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1.  Pleural effusion: An unusual cause and association 
Filaria has a wide spectrum of presentation. We hereby present a case of Filarial pleural effusion that is a rarity in itself. Filarial lung involvement is usually in the form of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia with pulmonary infiltrates and peripheral eosinophilia, unlike our case where isolated pleural effusion of Filarial etiology was detected. Microfilaria has been isolated from Pleural fluid in very few cases, and ours was one such. Of late, there have been many incidental detections of Filarial parasites from varied anatomical sites in association with malignancy. Even in our case, we had one such unusual association.
doi:10.4103/0970-2113.110431
PMCID: PMC3669559  PMID: 23741100
Filariasis; malignancy; pleural effusion
2.  Bancroftian filarial pleural effusion. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1993;69(817):869-870.
This paper describes a case of filarial pleural effusion, the fifth such to be reported. Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti were detected in the pleural fluid on cytological examination. There was a prompt and complete response to treatment with diethylcarbamazine. There were, however, no symptoms and signs of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia nor any peripheral eosinophilia.
Images
PMCID: PMC2399909  PMID: 8290434
3.  Differential tissular distribution of Litomosoides sigmodontis microfilariae between microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic mice following experimental infection 
Parasite  2012;19(4):351-358.
Filariases are caused by onchocercid nematodes that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. More than 180 million people are infected worldwide. Mass drug administration has been set up in many endemic areas to control the parasite burden. Although very successful in limiting microfilarial load, transmission has not been completely interrupted in such areas. A proportion of infected patients with lymphatic filariasis or loiasis are known to be amicrofilaremic, as they do not present microfilariae in their bloodstream despite the presence of adult worms. A mirror status also exists in CBA/Ca mice infected with Litomosoides sigmodontis, the well-established model of filariasis. Using this model, the goal of this study was to determine if the kinetics of blood clearance of microfilariae differed between amicrofilaremic CBA/Ca mice and microfilaremic BALB/c mice. For this purpose, a qPCR approach was devised to detect microfilariae in different tissues, after a controlled inoculation of microfilariae. We showed that the rapid clearance of microfilariae from the pleural cavity or from the bloodstream of CBA/Ca mice was associated with a massive accumulation of first stage larvae in the lungs, liver and spleen.
doi:10.1051/parasite/2012194351
PMCID: PMC3671463  PMID: 23193519
filariasis; Litomosoides sigmodontis; microfilariae; amicrofilaremic; real-time PCR; lungs; liver; spleen; filariose; Litomosoides sigmodontis; microfilaire; amicrofilarien; PCR en temps réel; poumons; foie; rate
4.  Diagnostic utility of pleural fluid and serum markers in differentiation between malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions 
European Journal of Medical Research  2009;14(Suppl 4):128-133.
Study objective
To evaluate the diagnostic value of four different tumor markers: cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in patients with malignant and non-malignant pleural effusion.
Material and methods
One hundred and two patients with pleural effusion treated in the University Hospital in Warsaw between 2001 and 2003 were studied. They underwent an extensive, diagnostic work-up in order to determine the pleural effusion etiology. Patients with known pleural fluid etiology were labeled as the study group and submitted for further analysis. Pleural fluid and serum samples for CA-125, CEA, CYFRA 21-1 and NSE measurements were collected during the first thoracentesis, centrifuged, and frozen until further use. Pleural fluid and serum concentration of tumor markers were assessed by electrochemiluminescence methods using commercial kits.
Results
74 patients (32 M, 42 F; mean age 65 ± 14 years) composed the final study group. Exudative pleural effusion was found in 62 patients; of these 36 were malignant (48.6% of all effusions), 20 parapneumonic (or pleural empyema), and 6 tuberculous. In 12 patients, pleural transudate was diagnosed. The highest diagnostic sensitivity for malignant pleural effusion was found for NSE (94.4% and 80.6% in the pleural fluid and serum, respectively). However, the specificity of NSE measurement was relatively low (36.1% and 47.4% in pleural fluid and serum, respectively). The most specific markers of malignant pleural fluid etiology were pleural fluid CYFRA 21-1 and CEA levels (92.1% and 92.1%, respectively). CA-125 was found to be the most specific serum marker of pleural malignancies (78.9%). The AUC for combined pleural markers was 0.89, combined serum markers 0.82, combined ratio pleural/serum markers 0.88.
Conclusions
There are significant differences between the diagnostic value of various pleural fluid and serum markers. Overall, pleural fluid markers are superior to serum markers in determining the pleural fluid etiology. A combination of two or more tumor markers may help improve their diagnostic accuracy. Pleural fluid and serum measurements of different tumor markers play a limited role in the differentiation between malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions.
doi:10.1186/2047-783X-14-S4-128
PMCID: PMC3521354  PMID: 20156743
pleural effusion; cancer antigen-125; neuron specific enolase; carcinoembryonic antigen
5.  Diagnostic value of ex vivo pleural fluid interferon-gamma versus adapted whole-blood quantiferon-TB gold in tube assays in tuberculous pleural effusion 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(4):220-225.
BACKGROUND:
Noninvasive diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. As Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific T cells are recruited into pleural space in TB effusion; their indirect detection may provide useful clinical information.
OBJECTIVES:
Evaluation of pleural fluid interferon (INF)-γ levels vs Quantiferon–TB Gold In tube assay (QFT- IT) in blood and its adapted variants, using pleural fluid or isolated pleural fluid cells in the diagnosis of pleural TB.
METHODS:
Thirty-eight patients with pleural effusion of unknown etiology presented at Assiut University Hospital, Egypt, were recruited. Blood and pleural fluid were collected at presentation for INF-γ assays. Ex vivo pleural fluid INF-γ levels, QFT-IT in blood and its adapted variants were compared with final diagnosis as confirmed by other tools including blind and/or thoracoscopic pleural biopsy.
RESULTS:
The final clinical diagnosis was TB in 20 (53%), malignancy in 10 (26%), and effusion due to other causes in eight patients (21%). Ex vivo pleural fluid INF-γ levels accurately identified TB in all patients and were superior to the QFT-IT assays using blood or pleural fluid (70 and 78% sensitivity, with 60 and 83% specificity, respectively). QFT-IT assay applied to isolated pleural fluid cells had 100% sensitivity and 72% specificity. The optimal cut-off obtained with ROC analysis was 0.73 for TB Gold assay in blood assay, 0.82 IU/ml for the cultured pleural fluid assay, and 0.94 for isolated pleural cells assay.
CONCLUSION:
The ex vivo pleural fluid INF-γ level is an accurate marker for the diagnosis of pleural TB. QFT- IT assay in peripheral blood or its adapted versions of the assay using pleural fluid and/or washed pleural fluid cells had no diagnostic advantage over pleural fluid INF-γ in the diagnosis of pleural TB.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.102181
PMCID: PMC3506102  PMID: 23189099
Diagnosis; interferon-γ; interferon-γ release assays; quantiferon–TB gold in tube assay; tuberculous effusion
6.  Immunization with L. sigmodontis Microfilariae Reduces Peripheral Microfilaraemia after Challenge Infection by Inhibition of Filarial Embryogenesis 
Background
Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are two chronic diseases mediated by parasitic filarial worms causing long term disability and massive socioeconomic problems. Filariae are transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes that take up the first stage larvae from an infected host and deliver it after maturation into infective stage to a new host. After closure of vector control programs, disease control relies mainly on mass drug administration with drugs that are primarily effective against first stage larvae and require many years of annual/biannual administration. Therefore, there is an urgent need for alternative treatment ways, i.e. other effective drugs or vaccines.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Using the Litomosoides sigmodontis murine model of filariasis we demonstrate that immunization with microfilariae together with the adjuvant alum prevents mice from developing high microfilaraemia after challenge infection. Immunization achieved 70% to 100% protection in the peripheral blood and in the pleural space and furthermore strongly reduced the microfilarial load in mice that remained microfilaraemic. Protection was associated with the impairment of intrauterine filarial embryogenesis and with local and systemic microfilarial-specific host IgG, as well as IFN-γ secretion by host cells from the site of infection. Furthermore immunization significantly reduced adult worm burden.
Conclusions/Significance
Our results present a tool to understand the immunological basis of vaccine induced protection in order to develop a microfilariae-based vaccine that reduces adult worm burden and prevents microfilaraemia, a powerful weapon to stop transmission of filariasis.
Author Summary
Lymphatic filariasis is caused by parasitic filarial worms that are transmitted by mosquitoes, requiring uptake of larvae and distribution into the blood of the host. More than 120 million people are infected and about 30% of these individuals suffer from clinical symptoms. Reduction in transmission currently depends on mass drug administration, which has significantly reduced transmission rates over the past years. However, despite repetitive rounds of administration, transmission has not been eliminated completely from endemic areas. In some infected individuals the immune system can partially control the parasite, such that a proportion of infected individuals remain microfilaria-negative, despite the presence of adult worms. Therefore mechanisms must exist that are able to combat microfilaraemia. Identifying such mechanisms would help to design vaccines against disease transmitting microfilarial stages. Using the Litomosoides sigmodontis murine model of filariasis research we show a successful immunization against the blood-circulating larval stage that is responsible for arthropod-dependent transmission of the disease. Reduced microfilaraemia was associated with impairment of worm embryogenesis, with systemic and local microfilarial-specific host IgG and with IFN-γ secretion by host cells at the site of infection. These results raise hope for developing a microfilariae-based vaccine, being a pivotal step towards eradicating filariasis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001558
PMCID: PMC3295809  PMID: 22413031
7.  C1q enhancement of antibody-dependent granulocyte-mediated killing of nonphagocytosable targets in vitro. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1988;82(3):945-949.
A possible role for C1q in antibody-dependent granulocyte-mediated killing of nonphagocytosable targets was investigated utilizing IgG-dependent granulocyte cytotoxicity directed against microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis. Granulocyte-mediated killing of microfilariae is enhanced by addition of fresh serum. Lack of C4 did not significantly reduce the observed increase in cytotoxicity. The addition of highly purified monomeric human Clq (0.2 microgram/ml) in the presence of immune IgG resulted in a two- to fivefold enhancement of killing (P less than 0.025). C1q enhancement of killing occurred in the absence of fluid-phase IgG, but killing was significantly less than when both fluid-phase IgG and C1q were present. The effect of C1q was inhibited by the addition of solubilized type I collagen (44-92% inhibition of killing, P less than 0.05). Significant 125I-Clq binding to microfilariae occurred only in the presence of immune IgG. In addition, C1q in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 micrograms/ml resulted in a dose-dependent increase in binding of 125I-immune IgG to microfilariae. Finally, when purified C1q was added to preopsonized, washed microfilariae, granulocyte production of superoxide was increased from 0.25 +/- 0.07 to 0.68 +/- 0.07 nm/10(6) cells.10 min (P less than 0.01). These results describe a novel functional role for C1q in enhancement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity towards nonphagocytosable targets.
PMCID: PMC303606  PMID: 2843577
8.  A distinctive colour associated with high iodine content in malignant pleural effusion from metastatic papillary thyroid cancer: a case report 
Introduction
Pleural effusions are a common clinical problem and affect about one million people in the United States and United Kingdom each year. Over 60 causes of pleural effusion have been identified; establishing the definitive aetiology can be difficult, and often requires invasive procedures. Guidelines state that macroscopic examination of the fluid should be the first step in determining the aetiology of a pleural effusion. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon cause of malignant pleural effusion, with only 10 cases reported in the literature, their physical characteristics and composition having been rarely described. We describe for the first time a distinctive brown colour of the malignant effusion (despite centrifugation) from a rare case of metastatic papillary thyroid cancer to the pleura, associated with a high pleural fluid iodine content. Such a characteristic may be useful in expediting diagnosis of a malignant pleural effusion in the appropriate clinical context.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 71-year-old Caucasian man with metastatic papillary thyroid cancer; a large, long-standing, right-sided pleural effusion and a 83-fold higher pleural thyroglobulin level compared to corresponding serum, supporting this malignancy as the cause of the patient’s effusion. The pleural fluid had a distinctive pigmentation similar to iodine-containing antiseptic preparations. Biopsy during medical thoracoscopy confirmed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Analysis of pleural fluid showed a pleural thyroglobulin level over 80 times that of serum levels (29,000μg/L versus 350ug/L). Pleural fluid iodine content was 23,000ug/L and may account for the fluid’s distinctive pigment, as iodine is an essential component in thyroglobulin and thyroid hormone synthesis.
Conclusions
Pleural fluid pigmentation may aid diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting. A distinctive iodine-like brown colour of pleural fluid may represent elevated iodine content and should raise consideration of metastatic thyroid cancer as a cause for a pleural effusion.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-147
PMCID: PMC3680221  PMID: 23724969
Pleural effusion; Iodine; Thyroglobulin; Diagnosis; Thyroid; Carcinoma; Colour
9.  Role of pleural biopsy in etiological diagnosis of pleural effusion 
Background:
Pleural effusion remains the most common manifestation of pleural pathology. Sometimes it is difficult to differentiate between tubercular and malignant pleural effusion in spite of routine biochemical and cytological examination of pleural fluid.
Aims:
This study aims to evaluate the role of pleural biopsy to determine the etiology of pleural effusion and to correlate it with the biochemical and cytological parameters of pleural fluid.
Settings and Design:
Seventy two consecutive patients of pleural effusion were selected from the out patient and indoor department of a tertiary hospital of Kolkata. It was a prospective and observational study conducted over a period of one year.
Materials and Methods:
Biochemical, cytological and microbiological evaluation of pleural fluid was done in all cases. Those with exudative pleural effusions underwent pleural biopsy by Abram’s needle. Subsequently, the etiology of effusion was determined.
Results:
Malignancy was the most common etiology, followed by tuberculosis. Pleural biopsy was done in 72 patients. Pleural tissue was obtained in 62 cases. Malignancy was diagnosed in 24, tuberculosis in 20 and non-specific inflammation in 18, on histopathological examination. Out of 20 histological proven tuberculosis cases adenosine de-aminase (ADA) was more than 70 u/l in 11 cases.
Conclusions:
In our study, malignancy is more common than tuberculosis, particularly in elderly. When thoracoscope is not available, pleural fluid cytology and pleural biopsy can give definite diagnosis. Pleural fluid ADA ≥ 70 u/l is almost diagnostic of tuberculosis, where pleural biopsy is not recommended.
doi:10.4103/0970-2113.71941
PMCID: PMC2988168  PMID: 21139714
Malignancy; pleural biopsy; pleural effusion; tuberculosis
10.  Cell Origins and Diagnostic Accuracy of Interleukin 27 in Pleural Effusions 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40450.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of interleukin (IL)-27 in pleural effusions and to evaluate the diagnostic significance of pleural IL-27. The concentrations of IL-27 were determined in pleural fluids and sera from 68 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion, 63 malignant pleural effusion, 22 infectious pleural effusion, and 21 transudative pleural effusion. Flow cytometry was used to identify which pleural cell types expressed IL-27. It was found that the concentrations of pleural IL-27 in tuberculous group were significantly higher than those in malignant, infectious, and transudative groups, respectively. Pleural CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, B cells, monocytes, macrophages, and mesothelial cells might be the cell sources for IL-27. IL-27 levels could be used for diagnostic purpose for tuberculous pleural effusion, with the cut off value of 1,007 ng/L, IL-27 had a sensitivity of 92.7% and specificity of 99.1% for differential diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion from non-tuberculous pleural effusions. Therefore, compared to non-tuberculous pleural effusions, IL-27 appeared to be increased in tuberculous pleural effusion. IL-27 in pleural fluid is a sensitive and specific biomarker for the differential diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion from pleural effusions with the other causes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040450
PMCID: PMC3392223  PMID: 22792330
11.  Closed Pleural Biopsy is Still Useful in the Evaluation of Malignant Pleural Effusion 
Background:
Pleural fluid cytology for malignant cells is the easiest way to diagnose malignant pleural effusion with good sensitivity and specificity. With the introduction of medical thoracoscopy, the use of closed pleural biopsy for the diagnosis of cytology negative malignant pleural effusion is gradually decreasing. However use of thoracoscopy is limited due to its high cost and procedure related complications.
Aims:
The aim was to assess the usefulness of closed pleural biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty-six patients of pleural effusion associated with malignancy were selected from the patients admitted in the chest ward of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 1 year. Pleural fluid aspiration for cytology and closed pleural biopsy were done in all the patients.
Results:
Out of 66 patients, 46 (69%) patients showed malignant cells in pleural fluid cytology examination. Cytology was positive in 35 (52%), 10 (15%), and 1 (1.5%) patients in the first, second, and third samples respectively. Closed pleural biopsy was positive in 32 (48%) patients. Among them, 22 also had positive cytology. Additional 10 cytology negative patients were diagnosed by pleural biopsy. Cytology–histology concordance was seen in 12 patients. Definite histological diagnosis could be achieved in five patients with indeterminate cytology. Pleural biopsy was not associated with any major postoperative complication.
Conclusion:
Closed pleural biopsy can improve the diagnostic ability in cytology negative malignant pleural effusion. Closed pleural biopsy has still a place in evaluation of malignant pleural effusion especially in a resource-limited country like India.
doi:10.4103/0974-2727.98669
PMCID: PMC3425262  PMID: 22923920
Closed pleural biopsy; malignant pleural effusion; pleural fluid cytology
12.  AB 28. Evaluation of pleural effusion at first diagnosis of lung cancer 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB28.
Background
Pleural effusion is a common finding at first diagnosis of lung cancer and occurs in 7% to 30% of patients. 50-75% of those effusions are malignant.
Material and patients
We reviewed the files of 126 patients with lung cancer at our department and specifically the patients’ and disease’s characteristics concerning the presence or absence of pleural effusion as well as the correlation of those characteristics with pleural fluid’s features.
Results
89% of patients were males with a mean age of 66 years. 95% were smokers and 27% of them had pleural effusion. Cough was the most common symptom (51%), followed by dyspnea (33%) and chest pain (19%). Dyspnea and chest pain were significantly more frequent in patients with pleural effusion 56% vs. 25% (P=0.002) and 38% vs. 12%, (P=0.001). The majority of patients with pleural effusion had adenocarcinoma (56%) and lower lobe malignancies were more often associated with pleural effusions. Most of the patients with pleural effusion (71%) had also other metastasis compared to 52% of patients without pleural effusion. Pleural fluid was an exudate in 100% of patients with a lymphocyte predominance in 59%, eosinophilic predominance in 26% and low pH (<7.30) in 29%. Pleural fluid cytology was positive in 65% and in 100% of all effusions with low pH. The prevalence of pleural effusion was not affected by age, gender or number of py.
Conclusions
Patients with adenocarcinoma, lower lobe malignancies and other metastatic lesions presented more often with pleural effusion. Approximately one quarter of patients with effusion had an eosinophilic pleural fluid and pleural fluid cytology was positive in all effusions with a pH value lower than 7.30.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.s028
PMCID: PMC3537382
13.  Pleural fluid cell-free DNA integrity index to identify cytologically negative malignant pleural effusions including mesotheliomas 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:428.
Background
The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) is often clinically challenging, especially if the cytology is negative for malignancy. DNA integrity index has been reported to be a marker of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of pleural fluid DNA integrity index in the diagnosis of MPE.
Methods
We studied 75 pleural fluid and matched serum samples from consecutive subjects. Pleural fluid and serum ALU DNA repeats [115bp, 247bp and 247bp/115bp ratio (DNA integrity index)] were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Pleural fluid and serum mesothelin levels were quantified using ELISA.
Results
Based on clinico-pathological evaluation, 52 subjects had MPE (including 16 mesotheliomas) and 23 had benign effusions. Pleural fluid DNA integrity index was higher in MPE compared with benign effusions (1.2 vs. 0.8; p<0.001). Cytology had a sensitivity of 55% in diagnosing MPE. If cytology and pleural fluid DNA integrity index were considered together, they exhibited 81% sensitivity and 87% specificity in distinguishing benign and malignant effusions. In cytology-negative pleural effusions (35 MPE and 28 benign effusions), elevated pleural fluid DNA integrity index had an 81% positive predictive value in detecting MPEs. In the detection of mesothelioma, at a specificity of 90%, pleural fluid DNA integrity index had similar sensitivity to pleural fluid and serum mesothelin (75% each respectively).
Conclusion
Pleural fluid DNA integrity index is a promising diagnostic biomarker for identification of MPEs, including mesothelioma. This biomarker may be particularly useful in cases of MPE where pleural aspirate cytology is negative, and could guide the decision to undertake more invasive definitive testing. A prospective validation study is being undertaken to validate our findings and test the clinical utility of this biomarker for altering clinical practice.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-428
PMCID: PMC3495778  PMID: 23009708
Malignant pleural effusions; Mesothelioma; Lung cancer; DNA integrity index; Mesothelin
14.  Eosinophils Are Important for Protection, Immunoregulation and Pathology during Infection with Nematode Microfilariae 
PLoS Pathogens  2014;10(3):e1003988.
Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1), during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL), we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity.
Author Summary
Eosinophil recruitment is a classic characteristic of both allergic and parasitic helminth diseases. Elucidation of the role of eosinophils in these diseases is of pivotal importance for understanding the mechanisms of protection and the development of pathology. In the last few years, the part played by eosinophils in helminth-defence has been dissected using in vivo models and their importance in protection has been shown to be highly specific to the host-parasite combination. This study dissects the role of eosinophils during infection with the human lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, which causes the major neglected tropical disease, lymphatic filariasis. In particular, we study the role of the eosinophil as a double–edged sword in generating both protection and pathology. We definitively confirm the importance of eosinophils in protection against B. malayi microfilariae and show that protection is not mediated by release of the eosinophil granule proteins, major basic protein or eosinophil peroxidase alone. Overall, we reveal that during an infection with B. malayi microfilariae, eosinophils are critical for primary protective responses. However, eosinophils contribute to nematode-induced lung dysfunction, while additionally, eosinophil granules are important negative regulators of parasite-induced lung inflammatory and some adaptive immune responses.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003988
PMCID: PMC3953434  PMID: 24626328
15.  Assessment of the N-PCR Assay in Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis: Detection of M.tuberculosis in Pleural Fluid and Sputum Collected in Tandem 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(4):e10220.
Background
The nonspecific clinical presentation and paucibacillary nature of tuberculous pleuritis remains a challenge for diagnosis. Diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion depends on the demonstration of the presence of tubercle bacilli in the sputum, pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimen, or demonstration of granuloma in pleura by histological examination. We examined the clinical utility of the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis using the in house N-PCR assay, AFB smear microscopy and culture. Besides pleural fluid the inclusion of sputum in the efficacy of diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis was scrutinized.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Pleural fluid and sputum samples of 58 tuberculous and 42 non-tuberculous pleural effusion patients were processed for AFB smear microscopy, culture and the N-PCR assay. Mycobacteria were detected exclusively in tuberculous pleural effusion samples. None of the non-tuberculous pleural effusion samples were positive for mycobacteria. Comparative analysis showed that the N-PCR assay had the highest sensitivity. Inclusion of sputum along with pleural fluid increased N-PCR sensitivity from 51.7 to 70.6% (p<0.0001).This improved sensitivity was reflected in AFB smear microscopy and isolation by culture. The sensitivity enhanced on inclusion of sputum from 3.4 (p = 0.50) to 10.3% (p = 0.038) for AFB smear microscopy and for isolation of mycobacteria from 10.3(p = 0.03) to 22.4% (p = 0.0005). Thirteen isolates were obtained from 58 pleural tuberculosis patients. Eleven mycobacterial isolates were identified as M.tuberculosis and two as M.fortuitum and M.chelonae. Complete concordance was seen between the biochemical identification of isolates and the N-PCR identification of mycobacterial species prior to isolation.
Conclusions/Significance
To the best of our knowledge this is the first PCR based report on utility of sputum for diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. The present study demonstrates that a combination of pleural fluid with sputum sample and N-PCR improved the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010220
PMCID: PMC2856669  PMID: 20419090
16.  AB 25. Moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics and pleural fluid penetration in patients with pleural effusion 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB25.
Background
Moxifloxacin is widely used for the treatment of parapneumonic pleural effusion or empyema. However, data on moxifloxacin penetration and pharmacokinetics in pleural space have been reported are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetics and penetration of moxifloxacin in patients with various types of pleural effusion and degrees of inflammation.
Patients and methods
Seven patients with empyema/parapneumonic effusion (age 52.7±22.2 years) and seven patients with malignant pleural effusion (age 74.3±12.5 years) were included in the study. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) was administered iv as first dose of treatment for patients with empyema/parapneumonic effusion and as single dose in those with malignant effusion. Plasma and pleural fluid samples were collected immediately before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours after administration. Moxifloxacin concentration in plasma and pleural fluid was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The maximum concentration (Cmaxplasma, Cmaxfluid) was estimated by direct observation of determined values at each time point and Tmaxplasma/ Tmaxfluid was the time when those concentrations were achieved. The area under concentration-time curve (AUC24plasma and AUC24fluid) was calculated by the trapezoidal rule. Penetration of moxifloxacin in the pleural fluid was determined by the AUC24 fluid/plasma ratio. The remaining pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with WinNonlin software.
Results
No statistically significant differences were observed between two groups in plasma and fluid Cmax and AUC24 and the degree of moxifloxacin’s penetration in pleural fluid. The time until the achievement of pleural Cmax was statistically significantly longer in patients with empyema/parapneumonic effusion. The minimum moxifloxacin levels in the pleural fluid at 24 h (Ctrough fluid), were higher in patients with empyema/parapneumonic effusion that in those with malignant effusion but the difference was not statistically significant.
Conclusions
The delay in achievement of pleural fluid maximum moxifloxacin levels and the higher minimum levels in patients with empyema/parapneumonic effusion may be attributed to pleura thickening due to inflammation. However, AUC24fluid levels did not differ according to the type of pleural effusion.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.s025
PMCID: PMC3537441
17.  Interferon-Gamma Release Assay Performance of Pleural Fluid and Peripheral Blood in Pleural Tuberculosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83857.
Background
The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) remains to be difficult. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is a promising method for diagnosing TB in low TB burden countries. The release of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by T lymphocytes increases at a localized site of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen. This study aimed to examine the clinical accuracy of T-SPOT.TB on pleural fluid and peripheral blood for the diagnosis of pleural TB in high TB burden country.
Methods
168 subjects with pleural effusion were enrolled prospectively and examined with T-SPOT.TB on pleural fluid and peripheral blood samples simultaneously.
Results
The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and cut-off value of pleural fluid T-SPOT.TB was established according to spot forming cells (SFC) between culture/biopsy-confirmed pleural TB group and no pleural TB group. The sensitivity of pleural fluid T-SPOT.TB and peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB was similar (96.3% and 92.7%, respectively) (P= 0.691). In contrast, the specificity of pleural fluid T-SPOT.TB (94.5%) was significantly higher than that of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB (76.1%) (P=0.002). 2% (2/98) of pleural fluid T-SPOT.TB results were indeterminate.
Conclusion
The diagnostic accuracy of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB is low in high TB burden countries due to latent tuberculosis infection. Pleural fluid T-SPOT.TB is a relatively useful and supplementary test to explore pleural TB in high TB burden countries, but its diagnostic accuracy needs to be validated in further large scale research.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083857
PMCID: PMC3873962  PMID: 24386296
18.  Value of adenosine deaminase in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusions in young patients in a region of high prevalence of tuberculosis. 
Thorax  1995;50(6):600-603.
BACKGROUND--Pleural biopsy is usually considered important for the diagnosis of pleural effusions, especially for distinguishing between tuberculosis and neoplasia, even though tuberculous pleural fluid contains sensitive biochemical markers. In regions with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, and in patient groups with a low risk of other causes of pleurisy, the positive predictive value of these markers is increased. The criteria for performing a pleural biopsy under these circumstances have been investigated, using adenosine deaminase (ADA) as a pleural fluid marker for tuberculosis. METHODS--One hundred and twenty nine patients with a pleural effusion aged < or = 35 years (mean (SD) 25.2 (4.9) years) were studied. Seventy three were men. Eighty one effusions (62.8%) were tuberculous, 12 (9.3%) parapneumonic, and 10 (7.7%) neoplastic, five were caused by pulmonary thromboembolism, four by systemic lupus erythematosus, seven by empyema, three following surgery, one was the result of asbestosis, and one of nephrotic syndrome. In five cases no definitive diagnosis was reached. ADA levels were determined by the method of Galanti and Giusti. RESULTS--The diagnostic yield of procedures not involving biopsy was 94.5% (122/129). Pleural biopsy provided a diagnosis in a further two cases, but not in the remaining five. All tuberculous cases had pleural fluid levels of ADA of > 47 U/l (mean (SD) 111.1 (36.6) U/l). The only other cases in which ADA exceeded this level were six of the seven patients with empyema. Cytological examination of the pleural fluid diagnosed eight of the 10 neoplastic cases, compared with six diagnosed by pleural biopsy. CONCLUSIONS--In a region with a high prevalence of tuberculosis procedures not involving pleural biopsy have a very high diagnostic yield in patients with a pleural effusion aged < or = 35 years, making biopsy necessary only in cases in which pleural levels of ADA are below 47 U/l, pleural fluid cytology is negative and, in the absence of a positive basis for some other diagnosis, neoplasia is suspected.
PMCID: PMC1021255  PMID: 7638798
19.  Evaluation of real-time PCR of patient pleural effusion for diagnosis of tuberculosis 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:279.
Background
Pleural tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis often requires invasive procedures such as pleural biopsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the IS6110 sequence of M. tuberculosis in pleural fluid specimens as a rapid and non-invasive test for pleural TB diagnosis.
Findings
For this cross-sectional study, 150 consecutive patients with pleural effusion diagnosed by chest radiography, who were referred for diagnostic thoracocentesis and pleural biopsy and met eligibility criteria, had a pleural fluid specimen submitted for real-time PCR testing. Overall, 98 patients had pleural TB and 52 had pleural effusion secondary to other disease. TB diagnosis was obtained using acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear or culture for mycobacteria and/or histopathologic examination in 94 cases and by clinical findings in 4 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of PCR testing for pleural TB diagnosis were 42.8% (95% CI 38.4 - 44.8), 94.2% (95% CI 85.8 - 98.0), 93.3% (95% CI 83.6 - 97.7), and 48.5% (95% CI 44.2 - 50.4), respectively. The real-time PCR test improved TB detection from 30.6% to 42.9% when compared to AFB smear and culture methods performed on pleural fluid specimens, although the best sensitivity was achieved by combining the results of culture and histopathology of pleural tissue specimens.
Conclusion
The real-time PCR test of pleural fluid specimens is a useful and non-invasive additional assay for fast diagnosis of pleural TB.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-279
PMCID: PMC3224496  PMID: 21819571
20.  Pleural fluid ferritin concentrations in human disease. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1985;38(7):818-824.
The concentration of ferritin was measured in the pleural fluid of 108 patients with pleural effusions. In all groups of patients the ferritin concentration was higher in pleural fluid than in serum. The greatest differences, with up to 100 times more ferritin in the pleural fluid, were found for patients with rheumatoid pleurisy, malignant effusions, and empyema. In patients with non-malignant inflammatory pleural effusions the concentration of ferritin in pleural fluid correlated significantly with other pleural fluid indices of inflammation: there was a positive correlation with lactate dehydrogenase activity and a negative correlation with concentrations of glucose and complement components C3 and C4. Ferritin was detected immunocytochemically only in the macrophages found among the pleural fluid cells. Our study shows that large amounts of ferritin accumulate locally in the pleural cavity in certain types of pleural inflammation. The accumulation is probably partly the result of increased local reticuloendothelial system activity. Determination of the concentration of ferritin in pleural fluid may provide corroborative information for differential diagnosis and may further our understanding of the pathogenetic events that lead to the perpetuation of inflammatory activity in pleural effusions.
Images
PMCID: PMC499311  PMID: 4019803
21.  Randomised controlled trial of intrapleural streptokinase in community acquired pleural infection 
Thorax  1997;52(5):416-421.
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for pleural infection includes catheter drainage and antibiotics. Tube drainage often fails if the fluid is loculated by fibrinous adhesions when surgical drainage is needed. Streptokinase may aid the process of pleural drainage, but there have been no controlled trials to assess its efficacy. METHODS: Twenty four patients with infected community acquired parapneumonic effusions were studied. All had either frankly purulent/culture or Gram stain positive pleural fluid (13 cases; 54%) or fluid which fulfilled the biochemical criteria for pleural infection. Fluid was drained with a 14F catheter. The antibiotics used were cefuroxime and metronidazole or were guided by culture. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive intrapleural streptokinase, 250,000 i.u. daily, or control saline flushes for three days. The primary end points related to the efficacy of pleural drainage--namely, the volume of pleural fluid drained and the chest radiographic response to treatment. Other end points were the number of pleural procedures needed and blood indices of inflammation. RESULTS: The streptokinase group drained more pleural fluid both during the days of streptokinase/control treatment (mean (SD) 391 (200) ml versus 124 (44) ml; difference 267 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) 144 to 390; p < .001) and overall (2564 (1663) ml, 95% CI 465 to 2545; p < 0.01). They showed greater improvement on the chest radiograph at discharge, measured as the fall in the maximum dimension of the pleural collection (6.0 (2.7) cm versus 3.4 (2.7) cm; difference 2.9 cm, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.4; p < 0.05) and the overall reduction in pleural fluid collection size (p < 0.05, two-tailed Fisher's exact test). Systemic fibrinolysis and bleeding complications did not occur. Surgery was required by three control patients but none in the streptokinase group. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural streptokinase probably aids the treatment of pleural infections by improving pleural drainage without causing systemic fibrinolysis or local haemorrhage. 



PMCID: PMC1758567  PMID: 9176531
22.  Interferon gamma for diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusions 
Thorax  1999;54(10):921-924.
BACKGROUND—A study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic value of pleural fluid concentrations of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) as a marker of tuberculosis.
METHODS—Patients admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between April 1997 and January 1998 with a lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion were enrolled into the study. The pleural fluids were examined for cytology, staining for acid fast bacilli, and mycobacterial culture. Pathological examination and mycobacterial culture were performed on each pleural biopsy specimen. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was made when one of the following criteria was met: (1) Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from either the pleural fluid or pleural tissue; (2) granulomas were demonstrated in the pleural tissue which stained positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB); or (3) in the presence of granulomas negative on staining for AFB in pleural tissue there was a response to antituberculous treatment on follow up. All pleural fluid samples were stored at -70°C and the IFN-γ level was measured by immunoassay. Analysis was made using sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio for a positive test result. The best cut off point was determined by the highest likelihood ratio and receiver operating characteristic curve.
RESULTS—A total of 66 patients were enrolled and tuberculosis was confirmed in 39 of them. The diagnoses in the non-tuberculous group included malignancy (15), paramalignancy (11), and chronic pleuritis secondary to infective endocarditis (1). The mean (SE) IFN-γ level in the pleural fluid was significantly higher in the tuberculous group than in the non-tuberculous group (1493.3 (131.3) pg/ml versus 80.1 (50.4) pg/ml, p<0.001). The overlap between the two groups was minimal. At the cut off value of 240 pg/ml the sensitivity was 94.9% (95% CI 86.6 to 100), the specificity was 96.3% (95% CI 89.2 to 100), and the likelihood ratio for a positive test result was 25.6.
CONCLUSIONS—The pleural fluid concentration of IFN-γ is a good and useful diagnostic marker of tuberculosis presenting as a lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion.


PMCID: PMC1745364  PMID: 10491456
23.  Diagnostic utility of adenosine deaminase in exudative pleural effusions 
Objective:
To determine the diagnostic utility of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in exudative pleural effusions of different etiologies.
Setting and Design:
It was an observational study conducted at a tertiary care teaching institute.
Materials and Methods:
Of a total of 171 pleural fluid samples, 122 were found to be exudates and were included in the study. Pleural fluid ADA was done for all included patients. Pleural fluid ADA ≥40 U/l was taken as diagnostic cut off for TB effusion.
Statistical Analysis:
Sensitivity, specificity positive and negative predictive value of pleural fluid ADA for diagnosing TB was calculated by using clinical calculator – 1, Richard Lowry 2001-2013.
Results:
There were 171 patients with pleural effusion, out of which 122 (71.8%) were found to be exudative and were studied further. There were 49 (40.1%), 36 (29.5%) and 33 (27%) cases of TB, malignancy and para pneumonic effusion respectively, whereas 4 (3.3%) cases remained undiagnosed. Median ADA values for TB, malignancy and para pneumonic effusion were 55.8 U/l (range 9.7-756 U/l), 18 U/l (6.5-81 U/l) and 25 U/l (3.4-172 U/l) respectively. Pleural fluid ADA >40U/l yielded 85.7% sensitivity, 80.8% specificity, 75% positive predictive value and 89.5% negative predictive value.
Conclusion:
Pleural fluid ADA remains useful in diagnosing tuberculosis pleural effusion. The median ADA for TB effusion in present cohort was 51.8 IU/ml. Pleural fluid ADA of 40 U/L yielded 89.5% negative predictive value and 75% positive predictive value. Pleural fluid ADA is cost effective and good screening test for diagnosis of TB.
doi:10.4103/0970-2113.129842
PMCID: PMC3999674  PMID: 24778477
Adenosine deaminase; pleural effusion; tuberculosis
24.  Cytokine production at the site of disease in human tuberculosis. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(8):3482-3489.
Clinical and immunologic evidence suggests that tuberculous pleuritis provides a model to understand protective immune mechanisms against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We therefore evaluated the pattern of cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine production in pleural fluid and blood of patients with tuberculous pleuritis. RNA was extracted from mononuclear cells, reverse transcribed to cDNA, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After normalization for T-cell cDNA, cDNA from pleural fluid cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was amplified with cytokine-specific primers. PCR product was quantified by Southern blot. For the Th1 cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), PCR product was greater in pleural fluid than in blood, whereas PCR product for the Th2 cytokine IL-4 was decreased in pleural fluid compared with blood. Concentrations of IFN-gamma were elevated in pleural fluid compared with serum, but IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5 were not detectable. Mean concentrations of IFN-gamma and IL-2 in supernatants of M. tuberculosis-stimulated pleural fluid cells were significantly greater than corresponding concentrations in supernatants of stimulated PBMC. In situ hybridization showed that increased IFN-gamma production by pleural fluid cells was associated with a 20- to 60-fold increase in the frequency of antigen-reactive IFN-gamma-mRNA-expressing cells. Because IL-10 can be produced by T cells and macrophages, pleural fluid cells and PBMC were normalized for beta-actin cDNA content and then amplified by PCR with IL-10-specific primers. IL-10 mRNA was greater in pleural fluid cells than in PBMC and was expressed predominantly by macrophages. IL-10 concentrations were elevated in pleural fluid versus serum. These data provide strong evidence for compartmentalization of Th1 cytokines and IL-10 at the site of disease in humans with a resistant immune response to mycobacterial infection.
PMCID: PMC281026  PMID: 8335379
25.  Pleural tuberculosis: is radiological evidence of pulmonary-associated disease related to the exacerbation of the inflammatory response? 
Clinics  2012;67(11):1259-1263.
OBJECTIVE:
Pleural tuberculosis is the most frequently occurring form of extra pulmonary disease in adults. In up to 40% of cases, the lung parenchyma is concomitantly involved, which can have an epidemiological impact. This study aims to evaluate the pleural and systemic inflammatory response of patients with pleural or pleuropulmonary tuberculosis.
METHODS:
A prospective study of 39 patients with confirmed pleural tuberculosis. After thoracentesis, a high resolution chest tomography was performed to evaluate the pulmonary involvement. Of the 39 patients, 20 exhibited only pleural effusion, and high resolution chest tomography revealed active associated-pulmonary disease in 19 patients. The total protein, lactic dehydrogenase, adenosine deaminase, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β1 levels were quantified in the patient serum and pleural fluid.
RESULTS:
All of the effusions were exudates with high levels of adenosine deaminase. The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-β1 were increased in the blood and pleural fluid of all of the patients with pleural tuberculosis, with no differences between the two forms of tuberculosis. The tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly higher in the pleural fluid of the patients with the pleuropulmonary form of tuberculosis. The interleukin-8 levels were high in the pleural fluid of all of the patients, without any differences between the forms of tuberculosis.
CONCLUSION:
Tumor necrosis factor-α was the single cytokine that significantly increased in the pleural fluid of the patients with pulmonary involvement. However, an overlap in the results does not permit us to suggest that cytokine is a biological marker of concomitant parenchymal involvement. Although high resolution chest tomography can be useful in identifying these patients, the investigation of fast acid bacilli and cultures for M. tuberculosis in the sputum is recommended for all patients who are diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2012(11)06
PMCID: PMC3488982  PMID: 23184200
Cytokines; Inflammation; Pleural Diseases; Tuberculosis

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