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1.  The Association between Cobalt Deficiency and Endemic Goiter in School-Aged Children 
Endocrinology and Metabolism  2014;29(3):307-311.
In Iran, an iodine deficiency control program was initiated in 1989 by iodizing salt. Despite this program, goiters have remained an endemic condition in most parts of Iran. Thus, it is possible that other factors aside from iodine deficiency may contribute to endemic goiter. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cobalt deficiency and endemic goiter in a region of Iran with a high prevalence of goiter.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among school children aged 9 to 11 years in the city of Kerman, Iran. In the first phase of the study, a multistage, proportional-to-size, cluster sampling method was used to screen 5,380 out of 29,787 students. After the screening phase, 170 students (130 goitrous and 40 nongoitrous) were randomly selected, and serum and urine specimens were obtained. We measured thyroid function, serum cobalt level, and urinary iodine excretion. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The prevalence of grade 2 goiters was 34.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31.5 to 42.5), with both sexes being equally affected. The weight and body mass index of goitrous subjects was significantly lower (P<0.001) than those of nongoitrous subjects. The serum cobalt levels were lower in goitrous subjects than in nongoitrous subjects (4.4±2.9 µg/L vs. 6.4±2.7 µg/L). The urinary iodine levels were also lower in goitrous subjects than in nongoitrous subjects (198.3±108.3 µg/L vs. 270.2±91.1 µg/L). Multiple regression analysis showed that only cobalt deficiency, not iodine deficiency, significantly contributed to the presence of goiter (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.99; P=0.042).
Cobalt deficiency may be an important independent predicator for goiter in endemic regions, especially areas in which goiters persist despite salt iodization programs.
PMCID: PMC4192825  PMID: 25309789
Goiter; Cobalt; Iodine deficiency; Urine Iodine; Thyroid
2.  Protein-energy Malnutrition in Goitrous Schoolchildren of Isfahan, Iran 
Some studies have shown the possible role of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in persistence of endemic goiter in iodine replenished areas. The present study was conducted to assess the association between PEM and goiter in schoolchildren of Isfahan, Iran.
In a cross-sectional study using multistage cluster random-sampling, 2331 schoolchildren with age ranged from 6-13 years old with a female to male ratio of 1.60 were enrolled. Thyroid size was examined by two endocrinologists for goiter detection. Children were considered goitrous if they had palpable or visible goiters according to World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations children's Fund/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency criteria. Weight and standing height were measured using the standard tools and anthropometric indices were calculated using the WHO AnthroPlus software developed by the World Health Organization. Height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) and body mass index (BMI) for age were calculated for each child. Children with a HAZ, WAZ or BMI-for-age of Z-score < –2.0 were classified as stunted, underweight or thin, respectively. Blood samples were drowned to measure serum thyroid hormones.
Overall, 32.9% of subjects were classified as goitrous. Weight, height, BMI, WAZ and BMI-for-age Z-score were significantly lower in children with goiter than in children who did not have goiter (P < 0.05). The prevalence of goiter in thin children was higher than that in non-thin ones (48.4 vs. 31.6%, odds ratio [OR]: 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-2.69, P < 0.001). Although 33.4% of non-stunted children were goitrous, 31% of stunted ones had goiter (P = 0.5). According to the logistic regression model taking sex and age as covariates, the only significant parameter affecting palpable goiter detection was thinness (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.22-3.69, P < 0.001).
In the present study, we found a high prevalence of goiter in children who were malnourished. It seems that PEM may play a role in the still high prevalence of goiter in this region.
PMCID: PMC4050673  PMID: 24932384
Body mass index-for-age Z-score; goiter; height-for-age Z-score; Iran; protein-energy malnutrition; weight-for-age Z-score
3.  Association between Serum Ferritin and Goitre in Iranian School Children 
Despite long-standing supplementation of iodine in Iran, the prevalence of goitre among general people remains high in some regions. The study investigated the role of iron status in the aetiology of goitre in school children in Isfahan, Iran. Two thousand three hundred and thirty-one school children were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Thyroid size was estimated by inspection and palpation. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and serum ferritin (SF) were measured. Overall, 32.9% of the children had goitre. The median UIC was 195.5 μg/L. The mean±SD of SF in the goitrous and non-goitrous children was 47.65±42.51 and 44.55±37.07 μg/L respectively (p=0.52). The prevalence of iron deficiency in goitrous and non-goitrous children was 9.6% and 3.1% respectively (p=0.007). Goitre is still prevalent in school children of Isfahan. However, their median UIC was well in the accepted range. Iron deficiency is associated with goitre in a small group of goitrous children. The role of goitrogens should also be investigated in this region.
PMCID: PMC2980875  PMID: 20411676
Cross-sectional studies; Goitre; Iodine; Iron deficiency; Serum ferritin; Iran
4.  Persistence of goitre in the post-iodization phase: micronutrient deficiency or thyroid autoimmunity? 
Background & objectives:
Despite years of salt iodization, goitre continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. We examined the prevalence of goitre in the post-iodization phase and the relationship of goitre with micronutrient status and thyroid autoimmunity in school children of Chandigarh, north India.
Two phase study; in the first phase, 2148 children of 6 to 16 yr were screened for goitre by two independent observers as per the WHO grading system. In the second phase, a case-control study, 191 children with goitre and 165 children without goitre were compared with respect to urinary iodine, iodine content of salt, serum levels of T3, T4, TSH, anti-TPO (thyroid peroxidase) antibody, haemoglobin, ferritin and selenium.
Prevalence of goitre in the studied subjects was 15.1 per cent (13.9% in 6 to 12 yr and 17.7% in 13 to 16 yr age group, P= 0.03). Median urinary iodine excretion in both the groups was sufficient and comparable (137 and 130 µg/l). 3.2 per cent children with goitre and 2.4 per cent without goitre had hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) and only one child with goitre had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Nine (4.9%) children in the goitre group and 3 (1.9%) in control group had anti-TPO antibody positivity. The median serum selenium levels were not different in both the groups (181.9 and 193.5 µg/l). Seventy one (37.4%) of the goitrous children had anaemia (haemoglobin <12 g/dl) as compared to 41 (24.8%) of the control group (P <0.01). More number of goitrous children (39, 20.6%) were depleted of tissue iron stores (serum ferritin <12 µg/l) as compared to controls (11, 6.4%; P<0.001). Serum ferritin level negatively correlated with the presence of goitre (r = - 0.22, P =0.008) and had an OR of 2.8 (CI 1.20 - 6.37, P =0.017).
Interpretation & conclusions:
There was a high prevalence of goitre in young children despite iodine repletion and low thyroid autoimmunity. The concurrent iron deficiency correlated with the presence of goiter. However, the cause and effect relationship between iron deficiency state and goitre requires further elucidation.
PMCID: PMC3100137  PMID: 21321427
Goitre; iodine deficiency; iron deficiency; selenium; thyroid autoimmunity
5.  Thyroid volume, goiter prevalence, and selenium levels in an iodine-sufficient area: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:1153.
Selenium (Se) is a necessary element for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We investigated the relationship between selenium status, thyroid volume, and goiter in a cross-sectional study in an iodine-sufficient area.
We selected residents of Chengdu (over 18 years old and living in the city for more than 5 years) using a stratified cluster sampling technique. Fifteen hundred subjects were selected for the study, which involved a questionnaire survey, physical examination, thyroid ultrasound, serum thyroid function test, and determination of serum selenium level. Thyroid volume was calculated from the thickness, width, length, and a corrective factor for each lobe. Ultimately, 1,205 subjects completed the investigation and were included in our study. Additionally, 80 school-age children were selected to provide urine samples for urinary iodine analysis. We analyzed the data using appropriate nonparametric and parametric statistical tests.
The median urinary iodine value was 184 μg/L in school-age children, indicating iodine sufficiency. The median serum selenium level of the 1,205 subjects was 52.63 (interquartile range [IQR] : 40.40-67.00) μg/L. The median thyroid volume was 9.93 (IQR: 7.71-12.57) mL; both log-transformed serum selenium and log-transformed thyroid volume were Gaussian distributions (P = .638 and P = .046, respectively). The prevalences of goiter and thyroid nodules were 8.8% and 18.6%. The prevalences of positive thyroid autoantibodies, thyroperoxidase autoantibodies and thyroglobulin autoantibodies were 16.7%, 12.0%, and 11.1%, respectively. In the general linear regression model, there were positive associations between serum selenium and age, and body mass index. We found no association between serum selenium and thyroid-stimulating hormone. In simple linear regression analyses, we found no association between thyroid volume and serum selenium. There were no significant differences in serum selenium between persons with or without goiter. Serum selenium was not a risk factor for goiter.
In our study population, serum selenium was neither associated with thyroid volume nor with goiter in an iodine-sufficient area. More studies should be conducted by following non-goitrous persons over time and monitoring their selenium status.
PMCID: PMC3878896  PMID: 24321191
Iodine; Selenium; Thyroid hormones; Thyroid volume; Thyroid goiter; Thyroid disease; Cross-sectional study
6.  Prevalence and Severity of Iodine Deficiency Disorder Among Children 6–12 Years of Age in Shebe Senbo District, Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia 
Iodine deficiency disorder is a major problem worldwide, especially during pregnancy and childhood. The magnitude of the problem is quite big in Ethiopia. The main aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shebe Senbo District on January 2011. Three elementary schools were selected by lottery method from 20 schools. From each school, students were selected by simple random sampling. Spot urine sample (5 ml) was taken to measure urine iodine level; physical exam was made to palpate goiter and salt samples were collected to estimate iodine content.
Out of 389 participants, 179 (46%) were males. The total goiter rate was 59.1% (Grade 1: 35.2%; Grade 2:23.9%). The median urinary iodine level was 56 4g/L that indicates iodine deficiency. Out of 389 households in the study area, 277 (71.2%) were using non-iodinated salt, 102 (26.2%) of the households were using iodinated salt. Cabbage usage was significantly associated with goiter.
Endemic goiter is quite prevalent in the study area. Median urinary iodine value of the study samples was found to be far lower than standards. Quality of the salt used by the study population was found to be poor in its iodine content. The use of cabbage (goitrogen) has shown remarkable influence on the development of goiter. Therefore, awareness creation and distribution of iodized salt are highly recommended.
PMCID: PMC3511898  PMID: 23209354
Iodine deficiency disorders; goiter; median urinary iodine; severity; prevalence
7.  Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:1006.
The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate.
A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups.
Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42%) and 180 females (58%). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p < 0.001). Only about 3% of the children had a median UIC less than 50 μg/L. The prevalence of total goiter rate (TGR) among the sample of schoolchildren in Jazan was 11%, with significant variations between rural and urban populations and by gender.
The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI) and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.
PMCID: PMC3533993  PMID: 23167286
Iodine nutrition; Saudi Arabia; Jazan; USI
8.  Education Achievements and Goiter Size Ten Years After Iodized Salt Consuming 
Approximately 2.2 billion (2200 million) of the world population are living in the area with Iodine deficiency (ID), most of them in the developing countries. In IRAN about 2 million are exposed to Iodine deficiency. Most of the complications of ID are not curable, especially brain damage. On the other hand, adding iodine to daily salt is a suitable program for decreasing iodine deficiency. This has been the main aim of IDD National committee since 1986. This study is a before-after preventive trial, and was conducted to determine the effect of iodized salt in preventing the disorders of Iodine deficiency.
This study was a preventive field trial in 2 stages before and after prevention. Since 1995, Iodized salt has been distributed in Tabas in Yazd province. Sample of 2,150 students aged 6-18 years were chosen by stratified cluster random sampling method from 24 schools, 12 schools from rural and 12 from urban areas. Goiter frequency and educational status were determined using WHO criteria and mean scored, respectively.
Prevalence of goiter has decreased from 34 to 25 percent after 10 years (P < 0.001). The prevalence in urban areas has decreased from 35.8 to 23.5 percent and in rural from 35.6 to 28.5 percent (P = 0.02). Prevalence of Goiter has changed from 32.8 to 20 percent and from 39.5 to 31.5 in boys and girls, respectively (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relation between educational status and goiter frequency before and after prevention (P = 0.01). There was also a statistically significant relation between educational status in 2 stages, before and after intervention (P < 0.001).
Although, there are some confounding variables, such as: educational resources development, improved educational methods, and enhanced family emphasis on extracurricular education, increased frequency of students in higher education after intervention shows the iodine effects on mental function.
PMCID: PMC3775163  PMID: 24049612
Educational status; goiter; iodine deficiency; prevention
9.  Effect of Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Malaria in Tanzanian Children: A Randomised Trial 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(11):e1001125.
Hans Verhoef and colleagues report findings from a randomized trial conducted among Tanzanian children at high risk for malaria. Children in the trial received either daily oral supplementation with either zinc alone, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. The investigators did not find evidence from this study that zinc or multi-nutrients protected against malaria episodes.
It is uncertain to what extent oral supplementation with zinc can reduce episodes of malaria in endemic areas. Protection may depend on other nutrients. We measured the effect of supplementation with zinc and other nutrients on malaria rates.
Methods and Findings
In a 2×2 factorial trial, 612 rural Tanzanian children aged 6–60 months in an area with intense malaria transmission and with height-for-age z-score≤−1.5 SD were randomized to receive daily oral supplementation with either zinc alone (10 mg), multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Intervention group was indicated by colour code, but neither participants, researchers, nor field staff knew who received what intervention. Those with Plasmodium infection at baseline were treated with artemether-lumefantrine. The primary outcome, an episode of malaria, was assessed among children reported sick at a primary care clinic, and pre-defined as current Plasmodium infection with an inflammatory response, shown by axillary temperature ≥37.5°C or whole blood C-reactive protein concentration ≥8 mg/L. Nutritional indicators were assessed at baseline and at 251 days (median; 95% reference range: 191–296 days). In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, we adjusted for pre-specified baseline factors, using Cox regression models that accounted for multiple episodes per child. 592 children completed the study. The primary analysis included 1,572 malaria episodes during 526 child-years of observation (median follow-up: 331 days). Malaria incidence in groups receiving zinc, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc and placebo was 2.89/child-year, 2.95/child-year, 3.26/child-year, and 2.87/child-year, respectively. There was no evidence that multi-nutrients influenced the effect of zinc (or vice versa). Neither zinc nor multi-nutrients influenced malaria rates (marginal analysis; adjusted HR, 95% CI: 1.04, 0.93–1.18 and 1.10, 0.97–1.24 respectively). The prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma zinc concentration <9.9 µmol/L) was high at baseline (67% overall; 60% in those without inflammation) and strongly reduced by zinc supplementation.
We found no evidence from this trial that zinc supplementation protected against malaria.
Trial Registration NCT00623857
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Editors' Summary
Malaria is a serious global public-health problem. Half of the world's population is at risk of this parasitic disease, which kills a million people (mainly children living in sub-Saharan Africa) every year. Malaria is transmitted to people through the bites of infected night-flying mosquitoes. Soon after entering the human body, the parasite begins to replicate in red blood cells, bursting out every 2–3 days and infecting more red blood cells. The presence of the parasite in the blood stream (parasitemia) causes malaria's characteristic recurring fever and can cause life-threatening organ damage and anemia (insufficient quantity of red blood cells). Malaria transmission can be reduced by using insecticide sprays to control the mosquitoes that spread the parasite and by avoiding mosquito bites by sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets. Effective treatment with antimalarial drugs can also reduce malaria transmission.
Why Was This Study Done?
One reason why malaria kills so many children in Africa is poverty. Many children in Africa are malnourished, and malnutrition—in particular, insufficient micronutrients in the diet—impairs the immune system, which increases the frequency and severity of many childhood diseases. Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals that everyone needs in small quantities for good health. Zinc is one of the micronutrients that helps to maintain a healthy immune system, but zinc deficiency is very common among African children. Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the burden of diarrhea in developing countries, so might it also reduce the burden of malaria? Unfortunately, the existing evidence is confusing—some trials show that zinc supplementation protects against malaria but others show no evidence of protection. One possibility for these conflicting results could be that zinc supplementation alone is not sufficient—supplementation with other micronutrients might be needed for zinc to have an effect. In this randomized trial (a study that compares the effects of different interventions in groups that initially are similar in all characteristics except for intervention), the researchers investigate the effect of supplementation with zinc alone and in combination with other micronutrients on the rate of uncomplicated (mild) malaria among children living in Tanzania.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers enrolled 612 children aged 6–60 months who were living in a rural area of Tanzania with intense malaria transmission and randomly assigned them to receive daily oral supplements containing zinc alone, multi-nutrients (including iron) without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or a placebo (no micronutrients). Nutritional indicators (including zinc concentrations in blood plasma) were assessed at baseline and 6–10 months after starting the intervention. During the study period, there were 1,572 malaria episodes. The incidence of malaria in all four intervention groups was very similar (about three episodes per child-year), and there was no evidence that multi-nutrients influenced the effect of zinc (or vice versa). Moreover, none of the supplements had any effect on malaria rates when compared to the placebo, even though the occurrence of zinc deficiency was strongly reduced by zinc supplementation. In a secondary analysis in which they analyzed their data by iron status at baseline, the researchers found that multi-nutrient supplementation increased the overall number of malaria episodes in children with iron deficiency by 41%, whereas multi-nutrient supplementation had no effect on the number of malaria episodes among children who were iron-replete at baseline.
What Do These Findings Mean?
In this study, the researchers found no evidence that zinc supplementation protected against malaria among young children living in Tanzania when given alone or in combination with other multi-nutrients. However, the researchers did find some evidence that multi-nutrient supplementation may increase the risk of malaria in children with iron deficiency. Because this finding came out of a secondary analysis of the data, it needs to be confirmed in a trial specifically designed to assess the effect of multi-nutrient supplements on malaria risk in iron-deficient children. Nevertheless, it is a potentially worrying result because, on the basis of evidence from a single study, the World Health Organization currently recommends that regular iron supplements be given to iron-deficient children in settings where there is adequate access to anti-malarial treatment. This recommendation should be reconsidered, suggest the researchers, and the safety of multi-nutrient mixes that contain iron and that are dispensed in countries affected by malaria should also be carefully evaluated.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
Information is available from the World Health Organization on malaria (in several languages), on micronutrients, and on zinc deficiency; the 2010 World Malaria Report provides details of the current global malaria situation
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provide information on malaria (in English and Spanish), including a selection of personal stories about malaria
Information is available from the Roll Back Malaria Partnership on the global control of malaria and on malaria in Africa
The Malaria Centre at the UK London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine develops tools, techniques, and knowledge about malaria, and has a strong emphasis on teaching, training, and translating research outcomes into practice
The Micronutrient Initiative, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, and the Flour Fortification Initiative are not-for-profit organizations dedicated to ensuring that people in developing countries get the minerals and vitamins they need to survive and thrive
The International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (iZiNCG) is a non-profit organization that aims to promote and assist efforts to reduce zinc deficiency worldwide, through advocacy efforts, education, and technical assistance
MedlinePlus provides links to additional information on malaria (in English and Spanish)
PMCID: PMC3222646  PMID: 22131908
10.  Thyroid gland volume of schoolchildren in the North of Iran: Comparison with other studies 
Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD)-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran — Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast — and compare them to WHO normative values.
Materials and Methods:
In a cross-sectional study, 2,522 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years, in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran were selected by multistage random sampling. Data were collected on their age, sex, weight, height, body surface area (BSA), and thyroid gland size by palpation and sonography. The terminal phalange of thumb finger volume was calculated with the same formula used in sonography, for the thyroid gland in 1,085 of these cases.
Goiter prevalence was 64% (1613 cases) by palpation, 76.1% (1228 subjects) grade I and 23.9% (385 cases) grade II. The mean thyroid gland volume in girls was more than boys (3.67 ± 1.89 mL vs 3.41 ± 1.58 mL, P < 0.0001). According to the 1997 WHO thyroid gland volume reference, none of the children had goiter based on BSA and age even in those with grade II goiters (23.9%). In contrast, the median thyroid gland volume in our cases was larger than the 2004 WHO reference. The best single predictor of thyroid gland volume was age (R2 = 0.391, P < 0.0001) followed by BSA (R2 = 0.151, P < 0.0001). There was also a significant difference between thyroid gland and finger volume in all grades of goiter and grade II goiters (3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.59 ± 2.4 mL; P < 0.0001. 4.3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.3 ± 2.5 mL; P < 0.0001).
The WHO standards for thyroid gland volume by sonography may underestimate or overestimate the goiter prevalence in many areas and populations. Finger volume was much larger than thyroid gland volume in even visible goiters.
PMCID: PMC4755094  PMID: 26941811
Goiter; schoolchildren; sonography; thyroid gland volume; ultrasonography
11.  Prevalence of Goitre in Isfahan, Iran, Fifteen Years After Initiation of Universal Salt Iodization 
This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of goitre in Isfahan, a centrally-located city in Iran, 15 years after the initiation of universal salt iodization. In total, 2,523 Isfahani adults (1,275 males, 1,248 females) aged >20 years were selected by multi-stage cluster-sampling method. Goitre rate, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured and compared between the goitrous (n=478) and the non-goitrous (n=2,045) participants. The total goitre rate was 19% (n=478) of the 2,523 adults. The rate of Grade I and II goitre was 12.4% (n=312) and 6.6% (n=166) respectively. The total goitre rate, Grade I and II goitre were more prevalent among women than among men. Hypothyroidism was observed in 6.4% (130/2,045) and 18.6% (89/478) of the non-goitrous and goitrous participants respectively [odds ratio (OR)=3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-4.9, p=0.001]. Hyperthyroidism was present in 0.8% (17/2,045) and 5.2% (29/478) of the non-goitrous and goitrous adults respectively (OR=9.0, 95% CI 4.9-16.6, p=0.001). Hypothyroidism was more prevalent in Grade II than in Grade I goitre and among those without goitre (31.3%, 14.1%, and 6.4% respectively) (p=0.001). Positive TPOAb was observed in 24% (n=50) of the non-goitrous and 33.5% (n=84) of the goitrous subjects (p=0.03). Positive TPOAb was observed in 24.6% (35 of 142) of the Grade I and 45% (49 of 109) of the Grade II goitrous adults (p=0.001). Positive TgAb was observed in 21.6% (n=45) of the non-goitrous and 35.9% (n=90) of the goitrous adults (p=0.001). Positive TgAb was observed in 30.3% (43 of 142) of the Grade I and 43.1% (47 of 109) of the Grade II goitrous adults (p=0.04). The median UIC was 18 μg/dL (range 1-80 μg/dL). It was 17.9 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL in the non-goitrous and goitrous adults respectively. After 15 years of successful universal salt iodization in Isfahan, goitre is still endemic, which may be due to thyroid autoimmunity. However, other environmental or genetic factors may have a role.
PMCID: PMC2965326  PMID: 20824978
Autoimmunity; Cross-sectional studies; Goitre; Hypothyroidism; Hyperthyroidism; Impact studies; Iodine; Iodine deficiency; Iran
12.  Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice 
Thyroid Research  2011;4:10.
Pendred syndrome (PDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range from normal function to overt hypothyroidism. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS) gene. The severity of the goiter has been postulated to depend on the amount of dietary iodine intake. However, direct evidence has not been shown to support this hypothesis. Because Slc26a4-null mice have deafness but do not develop goiter, we fed the mutant mice a control diet or an iodine-deficient diet to evaluate whether iodine deficiency is a causative environmental factor for goiter development in PDS.
We evaluated the thyroid volume in histological sections with the use of three-dimensional reconstitution software, we measured serum levels of total tri-iodothyronine (TT3) and total thyroxine (TT4) levels, and we studied the thyroid gland morphology by transmission electron microscopy.
TT4 levels became low but TT3 levels did not change significantly after eight weeks of an iodine-deficient diet compared to levels in the control diet animals. Even in Slc26a4-null mice fed an iodine-deficient diet, the volume of the thyroid gland did not increase although the size of each epithelial cell increased with a concomitant decrease of thyroid colloidal area.
An iodine-deficient diet did not induce goiter in Slc26a4-null mice, suggesting that other environmental, epigenetic or genetic factors are involved in goiter development in PDS.
PMCID: PMC3141755  PMID: 21689387
13.  Prevalence of Goiter and Urinary Iodine Status in Six-Twelve-Year-Old Rural Primary School Children of Bharuch District, Gujarat, India 
Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) creates major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. The Bharuch district is a known iodine deficiency endemic area. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children; to determine the median urinary iodine concentration; to assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop levels; and to study the profile of salt sold at retail shops.
This study was carried out by using the 30-cluster survey method in the primary schools of the rural areas in Bharuch district. A total of 70 students, including five boys and five girls from the first to seventh classes, who were present in class on the day of the visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each class in each cluster. From each community, a maximum of two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and the salt purchased from those shops was immediately tested for iodine with spot kits.
We found a goiter prevalence of 23.2% (grade 1 – 17.4% and grade 2 – 5.8%). As the age increased, the goiter prevalence decreased except in nine-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 μg/L. An Iodine level > 15 ppm was found in 93% of the salt samples tested at the household level.
The present study showed moderate goiter prevalence in primary school children in the Bharuch district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at some household levels.
PMCID: PMC3278870  PMID: 22355478
Goitre survey; IDD; prevalence; primary school children; household level
14.  Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme Impact in Pregnant Women and Status of Universal Salt Iodization 
Several studies pertaining to current status of Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme in India have revealed goiter prevalence in the range of 1.5–44.5%, mean urinary iodine excretion level ranging from 92.5–160 mcg/L and iodized salt coverage ranging from 37–62.3%. Most of these studies were based on school children. However, very few studies have focused on pregnant women. This population is very sensitive to marginalized iodine deficiency throughout their gestational period.
This 40 cluster cross sectional study was done in Raipur district. Iodine content of salt was estimated by using “Rapid Salt Testing Kits” along with observing salt storage practices, at household and in shops. Pregnant women were interviewed by using semi structured comprehensive questionnaire, which was based on knowledge attitude, and practices about salt use pattern and awareness about IDDCP, UIE level were also estimated.
Prevalence of goiter was 0.17%. Many (41.12%) pregnant women had <15ppm iodine content in the salt sample and 51.58% of women had subnormal iodine uptake. Wrong salt storage practice was observed in 36.3% of households.
There were lacunae in Iodine deficiency control program in Chhattisgarh. Implementation and monitoring of program was weak. Thus for monitoring purpose IDD Cell & IDD Laboratory should be established at district level. This will lead to periodic assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, by monitoring of Iodine intake and all other preventive, promotive as well as curative measures in the state.
PMCID: PMC3481648  PMID: 23113082
Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (IDDCP); Monitoring; Evaluation; Goiter; Universal Salt Iodization (USI); Median Urinary Iodine Excretion (MUIE)
15.  Iodine Deficiency Disorders in the Iodine-Replete Environment 
Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute significant public health problems in parts of the world with poor iodine nutrition, but have been eradicated in North America and other regions. We herein report three cases of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) which occurred in women living in iodine-replete environments.
The clinical presentation, biochemical findings, and radiological features of the patients were analyzed and presented in three case reports. The radiological features are illustrated in sonographic and scintigraphic images. A literature review and discussion which highlight the risk factors, pathogenesis, ancillary investigations and rational treatment of iodine deficiency goiter and hypothyroidism are provided.
All of our three patients were young females, aged 24–38 years, who had goiter. Two of them presented with goitrous hypothyroidism. Radioactive iodine scintigraphy showed a characteristic finding of diffusely increased uptake (in the absence of clinical and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism). This scintigraphic pattern was found to be pathognomonic. Dietary iodine supplementation alone resulted in complete remission of IDD in the subjects, including the two patients with hypothyroidism.
IDD can occur in iodine replete-environments. A high index of suspicion is needed to recognize these cases. It is pertinent that the correct diagnosis be made to avoid unwarranted life-long thyroxine therapy in patients presenting with goiter and hypothyroidism, which is easily treatable with iodized salt. These cases underscore the need for considering iodine deficiency in the etiologic diagnosis of goiter and hypothyroidism, even in iodine sufficient regions.
PMCID: PMC2634852  PMID: 19155752
Iodine deficiency; Goiter; Hypothyroidism; Urinary iodine
16.  Study on Prevalence of lodine Deficiency Disorder and Salt Consumption Patterns in Jammu Region 
Research Question:
What is the situation of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) and salt consumption in Jammu region?
The prevalence of IDD has decreased markedly as a result of medical as well as socio-economic factors.
To assess the magnitude of IDD in Jammu region and also assess the salt consumption patterns in the region.
Cross-sectional study.
Primary schools in both urban and rural areas.
Study Tools:
Clinical examination of study population for goiter, laboratory assessment of casual urine sample for urinary iodine estimation of I2 content of salt samples collected from sub-samples of study population.
School children in the age group of 6-12 years were selected for study using WHO 30-cluster methodology, urine samples were collected from 15% of selected children and salt samples from 5% of sub-sample.
Ethical Concern:
No ethical issues were involved.
An overall goiter prevalence of 11.98% was observed in the region. Females had a prevalence of 16.1% and males 10.1%. The median urinary iodine excretion in the region was 96.5 μg/l (range: 29.0-190.0 μg/l). Forty-nine percent of subjects had biochemical iodine deficiency with 6.7% having moderate and 42.53% mild iodine deficiency. In Jammu region, 74.47% of households consume powdered salt with 98.17% powdered salt samples having an I2 content of greater than 15 ppm.
Iodine deficiency remains a public health problem in the region, though the region seems to be in a state of nutritional transition from iodine deficiency to iodine sufficiency.
PMCID: PMC2782220  PMID: 19966989
Crystalline salt; excretion; goiter; powdered salt; prevalence; urinary iodine
17.  New Zealand Views on Goitre 
Simple goitre is highly prevalent in New Zealand, and there is considerable incidence of toxic goitre. The ætiology of simple goitre seems fairly well established, and an attempt is being made to apply the data from simple goitre to the problems of toxic goitre.
Endemic goitre is of great antiquity among the Maoris, and has been described among Europeans for about fifty years. It occurs in both men and animals. At five years its incidence is similar in boys and girls, later it decreases in boys but increases greatly in girls. It is often hereditary, and many children are born goitrous. In children it is generally small, but may enlarge and cause pressure, myxœdema and toxicity. Its incidence varies greatly in different districts.
The only cause found consistent with this variation in distribution is lack of iodine in the soil. An inverse ratio has been demonstrated between the iodine content of the soil and the incidence of goitre in school children in thirty-three districts. The iodine content of the soil is reflected in the food raised upon it.
The daily iodine intake was estimated at 35 microgrammes in a non-goitrous, and at 20 microgrammes in a goitrous district.
The amount of iodine involved is infinitesimal, and its intake can be ensured by the use of salt for ordinary consumption, which contains four parts per million of potassium iodide.
Toxic goitre is also frequent: in this connexion, the influence of iodine on the thyroid has been investigated. If starved of iodine the thyroid adapts itself either by increasing its colloid or by a diffuse hyperplasia, both may occur in different parts of the same gland. Simple goitre is the response of the healthy thyroid to iodine deficiency, the responding areas may be diffuse or adenomatous, and degenerations may occur. Such goitres may be treated with iodine, in children re-adjustment to the increased intake is readily made, but in adults long accustomed to a low intake, excess often causes too great hormone production, with toxic symptoms, hence the minimal dose alone is permissible in iodized salt.
Goitre stored with iodine at low pressures may become toxic under stress, and this may be precipitated by iodine. The prevalence of toxic goitre may be partly due to the prescription of iodides in therapeutic doses for common ailments.
Diffuse colloid goitre may subside under physiological iodine, the adenomatous is more prone to toxic symptoms and may go on to secondary Graves' disease or to myxœdema. Diffuse hyperplasia is a possible manifestation of iodine deficiency as primary Graves' disease. Lugol's solution probably allows of a temporary storage in this condition. Iodine has certainly some bearing on the problems of toxic goitre.
PMCID: PMC2102294  PMID: 19986504
18.  Iodine nutritional status and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan 
Iodine deficiency affects nearly 1.9 billion people worldwide, but it can be prevented by salt iodization. This cross-sectional survey assessed current iodine status, iodized salt coverage and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan.
Ten primary schools in four districts in South Tajikistan were randomly selected. In schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, a spot urine sample was collected for measurement of urinary iodine, dried blood spots were collected for measurement of thyroglobulin, and goitre was assessed by palpation. Iodine content of salt samples and local selling points was determined by coloration using rapid test kits and titration method.
Of 623 schoolchildren enrolled, complete data was obtained from 589. The overall median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 51.2 μg/L indicating mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Among all children, 46.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 42.4%-50.6%) of children were found to be goitrous (grade 1 goitre: 30.6%, 95% CI = 26.9%-34.5%; grade 2 goitre: 16.0%, 95% CI = 13.1%-19.2%). The risk factor for goitre remaining significant in the multivariable logistic regression model was 'buying salt once a month’ (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.01-8.22) and 'buying salt once every six months’ (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.01-5.04) compared to 'buying salt every one or two weeks’. The overall median thyroglobulin concentration was elevated at 13.9 μg/L. Of the salt samples from households and selling points, one third were adequately iodised, one third insufficiently and one third were not iodised.
Iodine deficiency remains a serious health issue among children in southern Tajikistan. There is a persisting high prevalence of goitre, elevated thyroglobulin and low UIC despite interventions implemented by Tajikistan and international partners. Quality control of salt iodine content needs to be improved. Continued efforts to raise awareness of the health effects of iodine deficiency are needed to increase consumer demand for iodised salt.
PMCID: PMC4175091  PMID: 24180470
Iodine status; Goitre; Risk factors for goitre; Urinary iodine concentration; Thyroglobulin concentration; Salt iodization; Schoolchildren; Tajikistan
19.  Evaluation Profile of Thyroid Nodule by Fnac in the Rural Population of Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat, Haryana 
Background: Thyroid disease is most common endocrine disorder and is different from other endocrine diseases because of its visible swelling and ease of diagnosis. If left untreated, thyroid disease makes a person more prone for heart disease, infertility and osteoporosis. In India, significant burden of thyroid diseases exist with an estimation of around 42 million cases. The thyroid status and autoimmune status of adult Indian population in the post iodinization phase is largely unknown.
Aim: The main objective of this study was to generate valuable epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of thyroid disorders in rural population of Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat in the post-iodinisation era in India. To assess whether thyroid autoimmunity or goitrogens along with environmental factors play role in the development of thyroid.This paper is being presented in view that no such study has been carried out in the rural population of this region in Haryana.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in Department of Pathology, Bhagat Phool Singh Medical College for Women, Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat between August 2011 to July 2013. It included retrospective analysis of cytomorphology of fine needle aspiration cytology material of 206 patients presenting with thyroid nodule in the Department of Pathology.
Results: The commonest age group affected was 31-40 yrs. The female patients (93.4%) outnumbered the male patients (6.6%).The cytomorphological analysis of 206 patients revealed 190 cases (92.2%) of neoplastic lesions, 10 cases (4.8%) were neoplastic and 6 cases (2.9%) had indeterminate cytomorphology. Maximum number (65.5%) of patients was suffering with goiter followed by lymphocytic thyroiditis (26.2%). Amongst the malignant cases three cases were of papillary carcinoma and one case of medullary carcinoma. Two out of the six cases of follicular neoplasm proved to be follicular adenoma on histopathology. Four patients with high T3 levels were under treatment with neomercazole. They showed change in cytomorphology from hyperplasia to colloid goiter. Only one case of acute suppurative thyroiditis was reported which shows rarity of its type.
Conclusion: The increased prevalence of goiter in this post iodinisation era can be attributed to goitrogens, autoimmune thyroid disease and micronutrient deficiency of iron and selenium. Higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in females is linked with both genetic and environmental factors such as infection, stress.
PMCID: PMC4253166  PMID: 25478348
Autoimmune thyroiditis; Goiter; Post iodinisation; Thyroid
20.  Prevalence and associated factors of goiter among rural children aged 6-12 years old in Northwest Ethiopia, cross -sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:130.
Goiter, an indicator of chronic iodine deficiency, is a major public health problem for populations living with iodine deficient environment, particularly for young children. It is a threat to the social and economic development of many developing countries including Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of goiter among rural children aged 6-12 years, Northwest Ethiopia.
A community based cross-sectional study was employed from July to December 2012 in Lay Armachiho district. A total of 698 children aged 6-12 years were included in the study. Multistage sampling was used. Children were examined for the presence/absence of goiter using a criterion set by World Health Organization. The level of Iodine of the salt was estimated by using spot testing kits. Descriptive and summary statistics were employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. The degree of association was assessed by using Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were computed to see the presence and strength of association.
Totally 694 children were included in the analysis. The prevalence of goiter was found to be 37.6%. Goiter of grade 1 was 28.5% and that of grade 2 was 9.1%. 29.7% of the samples had adequate iodine content. The age of child (AOR: 1.24,95% CI: 1.12, 1.36), being female (AOR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.38-2.85), salt iodine level (AOR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.71), family history of goiter (AOR = 3.18, 95% CI: 2.08, 4.858), fish consumption (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI; 0.22, 0.80) were factors associated with goiter.
Chronic iodine deficiency was a severe public health problem in the study communities. Ensuring the consumption of iodized salt and promotion of fish intake at the household level are highly recommended.
PMCID: PMC3996147  PMID: 24502377
Goiter; Iodine deficiency; Children; Ethiopia
21.  The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders Among School Children in Metekel Zone, Northwest Ethiopia 
Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone.
A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 and July 2012. One school containing 750 children aged between 6 and 18 years was randomly selected. Two hundred students from this school were selected by systematic random sampling. Physical examination was made according to WHO goiter classification system; 50 salt samples from households to which the sampled children belonged were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits and titration; a casual urine sample (5 ml) was taken from 30 children to measure urinary iodine spectrophotometrically, and 5 ml venous blood sample were collected from 37 children to measure thyroid relevant blood constituents using ELISA.
The total goiter prevalence was 39.5%; 60% of the salt samples contained no iodine. The median urinary iodine concentration ranged from 20.54 – 62.2 (39.9 µg/L). School children who were assessed for thyroid hormones showed 18.92% elevated and 27.03% suppressed TSH levels.
The study demonstrated that iodine deficiency is still a severe public health problem in Metekel Zone. There is a need to further strengthen the existing controlling and monitoring system in order to achieve proper elimination of IDDs in the community.
PMCID: PMC4006204  PMID: 24795511
Iodine deficiency disorder; iodized salt; urinary iodine concentration; thyroid functions
22.  Stunting, Poor Iron Status and Parasite Infection Are Significant Risk Factors for Lower Cognitive Performance in Cambodian School-Aged Children 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e112605.
Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development.
To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine) of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance.
School children aged 6–16 y (n = 2443) from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616). Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III).
The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (−1.46, p<0.05). In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (−0.81; p = 0.067) or without anemia (−0.49; p = 0.064). Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05), and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05).
Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and significantly associated with long-term (stunting) and current nutritional status indicators (iron status), as well as parasite infection. A life-cycle approach with programs to improve nutrition in early life and at school-age could contribute to optimal cognitive performance.
PMCID: PMC4236074  PMID: 25405764
23.  Urinary Iodine and Goiter Prevalence in Belarus: Experience of the Belarus–American Cohort Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases Following the Chornobyl Nuclear Accident 
Thyroid  2011;21(4):429-437.
Because iodine deficiency can influence background rates of thyroid disease or modify radiation dose–response relationships, we compiled descriptive data on iodine status among participants in a Belarusian–American screening study who were exposed in childhood to radioiodine fallout from the Chornobyl nuclear accident. We have used the data from two consecutive screening cycles to examine whether indicators of iodine status changed before and after documented government initiatives to improve iodine intake.
Urinary iodine concentrations in spot samples and prevalence of diffuse goiter by palpation were assessed in 11,676 exposed subjects who were 18 years or younger at the time of the accident on April 26, 1986, and were screened beginning 11 years later in connection with the Belarus–American Thyroid Study. Data for the first (January 1997–March 2001) and second (April 2001–December 2004) screening cycles, which largely correspond to time periods before and after official iodination efforts in 2000/2001, were compared for the cohort overall as well as by oblast of residence (i.e., state) and type of residency (urban/rural).
Median urine iodine levels among cohort members increased significantly in the later period (111.5 μg/L) compared to the earlier (65.3 μg/L), with the cycle 2 level in the range defined as adequate iodine intake by the World Health Organization. During the same period, a significant decline in diffuse goiter prevalence was also observed. In both cycles, urinary iodine levels were lower in rural than in urban residents. Urinary iodine levels, but not rates of goiter, varied by oblast of residence. In both periods, adjusted median urine iodine concentrations were similar in Gomel and Minsk oblasts, where ∼89% of cohort members resided, and were lowest in Mogilev oblast. Yet Mogilev oblast and rural areas showed the most marked increases over time.
Trends in urinary iodine concentrations and prevalence of diffuse goiter by palpation suggest that iodination efforts in Belarus were successful, with benefits extending to the most iodine-deficient populations. Iodine status should be considered when evaluating thyroid disease risk in radioiodine-exposed populations since it can change over time and may influence rates of disease and, possibly, dose–response relationships.
PMCID: PMC3070334  PMID: 21323597
24.  Low Goiter Rate Associated with Small Average Thyroid Volume in Schoolchildren after the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(10):e0141552.
After the implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI) program in 1996, seven cross-sectional school-based surveys have been conducted to monitor iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) among children in eastern China.
This study aimed to examine the correlation of total goiter rate (TGR) with average thyroid volume (Tvol) and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in Jiangsu province after IDD elimination.
Probability-proportional-to-size sampling was applied to select 1,200 children aged 8–10 years old in 30 clusters for each survey in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2011. We measured Tvol using ultrasonography in 8,314 children and measured UIC (4,767 subjects) and salt iodine (10,184 samples) using methods recommended by the World Health Organization. Tvol was used to calculate TGR based on the reference criteria specified for sex and body surface area (BSA).
TGR decreased from 55.2% in 1997 to 1.0% in 2009, and geometric means of Tvol decreased from 3.63 mL to 1.33 mL, along with the UIC increasing from 83 μg/L in 1995 to 407 μg/L in 1999, then decreasing to 243 μg/L in 2005, and then increasing to 345 μg/L in 2011. In the low goiter population (TGR < 3.9%), TGR was positively associated with average Tvol (r = 0.99); UIC showed a non-linear association with average Tvol, and UIC > 300 μg/L was associated with a smaller average Tvol in children.
After IDD elimination in Jiangsu province in 2001, lower TGR was associated with smaller average Tvol. Average Tvol was more sensitive than TGR in detecting the fluctuation of UIC. A UIC of 300 μg/L may be defined as a critical value for population level iodine status monitoring.
PMCID: PMC4626397  PMID: 26513146
25.  Turmeric use is associated with reduced goitrogenesis: Thyroid disorder prevalence in Pakistan (THYPAK) study 
South Asian population has a particularly high prevalence of thyroid disorders mainly due to iodine deficiency and goitrogen use. There is no data available for prevalence of thyroid disorders in the general population living in nonmountainous regions of Pakistan.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 2335 residents of Pak Pattan, Punjab, Pakistan were interviewed about demographic, dietary, medical and environmental history as well as screened for goiter. Individuals of all ages and either gender were included.
Median age was 34 (10–88) years and 1164 (49.9%) were males. Median monthly income was 49 (3.9–137) USD. Six hundred and sixty-nine (28.7%) subjects had palpable goiter. 77.5% (n = 462) and 22.5% (n = 133) had World Health Organization Grade I and Grade II goiters respectively, further screened by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In subjects with TSH <0.4 mg/dL, free T3 and free T4 levels were measured. In 185 goiter subjects when TSH was measured, 50% (n = 93) were euthyroid, 48% (n = 89) were hyperthyroid, and one subject each was hypothyroid and subclinically hyperthyroid. 29/89 hyperthyroid subjects underwent radionuclide scanning. Twelve subjects had heterogeneous uptake consistent with multinodular goiter, 12 subjects had diffuse uptake, two had cold nodules and two had hyperfunctioning single nodules. Goiter was significantly more common among females, unmarried individuals and individuals drinking tube well (subterranean) water. Goiter was less common among those who consumed daily milk, daily ghee (hydrogenated oil), spices, chilies, and turmeric.
In our study population, goiter was endemic with very high prevalence of hyperthyroidism. Turmeric use was association with reduced goitrogenesis. Further studies to assess iodine sufficiency, thiocyanate exposure and autoimmunity need to be conducted. Masses consuming high goitrogen diets should be educated to incorporate turmeric, spices and green chilies in their cooking recipes, to reduce the risk of goiter development. In addition, use of iodized salt in their daily diet cannot be overemphasized.
PMCID: PMC4366771  PMID: 25932388
Goiter; Pakistan; iodine deficiency; turmeric; goitrogens

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