To determine predictive factors of mortality among children after isolated traumatic brain injury.
Materials and Methods:
In this retrospective study, we included all consecutive children with isolated traumatic brain injury admitted to the 22-bed intensive care unit (ICU) of Habib Bourguiba University Hospital (Sfax, Tunisia). Basic demographic, clinical, biochemical, and radiological data were recorded on admission and during ICU stay.
There were 276 patients with 196 boys (71%) and 80 girls, with a mean age of 6.7 ± 3.8 years. The main cause of trauma was road traffic accident (58.3%). Mean Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 ± 2, Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 23.3 ± 5.9, Mean Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) was 4.8 ± 2.3, and Mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) was 10.8 ± 8. A total of 259 children required mechanical ventilation. Forty-eight children (17.4%) died. Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with a poor prognosis were PRISM > 24 (OR: 10.98), neurovegetative disorder (OR: 7.1), meningeal hemorrhage (OR: 2.74), and lesion type VI according to Marshall tomographic grading (OR: 13.26).
In Tunisia, head injury is a frequent cause of hospital admission and is most often due to road traffic injuries. Short-term prognosis is influenced by demographic, clinical, radiological, and biochemical factors. The need to put preventive measures in place is underscored.
Acute head injury; children; intensive care unit; motor-vehicle crash; prognosis; trauma
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been increasing with greater incidence of injuries from traffic or sporting accidents. Although there are a number of animal models of TBI using progesterone for head injury, the effects of progesterone on neurologic outcome of acute TBI patients remain unclear. The aim of the present clinical study was to assess the longer-term efficacy of progesterone on the improvement in neurologic outcome of patients with acute severe TBI.
A total of 159 patients who arrived within 8 hours of injury with a Glasgow Coma Score ≤ 8 were enrolled in the study. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of progesterone was conducted in the Neurotrauma Center of our teaching hospital. The patients were randomized to receive either progesterone or placebo. The primary endpoint was the Glasgow Outcome Scale score 3 months after brain injury. Secondary efficacy endpoints included the modified Functional Independence Measure score and mortality. In a follow-up protocol at 6 months, the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the modified Functional Independence Measure scores were again determined.
Of the 159 patients randomized, 82 received progesterone and 77 received placebo. The demographic characteristics, the mechanism of injury, and the time of treatment were compared for the two groups. After 3 months and 6 months of treatment, the dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale score analysis exhibited more favorable outcomes among the patients who were given progesterone compared with the control individuals (P = 0.034 and P = 0.048, respectively). The modified Functional Independence Measure scores in the progesterone group were higher than those in the placebo group at both 3-month and 6-month follow-up (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). The mortality rate of the progesterone group was significantly lower than that of the placebo group at 6-month follow-up (P < 0.05). The mean intracranial pressure values 72 hours and 7 days after injury were lower in the progesterone group than in the placebo group, but there was no statistical significance between the two groups (P > 0.05). Instances of complications and adverse events associated with the administration of progesterone were not found.
Our data suggest that acute severe TBI patients with administration of progesterone hold improved neurologic outcomes for up to 6 months. These results provide information important for further large and multicenter clinical trials on progesterone as a promising neuroprotective drug.
To analyze the management of pediatric trauma and the efficacy of the Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) in classifying injury severity and predicting prognosis.
A retrospective case series.
The Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, a major pediatric trauma centre.
One hundred and forty-nine traumatized children with 2 or more injuries to 1 body system or a single injury to 2 or more body systems.
Use of the PTS and Glasgow Coma Scale score in trauma management.
Main outcome measures
Types of injuries sustained, complications, missed injuries, psychosocial effects and residual deficiencies.
The average PTS was 8.5 (range from −3 to 11). The total number of injuries sustained was 494, most commonly closed head injury (86). Forty-two percent of children with an average trauma score of 8.5 were treated surgically. There were 13 missed injuries, and complications were encountered in 57 children, the most common being secondary to fractures. Forty-eight (32%) children had residual long-term deficiency, most commonly neurologic deficiency secondary to head injury.
Fractures should be stabilized early to decrease long-term complications. A deficiency of the PTS is the weighting of open fractures of a minor bone. For example, metacarpal fracture is given the same weight as an open fracture of the femur. Neuropsychologic difficulties secondary to trauma are a major sequela of trauma in children.
Despite the integral role played by tracheostomy in the management of trauma patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), its timing remains subject to considerable practice variation. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of early tracheostomy on the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay, and outcomes in trauma ICU patients.
The following data were obtained from a prospective ICU database containing information on all trauma patients who received tracheostomy over a 5-year period: demographics, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Glasgow Coma Scale score, Injury Severity Score, type of injuries, ICU and hospital outcomes, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), and the type of tracheostomy procedure (percutaneous versus surgical). Tracheostomy was considered early if it was performed by day 7 of mechanical ventilation. We compared the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU LOS and outcome between early and late tracheostomy patients. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the impact of tracheostomy timing on ICU stay.
Of 653 trauma ICU patients, 136 (21%) required tracheostomies, 29 of whom were early and 107 were late. Age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and Injury Severity Score were not different between the two groups. Patients with early tracheostomy were more likely to have maxillofacial injuries and to have lower Glasgow Coma Scale score. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter with early tracheostomy (mean ± standard error: 9.6 ± 1.2 days versus 18.7 ± 1.3 days; P < 0.0001). Similarly, ICU LOS was significantly shorter (10.9 ± 1.2 days versus 21.0 ± 1.3 days; P < 0.0001). Following tracheostomy, patients were discharged from the ICU after comparable periods in both groups (4.9 ± 1.2 days versus 4.9 ± 1.1 days; not significant). ICU and hospital mortality rates were similar. Using multivariate analysis, late tracheostomy was an independent predictor of prolonged ICU stay (>14 days).
Early tracheostomy in trauma ICU patients is associated with shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU LOS, without affecting ICU or hospital outcome. Adopting a standardized strategy of early tracheostomy in appropriately selected patients may help in reducing unnecessary resource utilization.
intensive care; mechanical ventilation; resource utilization; Saudi Arabia; trauma; tracheostomy; weaning
One of the hallmarks of modern medicine is the improving management of chronic health conditions. Long-term control of chronic disease entails increasing utilization of multiple medications and resultant polypharmacy. The goal of this study is to improve our understanding of the impact of polypharmacy on outcomes in trauma patients 45 years and older.
Materials and Methods:
Patients of age ≥45 years were identified from a Level I trauma center institutional registry. Detailed review of patient records included the following variables: Home medications, comorbid conditions, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS), morbidity, mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, functional outcome measures (FOM), and discharge destination. Polypharmacy was defined by the number of medications: 0–4 (minor), 5–9 (major), or ≥10 (severe). Age- and ISS-adjusted analysis of variance and multivariate analyses were performed for these groups. Comorbidity–polypharmacy score (CPS) was defined as the number of pre-admission medications plus comorbidities. Statistical significance was set at alpha = 0.05.
A total of 323 patients were examined (mean age 62.3 years, 56.1% males, median ISS 9). Study patients were using an average of 4.74 pre-injury medications, with the number of medications per patient increasing from 3.39 for the 45–54 years age group to 5.68 for the 75+ year age group. Age- and ISS-adjusted mortality was similar in the three polypharmacy groups. In multivariate analysis only age and ISS were independently predictive of mortality. Increasing polypharmacy was associated with more comorbidities, lower arrival GCS, more complications, and lower FOM scores for self-feeding and expression-communication. In addition, hospital and ICU LOS were longer for patients with severe polypharmacy. Multivariate analysis shows age, female gender, total number of injuries, number of complications, and CPS are independently associated with discharge to a facility (all, P < 0.02).
Over 40% of trauma patients 45 years and older were receiving 5 or more medications at the time of their injury. Although these patients do not appear to have higher mortality, they are at increased risk for complications, lower functional outcomes, and longer hospital and intensive care stays. CPS may be useful when quantifying the severity of associated comorbid conditions in the context of traumatic injury and warrants further investigation.
Comorbid conditions; outcome prediction; polypharmacy; trauma outcomes
The relationship between severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blood levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) or cellular fibronectin (c-Fn) has never been reported. In this study, we aimed to assess whether plasma concentrations of MMP-9 and c-Fn could have predictive values for the composite endpoint of intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) of survivors and mortality after severe TBI. Secondary outcomes were the state of consciousness measured with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of survivors at 14 days and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) at 3 months.
Forty-nine patients with abbreviated injury scores of the head region ≥ 4 were included. Blood was sampled at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after injury. MMP-9 and c-Fn concentrations were measured by ELISA. The values of MMP-9 and c-Fn, and, for comparison, the value of the GCS on the field of the accident (fGCS), as predictors of the composite outcome of ICU LOS and death were assessed by logistic regression.
There was a linear relationship between maximal MMP-9 concentration, measured during the 6-12-hour period, and maximal c-Fn concentration, measured during the 24-48-hour period. The risk of staying longer than 9 days in the ICU or of dying was increased in patients with a maximal early MMP-9 concentration ≥ 21.6 ng/ml (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 1.3 to 18.6; p = 0.02) or with a maximal late c-Fn concentration ≥ 7.7 μg/ml (OR = 5.4; 95% CI: 1.4 to 20.8; p = 0.01). A similar risk association was observed with fGCS ≤8 (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.2-15.8; p = 0.02). No relationship was observed between MMP-9, c-Fn concentrations or fGCS and the GCS at 14 days of survivors and GOSE at 3 months.
Plasma MMP-9 and c-Fn concentrations in the first 48 hours after injury are predictive for the composite endpoint of ICU LOS and death after severe TBI but not for consciousness at 14 days and outcome at 3 months.
Head injury; Prediction; Outcome; Plasmatic biomarker
Trauma is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in people younger than 45 years and head injury is mostly highly weighted predictor of outcome in trauma population, anything than can improve the outcome from severe head injury has the potential of improving the lives of many accident victims.
A study regarding factors influencing outcome of traumatic brain injury patients was conducted at a tertiary care hospital of Srinagar (India). The basic predictors in this study included age, sex, rural/urban, time taken from site of trauma to arrival at hospital, mode of transportation, referral from other hospitals, referral to other hospitals, and Glasgow Coma Scale.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients (n 547) were taken prospectively by simple random sampling method for a period of one year (2004) for this study.
Majority of patients belonged to age group 0 to 10 years (25.5%) and a maximum death (8) were seen in age group 51 to 60 years. Maximum number of patients were males (75.9%) and (71.1%) TBI patients were from rural areas. (26.7%) reached this hospital within a period of one hour. (66%) were shifted through ambulance service. 6.4% expired after treatment.
Factors responsible for improved outcome in severe head injury patients are improvement in early recognition, resuscitation and triage, coupled with prompt computed tomography (CT) scanning and aggressive surgical management.
This report describes the case mix and outcome (mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay) for admissions to ICU for head injury and evaluates the predictive ability of five risk adjustment models.
A secondary analysis was conducted of data from the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme, a high quality clinical database, of 374,594 admissions to 171 adult critical care units across England, Wales and Northern Ireland from 1995 to 2005. The discrimination and calibration of five risk prediction models, SAPS II, MPM II, APACHE II and III and the ICNARC model plus raw Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were compared.
There were 11,021 admissions following traumatic brain injury identified (3% of all database admissions). Mortality in ICU was 23.5% and in-hospital was 33.5%. Median ICU and hospital lengths of stay were 3.2 and 24 days, respectively, for survivors and 1.6 and 3 days, respectively, for non-survivors. The ICNARC model, SAPS II and MPM II discriminated best between survivors and non-survivors and were better calibrated than raw GCS, APACHE II and III in 5,393 patients eligible for all models.
Traumatic brain injury requiring intensive care has a high mortality rate. Non-survivors have a short length of ICU and hospital stay. APACHE II and III have poorer calibration and discrimination than SAPS II, MPM II and the ICNARC model in traumatic brain injury; however, no model had perfect calibration.
To analyse the association between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and the 1-year outcome of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data.
Between 01/2001 and 12/2005, 13 European centres enrolled 1,172 patients with severe TBI. Data on accident, treatment and outcomes were collected. According to the GCS score at ICU discharge, survivors were classified into four groups: GCS scores 3–6, 7–9, 10–12 and 13–15. Using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), 1-year outcomes were classified as “favourable” (scores 5, 4) or “unfavourable” (scores <4). Factors that may have contributed to outcomes were compared between groups and for favourable versus unfavourable outcomes within each group.
Of the 538 patients analysed, 308 (57 %) had GCS scores 13–15, 101 (19 %) had scores 10–12, 46 (9 %) had scores 7–9 and 83 (15 %) had scores 3–6 at ICU discharge. Factors significantly associated with these GCS scores included age, severity of trauma, neurological status (GCS, pupils) at admission and patency of the basal cisterns on the first computed tomography (CT) scan. Favourable outcome was achieved in 74 % of all patients; the rates were significantly different between GCS groups (93, 83, 37 and 10 %, respectively). Within each of the GCS groups, significant differences regarding age and trauma severity were found between patients with favourable versus unfavourable outcomes; neurological status at admission and CT findings were not relevant.
The GCS score at ICU discharge is a good predictor of 1-year outcome. Patients with a GCS score <10 at ICU discharge have a poor chance of favourable outcome.
Traumatic brain injury; Severe; Glasgow Coma Scale score; Glasgow Outcome Scale score; Long-term outcomes
determine the prognostic value of characteristics of acute injury and
duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) for long term outcome in
patients with mild to moderate head injury in terms of complaints and
return to work.
a Glasgow coma score (GCS) on admission of 9-14 were included.
Post-traumatic amnesia was assessed prospectively. Follow up was
performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Outcome was
determined by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) 1 year after injury and
compared with a more detailed outcome scale (DOS) comprising cognitive
and neurobehavioural aspects.
patients were included, mean age 33.2 (SD 14.7) years and mean PTA 7.8 (SD 7.3) days. One year after injury, 73% of patients had resumed
previous work although most (84%) still reported complaints. The most
frequent complaints were headache (32%), irritability (34%),
forgetfulness and poor concentration (42%), and fatigue (45%).
According to the GOS good recovery (82%) or moderate disability (18%)
was seen. Application of the DOS showed more cognitive (40%) and
behavioural problems (48%), interfering with return to work.
Correlation between the GOS and DOS was high (r=0.87, p<0.01). Outcome correlated with
duration of PTA (r=−0.46) but not
significantly with GCS on admission
(r=0.19). In multiple regression analysis,
PTA and the number of complaints 3 months after injury explained 49%
of variance on outcome as assessed with the GOS, and 60% with the DOS.
CONCLUSIONS—In mild to
moderate head injury outcome is determined by duration of PTA and not
by GCS on admission. Most patients return to work despite having
complaints. The application of a more detailed outcome scale will
increase accuracy in predicting outcome in this category of patients
with head injury.
The purpose of the present study was to determine (1) the prevalence and degree of hypothermia in patients on emergency department admission and (2) the effect of hypothermia and rate of rewarming on patient outcomes.
Secondary data analysis was conducted on patients admitted to a level I trauma center following severe traumatic brain injury (n = 147). Patients were grouped according to temperature on admission according to hypothermia status and rate of rewarming (rapid or slow). Regression analyses were performed.
Hypothermic patients were more likely to have lower postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale scores and a higher initial injury severity score. Hypothermia on admission was correlated with longer intensive care unit stays, a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score at discharge, higher mortality rate, and lower Glasgow outcome score–extended scores up to 6 months postinjury (P < .05). When controlling for other factors, rewarming rates more than 0.25°C/h were associated with lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores at discharge, longer intensive care unit length of stay, and higher mortality rate than patients rewarmed more slowly although these did not reach statistical significance.
Hypothermia on admission is correlated with worse outcomes in brain-injured patients. Patients with traumatic brain injury who are rapidly rewarmed may be more likely to have worse outcomes. Trauma protocols may need to be reexamined to include controlled rewarming at rates 0.25°C/h or less.
Complications; Function; Head injury; Length of stay; Mortality
Cerebral oedema is associated with significant neurological damage in patients with traumatic brain injury. Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator that may contribute to cerebral oedema by increasing the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the non-peptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Anatibant in the treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury. During the course of the trial, funding was withdrawn by the sponsor.
Adults with traumatic brain injury and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or less, who had a CT scan showing an intracranial abnormality consistent with trauma, and were within eight hours of their injury were randomly allocated to low, medium or high dose Anatibant or to placebo. Outcomes were Serious Adverse Events (SAE), mortality 15 days following injury and in-hospital morbidity assessed by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) and a modified version of the Oxford Handicap Scale (HIREOS).
228 patients out of a planned sample size of 400 patients were randomised. The risk of experiencing one or more SAEs was 26.4% (43/163) in the combined Anatibant treated group, compared to 19.3% (11/57) in the placebo group (relative risk = 1.37; 95% CI 0·76 to 2·46). All cause mortality in the Anatibant treated group was 19% and in the placebo group 15.8% (relative risk 1.20, 95% CI 0.61 to 2.36). The mean GCS at discharge was 12.48 in the Anatibant treated group and 13.0 in the placebo group. Mean DRS was 11.18 Anatibant versus 9.73 placebo, and mean HIREOS was 3.94 Anatibant versus 3.54 placebo. The differences between the mean levels for GCS, DRS and HIREOS in the Anatibant and placebo groups, when adjusted for baseline GCS, showed a non-significant trend for worse outcomes in all three measures.
This trial did not reach the planned sample size of 400 patients and consequently, the study power to detect an increase in the risk of serious adverse events was reduced. This trial provides no reliable evidence of benefit or harm and a larger trial would be needed to establish safety and effectiveness.
This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN23625128.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prophylactic anticoagulation on the incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in patients suffering from isolated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective matched case-control study in adult patients sustaining isolated severe TBI (head AIS ≥3, with extracranial AIS ≤2) receiving VTE prophylaxis while in the surgical intensive care unit from 1/2007 through 12/2009. Patients subjected to VTE prophylaxis were matched 1:1 by age, gender, glasgow coma scale (GCS) score at admission, presence of hypotension on admission, injury severity score, and head abbreviated injury scale (AIS) score, with patients who did not receive chemical VTE prophylaxis. The primary outcome measure was VTE. Secondary outcomes were SICU and hospital length of stay (HLOS), adverse effects of anticoagulation, and mortality.
After propensity matching, 37 matched pairs were analysed. Cases and controls had similar demographics, injury characteristics, rate of craniotomies/craniectomies, SICU LOS, and HLOS. The median time of commencement of VTE prophylaxis was 10 days. The incidence of VTE was increased 3.5-fold in the controls compared to the cases (95% CI 1.0-12.1, P=0.002). The mortality was higher in patients who did not receive anticoagulation (19% vs. 5%, P=0.001). No adverse outcomes were detected in the anticoagulated patients.
Prophylactic anticoagulation decreases the overall risk for clinically significant VTE in patients with severe isolated TBI. Prospective validation of the timing and safety of chemical VTE prophylaxis in these instances is warranted.
Anticoagulation; isolated severe head injury; mortality; traumatic brain injury; venous thromboembolic event
Retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele after atlanto-occipital dislocation is a rare complication, with only five cases described in the literature. It develops when a traumatic dural tear occurs allowing cerebrospinal fluid outflow, and it often appears associated with hydrocephalus. We present a case of a 29-year-old female who suffered a motor vehicle accident causing severe brain trauma and spinal cord injury. At hospital arrival the patient scored three points in the Glasgow Coma Scale. Admission computed tomography of the head and neck demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage and atlanto-occipital dislocation. Three weeks later, when impossibility to disconnect her from mechanical ventilation was noticed, a magnetic resonance imaging of the neck showed a large retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele. No radiological evidence of hydrocephalus was documented. Given the poor neurological status of the patient, with spastic quadriplegia and disability to breathe spontaneously due to bulbar-medullar injury, no invasive measure was performed to treat the pseudomeningocele. Retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele after atlanto-occipital dislocation should be managed by means of radiological brain study in order to assess for the presence of hydrocephalus, since these two pathologies often appear associated. If allowed by neurological condition of the patient, shunting procedures such as ventriculo-peritoneal or lumbo-peritoneal shunt placement may be helpful for the treatment of the pseudomeningocele, regardless of craniocervical junction management.
Atlanto-occipital dislocation; Pseudomeningocele; Retropharyngeal; Spinal cord injury
The objective was to assess functional outcome of rehabilitation in chronic severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in-patients.
The study was performed at university tertiary research hospital.
A prospective cross-sectional study
Materials and Methods:
Forty patients (34 men) with mean age of 30.1 years (range 6--60, SD 10.8), severe TBI (Glasgow coma scale 3--8, duration of coma > 6 hours, post-traumatic amnesia> 1 day postinjury) were admitted in rehabilitation unit minimum 3 months (mean 7.7±4.6 months, range 3--22 months) following injury falling in Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) of 3. Functional recovery was assessed using the Barthel Index (BI) score and disability rating scores (DRS).
Paired Student's t-test was used for the assessment of functional recovery using mean BI scores at admission and discharge. The Wilcoxon nonparametric test was used for the assessment of functional recovery by comparing admission and discharge DRS scores.
Mean duration of stay was 30.8 days (range 18--91, SD15.6). Significant functional recovery observed in patients comparing BI and DRS scores at admission and discharge (mean BI admission 50.5±25.4, range 0--85 vs. mean discharge BI score 61.1±25.3, range 0--95, P<0.001, mean DRS admission score 7.57±4.1, range 2.5--21.0 vs. mean discharge DRS score 6.36±4.3, range 1.0-21.0, P<0.001).
Patients with severe TBI continue to show functional recovery even in chronic phase with rehabilitation. They are left with significant residual physical and cognitive deficits and would require long-term care and assistance from care givers for the daily activities, as suggested by the mean DRS score at discharge.
Functional outcome; inpatient rehabilitation; severe traumatic brain injury
Traumatic epidural hematomas (EDHs) in children are a relatively unusual occurrence. The cause and outcome vary depending on period and region of study. The aims of this analysis were to review the cause and outcome of pediatric EDHs nowadays and to discuss outcome-related variables in a large consecutive series of surgically treated EDH in children.
This is a retrospective review of 29 patients with surgically treated EDHs between Jan 2000 and February 2010. Patients' medical records, computed tomographic (CT) scans, and, if performed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reviewed to define variables associated with outcome. Variables included in the analysis were age, associated severe extracranial injury, abnormal pupillary response, hematoma thickness, severity of head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score), parenchymal brain injury, and diffuse axonal injury.
The mean (SD) age of the patients was 109 months (0-185 months). Most of the injuries with EDHs occurred in traffic accident (14 cases, 48.2%) and followed by slip down in 6 cases and falls in 6 cases. There were one birth injury and one unknown cause. EDHs in traffic accidents occurred in pedestrians hit by a motor vehicle, 9 cases; motorbike and car accidents, 5 cases and bicycle accidents, 1 case. The locations of hematoma were almost same in both sides (left side in 15 cases). Temporal lobe is the most common site of hematomas (13 cases, 44%). The mean size of the EDHs was 18 mm (range, 5-40 mm). Heterogeneous hematomas in CT scans were 20 cases (67%). Two patients were referred with unilateral or bilateral dilated pupil(s). There was enlargement of EDH in 5 patients (17%). All of them were heterogeneous hematomas in CT scans. Except for 4 patients, all EDHs were associated with skull fracture(s) (87%). There was no case of patient with major organ injury. CT or MRI revealed brain contusion in 5 patients, and diffuse axonal injury in one patient. The mortality was zero, and the outcomes were excellent in 26 and good in 2 patients. None of the tested variables were found to have a prognostic relevance.
Regardless of the EDH size, the clinical status of the patients, the abnormal pupillary findings, or the cause of injury, the outcome and prognosis of the patients with EDH were excellent.
Traumatic epidural hematomas (EDHs); Children; Cause; Outcome
To examine the influence of definition and location (field, emergency department [ED] or Pediatric Intensive Care Unit [PICU]) of hypotension on outcome following severe pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).
Retrospective Cohort study.
Harborview Medical Center (level I pediatric trauma center), Seattle, WA over a 5 year period between 1998–2003.
93 children < 14 years of age with TBI following injury, head abbreviated injury score (AIS) ≥ 3, and PICU admission Glasgow Coma Sale (GCS) score < 9 formed the analytic sample. Data sources included the Harborview Trauma Registry and Hospital Records.
The relationship between hypotension and outcome was examined comparing two definitions of hypotension: 1) systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 5th percentile for age and 2) SBP < 90 mmHg. Hospital discharge Glasgow Outcome score (GOS) < 4, or disposition of either death or discharge to a skilled nursing facility were considered poor outcomes. PICU and hospital length of stay (LOS) were also examined.
SBP < 5th percentile for age was more highly associated with poor hospital discharge GOS (p = 0.001), poor disposition (p = 0.02), PICU LOS (RR 9.5; 95% CI 6.7–12.3) and hospital LOS (RR 18.8; 95% CI 14.0–23.5) than SBP < 90mmHg. Hypotension occurring in either the field or ED, but not in the PICU, was associated with poor GOS (p = 0.008), poor disposition (p= 0.03) and hospital LOS (RR 18.7; 95% CI 13.1–24.2).
Early hypotension, defined as SBP < 5th percentile for age in the field and/or ED, was a better predictor of poor outcome than delayed hypotension or the use of SBP < 90 mmHg.
blood pressure; brain injury; pediatric trauma; children; head trauma; hemodynamics
The study aims were to examine the association between age, comorbidity, and cause of injury in older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI); and to determine which comorbidities relate to mortality, length of stay, and functional outcome at hospital discharge, controlling for initial injury severity, age, and sex. A retrospective cohort study design was used; clinical and outcome trauma registry data were obtained for 196 adults 55 and older with TBI. The majority had at least one comorbid condition (e.g., hypertension, alcohol abuse). In-hospital mortality was 31%. Among the oldest-old, motor vehicle collisions and falls were significantly associated with specific chronic diseases. Prior myocardial infarction was significantly associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death. Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Scale score were predictive of discharge function, but comorbidity did not add significantly to the model. Primary TBI prevention efforts in older adults must consider the impact of comorbidity and cause of injury, particularly in the oldest-old. Alcohol abuse is common in older adults with TBI; screening should be conducted and interventions developed to prevent future injury. Future study is warranted to understand the interplay between pathophysiology of comorbid disease and injury and how to best manage rehabilitation within the context of aging.
The study was aimed at verifying whether the occurrence of hypernatremia during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay increases the risk of death in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We performed a retrospective study on a prospectively collected database including all patients consecutively admitted over a 3-year period with a diagnosis of TBI (post-resuscitation Glasgow Coma Score ≤ 8) to a general/neurotrauma ICU of a university hospital, providing critical care services in a catchment area of about 1,200,000 inhabitants.
Demographic, clinical, and ICU laboratory data were prospectively collected; serum sodium was assessed an average of three times per day. Hypernatremia was defined as two daily values of serum sodium above 145 mmol/l. The major outcome was death in the ICU after 14 days. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used, with time-dependent variates designed to reflect exposure over time during the ICU stay: hypernatremia, desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) administration as a surrogate marker for the presence of central diabetes insipidus, and urinary output. The same models were adjusted for potential confounding factors.
We included in the study 130 TBI patients (mean age 52 years (standard deviation 23); males 74%; median Glasgow Coma Score 3 (range 3 to 8); mean Simplified Acute Physiology Score II 50 (standard deviation 15)); all were mechanically ventilated; 35 (26.9%) died within 14 days after ICU admission. Hypernatremia was detected in 51.5% of the patients and in 15.9% of the 1,103 patient-day ICU follow-up. In most instances hypernatremia was mild (mean 150 mmol/l, interquartile range 148 to 152). The occurrence of hypernatremia was highest (P = 0.003) in patients with suspected central diabetes insipidus (25/130, 19.2%), a condition that was associated with increased severity of brain injury and ICU mortality. After adjustment for the baseline risk, the incidence of hypernatremia over the course of the ICU stay was significantly related with increased mortality (hazard ratio 3.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.34 to 6.51; P = 0.003)). However, DDAVP use modified this relation (P = 0.06), hypernatremia providing no additional prognostic information in the instances of suspected central diabetes insipidus.
Mild hypernatremia is associated with an increased risk of death in patients with severe TBI. In a proportion of the patients the association between hypernatremia and death is accounted for by the presence of central diabetes insipidus.
A range of neuropathological and psychosocial factors have been implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of post‐concussional syndrome (PCS), with a growing consensus in the literature that this is a complex, multifactorial condition. The role of patients' perceptions in PCS has not been examined to date.
This longitudinal study examines the role of illness perceptions in predicting outcome following mild head injury, controlling for severity of injury, post‐traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression, using a logistic regression analysis.
73 patients were admitted to an accident and emergency department with mild head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13–15; loss of consciousness <20 min; post‐traumatic amnesia <24 h). Data on PCS symptomatology, illness perceptions, post‐traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression were collected after the injury and at the 3 month follow‐up. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate predictors of outcome.
Following a mild head injury, symptomatic patients who believe that their symptoms have serious negative consequences on their lives and will continue to do so, are at heightened risk of experiencing significant enduring post‐concussional symptoms (p<0.001). Adding measures of severity of injury, post‐traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression to the regression model did not improve prediction of outcome.
Whatever other physical or psychological factors may be involved, patients' perceptions of their illness early after head injury play a part in the persistence of PCS.
To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC), use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries.
All RTC injured children and youth (0–19-year-olds) who were admitted to Al Ain City’s two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed.
245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37%) followed by front impact collision (32%). 32 (13%) of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170) vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23) motorcyclists a helmet.
Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in China. The elderly population has the higher rates of TBI-related hospitalization and death. Traffic accidents are the major cause for TBI in all age groups except in the group of 75 years and older, in which stumbles occurred in nearly half of those who suffered TBI. Older age is known to negatively influence outcome after TBI. To date, investigators have identified a panel of prognostic factors that include initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, comorbidities, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, associated extracranial lesions, and other factors such as cerebral perfusion pressure on recovery after injury. However, these aspects remain understudied in elderly patients with TBI. In the absence of complete clinical data, predicting outcomes and providing good care of the elderly population with TBI remain limited. To address this significant public health issue, a refocusing of research efforts is justified to prevent TBI in this population and to develop unique care strategies for achieving better clinical outcomes of the patients with TBI.
Traumatic brain injury; Geriatric; Trauma; Injury; Epidemiology; Outcomes
Cerebral vasospasm is a preventable cause of death and disability in patients who experience aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of cerebral vasospasm following traumatic SAH and its relationship with different brain injuries and severity of trauma.
This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2006 to March 2007 in department of Neurosurgery in Al-Zahra Hospital. Consecutive head-injured patients who had SAH on the basis of an admission CT scan were prospectively evaluated. The severity of the trauma was evaluated by determining Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography evaluations were performed at least 48 hours after admission and one week thereafter. Vasospasm in the MCA and ACA was defined by mean flow velocity (FV) of more than 120 cm/sec with a Lindegaard index (MVA/ICA FV ratio) higher than 3. Basilar artery vasospasm was defined by FV higher than 85 cm/sec.
Seventy seven patients with tSAH were enrolled from whom 13 were excluded. The remaining were 52 (81.2%) men and 12 (18.7%) women, with a mean age of 37.89 years. Trauma was severe in 11 (17.2%), moderate in 13 (20.3%), and mild in 40 (62.5%) patients. From all, 27 patients (42.1%) experienced at least one vasospasm during the study period and MCA vasospasm was the most common in the first and second weeks (55.5%).
Traumatic SAH is associated with a high incidence of cerebral vasospasm with a higher probability in patients with severe TBI.
Cerebral Vasospasm; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Trauma; Traumatic Brain Injury
To meet community needs, injury prevention programs for children should be targeted to trends in objective data on mechanisms of injury. The aim of the present study was to identify the most important severe injury mechanisms.
The present study retrospectively reviewed severe paediatric trauma patients in two regional trauma centres. Injury prevention priority scores were computed using different severity measures – injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score, trauma-related injury severity score, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and mortality – to identify prevention priorities.
A total of 3732 children with severe injury were identified; mean age (±SD) was 9.0±5.2 years and 2469 (66.2%) were boys. The GCS was 7 or lower in 209 patients (5.6%) and the median ISS was 9. Overall, there were 77 deaths (2.1%). ‘Fall from height’ was the most frequent mechanism of injury, and ‘motor vehicle traffic injury’ resulted in the most severe injury. The most significant mechanisms of injury, using ISS, were ‘fall from height’, ‘motor vehicle traffic injury’, ‘pedestrian struck by motor vehicle’, ‘bicycle injuries’ and ‘child abuse’. Different priorities were identified depending on the severity measures used – ‘fall from height’ would be the priority with ISS, revised trauma score and trauma-related injury severity score; ‘motor vehicle traffic injury’ with mortality and ‘drowning/submersion’ with GCS. ‘Fall from height’ was the highest ranked mechanism of injury in one centre compared with ‘motor vehicle traffic injury’ in the other. Younger children tended to have injuries as a result of falls, while adolescents had more motor vehicle occupant injuries. Failure to use safety devices, such as helmets and seat belts, was a common finding among severely injured children.
The present study shows that the severe injury prevention priorities identified vary depending on the severity measures used. The variations seen across age groups and between the two centres are also important factors that must be taken into account when developing prevention programs or considering research initiatives.
Child; Epidemiology; Injury; Paediatrics; Prevention; Trauma registry
There is a lack of information on the cost of treating trauma in children in developing countries. Therefore, in the pediatric emergency unit of a university hospital in Turkey, we prospectively investigated the cost factors of pediatric trauma and attempted to identify cost predictors.
We prepared questionnaires and charts for 91 children (50 boys, 41 girls) admitted with multiple trauma to obtain data on age, gender, date and mechanism of injury, site of injury, type of the treatment and length of hospital stay. We studied the physical findings, Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS), Revised Trauma Score (RETS) and pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and we totalled all hospital-based costs according to Ministry of Health guidelines.
The mean (and standard deviation [SD]) age of the children was 79.4 (52.3) months. Motor vehicle crashes accounted for 45% of the injuries, followed by falls (41%) and bicycle accidents (14%). The mean (and SD) total cost of care was US$376.60 ($428.20) (range from $20–$1995). The cost associated with motor vehicle crashes was higher than that for the other injury types (p < 0.05). Seventeen patients required major and 27 patients required minor surgical treatment, whereas 44 patients were treated conservatively; 3 died. Forty-eight percent of patients were referred from another hospital, and the cost of care of referred patients was significantly higher than for those admitted directly (p < 0.001). The mean (and SD) duration of hospital stay was 98 (150) hours. Total cost correlated directly with the duration of hospital stay and distance of the referred hospital or accident scene from our hospital (p < 0.001, r = 0.827 and 0.374 respectively), but the cost correlated inversely with the PTS, the RETS and the pediatric GCS score (p < 0.001, r = –0.339, –0.301 and –0.453 respectively).
Our findings indicate that the cost of pediatric trauma is high and may be predicted from admission data and trauma scores.