Human phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 8B (PDE8B) is located at 5q14.1 and is known as the PDE with the highest affinity to cAMP. We recently described a family with bilateral micronodular adrenocortical disease that was apparently caused by an inactivating PDE8B mutation (H305P). As a result of a genome-wide study, a strong association between six polymorphic variants in the PDE8B promoter and serum levels of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been recently reported. Despite an extended analysis of the regions surrounding 5q14.1, no other potential genetic variants that could be responsible for the associated TSH levels were found.
In this study, we genotyped by polymerase chain reaction the described six polymorphic variants in the PDE8B promoter in the family with micronodular adrenocortical disease and inactivating PDE8B mutation and analyzed their correlation with individual TSH values in the family members.
We observed complete segregation between the reported association and individual TSH values in the family we studied. Haplotype analysis showed that the haplotype associated with the high TSH levels is different from the one that segregated with H305P, suggesting that the mutation most probably has arisen on an allele independent of the high TSH-associated allele.
The proposed mechanism by which PDE8B may influence TSH levels is through control of cAMP signaling. Our analysis revealed separate segregation of an inactivating PDE8B allele from the high-TSH-allele and showed low TSH levels in persons who carry an inactivating PDE8B allele. These data suggest that, indeed, PDE8B may be involved in regulation of TSH levels.
Despite the success of genome-wide association studies for asthma, few, if any, definitively causal variants have been identified and there is still a substantial portion of the heritability of the disease yet to be discovered. Some of this “missing heritability” may be accounted for by family-specific coding variants found to be segregating with asthma.
To identify family-specific variants segregating with asthma, we recruited one family from a previous study of asthma as reporting multiple asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. We performed whole-exome sequencing on all four children and both parents and identified coding variants segregating with asthma that were not found in other variant databases.
Ten novel variants were identified that were found in the two affected offspring and affected mother, but absent in the unaffected father and two unaffected offspring. Of these ten, variants in three genes (PDE4DIP, CBLB, and KALRN) were deemed of particular interest based on their functional prediction scores and previously reported function or asthma association. We did not identify any common risk variants segregating with asthma, however, we did observe an increase in the number of novel, nonsynonymous variants in asthma candidate genes in the asthmatic children compared to the non-asthmatic children.
This is the first report applying exome sequencing to identify asthma susceptibility variants. Despite having sequenced only one family segregating asthma, we have identified several potentially functional variants in interesting asthma candidate genes. This will provide the basis for future work in which more families will be sequenced to identify variants across families that cluster within genes.
Asthma; Whole-exome sequencing; PDE4DIP; CBLB; KALRN
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling modulates functions of inflammatory cells involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, and type 4 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) are essential components of this pathway. Induction of the PDE4 isoform PDE4B is necessary for Toll-like receptor signaling in monocytes and macrophages and is associated with T cell receptor/CD3 in T cells; however, its exact physiological function in the development of allergic asthma remains undefined.
We investigated the role of PDE4B in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and TH2-driven inflammatory responses.
Wild-type and PDE4B−/− mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and AHR measured in response to inhaled methacholine. Airway inflammation was characterized by analyzing leukocyte infiltration and cytokine accumulation in the airways. Ovalbumin-stimulated cell proliferation and TH2 cytokine production were determined in cultured bronchial lymph node cells.
Mice deficient in PDE4B do not develop AHR. This protective effect was associated with a significant decrease in eosinophils recruitment to the lungs and decreased TH2 cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Defects in T-cell replication, TH2 cytokine production, and dendritic cell migration were evident in cells from the airway-draining lymph nodes. Conversely, accumulation of the TH1 cytokine IFN-γ was not affected in PDE4B−/− mice. Ablation of the orthologous PDE4 gene PDE4A has no impact on airway inflammation.
By relieving a cAMP-negative constraint, PDE4B plays an essential role in TH2-cell activation and dendritic cell recruitment during airway inflammation. These findings provide proof of concept that PDE4 inhibitors with PDE4B selectivity may have efficacy in asthma treatment.
Asthma; PDE4B; TH2 cytokines; airway hyperresponsiveness; airway inflammation; cAMP signaling
Genome-wide association studies followed by replication provide a powerful approach to map genetic risk factors for asthma. We sought to search for new variants associated with asthma and attempt to replicate the association with four loci reported previously (ORMDL3, PDE4D, DENND1B and IL1RL1). Genome-wide association analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rare copy number variants (CNVs) and overall CNV burden were carried out in 986 asthma cases and 1846 asthma-free controls from Australia. The most-associated locus in the SNP analysis was ORMDL3 (rs6503525, P=4.8 × 10−7). Five other loci were associated with P<10−5, most notably the chemokine CXC motif ligand 14 (CXCL14) gene (rs31263, P=7.8 × 10−6). We found no evidence for association with the specific risk variants reported recently for PDE4D, DENND1B and ILR1L1. However, a variant in IL1RL1 that is in low linkage disequilibrium with that reported previously was associated with asthma risk after accounting for all variants tested (rs10197862, gene wide P=0.01). This association replicated convincingly in an independent cohort (P=2.4 × 10−4). A 300-kb deletion on chromosome 17q21 was associated with asthma risk, but this did not reach experiment-wide significance. Asthma cases and controls had comparable CNV rates, length and number of genes affected by deletions or duplications. In conclusion, we confirm the association between asthma risk and variants in ORMDL3 and identify a novel risk variant in IL1RL1. Follow-up of the 17q21 deletion in larger cohorts is warranted.
whole-genome; gene; atopy; heterogeneity; structural; IKZF3
Oedema, commonly known as tissue swelling, occurs mainly on the leg and the arm. The condition may be associated with a range of causes such as venous diseases, trauma, infection, joint disease and orthopaedic surgery. Oedema is caused by both lymphatic and chronic venous insufficiency, which leads to pooling of blood and fluid in the extremities. This results in swelling, mild redness and scaling of the skin, all of which can culminate in ulceration.
We present a method to model a wide variety of geometries of limbs affected by oedema and venous ulcers. The shape modelling is based on the PDE method where a set of boundary curves are extracted from 3D scan data and are utilised as boundary conditions to solve a PDE, which provides the geometry of an affected limb. For this work we utilise a mixture of fourth order and sixth order PDEs, the solutions of which enable us to obtain a good representative shape of the limb and associated ulcers in question.
A series of examples are discussed demonstrating the capability of the method to produce good representative shapes of limbs by utilising a series of curves extracted from the scan data. In particular we show how the method could be used to model the shape of an arm and a leg with an associated ulcer.
We show how PDE based shape modelling techniques can be utilised to generate a variety of limb shapes and associated ulcers by means of a series of curves extracted from scan data. We also discuss how the method could be used to manipulate a generic shape of a limb and an associated wound so that the model could be fine-tuned for a particular patient.
Approximately 8% of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) cases worldwide are due to defects in rod-specific phosphodiesterase PDE6, a tetramer consisting of catalytic (PDE6α and PDE6β) and two regulatory (PDE6γ) subunits. In mice homozygous for a nonsense Pde6brd1 allele, absence of PDE6 activity is associated with retinal disease similar to humans. Although studied for 80 years, the rapid degeneration Pde6brd1 phenotype has limited analyses and therapeutic modeling. Moreover, this model does not represent human RP involving PDE6B missense mutations. In the current study the mouse missense allele, Pde6bH620Q was characterized further.
Photoreceptor degeneration in Pde6bH620Q homozygotes was documented by histochemistry, whereas PDE6β expression and activity were monitored by immunoblotting and cGMP assays. To measure changes in rod physiology, electroretinograms and intracellular Ca2+ recording were performed. To test the effectiveness of gene therapy, Opsin::Pde6b lentivirus was subretinally injected into Pde6bH620Q homozygotes.
Within 3 weeks of birth, the Pde6bH620Q homozygotes displayed relatively normal photoreceptors, but by 7 weeks degeneration was largely complete. Before degeneration, PDE6β expression and PDE6 activity were reduced. Although light-/dark-adapted total cGMP levels appeared normal, Pde6bH620Q homozygotes exhibited depressed rod function and elevated outer segment Ca2+. Transduction with Opsin::Pde6b lentivirus resulted in histologic and functional rescue of photoreceptors.
Pde6bH620Q homozygous mice exhibit a hypomorphic phenotype with partial PDE6 activity that may result in an increased Ca2+ to promote photoreceptor death. As degeneration in Pde6bH620Q mutants is slower than in Pde6brd1 mice and can be suppressed by Pde6b transduction, this Pde6bH620Q model may provide an alternate means to explore new treatments of RP.
Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia (BAH) is the second most common cause of corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome (CS). Genetic forms of BAH have been associated with complex syndromes such as Carney Complex and McCune Albright syndrome or may present as isolated micronodular adrenocortical disease (iMAD) usually in children and young adults with CS. A genome-wide association study identified inactivating phosphodiesterase (PDE) 11A (PDE11A) sequencing defects as low-penetrance predisposing factors for iMAD and related abnormalities; we also described a mutation (c.914A>C/H305P) in cAMP-specific PDE8B, in a patient with iMAD. In this study we further characterize this mutation; we also found a novel PDE8B isoform, highly expressed in the adrenal gland. This mutation is shown to significantly affect the ability of the protein to degrade cAMP in vitro. Tumor tissues from patients with iMAD and no mutations in the coding PDE8B sequence or any other related genes (PRKAR1A, PDE11A) showed down-regulated PDE8B expression (compared to normal adrenal cortex). Pde8b is detectable in the adrenal gland of newborn mice and is widely expressed in other mouse tissues. We conclude that PDE8B is another PDE gene linked to iMAD; it is a candidate causative gene for other adrenocortical lesions linked to the cAMP-signaling pathway, and possibly for tumors in other tissues.
adrenal gland; Cushing syndrome; protein kinase A; cyclic AMP; phosphodiesterases
Asthma is a complex genetic disease with more than 20 genome-wide scans conducted so far. Regions on almost every chromosome have been linked to asthma and several genes have been associated. However, most of these associations are weak and are still awaiting replication.
In this study, we conducted a second-stage genome-wide scan with 408 microsatellite markers on 201 asthma-affected sib pair families and defined clinical subgroups to identify phenotype-genotype relations.
The lowest P value for asthma in the total sample was 0.003 on chromosome 11, while several of the clinical subsets reached lower significance levels than in the overall sample. Suggestive evidence for linkage (p = 0.0007) was found for total IgE on chromosomes 1, 7 and again on chromosome 11, as well as for HDM asthma on chromosome 12. Weaker linkage signals could be found on chromosomes 4 and 5 for early onset and HDM, and, newly described, on chromosome 2 for severe asthma and on chromosome 9 for hay fever.
This phenotypic dissection underlines the importance of detailed clinical characterisations and the extreme genetic heterogeneity of asthma.
Asthma is a complex genetic disorder. Many studies have suggested that chromosome 12q harbours a susceptibility gene for asthma and atopy. Linkage on chromosome 12q24.21–q24.33 was investigated in 167 Danish families with asthma.
A two step procedure was used: (1) a genome‐wide scan in one set of families followed by (2) fine scale mapping in an independent set of families in candidate regions with a maximum likelihood score (MLS) of ⩾1.5 in the genome‐wide scan. Polymorphisms in a candidate gene in the region on 12q24.33 were tested for association with asthma in a family based transmission disequilibrium test.
An MLS of 3.27 was obtained at 12q24.33. The significance of this result was tested by simulation, resulting in a significant empirical genome‐wide p value of 0.018. To our Knowledge, this is the first significant evidence for linkage on chromosome 12q, and suggests a candidate region distal to most previously reported regions. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms in splicing factor, arginine/serine‐rich 8 (SFRS8) had an association with asthma (p⩽0.0020–0.050) in a sample of 136 asthmatic sib pairs. SFRS8 regulates the splicing of CD45, a protein which, through alternative splice variants, has an essential role in activating T cells. T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases such as asthma, so SFRS8 is a very interesting candidate gene in the region.
Linkage and simulation studies show that the very distal part of chromosome 12q contains a gene that increases the susceptibility to asthma. SFRS8 could act as a weak predisposing gene for asthma in our sample.
asthma; genetics; linkage; splicing factor arginine/serine‐rich 8 (SFRS8); atopy
Alteration of dopamine neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex, especially hypofunction of dopamine D1 receptors, contributes to psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. D1 receptors signal through the cAMP/PKA second messenger cascade, which is modulated by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes that hydrolyze and inactivate cyclic nucleotides. Though several PDEs are expressed in cortical neurons, the PDE4 enzyme family (PDE4A-D) has been implicated in the control of cognitive function. The best studied isoform, PDE4B, interacts with a schizophrenia susceptibility factor, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1).
We explore the control of mouse frontal cortex dopamine D1 receptor signaling and associated behavior by PDE4.
Inhibition of PDE4 by rolipram induced activation of cAMP/PKA signaling in cortical slices and in vivo, leading to the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and other postsynaptic and presynaptic PKA-substrates. Rolipram also enhanced DARPP-32 phosphorylation invoked by D1 receptor activation. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated PDE4A, PDE4B and PDE4D expression in DARPP-32-positive neurons in layer VI of frontal cortex, most likely in D1 receptor-positive, glutamatergic corticothalamic pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, the ability of rolipram treatment to improve the performance of mice in a sensorimotor gating test was DARPP-32-dependent.
PDE4, which is co-expressed with DARPP-32 in D1 receptor-positive cortical pyramidal neurons in layer VI, modulates the level of D1 receptor signaling and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in the frontal cortex, likely influencing cognitive function. These biochemical and behavioral actions of PDE4 inhibitors may contribute to the hypothesized antipsychotic actions of this class of compounds.
PDE4; DARPP-32; PKA; frontal cortex; prepulse inhibition; rolipram
Within erythrocytes (RBCs), cAMP levels are regulated by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Increases in cAMP and ATP release associated with activation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) and prostacyclin receptors (IPRs) are regulated by PDEs 2, 4 and PDE 3, respectively. Here we establish the presence of cytosolic PDEs in RBCs and determine a role for PDE5 in regulating levels of cGMP.
Purified cytosolic proteins were obtained from isolated human RBCs and western analysis was performed using antibodies against PDEs 3A, 4 and 5. Rabbit RBCs were incubated with dbcGMP, a cGMP analog, to determine the effect of cGMP on cAMP levels. To determine if cGMP affects receptor-mediated increases in cAMP, rabbit RBCs were incubated with dbcGMP prior to addition of isoproterenol (ISO), a βAR receptor agonist. To demonstrate that endogenous cGMP produces the same effect, rabbit and human RBCs were incubated with SpNONOate (SpNO), a nitric oxide donor, and YC1, a direct activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), in the absence and presence of a selective PDE5 inhibitor, zaprinast (ZAP).
Western analysis identified PDEs 3A, 4D and 5A. dbcGMP produced a concentration dependent increase in cAMP and ISO-induced increases in cAMP were potentiated by dbcGMP. In addition, incubation with YC1 and SpNO in the presence of ZAP potentiated βAR-induced increases in cAMP.
PDEs 2, 3A and 5 are present in the cytosol of human RBCs. PDE5 activity in RBCs regulates cGMP levels. Increases in intracellular cGMP augment cAMP levels. These studies suggest a novel role for PDE5 in erythrocytes.
red blood cell; cGMP; isoproterenol; PDE5; zaprinast
The phosphodiesterase (PDE) family is a group of enzymes that catalyzes the transformation of cyclic nucleotides into 5′ nucleotides. Based on rodents, the current mammalian model of PDE distribution in the ovarian follicle predicts Pde3a in the oocyte and Pde4d in the somatic cells. Using bovine as an experimental model, the present results showed that PDE3 was the predominant PDE activity in oocytes. However, cumulus cell cAMP-PDE activity was predominantly resistant to inhibition by 3-isobutyl-methylxantine, indicating PDE8 activity (60% of total PDE activity) and a minor role for PDE4 (<5%). A total of 20% of total oocyte PDE activity was also attributed to PDE8. The PDE activity measurements in mural granulosa cells from 2 to 6 mm in diameter suggest the presence of PDE4 and PDE8. In granulosa cells from follicles >10 mm, total PDE and PDE8 activities along with PDE8A protein level were increased compared with smaller follicles. The RT-PCR experiments showed that cumulus cells expressed PDE8A, PDE8B, and PDE10A. Western blot experiments showed PDE8A, PDE8B, and PDE4D proteins in mural granulosa cells and cumulus-oocyte complexes. PDE8 inhibition using dipyridamole in a dose-dependent manner increased cAMP levels in the cumulus-oocyte complexes and delayed oocyte nuclear maturation. These results are the first to demonstrate the functional presence of PDE8 in the mammalian ovarian follicle. This challenges the recently described cell-specific expression of cAMP-PDEs in the ovarian follicle and the notion that PDE4 is the predominant granulosa/cumulus cell PDE. These findings have implications for our understanding of hormonal regulation of folliculogenesis and the potential application of PDE inhibitors as novel contraceptives.
PDE8A and PDE8B are the predominant cAMP-phosphodiesterase in bovine cumulus cells and play an important role in cAMP modulation.
cumulus cells; cyclic adenosine monophosphate; follicle; gamete biology; oocyte; phosphodiesterases; signal transduction
The anti-inflammatory effects of the selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors cilostazol (PDE 3), RO 20-1724 (PDE 4) and sildenafil (PDE 5) were examined in a murine model of allergic asthma. These compounds were used alone and in combination to determine any potential synergism, with dexamethasone included as a positive control.
Control and ovalbumin sensitised Balb/C mice were administered orally with each of the possible combinations of drugs at a dose of 3 mg/Kg for 10 days.
When used alone, RO 20-1724 significantly reduced eosinophil influx into lungs and lowered tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid when compared to untreated mice. Treatment with cilostazol or sildenafil did not significantly inhibit any markers of inflammation measured. Combining any of these PDE inhibitors produced no additive or synergistic effects. Indeed, the anti-inflammatory effects of RO 20-1724 were attenuated by co-administration of either cilostazol or sildenafil.
These results suggest that concurrent treatment with a PDE 3 and/or PDE 5 inhibitor will reduce the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of a PDE 4 inhibitor.
This study was designed to identify pathogenic mutations causing autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in consanguineous Pakistani families.
Two consanguineous families affected with autosomal recessive RP were identified from the Punjab Province of Pakistan. All affected individuals underwent a thorough ophthalmologic examination. Blood samples were collected, and genomic DNAs were extracted. Exclusion analysis was completed, and two-point LOD scores were calculated. Bidirectional sequencing of the β subunit of phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6β) was completed.
During exclusion analyses both families localized to chromosome 4p, harboring PDE6β, a gene previously associated with autosomal recessive RP. Sequencing of PDE6β identified missense mutations: c.1655G>A (p.R552Q) and c.1160C>T (p.P387L) in families PKRP161 and PKRP183, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that both mutations are deleterious for the native three-dimensional structure of the PDE6β protein.
These results strongly suggest that mutations in PDE6β are responsible for the disease phenotype in the consanguineous Pakistani families.
Background and Objective
Asthma is associated with airway narrowing in response to bronchoconstricting stimuli and increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. In addition, some studies have suggested impaired β-agonist induced ASM relaxation in asthmatics, but the mechanism is not known.
To characterize the potential defect in β-agonist induced cAMP in ASM derived from asthmatic in comparison to non-asthmatic subjects and to investigate its mechanism.
We examined β2-adrenergic (β2AR) receptor expression and basal β-agonist and forskolin (direct activator of adenylyl cyclase) stimulated cAMP production in asthmatic cultured ASM (n = 15) and non-asthmatic ASM (n = 22). Based on these results, PDE activity, PDE4D expression and cell proliferation were determined.
In the presence of IBMX, a pan PDE inhibitor, asthmatic ASM had ∼50% lower cAMP production in response to isoproterenol, albuterol, formoterol, and forskolin compared to non-asthmatic ASM. However when PDE4 was specifically inhibited, cAMP production by the agonists and forskolin was normalized in asthmatic ASM. We then measured the amount and activity of PDE4, and found ∼2-fold greater expression and activity in asthmatic ASM compared to non-asthmatic ASM. Furthermore, inhibition of PDE4 reduced asthmatic ASM proliferation but not that of non-asthmatic ASM.
Decreased β-agonist induced cAMP in ASM from asthmatics results from enhanced degradation due to increased PDE4D expression. Clinical manifestations of this dysregulation would be suboptimal β-agonist-mediated bronchodilation and possibly reduced control over increasing ASM mass. These phenotypes appear to be “hard-wired” into ASM from asthmatics, as they do not require an inflammatory environment in culture to be observed.
Cough is a common symptom of bronchial asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease. Recently, the therapeutic effects of selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors have been focused on bronchial asthma. This study was designed to investigate the clinical effect of PDE 3 inhibition on cough reflex sensitivity in elderly patients with bronchial asthma.
Effects of cilostazol, a PDE 3 inhibitor, on cough response to inhaled capsaicin were examined in 11 patients over 70 years with stable asthma in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross over study. Capsaicin cough threshold, defined as the lowest concentration of capsaicin eliciting five or more coughs, was measured as an index of airway cough reflex sensitivity.
The cough threshold was significantly (p < 0.05) increased after two-week treatment with cilostazol (100 mg twice a day orally) compared with placebo [48.8 (GSEM 1.4) vs. 29.2 (GSEM 1.3) μM].
These findings indicate that PDE 3 inhibition may be a novel therapeutic option for elderly patients with asthma, especially for their cough symptoms.
cough reflex sensitivity; capsaicin; cilostazol; phosphodiesterase; bronchial asthma
In adipocytes, PDE3B (phosphodiesterase 3B) is an important regulatory effector in signalling pathways controlled by insulin and cAMP-increasing hormones. Stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with insulin or the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316243 (termed CL) indicated that insulin preferentially phosphorylated/activated PDE3B associated with internal membranes (endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi), whereas CL preferentially phosphorylated/activated PDE3B associated with caveolae. siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated KD (knockdown) of CAV-1 (caveolin-1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in down-regulation of expression of membrane-associated PDE3B. Insulin-induced activation of PDE3B was reduced, whereas CL-mediated activation was almost totally abolished. Similar results were obtained in adipocytes from Cav-1-deficient mice. siRNA-mediated KD of CAV-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes also resulted in inhibition of CL-stimulated phosphorylation of HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) and perilipin A, and of lipolysis. Superose 6 gel-filtration chromatography of solubilized membrane proteins from adipocytes stimulated with insulin or CL demonstrated the reversible assembly of distinct macromolecular complexes that contained 32P-phosphorylated PDE3B and signalling molecules thought to be involved in its activation. Insulin- and CL-induced macromolecular complexes were enriched in cholesterol, and contained certain common signalling proteins [14-3-3, PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A) and cav-1]. The complexes present in insulin-stimulated cells contained tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) and its downstream signalling proteins, whereas CL-activated complexes contained β3-adrenergic receptor, PKA-RII [PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase)-regulatory subunit] and HSL. Insulin- and CL-mediated macromolecular complex formation was significantly inhibited by CAV-1 KD. These results suggest that cav-1 acts as a molecular chaperone or scaffolding molecule in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts that may be necessary for the proper stabilization and activation of PDE3B in response to CL and insulin.
adipocyte; β3-adrenergic receptor; caveolin-1; insulin; protein kinase A (PKA); phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3)
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze the intracellular second messengers: cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanine monophosphate (cGMP). The cAMP-specific PDE family 4 (PDE4) is widely expressed in vertebrates. Each of the four PDE4 gene isoforms (PDE4 A-D) undergo extensive alternative splicing via alternative transcription initiation sites, producing unique amino termini and yielding multiple splice variant forms from each gene isoform termed long, short, super-short and truncated super-short. Many species across the vertebrate lineage contain multiple splice variants of each gene type, which are characterized by length and amino termini.
A phylogenetic approach was used to visualize splice variant form genesis and identify conserved splice variants (genome conservation with EST support) across the vertebrate taxa. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic inference indicated PDE4 gene duplication occurred at the base of the vertebrate lineage and reveals additional gene duplications specific to the teleost lineage. Phylogenetic inference and PDE4 splice variant presence, or absence as determined by EST screens, were further supported by the genomic analysis of select vertebrate taxa. Two conserved PDE4 long form splice variants were found in each of the PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4C genes, and eight conserved long forms from the PDE4 D gene. Conserved short and super-short splice variants were found from each of the PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4 D genes, while truncated super-short variants were found from the PDE4C and PDE4 D genes. PDE4 long form splice variants were found in all taxa sampled (invertebrate through mammals); short, super-short, and truncated super-short are detected primarily in tetrapods and mammals, indicating an increasing complexity in both alternative splicing and cAMP metabolism through vertebrate evolution.
There was a progressive independent incorporation of multiple PDE4 splice variant forms and amino termini, increasing PDE4 proteome complexity from primitive vertebrates to humans. While PDE4 gene isoform duplicates with limited alternative splicing were found in teleosts, an expansion of both PDE4 splice variant forms, and alternatively spliced amino termini predominantly occurs in mammals. Since amino termini have been linked to intracellular targeting of the PDE4 enzymes, the conservation of amino termini in PDE4 splice variants in evolution highlights the importance of compartmentalization of PDE4-mediated cAMP hydrolysis.
Several important advances have been made over the last 2 years, since the last international workshop on multiple endocrine neoplasias (MENs) that was held in Marseilles, France (MEN2006). The series of articles that are included in this issue summarize the most important of these advances as they were presented in Delphi, Greece, during the 11th International Workshop on MENs, September 25–27, 2008 (MEN2008). This editorial summarizes some of these advances: the identification of the AIP, and the PDE11A and PDE8B genes by genome-wide association (GWA) studies as predisposing genes for pituitary and adrenal tumours, respectively, the discovery of p27 mutations in a new form of MEN similar to MEN type 1 (MEN 1) that is now known as MEN 4, the molecular investigations of Carney triad (CT), a disorder that associates paragangliomas (PGLs), gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GISTs), and pulmonary chondromas (PCH) with pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical adenomas and other lesions, and the molecular elucidation of the association of GISTs with paragangliomas (Carney–Stratakis syndrome) that is now known to be because of SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD mutations. Molecular investigations in Carney complex (another MEN also described by Dr. Carney, who during the meeting, along with Dr. Charles E. (‘Gene’) Jackson was honoured for his life-long and many contributions to the field) have also revealed the role of cyclic AMP signalling in tumorigenesis. As our knowledge of the molecular causes of MENs increases, the challenge is to translate these discoveries in better treatments for our patients. Indeed, new advances in the preventive diagnosis and molecular treatment of MEN 1 and MEN 2, respectively, continued unabated, and an update on this front was also presented at MEN2008 and is included in this issue.
A recent study has reported a significant association of variants in phosphodiesterase (PDE) genes with antidepressant treatment outcome in a Mexican American sample (Wong et al. 2006). We set out to investigate these findings in a large sample of patients from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives for Depression (STAR*D) study. STAR*D is a longitudinal study of antidepressant outcome in depressed outpatients.
We genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PDE11A (rs1880916), PDE1A (rs1549870), and PDE9A (rs729861) for replication and we also report three additional SNPs in PDE11A (rs3770016, rs4893975, rs6433687) that had been genotyped for a previous study.
Single marker analysis of remission within the Hispanic subsamples (n = 268) revealed no significant evidence of association with markers in PDE11A, PDE9A or PDE1A. Additional analyses of remission within the total STAR*D sample (n=1,914) were also largely negative, as were analyses utilizing a narrower definition of remission. Haplotype analyses were performed with the four PDE11A SNPs we genotyped; these also failed to show significant evidence of association in the STAR*D sample.
We could not reproduce the reported association between PDE genes and antidepressant outcome in a sample of subjects comparable to that reported previously. We conclude that PDE11A, PDE9A, and PDE1A are unlikely to play an important role in antidepressant outcome in this sample.
Depression; PDE; STAR*D; pharmacogenetics
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors are important therapeutic agents, but their effects on photoreceptor PDE (PDE6) and photoreceptor cells are poorly understood. We characterized the potency and selectivity of various classes of PDE inhibitors on purified rod and cone PDE6 and on intact rod outer segments (ROS).
The inhibition constant (KI) of isozyme-selective PDE inhibitors was determined for purified rod and cone PDE6. Perturbations of cGMP levels in isolated ROS suspensions by PDE inhibitors were quantitated by a cGMP enzyme-linked immunoassay.
Most PDE5-selective inhibitors are excellent PDE6 inhibitors. Vardenafil, a potent PDE5 inhibitor (KI = 0.2 nM), is the most potent PDE6 inhibitor tested (KI = 0.7 nM). Zaprinast is the only drug that inhibits PDE6 more potently than PDE5. PDE1-selective inhibitors were equally effective in inhibiting PDE6. In intact ROS, PDE inhibitors elevated cGMP levels but none fully inhibited PDE6. Their potency to elevate cGMP levels in ROS was much lower than their ability to inhibit the purified enzyme. Competition between PDE5/6-selective drugs and the inhibitory γ subunit for the active site of PDE6 is proposed to reduce the effectiveness of drugs at the enzyme active site.
Several classes of PDE inhibitors equally well inhibit PDE6 as the PDE family to which they are targeted. In intact ROS, high PDE6 concentrations, binding of the γ subunit to the active site, and calcium feedback mechanisms attenuate the effectiveness of PDE inhibitors to inhibit PDE6 and disrupt the cGMP signaling pathway during visual transduction.
Asthma and allergy are complex multifactorial disorders, with both genetic and environmental components determining disease expression. The use of molecular genetics holds great promise for the identification of novel drug targets for the treatment of asthma and allergy. Genome-wide linkage studies have identified a number of potential disease susceptibility loci but replication remains inconsistent. The aim of the current study was to complete a meta-analysis of data from genome-wide linkage studies of asthma and related phenotypes and provide inferences about the consistency of results and to identify novel regions for future gene discovery.
The rank based genome-scan meta-analysis (GSMA) method was used to combine linkage data for asthma and related traits; bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), allergen positive skin prick test (SPT) and total serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) from nine Caucasian asthma populations.
Significant evidence for susceptibility loci was identified for quantitative traits including; BHR (989 pedigrees, n = 4,294) 2p12-q22.1, 6p22.3-p21.1 and 11q24.1-qter, allergen SPT (1,093 pedigrees, n = 4,746) 3p22.1-q22.1, 17p12-q24.3 and total IgE (729 pedigrees, n = 3,224) 5q11.2-q14.3 and 6pter-p22.3. Analysis of the asthma phenotype (1,267 pedigrees, n = 5,832) did not identify any region showing genome-wide significance.
This study represents the first linkage meta-analysis to determine the relative contribution of chromosomal regions to the risk of developing asthma and atopy. Several significant results were obtained for quantitative traits but not for asthma confirming the increased phenotype and genetic heterogeneity in asthma. These analyses support the contribution of regions that contain previously identified asthma susceptibility genes and provide the first evidence for susceptibility loci on 5q11.2-q14.3 and 11q24.1-qter.
Epidemiological studies consistently show associations between asthma and obesity. Shared genetics may account for this association.
To identify genetic variants associated with both asthma and obesity.
Based on a literature search, we identified genes from: 1) Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Body Mass Index (BMI) (n=17 genes), 2) GWAS of asthma (n=14) and 3) candidate gene studies of BMI and asthma (n=7). We used GWAS data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) to analyze associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes and asthma (n=359 subjects) and BMI (n=537).
One top BMI GWAS SNP from the literature, rs10938397 near GNPDA2, was associated with both BMI (p=4 × 10−4) and asthma (p=0.03). Of the top asthma GWAS SNPs and the candidate gene SNPs, none was found to be associated with both BMI and asthma. Gene-based analyses that included all available SNPs in each gene found associations (p<0.05) with both phenotypes for several genes: NEGR1, ROBO1, DGKG, FAIM2, FTO and CHST8 among the BMI GWAS genes; ILRL1/IL18R1, DPP10, PDE4D, MYB, PDE10A, IL33 and especially PTPRD among the asthma GWAS genes; and PRKCA among the BMI and asthma candidate genes.
SNPs within several genes showed associations to BMI and asthma at a gene level, but none of these associations were significant after correction for multiple testing. Our analysis of known candidate genes reveals some evidence for shared genetics between asthma and obesity, but other shared genetic determinants are likely to be identified in novel loci.
Association; Asthma; BMI; Children; Genetics; GWAS; Obesity; Polymorphism; SNP
Tadalafil is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5I), which is widely used to treat erectile dysfunction. Although PDE5Is have excellent safety profiles, and most of the side effects are mild, rare serious adverse events have been reported in association with PDE5Is. Thrombosis is one of those events, and a few previous reports have suggested the association of PDE5Is with thrombosis. We report the case of a 61-year-old male who developed pulmonary embolism combined with pulmonary infarction directly after taking tadalafil. Both the patient and the physician suspected tadalafil as the culprit drug, as the patient was in an otherwise healthy condition. However, after extensive evaluation, we noticed that factor VIII levels were elevated. Prior reports suggesting the association between thrombosis and PDEIs either lack complete information on coagulation factors, or show inconsistencies in their results. Physicians should operate caution prior to accepting the diagnosis of adverse drug reaction.
Pulmonary Embolism; Pulmonary Infarction; Tadalafil; Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors; Factor VIII
Rod cGMP phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6) is a key enzyme of the phototransduction cascade, consisting of PDE6α, PDE6β and two regulatory PDE6γ subunits. PDE6 is membrane-associated through isoprenyl membrane anchors attached to the C-termini of PDE6α and PDE6β and can form a complex with PrBP/δ, an isoprenyl-binding protein highly expressed in photoreceptors. The stoichiometry of PrBP/δ to PDE6 binding and how the PDE6-PrBP/δ complex assembles is not fully characterized, and the location of the regulatory PDE6γ subunits within the protein assembly has not been elucidated. To clarify these questions, we have developed a rapid purification method for PDE6-PrBP/δ from bovine rod outer segments (ROS) utilizing recombinant PrBP/δ. Transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained samples revealed the location of PrBP/δ and thus where the carboxyl-termini of PDE6α and PDE6β must be located. The three-dimensional structure of the PDE6αβγ complex was determined to 18 Å resolution from single particle projections, and was interpreted by model building to identify the probable location of isoprenylation, PDE6γ subunits and catalytic sites.
Photoreceptor cells; phosphodiesterase 6; 3D electron microscopy; phototransduction; vision