Spinal anesthesia produces a profound and uniformly distributed sensory block with rapid onset and muscle relaxation, and results in complete control of cardiovascular and stress responses. Ketamine is an anesthetic agent that is widely used for pediatric sedations in settings where safety and efficacy of the agents are mandatory because of limited healthcare resources. The authors report on their experience in a refugee hospital located in Bol-la (Saharawi, Algeria).
Spinal anesthesia was performed for orthopedic surgery procedures in children. Before the spinal puncture, the patients were sedated with intramuscular ketamine followed by intravenous ketamine and midazolam. Boluses of midazolam were also administered throughout the surgery to keep the patients sedated; spinal anesthesia was performed with levobupivacaine 0.25 mg/kg.
There were no intraoperative adverse events; vital signs were within the normal pediatric ranges during the procedures and there was no need to switch to general anesthesia. In the postoperative period, no symptoms of dural puncture headache or postoperative delirium or nightmares were reported.
Based on the authors’ experience, the combination of spinal anesthesia and sedation with midazolam and ketamine was found to be a safe approach for children undergoing orthopedic surgery in a low resources setting.
pediatric anesthesia; developing world; spinal anesthesia; ketamine; pediatric sedation
This article details a double-blind, randomized study evaluating the efficacy and safety of intranasal sufentanil and intranasal midazolam (S/M) when compared with intranasal ketamine and intranasal midazolam (K/M) for sedation and analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing dental surgery. Fifty healthy ASA status 1 children aged 5-7 years, weighing 15-20 kg, and having 6 or more teeth extracted, were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 25 patients each (n = 50). In the S/M group, 25 children received intranasal sufentanil 20 microg, and intranasal midazolam 0.3 mg/kg 20 minutes before the induction of anesthesia. In the K/M group, 25 children received intranasal ketamine 5 mg/kg and intranasal midazolam 0.3 mg/kg 20 minutes before the induction of anesthesia. Sevoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. This study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of both methods with ease of administration, combined with a rapid onset of action. Both groups were equally sedated. A smooth mask induction of anesthesia was experienced in the majority of children. Effective postoperative analgesia for multiple dental extractions was provided. The intranasal administration of drugs for sedation and analgesia has some promising features in preschool children undergoing multiple dental extractions.
AIM: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of intravenous ketamine-midazolam sedation during pediatric endoscopy in the Arab world.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric endoscopic procedures performed between 2002-2008 at the shared endoscopy suite of King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science & Technology, Jordan was conducted. All children were > 1 year old and weighed > 10 kg with American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1 or 2. Analysis was performed in terms of sedation-related complications (desaturation, respiratory distress, apnea, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, emergence reactions), adequacy of sedation, need for sedation reversal, or failure to complete the procedure.
RESULTS: A total of 301 patients (including 160 males) with a mean age of 9.26 years (range, 1-18 years) were included. All were premedicated with atropine; and 79.4% (239/301) had effective and uneventful sedation. And 248 (82.4%) of the 301 patients received a mean dose of 0.16 mg/kg (range, 0.07-0.39) midazolam and 1.06 mg/kg (range, 0.31-2.67) ketamine, respectively within the recommended dosage guidelines. Recommended maximum midazolam dose was exceeded in 17.6% patients [34 female (F):19 male (M), P = 0.003] and ketamine in 2.7% (3 M:5 F). Maximum midazolam dose was more likely to be exceeded than ketamine (P < 0.001). Desaturation occurred in 37 (12.3%) patients, and was reversible by supplemental oxygen in all except 4 who continue to have desaturation despite supplemental oxygen. Four (1.3%) patients had respiratory distress and 6 (2%) were difficult to sedate and required a 3rd sedative; 12 (4%) required reversal and 7 (2.3%) failed to complete the procedure. None developed apnea, bradycardia, arrest, or emergence reactions.
CONCLUSION: Ketamine-midazolam sedation appears safe and effective for diagnostic pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy in the Arab world for children aged > 1 year and weighing > 10 kg without co-morbidities.
Pediatric endoscopy; Sedation; Ketamine; Arab
Objectives. To review our sedation practice and to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of an anesthesiologist-administered intravenous sedation outside of the main operating room for pediatric upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) in Thailand. Subjects and Methods. We undertook a retrospective review of the sedation service records of pediatric patients who underwent UGIE. All endoscopies were performed by a pediatric gastroenterologist. All sedation was administered by staff anesthesiologist or anesthetic personnel. Results. A total of 168 patients (94 boys and 74 girls), with age from 4 months to 12 years, underwent 176 UGIE procedures. Of these, 142 UGIE procedures were performed with intravenous sedation (IVS). The mean sedation time was 23.2 ± 10.0 minutes. Propofol was the most common sedative drugs used. Mean dose of propofol, midazolam and fentanyl was 10.0 ± 7.5 mg/kg/hr, 0.2 ± 0.2 mg/kg/hr, and 2.5 ± 1.2 mcg/kg/hr, respectively. Complications relatively occurred frequently. All sedations were successful. However, two patients became more deeply than intended and required unplanned endotracheal intubation. Conclusion. The study shows the clinical effectiveness of an anesthesiologist-administered IVS outside of the main operating room for pediatric UGIE in Thailand. All complications are relatively high. We recommend the use of more sensitive equipments such as end tidal CO2 and carefully select more appropriate patients.
Objectives—This study compared intranasal midazolam (INM) with a combination of intravenous ketamine and intravenous midazolam (IVKM) for sedation of children requiring minor procedures in the emergency department.
Method—A single blinded randomised clinical trial was conducted in the emergency department of a major urban paediatric hospital. Subjects requiring sedation for minor procedures were randomised to receive either INM (0.4 mg/kg) or intravenous ketamine (1 mg/kg) plus intravenous midazolam (0.1 mg/kg). Physiological variables and two independent measures of sedation (Sedation Score and Visual Analogue Sedation Scale) were recorded before sedation and at regular intervals during the procedure and recovery period. Times to adequate level of sedation and to discharge were compared.
Results—Fifty three patients were enrolled over a 10 month period. Sedation was sufficient to complete the procedures in all children receiving IVKM and in 24 of the 26 receiving INM. Onset of sedation was an average of 5.3 minutes quicker with IVKM than with INM (95%CI 3.2, 7.4 minutes, p<0.001). Children given INM were discharged an average of 19 minutes earlier than those given IVKM (95%CI 4, 33 minutes, p=0.02). Mean Sedation Scores and Visual Analogue Sedation Scale scores for the 30 minutes after drug administration were significantly better in children given IVKM compared with INM (2.4 and 1.8 versus 3.5 and 3.8, respectively). Both doctors and parents were more satisfied with sedation by intravenous ketamine and midazolam.
Conclusions—Intravenous ketamine plus midazolam used in an appropriate setting by experienced personnel provides an excellent means of achieving sedation suitable for most non-painful minor procedures for children in the emergency department. This combination is superior to INM in terms of speed of onset and consistency of effect. INM delivered via aerosol spray has a more variable effect but may still be adequate for the completion of many of these procedures.
Conscious sedation has been the standard of care for many years for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. As procedures have become more complex and lengthy, additional medications became essential for adequate sedation. Often time’s deep sedation is required for procedures such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiography which necessitates higher doses of narcotics and benzodiazepines or even use of other medications such as ketamine. Given its pharmacologic properties, propofol was rapidly adopted worldwide to gastrointestinal endoscopy for complex procedures and more recently to routine upper and lower endoscopy. Many studies have shown superiority for both the physician and patient compared to standard sedation. Nevertheless, its use remains highly controversial. A number of studies worldwide show that propofol can be given safely by endoscopists or nurses when well trained. Despite this wealth of data, at many centers its use has been prohibited unless administered by anesthesiology. In this commentary, we review the use of anesthesia support for endoscopy in the United States based on recent data and its implications for gastroenterologists worldwide.
Propofol; Ketamine; Conscious sedation; Deep sedation; Anesthesiology; Gastrointestinal endoscopy
Objective—To compare the efficacy of oral ketamine (10 mg/kg) with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg) in providing sedation for suturing of lacerations.
Method—Prospective, randomised, double blinded trial with consecutive, concealed recruitment of 59 children aged 1 to 7 with wounds requiring local anaesthetic (LA) injection or topical LA with an anxiety score greater than one.
Results—Tolerance to LA injection was better with ketamine (p=0.029) and tolerance to procedure after LA injection showed a trend towards being improved with ketamine (p=0.067). There was no difference in tolerance to LA application or procedure in children receiving topical LA. Time to reach a sedation score of less than four was faster with ketamine (medians 20 versus 43 minutes, p=0.001) but times from dosing to discharge (medians 105 and 110 minutes) were similar. Inconsolable agitation was reported with midazolam in six cases. Dysphoria was not noted with ketamine. Vomiting was more common with ketamine but not significantly so (six versus two, p = 0.14). Oxygen desaturations were noted in both groups. Ataxia after discharge was seen in four patients, two in each group. Thirty six per cent of children showed new behavioural disturbances in the two weeks after discharge, more commonly in the midazolam group (p=0.048).
Conclusions—At these doses tolerance to LA injection was better in children receiving ketamine, with fewer behavioural changes noted in the first two weeks. Midazolam at this dose caused dysphoric reactions, which may have affected the results. Continuous pulse oximetry monitoring is required when using these drugs. Vomiting and prolonged ataxia occurred in a few patients.
Midazolam is a new water-soluble benzodiazepine with a much shorter pharmacologic half-life than diazepam. Despite this shorter pharmacologic half-life, several reports indicate that patients do not recover more rapidly after sedation with midazolam than with diazepam. The purpose of this study was to compare recovery of patients sedated with either midazolam or diazepam alone or in combination with fentanyl using the digit symbol substitution test (DSST) and Trieger test. Patients were randomly divided into treatment groups and recovery tests were administered to the patients prior to sedation and at 60, 120, and 180 minutes after achieving a standardized sedative endpoint. Patients who received midazolam alone had significantly fewer numbers of correct reponses on the DSST than patients who received midazolam plus fentanyl or diazepam with or without fentanyl. When midazolam was combined with fentanyl there was no significant difference between results obtained on the DSST when compared with either diazepam group. Comparisons between all groups using dots missed or millimeter deviation on the Trieger test showed no statistical difference between any groups. These data indicate that midazolam as a single IV agent has a slightly prolonged recovery phase compared to diazepam. The addition of fentanyl to the sedation regimen allows reduction in the midazolam dose resulting in a recovery time comparable to that of diazepam.
Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can successfully be performed by applying moderate (conscious) sedation. Moderate sedation, using midazolam and an opioid, is the standard method of sedation, although propofol is increasingly being used in many countries because the satisfaction of endoscopists with propofol sedation is greater compared with their satisfaction with conventional sedation. Moreover, the use of propofol is currently preferred for the endoscopic sedation of patients with advanced liver disease due to its short biologic half-life and, consequently, its low risk of inducing hepatic encephalopathy. In the future, propofol could become the preferred sedation agent, especially for routine colonoscopy. Midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. Among opioids, pethidine and fentanyl are the most popular. A number of other substances have been tested in several clinical trials with promising results. Among them, newer opioids, such as remifentanil, enable a faster recovery. The controversy regarding the administration of sedation by an endoscopist or an experienced nurse, as well as the optimal staffing of endoscopy units, continues to be a matter of discussion. Safe sedation in special clinical circumstances, such as in the cases of obese, pregnant, and elderly individuals, as well as patients with chronic lung, renal or liver disease, requires modification of the dose of the drugs used for sedation. In the great majority of patients, sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist remains the standard practice worldwide. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge concerning sedation during digestive endoscopy will be provided based on the data in the current literature.
Gastrointestinal endoscopy; Endoscopy; Sedation; Analgesia; Digestive system
To compare atropine with placebo as an adjunct to ketamine sedation in children undergoing minor painful procedures. Outcome measures included hypersalivation, side effect profile, parental/patient satisfaction, and procedural success rate.
Children aged between 1 and 16 years of age requiring ketamine procedural sedation in a tertiary emergency department were randomised to receive 0.01 mg/kg of atropine or placebo. All received 4 mg/kg of intramuscular ketamine. Tolerance and sedation scores were recorded throughout the procedure. Side effects were recorded from the start of sedation until discharge. Parental and patient satisfaction scores were obtained at discharge and three to five days after the procedure, with the opportunity to report side effects encountered at home.
A total of 83 patients aged 13 months to 14.5 years (median age 3.4 years) were enrolled over a 16 month period. Hypersalivation occurred in 11.4% of patients given atropine compared with 30.8% given placebo (odds ratio (OR) 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.91). A transient rash was observed in 22.7% of the atropine group compared with 5.1% of the placebo group (OR 5.44, 95% CI 1.11 to 26.6). Vomiting during recovery occurred in 9.1% of atropine patients compared with 25.6% of placebo patients (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.02). There was a trend towards better tolerance in the placebo group. No patient experienced serious side effects.
Ketamine sedation was successful and well tolerated in all cases. The use of atropine as an adjunct for intramuscular ketamine sedation in children significantly reduces hypersalivation and may lower the incidence of post‐procedural vomiting. Atropine is associated with a higher incidence of a transient rash. No serious adverse events were noted.
ketamine; atropine; child; sedation; hypersalivation
Optimal sedation and analgesia are of key importance in intensive care. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of sedoanalgesia and outcome parameters in regimens containing midazolam and either fentanyl or remifentanil.
A prospective, randomized, open-label, controlled trial was carried out in the ICU unit of a large teaching hospital in Istanbul over a 9-month period. Thirty-four patients were randomly allocated to receive either a remifentanil-midazolam regimen (R group, n = 17) or a fentanyl-midazolam regimen (F group, n = 17).
A strong correlation between Riker Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) and Ramsey Scale (RS) measurements was observed. Comparatively, remifentanil provided significantly more potent and rapid analgesia based on Behavioral-Physiological Scale (BPS) measurements and a statistically nonsignificantly shorter time to discharge. On the other hand, remifentanil also caused a significantly sharper fall in heart rate within the first six hours of treatment.
The death of a patient under sedation in New South Wales, Australia, in 2002 has again raised the question of the safety of dental sedation. This study sought answers to 2 questions: Can safe oxygen saturation levels (≥94%) be consistently maintained by a single operator/sedationist? Does the additional use of propofol, in subanesthetic doses, increase the risk of exposure to hypoxemia? Three thousand five hundred cases generated between 1996 and 2006 were randomly examined and divided into 2 subcohorts: 1750 patients were sedated with midazolam and fentanyl, and 1750 patients received propofol, in subanesthetic increments, in addition to midazolam and fentanyl. Initial sedation was established using midazolam and fentanyl in both subcohorts. The second subcohort received propofol during times of noxious stimulation. Patient exposure to 2 or more oxygen desaturations below 94% was uncommon. The variables that were significantly associated with low saturations were age, gender, and weight. Neither the dose of midazolam nor the additional use of propofol was a significant risk factor. ASA classification (I or II) was not a determinant of risk. The data, within the limitations of the study, showed that a single operator/sedationist, supported by a well-trained team of nurses, can consistently maintain safe oxygen saturation levels. The additional use of propofol did not increase exposure to hypoxemia.
Dental sedation; Safe oxygen saturation levels; Propofol
Oral midazolam is being used for conscious sedation in dentistry with little documentation assessing its efficacy. In order to accumulate preliminary data, a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover, multi-site pilot study was conducted. The objective was to determine if 0.6 mg/kg of oral midazolam was an equally effective or superior means of achieving conscious sedation in the uncooperative pediatric dental patient, compared with a commonly used agent, 50 mg/kg of oral chloral hydrate. Twenty-three children in three clinics who required dentistry with local anesthetic and were determined to exhibit behavior rated as "negative" or "definitely negative" based on the Frankl scale were assessed. They were evaluated with respect to acceptance of medication; initial level of anxiety at each appointment; level of sedation prior to and acceptance of local anesthetic; movement and crying during the procedure; and overall behavior. The results showed that the group randomly assigned to receive midazolam had a significantly greater initial level of anxiety for that appointment (P < 0.02), a finding that could clearly confound further determination of the efficacy of these drugs. Patients given oral midazolam had an increased level of sedation prior to the administration of local anesthetic compared with those given chloral hydrate (P < 0.015). No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the other parameters. The age of the patient was found to have no correlation with the difference in overall behavior (r = -0.09). These preliminary data warrant further clinical trials.
Sedation and analgesia are provided by using different agents and techniques in different countries. The goal is to achieve early spontaneous breathing and to obtain an awake and cooperative pain-free patient. It was the aim of this study to conduct a survey of the agents and techniques used for analgesia and sedation in intensive care units in Germany.
A survey was sent by mail to 261 hospitals in Germany. The anesthesiologists running the intensive care unit were asked to fill in the structured questionnaire about their use of sedation and analgesia.
A total of 220 (84%) questionnaires were completed and returned. The RAMSAY sedation scale was used in 8% of the hospitals. A written policy was available in 21% of hospitals. For short-term sedation in most hospitals, propofol was used in combination with sufentanil or fentanyl. For long-term sedation, midazolam/fentanyl was preferred. Clonidine was a common part of up to two-thirds of the regimens. Epidural analgesia was used in up to 68%. Neuromuscular blocking agents were no longer used.
In contrast to the US 'Clinical practice guidelines for the sustained use of sedatives and analgesics in the critically ill adult', our survey showed that in Germany different agents, and frequently neuroaxial techniques, were used.
Despite preclinical evidence suggesting a synergistic interaction between ketamine and opioids promoting analgesia, several clinical trials have not identified dosing regimens capable of eliciting a benefit in the co-administration of ketamine with opioids.
Ten healthy volunteers participated in a double blinded, randomised, placebo controlled, crossover laboratory study in order to determine whether a low dose of ketamine potentiated the antinociceptive effect of fentanyl without causing an increase in sedative effects. A battery of tests was used to assess both nociception and sedation including electrical current, pressure, thermal stimuli, psychometric tests, and both subjective and objective scores of sedation. Target controlled infusions of the study drugs were used. Ketamine and fentanyl were administered alone and in combination in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Saline was used as the control, and propofol was used to validate the tests of sedation. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were also assessed.
The electrical current pain threshold dose response curve of fentanyl combined with ketamine was markedly steeper than the dose response curve of fentanyl alone. While a ketamine serum concentration of 30 ng/ml did not result in a change in electrical pain threshold when administered alone, when it was added to fentanyl, the combination resulted in greater increase in pain threshold than that of fentanyl administered alone. When nociception was assessed using heat and pressure stimuli, ketamine did not potentiate the anti-nociceptive effect of fentanyl. There was no difference between the sedative effect of fentanyl and fentanyl in combination with ketamine as assessed by both subjective and objective measures of sedation. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were unaffected by the study drugs at the doses given.
A serum concentration of ketamine that did not alter indices of sedation potentiated the antinociceptive effect of fentanyl. This potentiation of antinociception occurred without an increase in sedation suggesting that low steady doses of ketamine (30–120 ng/ml) might be combined with μ opioid agonists to improve their analgesic effect in a clinical setting. (296 words)
To compare oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) versus oral clonidine (4 μg/kg) as a premedication in pediatric patients aged between 2-12 years with regard to sedation and anxiolysis.
Sixty pediatric patients belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists class I and II between the age group of 2-12 years scheduled for elective surgery were randomly allocated to receive either oral midazolam (group I) 30 min before induction or oral clonidine (group II) 90 min before induction of anesthesia. The children were evaluated for levels of sedation and anxiety at the time of separation from the parents, venepuncture, and at the time of mask application for induction of anesthesia.
After premedication, the percentage of children who were sedated and calm increased in both the groups. The overall level of sedation was better in the children in the clonidine group, but children in the midazolam group had a greater degree of anxiolysis at times of venepuncture and mask application. In addition, midazolam did not cause significant changes in hemodynamics unlike clonidine where a significant fall in blood pressure was noted, after premedication, but preinduction.
We conclude that under the conditions of the study, oral midazolam is superior to clonidine as an anxiolytic in pediatric population. Clonidine with its sedative action especially at the time of separation from parents along with its other perioperative benefits cannot be discounted.
Anxiolysis; oral clonidine; oral midazolam; pediatric anesthesia; premedication; sedation
Alfentanil, a short-acting opioid, was used as an adjuvant to midazolam for sedation of 30 outpatients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The operating conditions and recovery times were compared with those of a similar group of 30 patients sedated with midazolam only. The use of alfentanil resulted in improved operating conditions and a more rapid recovery. Patient acceptance was high.
Background and Objectives
Intubating a patient with temporomandibular joint ankylosis is always a challenge particularly when fibreoptic laryngoscope is not available. Awake blind nasotracheal intubation requires sufficient patient co operation and comfort. Presently available short-acting analgesics and amnesics are excellent choices for this exercise.
This prospective randomized double blind study was designed to determine an appropriate dosage of fentanyl for awake blind nasotracheal intubation. We compared two different dosage of fentanyl. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive midazolam 0.05 mg/kg and fentanyl 2μg/kg in bolus (group I), or midazolam 0.05 mg/kg, fentanyl 3μg/kg in bolus (group II).
Both dosage regimen ensured patient comfort and sedation. Patients in group II were more calm and sedated as compared to group I. Hemodynamics was also more stable in group II.
For awake blind nasotracheal intubation, we therefore recommend midazolam 0.05mg/kg plus fentanyl 3μg/kg in bolus.
Awake intubation; Temporomandibular joint ankylosis; Conscious sedation
The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of weight-based dosing of continuous intravenous infusion of fentanyl in overweight/obese versus normal-weight children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).
This retrospective, pilot study included 5- to 12-year-old children admitted to the PICU over a 2-year period who received continuous intravenous infusion fentanyl for ≥ 4 days. The overweight/obese group included children with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile, while the control group included children with BMI < 85th percentile. The primary objective was to compare the number of fentanyl continuous intravenous infusion dosage changes required per day to achieve adequate sedation between groups. Secondarily, opioid withdrawal symptoms following the discontinuation of fentanyl and concomitant sedative/analgesic regimens were analyzed between groups. Student t tests and chi-square analyses were performed as appropriate, with an a priori alpha of p≤0.05.
Sixteen normal-weight and 15 overweight/obese patients with 18 and 16 individual infusions were identified, respectively. No statistical difference was found between groups for the number of dosage changes per day, 0.92 versus 0.69 (p=0.16). Five patients in each group experienced withdrawal (p=0.71). The total number of concomitant bolus doses received was greater in the overweight/obese group but did not reach statistical significance.
There was a numerical, but statistically nonsignificant difference in the number of sedative/analgesic bolus doses and dosing changes per day between groups. Larger studies are warranted to determine the optimal dosing strategy for continuous intravenous infusion fentanyl in overweight/obese children.
fentanyl; obese; overweight; pediatric
This study attempted to determine if sevoflurane in oxygen inhaled via a nasal hood as a sole sedative agent would provide an appropriate level of deep sedation for outpatient third molar surgery. Twenty-four patients scheduled for third molar removal were randomly assigned to receive either nasal hood inhalation sevoflurane or an intravenous deep sedation using midazolam and fentanyl followed by a propofol infusion. In addition to measuring patient, surgeon, and dentist anesthesiologist subjective satisfaction with the technique, physiological parameters, amnesia, and psychomotor recovery were also assessed. No statistically significant difference was found between the sevoflurane and midazolam-fentanyl-propofol sedative groups in physiological parameters, degree of amnesia, reported quality of sedation, or patient willingness to again undergo a similar deep sedation. A trend toward earlier recovery in the sevoflurane group was identified. Sevoflurane can be successfully employed as a deep sedative rather than a general anesthetic for extraction of third molars in healthy subjects.
Patient-controlled sedation was utilized in patients aged 15 to 85 yr who were undergoing surgery under local or regional anesthesia. Midazolam, propofol, and methohexitone were used, either by themselves or in combination with fentanyl or alfentanil. Sedation was mild to moderate in the majority of patients, and operating conditions were good. The sedation method provided patients the ability to control the sedation and to vary the degree of sedation according to the environment and to the stress of the procedure. Sedation of the elderly, which tends to be problematic, was made easy using this method, and the elderly patients appeared to enjoy the option. The problems encountered were oversedation, respiratory depression, pain during injection, and postural hypotension.
Patient-controlled sedation; Review
An appropriate level of sedation and pharmacological assist are essential during percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA). Ketamine provides good analgesia while preserving airway patency, ventilation, and cardiovascular stability with an opioid sparing effect suggesting that it would be ideal in combination with remifentanil and midazolam in spontaneously breathing patients. We evaluated the effect of a small dose of ketamine added to midazolam and remifentanil on analgesia/sedation for PTA procedures.
Sixty-four patients receiving PTA were enrolled. The Control group received midazolam 1.0 mg i.v. and continuous infusion of remifentanil 0.05 µg/kg/min. The Ketamine group received, in addition, an intravenous bolus of 0.5 mg/kg ketamine. Patients' haemodynamic data were monitored before remifentanil infusion, 5 min after remifentanil infusion, at 1, 3, 5, 30 min after incision, and at admission to the recovery room. Verbal numerical rating scales (VNRS) and sedation [OAA/S (Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation)] scores were also recorded.
The VNRS values at 1, 3, and 5 min after incision and OAA/S scores at 5 min after remifentanil infusion, and 1, 3, and 5 min after incision were lower in the Ketamine group than in the Control group. In the Control group, the VNRS value at 1 min after incision significantly increased and OAA/S values at 3, 5, and 30 min after incision significantly decreased compared to baseline values, while there were no significant changes in the ketamine group.
A small dose of ketamine as an adjunct sedative to the combination of midazolam and remifentanil produced a better quality of sedation and analgesia than without ketamine and provided stable respiration without cardiopulmonary deterioration.
Ketamine; Pain scale; Remifentanil; Sedation
This double-blind, controlled clinical trial assessed the anxiety relief provided by oral triazolam given before intravenous sedation. Twenty-two healthy adults undergoing third-molar surgery with intravenous sedation were enrolled in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 0.25 mg of triazolam p.o. or an identically appearing placebo 45 to 60 min before venipuncture. Immediately before test drug administration, subjects completed the Corah Anxiety Scale, a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) assessing state anxiety, and the Interval Scale of Anxiety Response (ISAR). The VAS and ISAR were repeated immediately before venipuncture. Intravenous sedation medications consisted of fentanyl, midazolam, and methohexital. At 24 hr, assessments of the venipuncture and global experience were obtained. Results indicated that the characteristics of the triazolam and placebo patients were similar at baseline. With triazolam pretreatment, both the VAS and ISAR scores decreased significantly. Dose requirements for conscious sedation medications were decreased in the triazolam group. Patients rated the venipuncture experience significantly less unpleasant when pretreated with triazolam, and global ratings of the overall surgical experience favored triazolam. An oral-intravenous combination sedation technique using 0.25 mg of triazolam may have a significant therapeutic advantage for outpatient oral surgery.
For logistical reasons sedation studies are often carried out in elective surgical patients and the results extrapolated to the general intensive care unit (ICU) population. We question the validity of this approach. We compared the two sedation regimens used in our general ICU in a trial structured to mimic clinical practice as closely as possible.
Forty patients were randomised to intermittent diazepam or continuous midazolam and sedation monitored with hourly sedation scores; 31 patients completed the study. Scores indicating undersedation were more common with diazepam (P <0.01); overall adequate sedation midazolam 64.7%, diazepam 35.7% (P =0.21). No patient exhibited inappropriately prolonged sedation. Cost was: midazolam AUS$1.98/h; diazepam AUS$0.06/h.
Both regimens produced rapid onset of acceptable sedation but undersedation appeared more common with the cheaper diazepam regimen. At least 140 patients should be studied to provide evidence applicable to the general ICU population. Used alone, a sedation score may be an inappropriate outcome measure for a sedation trial.
critical care; midazolam; diazepam; sedatives; nonbarbiturate; therapeutic use; comparative study
Aims and Objectives:
To compare the efficacy of sedation and time taken for extubation using dexmedetomidine and fentanyl sedation in post-operative paediatric cardiac surgical patients.
A prospective randomized double-blind study involving 60 children undergoing open heart surgery was conducted. The patients were divided into two groups, each involving 30 patients. One group received fentanyl at 1 μg/kg/h (Group A) and the other received dexmedetomidine at 0.5 μg/kg/h (Group B) for post-operative sedation with intermittent rescue fentanyl 0.5 μg/kg bolus in either group as per requirement during suctioning. The efficacy of sedation was assessed using the Ramsay sedation score, paediatric intensive care unit sedation score and the tracheal suction score. The time taken for extubation from the stoppage of infusion was noted.
Haemodynamic parameters between the two groups were comparable. All sedation scores were comparable in the fentanyl and dexmedetomidine groups. Average time (in minutes) required for extubation was 131.0 (±51.06 SD) in the dexmedetomidine group compared with 373.0 (±121.4 SD) in the fentanyl group. The difference in mean time for extubation was statistically significant.
Dexmedetomidine facilitates adequate sedation for mechanical ventilation and also early extubation as compared with fentanyl.
Dexmedetomidine; fentanyl; mechanical ventilation; sedation