoid hemorrhage-associated myocardial injury and left ventricular function.
There was no difference between hypothermic and normothermic patients in the occurrence of any single cardiovascular event or in composite cardiovascular events. There was no difference in mortality (6%) between groups and there was only a single primary cardiovascular death (normothermia). There was no difference between hypothermic and normothermic patients in post- vs. preoperative left ventricular regional wall motion or ejection fraction. Compared with preoperative values, hypothermic patients had no postoperative increase in cardiac troponin-I (median change 0.00 μg/L) whereas normothermic patients had a small postoperative increase (median change + 0.01 μg/L, P = 0.038).
In patients undergoing cerebral aneurysm surgery, perioperative hypothermia was not associated with an increased occurrence of cardiovascular events.
It is technically difficult to treat wide-necked intracranial aneurysms by the endovascular method. Various tools and techniques have been introduced to overcome the related technical limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiologic and clinical results of wide-necked intracranial aneurysm treatment using the endovascular method.
Fifteen aneurysms in 15 patients were treated by the endovascular method from October 2009 to August 2010. Seven patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), seven patients had unruptured aneurysms, and one patient had an intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage due to an incompletely clipped aneurysm. The mean dome-to-neck ratio was 1.1 (range, 0.6-1.7) and the mean height-to-neck ratio was 1.1 (range, 0.6-2.0). We used double microcatheters instead of a stent or a balloon for the first trial. When we failed to make a stable coil frame with two coils, we used a stent-assisted technique.
All aneurysms were successfully embolized. Eleven aneurysms (73%) were embolized by the double microcatheter technique without stent insertion, and four aneurysms (27%) were treated by stent-assisted coil embolization. One case had subclinical procedure-related intraoperative hemorrhage. Another case had procedure-related thromboembolism in the left distal anterior cerebral artery. During the follow-up period, one patient (7%) had a recanalized aneurysmal neck 12 months after coil embolization. The recurrent aneurysm was treated by stent-assisted coil embolization.
We successfully treated 15 wide-necked intracranial aneurysms by the endovascular method. More clinical data with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish the use of endovascular treatment for wide-necked aneurysm.
Intracranial aneurysm; Embolization; Stent
Introduction. Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States. About 20% of the stroke is hemorrhagic and about 50% of these is due to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A troublesome neuropsychiatric complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage is agitation/aggression. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old man with no prior psychiatric history, sustained subarachnoid hemorrhage. After initial stabilization for 2 days, he underwent craniotomy and clipping of anterior cerebral communicating artery aneurysm. Treatment was continued with labetalol, nimodipine, and levetiracetam. Beginning postoperative day 4, patient developed episodes of confusion and agitation/aggression. Switching of Levetiracetam to valproate did not show any improvement. Psychiatry team tried to manage him with intense nursing intervention and different medications like olanzapine, valproate, lorazepam, and haloperidol. However, patient continued to be agitated and aggressive. Switching from labetalol to metoprolol resulted in dramatic improvement within 3 days. Discussion. Antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are often not sufficiently effective in the control of agitation/aggression in patients with traumatic brain injury and similar conditions. Our case report and the literature review including a cochrane review suggests that beta-blockers may be helpful in this situation.
Residual aneurysm from incomplete clipping or slowly recurrent aneurysm is associated with high risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe complete treatment of the lesions by surgical clipping or endovascular treatment.
We analyzed 11 patients of residual or recurrent aneurysms who had undergone surgical clipping from 1998 to 2009. Among them, 5 cases were initially clipped at our hospital. The others were referred from other hospitals after clipping. The radiologic and medical records were retrospectively analyzed.
All patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage at first time, and the most frequent location of the ruptured residual or recurrent aneurysm was in the anterior communicating artery to posterior-superior direction. Distal anterior cerebral artery, posterior communicating artery, and middle cerebral artery was followed. Repositioning of clipping in eleven cases, and one endovascular treatment were performed. No residual aneurysm was found in postoperative angiography, and no complication was noted in related to the operations.
These results indicate the importance of postoperative or follow up angiography and that reoperation of residual or slowly recurrent aneurysm should be tried if such lesions being found. Precise evaluation and appropriate planning including endovascular treatment should be performed for complete obliteration of the residual or recurrent aneurysm.
Intracranial aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Reoperation
Complex intracranial aneurysms (CIAs) include those classified as giant, those located in brain regions of technically difficult access, or that involve arterial trunks/branches, and/or have complicated wall structure. We reviewed retrospectively our management of such lesions in a 12-year period. From 1997 to 2009, 192 patients were admitted with CIAs (133 females, 59 males; average age 55 years); 128 presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and 64 with unruptured, symptomatic CIAs. The SAH group had 73 anterior- and 55 posterior-circulation aneurysms. Most frequent location was middle cerebral artery. Treatment strategies included clipping (65.6%), coiling/stenting (28.1%), bypass (3.1%), no treatment (3.1%). Coiling/stenting was exclusively used for posterior-circulation aneurysms. Outcomes were good (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0 to 2) in 54 patients (42.2%), fair (mRS = 3 to 4) in 38 (29.7%), and poor (mRS = 5 to 6) in 36 (28.1%). Among unruptured CIAs, there were 47 anterior- and 17 posterior-circulation aneurysms. Most frequent location was ophthalmic. Thirty (46.9%) were clipped, 19 (29.7%) coiled, 6 (9.4%) by-passed, 2 (3.1%) wrapped, and 7 (10.9%) had no treatment. Outcomes were good in 57 patients (89%) and fair in 7 (11%). Good outcomes were obtained in unruptured CIAs using a multidisciplinary approach. Ruptured CIAs carry a significantly worse prognosis than overall SAH patients.
Cerebral aneurysm; clipping; coiling; cerebral revascularization
We present the case of a distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm masquerading as a cerebellopontine angle tumor in a 60-year-old right-handed man with previously undiagnosed polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). The patient presented with a 2-month history of progressive right-sided hearing loss, intermittent severe headache, and sudden onset of complete facial paralysis 3 weeks before admission. Magnetic resonance imaging, including postgadolinium images, showed a 1.2-cm heterogenously enhancing mass that slightly enlarged the right internal auditory canal. A right suboccipital craniotomy was performed, and a partially thrombosed fusiform AICA aneurysm was discovered just anterior to the VII/VIII nerve complex. The aneurysm was trapped and opened, and a thrombectomy was performed. Postoperatively, the patient experienced abdominal pain; liver function tests were abnormal. Investigation revealed a small retroperitoneal hemorrhage and aneurysms of the celiac axis and gastroduodenal arteries. Further investigation revealed an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a diagnosis of PAN was made. PAN is a well-identified factor in the genesis of peripheral vascular aneurysms. Aneurysms involving the hepatic, renal, coronary, pancreatic, and tibial arteries have been described. PAN is an extremely rare cause of intracranial aneurysm. Patients who present with aneurysms in unusual locations (e.g., distal AICA) should be investigated for vasculopathy and collagen vascular disorders.
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery; aneurysm; peripheral vascular aneurysms; polyarteritis nodosa
A 56 year-old woman presented with a ruptured bilobed wide neck aneurysm of the P2 segment of the PCA, atherosclerotic fusiform basilar artery aneurysm, subarachnoid bleeding with negative CT scan and chronic renal failure. She was managed by a cooperative approach involving neurosurgeons, neuroradiologist, neurointensivist, emergency room physicians, nurses and technicians.
She underwent operation by proximal clipping for the aneurysm of the PCA. Postoperative neurological deficits include homonymous hemianopsia and ipsilateral third nerve palsy. The operation was performed through asubtemporal approach. At surgery, the aneurysm was located in the distal of the P2 segment of PCA, bilobed up and down, no definitive neck with small distal branches, and was treated by proximal clipping of the PCA aneurysm. The fusiform basilar artery aneurysm was severely atherosclerotic and left untouched.
This is a rare case which required a high index of suspicion to detect subarachnoid bleeding from ruptured posterior fossa aneurysm, accurate prediction of the site of bleeding and the location of aneurysm location by conventional angiogram, MRI and MRA, and careful planned surgical strategy with the right approach for the P2 segment of the PCA aneurysm, complicated post operative care with airway management, triple H therapy, nutrition, additional measures and multiple hemodialysis.
brain, aneurysms, SAH, renal failure
The occurrence of brain ischemic lesions, due to temporary arterial occlusion or incorrect placement of the definitive clip, is a major complication of aneurysm surgery. Temporary clipping is a current technique during surgery and there is no reliable method of predicting the possibility of ischemia due to extended regional circulatory interruption. Even with careful inspection, misplacement of the definitive clip can be difficult to detect. Brain tissue oxygen concentration (PtiO2) was monitored during surgery of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), for detection of changes in brain oxygenation due to reduced blood flow, as a predictor of ischemic events, during temporary clipping and after definitive clipping.
PtiO2 was monitored during surgery of 13 patients harboring MCA aneurysms presenting with SAH, using a polarographic microcatheter (Licox, GMS, Kiel, Germany) placed in the territory of MCA.
A decrease in PtiO2 values was verified in every period of temporary clipping. Brain infarction occurred in 2 patients; in both cases, there was a decrease in PtiO2 greater than 80% from basal value, a minimum value of less than 2 mmHg persisting for 2 or more minutes during temporary clipping, and an incomplete recovery of PtiO2 after definitive clipping. In 2 patients, incomplete recovery of values after definitive clipping led to verification of inappropriate placement and repositioning of the clip.
The results suggest that intraoperative monitoring of PtiO2 may be a useful method of detection of changes in brain tissue oxygenation during MCA aneurysm surgery. Postoperative infarction in the territory of MCA developed in cases with an abrupt decrease of PtiO2 and a very low and persistent minimum value, during temporary clipping, and an incomplete recovery after definitive clipping. Verification of clip position should be considered when there is an incomplete recovery or a persistent fall in PtiO2 after definitive clipping.
Aneurysm; middle cerebral artery; monitoring; PtiO2; ruptured; surgery
While hemodynamic stress can result in aneurysm formation, it rarely contributes to the development of peripheral aneurysms in collateral pathways. We report two patients with ruptured distal aneurysms in a collateral pathway associated with stenosis of a major cerebral artery.
A 67-year-old man presented with intracerebral hemorrhage in the right frontal lobe. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed severe stenosis of the right middle cerebral artery and two aneurysms in the collateral pathway of the right anterior cerebral artery. The ruptured aneurysm was trapped and resected; histologically, it was a true saccular aneurysm. The unruptured aneurysm was clipped and the patient was discharged without additional neurological deficits. The second patient was a 73-year-old woman with subarachnoid hemorrhage. DSA revealed three arterial dilations. On the 7th day of hospitalization, one of the aneurysms in a posterior inferior cerebellar artery–anterior inferior cerebellar artery anastomosis that functioned as a collateral pathway in the presence of severe basilar artery stenosis was found to be enlarged. It was treated by selective aneurysmal coil embolization with parent artery preservation. Her postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged without any neurological deficits.
We document the successful treatment of two patients with ruptured aneurysms in the peripheral portion of a collateral pathway. We discuss the histology of peripheral aneurysms and present a review of the literature.
Coil embolization; collateral pathway; histology; peripheral aneurysm; posterior inferior cerebellar artery–anterior inferior cerebellar artery anastomosis; true aneurysm
This report focused on our treatment protcol and results on the intraaneurysmal GDC embolization for ruptured aneurysm in the acute stage.
Clinical materials of this study consist of 39 patients who were treated with intraaneurysmal GDC embolization within 72 hours after the onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage from March 1997 to May 1999.
Patients with cerebral aneurysms are always examined as a possible candidate for neurosurgical clipping. If the patient had any difficulties and/or problems on neurosurgical clipping (high age 24, poor grade 12, surgically difficult location 11, systemic disease 2), the patient was treated by intraaneurysmal GDC embolization. GDCs were inserted as tight as possible. Then, spinal drainage was set in patients with thick subarachnoid hemorrhage. Tissue plasminogen activator was administered via the drainage in patients with thicker subarachnoid hemorrhage. Two patients experienced rerupture during peritherapeutic period. Symptomatic vasospasm was observed in 2 patients (5.1%). Good outcome was obtained in 31 out of 34 surviving patients. Symptomatic complication caused by distal embolism occurred in 1 patient, parent artey occlusion in 3 patients
In conclusion, intraaneurysmal GDC embolization is thought to be sufficient regarding prevention of rerupture, incidence of vasospasm, and clinical outcome.
embolization, Guglielmi detachable coil, rerupture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, vasospasm
Mycotic aneurysms constitute a small proportion of aortic aneurysms. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysms has been applied with good short-term and midterm results. However, the uncommon aortoenteric fistula formation remains a potentially fatal complication when repairing such infective aneurysms. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with thoracic and abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysms, which were successfully treated with endografting. However, the patient presented 3 months later with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to erosion of the thoracic graft into the oesophagus. The patient was treated conservatively due to the high risk of surgical repair. There is currently little exposure to the management of mycotic aortic aneurysms. If suspected, imaging of the entire vasculature will aid initial diagnosis and highlight the extent of the disease process, allowing for efficient management. Aortic endografting for mycotic thoracic aneurysms is a high-risk procedure yet is still an appropriate intervention. Aortoenteric fistulae pose a rare but severe complication of aortic endografting in this setting.
This study was conducted to evaluate the de Novo aneurysm formation in the long-term follow-up of patients with clipped intracranial aneurysms.
A total of 459 patients underwent the clipping of ruptured cerebral aneurysms in our institution during 1997 -2008. Of them, 119 patients were available in good condition and agreed to undergo 64 detector row computed tomography (CT) angiography. In addition, 8 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) underwent CT angiography.
The mean ± SD interval from surgery was 7.2±2.3 years for CT-angiography controlled patents. De novo aneurysms were detected in 5 of 119 (4.5%) patients and 4 of 8 patients with new subarachnoid hemorrhage. A history of multiple aneurysms was associated with the de novo aneurysm formation (p less than 0.001).
The risk of the de novo aneurysm formation in patients with clipped aneurysm is significant in long term follow-up. CT-angiography can be used as a non-invasive method for detection of de novo aneurysms in these patients.
Cerebral aneurysm, Ct-angiography, De Novo aneurysm, Surgical clipping
Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating event with substantial case-fatality. Our purpose was to examine which clinical and neuro-imaging characteristics, available on admission, predict 60 day case-fatality in aSAH and to evaluate performance of our prediction model. We performed a secondary analysis of patients enrolled in the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), a randomised multicentre trial to compare coiling with clipping in aSAH patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prognostic model to estimate the risk of dying within 60 days from aSAH based on clinical and neuro-imaging characteristics. The model was internally validated with bootstrapping techniques. The study population comprised of 2,128 patients who had been randomised to either endovascular coiling or neurosurgical clipping. In this population 153 patients (7.2%) died within 60 days. World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade was the most important predictor of case-fatality, followed by age, lumen size of the aneurysm and Fisher grade. The model discriminated reasonably between those who died within 60 days and those who survived (c statistic = 0.73), with minor optimism according to bootstrap re-sampling (optimism corrected c statistic = 0.70). Several strong predictors are available to predict 60 day case-fatality in aSAH patients who survived the early stage up till a treatment decision; after external validation these predictors could eventually be used in clinical decision making.
Aneurysm; Subarachnoid haemorrhage; Prediction model; Case-fatality