Some members of the Protein 4.1 superfamily are believed to be involved in cell proliferation and growth, or in the regulation of these processes. While the expression levels of two members of this family, radixin and moesin, have been studied in many tumor types, to our knowledge they have not been investigated in prostate cancer.
Tissue microarrays were immunohistochemically stained for either radixin or moesin, with the staining intensities subsequently quantified and statistically analyzed using One-Way ANOVA or nonparametric equivalent with subsequent Student-Newman-Keuls tests for multiple comparisons. There were 11 cases of normal donor prostates (NDP), 14 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 23 cases of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), 88 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa), and 25 cases of normal tissue adjacent to adenocarcinoma (NAC) analyzed in the microarrays.
NDP, BPH, and HGPIN had higher absolute staining scores for radixin than PCa and NAC, but with a significant difference observed between only HGPIN and PCa (p = < 0.001) and HGPIN and NAC (p = 0.001). In the moesin-stained specimens, PCa, NAC, HGPIN, and BPH all received absolute higher staining scores than NDP, but the differences were not significant. Stage 4 moesin-stained PCa had a significantly reduced staining intensity compared to Stage 2 (p = 0.003).
To our knowledge, these studies represent the first reports on the expression profiles of radixin and moesin in prostatic adenocarcinoma. The current study has shown that there were statistically significant differences observed between HGPIN and PCa and HGPIN and NAC in terms of radixin expression. The differences in the moesin profiles by tissue type were not statistically significant. Additional larger studies with these markers may further elucidate their potential roles in prostatic neoplasia progression.
BACKGROUND: Conflicting roles for Slit2, a protein involved in mediating the processes of cell migration and chemotactic response, have been previously described in prostate cancer. Here we use immunohistochemistry to evaluate the expression of Slit2 in normal donor prostate (NDP), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), normal tissue adjacent to prostatic adenocarcinoma (NAC), primary prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa), and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma (Mets). METHODS: Tissue microarrays were immunostained for Slit2. The staining intensities were quantified using automated image analysis software. The data was statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with subsequent Tukey tests for multiple comparisons or a nonparametric equivalent. Eleven cases of NDP, 35 cases of NAC, 15 cases of BPH, 35 cases of HGPIN, 106 cases of PCa, and 37 cases of Mets were analyzed. RESULTS: Specimens of PCa and HGPIN had the highest absolute staining for Slit2. Significant differences were seen between PCa and NDP (P < .05), PCa and NAC (P < .05), HGPIN and NDP (P < .05), and HGPIN and NAC (P < .05). Whereas the average Mets staining was not significantly different from NDP or NAC, several individual Mets cases featured intense staining. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this represents the first study comparing the immunohistochemical profiles of Slit2 in PCa and Mets to specimens of HGPIN, BPH, NDP, and NAC. These findings suggest that Slit2 expression can be increased in HGPIN, PCa, and Mets, making it a potentially important biomarker for prostate cancer.
Claudins are integral membrane proteins that are involved in forming cellular tight junctions. One member of the claudin family, claudin-3, has been shown to be overexpressed in breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer. Here we use immunohistochemistry to evaluate its expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), normal tissue adjacent to prostatic adenocarcinoma (NAC), primary prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa), and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma (Mets).
Tissue microarrays were immunohistochemically stained for claudin-3, with the staining intensities subsequently quantified and statistically analyzed using a one-way ANOVA with subsequent Tukey tests for multiple comparisons or a nonparametric equivalent. Fifty-three cases of NAC, 17 cases of BPH, 35 cases of PIN, 107 cases of PCa, and 55 cases of Mets were analyzed in the microarrays.
PCa and Mets had the highest absolute staining for claudin-3. Both had significantly higher staining than BPH (p < 0.05 in both cases) and NAC (p < 0.05 in both cases). PIN had a lower, but non-significant, staining score than PCa and Mets, but a statistically higher score than both BPH and NAC (p < 0.05 for both cases). No significant differences were observed between PCa, Mets, and PIN.
To our knowledge, this represents one of the first studies comparing the immunohistochemical profiles of claudin-3 in PCa and NAC to specimens of PIN, BPH, and Mets. These findings provide further evidence that claudin-3 may serve as an important biomarker for prostate cancer, both primary and metastatic, but does not provide evidence that claudin-3 can be used to predict risk of metastasis.
Ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) is a phosphorylatable PDZ domain-containing adaptor protein that is abundantly expressed in epithelium but was not yet studied in the endothelium. We report unusual nuclear localization of EBP50 in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC). Immunofluorescent staining and cellular fractionation demonstrated that EBP50 is present in the nuclear and perinuclear region in interphase cells. In the prophase of mitosis EBP50 redistributes to the cytoplasmic region in a phosphorylation dependent manner and during mitosis EBP50 co-localizes with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Furthermore, in vitro wound healing of BPAEC expressing phospho-mimic mutant of EBP50 was accelerated indicating that EBP50 is involved in the regulation of the cell division. Cell cycle dependent specific interactions were detected between EBP50 and the subunits of PP2A (A, C, and Bα) with immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments. The interaction of EBP50 with the Bα containing form of PP2A suggests that this holoenzyme of PP2A can be responsible for the dephosphorylation of EBP50 in cytokinesis. Moreover, the results underline the significance of EBP50 in cell division via reversible phosphorylation of the protein with cyclin dependent kinase and PP2A in normal cells.
The Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin-Binding Phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) is a scaffolding protein known to regulate ion homeostasis in the kidney and intestine. Previous work showed that EBP50 expression increases after balloon injury in rat carotids. This study was designed to determine the role of EBP50 on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and the development of neointimal hyperplasia.
Methods and Results
Wire injury was performed in wild type (WT) and EBP50 knockout (KO) mice. Two weeks after injury, neointima formation was 80% lower in KO than in WT mice. Proliferation of KO VSMC was significantly lower than WT cells and overexpression of EBP50 increased VSMC proliferation. Akt activity and expression of S-phase kinase protein 2 (Skp2) decreased in KO cells resulting in the stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21cip1. Consequently, KO cells were arrested in G0/G1 phase. Consistent with these observations, p21cip1 was detected in injured femoral arteries of KO but not WT mice. No differences in apoptosis between WT and KO were observed.
EBP50 is critical for neointima formation and induces VSMC proliferation by decreasing Skp2 stability, thereby accelerating the degradation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21cip1.
proliferation; smooth muscle; EBP50; Skp2; p21cip1
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and the parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor (PTH1R) are important regulators of vascular remodeling. PTHrP expression is associated to increased proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In contrast, signaling via the PTH1R inhibits cell growth. The mechanisms regulating the dual effect of PTHrP and PTH1R on VSMC proliferation are only partially understood. In this study we examined the role of the adaptor protein ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein (EBP50) on PTH1R expression, trafficking, signaling and control of A10 cells proliferation. In normal rat vascular tissues, EBP50 was restricted to the endothelium with little expression in VSMC. EBP50 expression significantly increased in VSMC following angioplasty in parallel with PTHrP. Interestingly, PTHrP was able to induce EBP50 expression. In the clonal rat aortic smooth muscle cell line A10, EBP50 increased the recruitment of PTH1R to the cells membrane and delayed its internalization in response to PTHrP(1-36). This effect required an intact C-terminal motif in the PTH1R. In naive A10 cells, PTHrP(1-36) stimulated cAMP production but not intracellular calcium release. In contrast, PTHrP(1-36) induced both cAMP and calcium signaling in A10 cells over-expressing EBP50. Finally, EBP50 attenuated the induction of p27 kip1 and the antiproliferative effect of PTHrP(1-36). In summary, this study demonstrates the dynamic expression of EBP50 in vessels following injury and the effects of EBP50 on PTH1R function in VSMC. These finding highlight one of the mechanisms leading to increased VSMC proliferation and have important implication in the understanding of the molecular events leading to restenosis.
Vascular smooth muscle cell; Parathyroid hormone-related protein; Parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor; Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein EBP50; Proliferation; Cyclic AMP; Calcium; Restenosis; Neointima
Aims: Retinoids are involved in cell growth, differentiation, and carcinogenesis. Their effects depend on cytosolic transport and binding to nuclear receptors. CRBP1 encodes a protein involved in this process. Because altered CRBP1 expression and promoter hypermethylation occur in several tumours, these changes were investigated in prostate tumorigenesis.
Methods: The CRBP1 promoter was assessed by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction on tissue samples from 36 radical prostatectomy specimens (paired normal tissue, adenocarcinoma, and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN)), 32 benign prostatic hyperplasias (BPHs), and 13 normal prostate tissue samples from cystoprostatectomies. Methylation of DNA extracted from microdissected tissue was examined blindly. CRBP1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue.
Results: Loss of CRBP1 expression was seen in 15 of 36 adenocarcinomas and 18 of 36 HGPINs. Fifteen adenocarcinomas and nine HGPINs showed overexpression, whereas the remainder showed normal expression. BPH displayed normal expression. No significant associations were found between CRBP1 expression and Gleason score or stage. CRBP1 promoter hypermethylation was found in 17 of 36 adenocarcinomas, three of 35 HGPINs, one of 36 normal prostate tissues from the same patients, none of 32 BPHs, and none of 13 normal prostate tissues from cystoprostatectomies. Loss of expression and hypermethylation of CRBP1 were not significantly associated.
Conclusions: Altered CRBP1 expression and hypermethylation are common in prostate carcinoma, although CRBP1 hypermethylation is not an early event in tumorigenesis. Moreover, both adenocarcinoma and HGPIN show frequent CRBP1 overexpression. The molecular mechanisms underlying altered CRBP1 expression in prostate cancer deserve further study.
CRBP1; prostate cancer; PIN; methylation; immunoexpression
Embryo implantation is a crucial process for successful pregnancy. To date, the mechanism of embryo implantation remains unclear. Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding protein-50-kDa (EBP50) is a scaffold protein, which has been shown to play an important role in cancer development. Embryo implantation and cancer follow a similar progression. Thus, in this article, we utilized immunohistochemical staining and western blot analyses to examine the spatiotemporal expression and regulation of EBP50 both in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation as well as in other related models. We found that EBP50 was detected in epithelial cells in all of the groups used in our study. During the peri-implantation period, EBP50 mainly localized in apical membranes. At the implantation site (IS) on day 5 (D5) of pregnancy, EBP50 was mainly expressed in the nuclei of stroma cells, whereas from day 6 to day 8 (D6–D8) of pregnancy, the expression of EBP50 was noted in the cytoplasm of decidual cells. The expression of EBP50 was not significantly different in the pseudopregnant uterus and decreased in the uteri subjected to activation of delayed implantation. Artificial decidualization also decreased EBP50 expression. Thus, the expression levels and location were affected by active blastocysts and decidualization during the window of implantation.
implantation; mouse; uterus; EBP50
Current ancillary markers for diagnosis in prostate biopsies include p63 and α‐methylacyl‐CoA racemase (AMACR). Annexin II (ANXII), a calcium and phospholipid binding protein, is lost in prostate cancer.
To investigate ANXII expression in order to assess its utility as a novel diagnostic marker in comparison to p63 and AMACR.
Using immunohistochemistry on six tissue microarrays, ANXII, p63, and AMACR expression was analysed from 210 radical prostatectomy cases. Staining was evaluated in benign and atrophic glands, high‐grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Separate scores were given for ANXII, AMACR and p63 expression.
Diffuse cytoplasmic expression of ANXII correlated with p63 reactivity in basal cells. Benign glands were positive for ANXII in 286/292 cores (98%) and negative for AMACR in all 292 cores. HGPIN showed heterogeneous expression of AMACR and ANXII. A significantly larger proportion of HGPIN glands were correctly identified as ANXII negative than as positive for AMACR. ANXII loss in prostate cancer was found in 282/320 cores (88%) and correlated with positive AMACR expression (272/320 cores, 85%), which was not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant correlation between ANXII scores and the clinical parameters examined.
Immunohistochemical staining for ANXII is a consistent and reliable marker of prostatic neoplasia. The findings of this study suggest the potential utility of ANXII as a diagnostic aid in prostate cancer histopathology.
annexin A2; α‐methylacyl‐CoA racemase; diagnostic markers, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia; prostatic neoplasms
We characterize a ternary complex of PDZK1, EBP50, and ezrin that is regulated by their individual inter- and intramolecular interactions. PDZK1 is shown to undergo cell confluence-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling that regulates the formation of this complex. A functional redundancy between PDZK1 and EBP50 in microvilli maintenance is shown.
PDZK1 and ezrin, radixin, moesin binding phosphoprotein 50 kDa (EBP50) are postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/zona occludens (PDZ)-domain–containing scaffolding proteins found in the apical microvilli of polarized epithelial cells. Binary interactions have been shown between the tail of PDZK1 and the PDZ domains of EBP50, as well as between EBP50 and the membrane–cytoskeletal linking protein ezrin. Here, we show that these molecules form a regulated ternary complex in vitro and in vivo. Complex formation is cooperative because ezrin positively influences the PDZK1/EBP50 interaction. Moreover, the interaction of PDZK1 with EBP50 is enhanced by the occupancy of EBP50's adjacent PDZ domain. The complex is further regulated by location, because PDZK1 shuttles from the nucleus in low confluence cells to microvilli in high confluence cells, and this regulates the formation of the PDZK1/EBP50/ezrin complex in vivo. Knockdown of EBP50 decreases the presence of microvilli, a phenotype that can be rescued by EBP50 re-expression or expression of a PDZK1 chimera that is directly targeted to ezrin. Thus, when appropriately located, PDZK1 can provide a function necessary for microvilli formation normally provided by EBP50. By entering into the ternary complex, PDZK1 can both enhance the scaffolding at the apical membrane as well as augment EBP50's role in microvilli formation.
To investigate the expression of Golgi phosphoprotein-3 (GOLPH3) in prostate cancer and determine its prognostic value.
Immunohistochemical staining for GOLPH3 was performed on tissue microarrays of 342 prostate patients. The correlation between GOLPH3 expression with its clinicopathologic factors was also analyzed in order to determine its prognostic significance.
GOLPH3 expression of normal prostate tissues, benign prostate hyperplasia, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and hormone-dependent prostate cancer (HDPC) did not show any statistically significant difference. In contrast, statistically significant difference was reported in moderate/intense GOLPH3 expression in cases diagnosed with HDPC and castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) (P < 0.0005). Moderate /intense expression of GOLPH3 was associated with androgen independence (P = 0.012), higher Gleason score (P = 0.017), bone metastasis (P = 0.024), higher baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (P = 0.038), and higher PSA nadir (P = 0.032). A significantly negative correlation was found between moderate/intense GOLPH3 expression and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 0.28, P = 0.012) and overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.42, P = 0.027). Univariated analysis indicated that moderate/intense GOLPH3 expression created a significantly prognostic impact in patients with CRPC. On the other hand, multivariate analysis indicated that GOLPH3 was a significantly independent prognostic factor of DFS (P = 0.027) in all prostate cancer patients.
In this study, it was discovered that the overexpression of GOLPH3 is associated with the transition of prostate cancer from hormone sensitive phase to hormone refractory phase. GOLPH3 might be an important prognostic factor of DFS and OS in patients with prostate cancer. In totality, GOLPH3 could be used as a novel candidate in devising a more effective therapeutic strategy to tackle CRPC.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1452541171722856.
Prostate cancer; Castration resistant; Golgi phosphoprotein-3; Prognosis; Tissue microarrays
Immunohistochemical detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used to identify metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. However, PSA may not be expressed in some poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas and its immunoreactivity has been found in some non-prostatic tissues. P501s (prostein) is a prostate-specific marker that is expressed in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic glandular cells. It has not been detected in any other normal or malignant tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of P501s in metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma and compare its expression with PSA.
Immunohistochemical stains with anti-P501s antibodies were performed on 5-micron sections of tissue microarray (TMA) specimens. The TMA is constructed with normal donor prostates (NDP), prostatic adenocarcinoma (PRCA), non-neoplastic prostatic tissues adjacent to malignant glands (NAT), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high-grade prostatic neoplasia (PIN), metastatic adenocarcinoma to lymph nodes (MLN), metastatic adenocarcinoma to other sites (MC), and samples of benign testis, colon, adrenal and kidney. The two groups of metastatic lesions were also subjected to stains with antibodies to PSA. A composite score (ranging from 0 to 3) was assigned to score intensity of staining.
Granular staining pattern of p501s was seen in all benign glands (score = 1.77 – 2.1) and malignant acini (score = 1.52) at the apical aspect of cytoplasm, predominantly adjacent to the nuclei. No staining was observed in controls including testis, colon, adrenal and kidney. The MLN group received a score of 1.0, with 10% of cases negative for p501s. The MC cases had a score of 0.64, with 16.7% of case showing loss of p501s expression. Although the metastatic lesions demonstrated similar rate of negative expression with PSA antibody, only 2 MC cases (3.3%) showed simultaneous negative stains for both P501S and PSA.
P501s is an organ specific marker for benign and malignant prostatic epithelial cells. Its characteristic cytoplasmic stain pattern provides an additional valuable immunomarker for detection of metastatic prostatic malignancy, even though the intensity of its expression is reduced, as in the case with PSA. Simultaneous stains with P501S and PSA will greatly improve the detection rate and identify a significant majority of the metastases.
Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50) suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation, potentially through its regulatory effect on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. Thus in our studies, we aimed to determine the effect of EBP50 expression on EGF-induced cell proliferation and activation of EGFR signaling in the breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. In MDA-MB-231 cells, which express low levels of EBP50, EBP50 overexpression inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. In MCF-7 cells, which express high levels of EBP50, EBP50 knockdown promoted EGF-induced cell proliferation, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. Knockdown of EBP50 in EBP50-overexpressed MDA-MB-231 cells abrogated the inhibitory effect of EBP50 on EGF-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and restoration of EBP50 expression in EBP50-knockdown MCF-7 cells rescued the inhibition of EBP50 on EGF-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, further confirming that the activation of EGF-induced downstream molecules could be specifically inhibited by EBP50 expression. Since EGFR signaling was triggered by EGF ligands via EGFR phosphorylation, we further detected the phosphorylation status of EGFR in the presence or absence of EBP50 expression. Overexpression of EBP50 in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited EGF-stimulated EGFR phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of EBP50 in MCF-7 cells enhanced EGF-stimulated EGFR phosphorylation. Meanwhile, total expression levels of EGFR were unaffected during EGF stimulation. Taken together, our data shows that EBP50 can suppress EGF-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells by inhibiting EGFR phosphorylation and blocking EGFR downstream signaling in breast cancer cells. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanism by which EBP50 regulates the development and progression of breast cancer.
EBP50; EGFR; Protein interaction; Phosphorylation; ERK1/2; PDZ; Breast cancer
The adaptor protein NHERF1/EBP50 (Na/H exchanger regulatory factor 1/ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50) emerged recently as an important player in breast cancer progression. Consisting of two tandem PDZ domains linked to a carboxyl-terminal ezrin-binding region, NHERF1 assembles macromolecular complexes at the apical membrane of epithelial cells in many epithelial tissues, including the mammary gland. Involved initially in trafficking and regulation of transmembrane ion transporters and G protein-coupled receptors, NHERF1 also couples molecules involved in cell growth, such as the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10). In the previous issue of Breast Cancer Research, Pan and colleagues show an inhibitory action of NHERF1 on the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in breast cancer cells via interaction of NHERF1 with PTEN, the physiological antagonist of the PI3K. Additionally, they show that NHERF1 expression confers susceptibility to PDGFR pharmacological inhibition depending on the presence of PTEN tumor suppressor.
AIM: To determine the effect and molecular mechanism of ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Three human HCC cell lines, i.e., SM-MC7721, HepG2 and Hep3B, were used. We transfected the Pbk-CMV-HA-EBP50 plasmid into SMMC7721 cells with Lipofectamine 2000 to overexpress EBP50. Western blotting were performed to determine the effects of the plasmid on EBP50 expression and to detect the expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin before and after the transfection of the plasmid into SMMC7721 cells. In vitro cell proliferation was assessed with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell cycle distribution was assessed with flow cytometry. Invasion and migration ability of before and after the transfection were determined with a transwell assay. Cell apoptosis was demonstrated with Annexin V-FITC. The effect of EBP50 overexpressing on tumor growth in vivo was performed with a xenograft tumor model in nude mice.
RESULTS: The transfection efficiency was confirmed with Western blotting (1.36 ± 0.07 vs 0.81 ± 0.09, P < 0.01). The CCK8 assay demonstrated that the growth of cells overexpressing EBP50 was significantly lower than control cells (P < 0.01). Cell cycle distribution showed there was a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in cells overexpressing EBP50 (61.3% ± 3.1% vs 54.0% ± 2.4%, P < 0.05). The transwell assay showed that cell invasion and migration were significantly inhibited in cells overexpressing EBP50 compared with control cells (5.8 ± 0.8 vs 21.6 ± 1.3, P < 0.01). Annexin V-FITC revealed that apoptosis was significantly increased in cells overexpressing EBP50 compared with control cells (14.8% ± 2.7% vs 3.4% ± 1.3%, P < 0.05). The expression of β-catenin was downregulated and E-cadherin was upregulated in cells overexpressing EBP50 compared with control cells (0.28 ± 0.07 vs 0.56 ± 0.12, P < 0.05; 0.55 ± 0.08 vs 0.39 ± 0.07, P < 0.05). In vivo tumor growth assay conﬁrmed that up-regulation of EBP50 could obviously slow the growth of HCC derived from SMMC7721 cells (28.9 ± 7.2 vs 70.1 ± 7.2, P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: The overexpression of EBP50 could inhibit the growth of SMMC7721 cells and promote apoptosis by modulating β-catenin, E-cadherin. EBP50 may serve asa potential therapeutic target in HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50; Growth; Migration; Invasion
Chemokines and corresponding receptor interactions have been shown to be involved in prostate cancer (PCa) progression and organ-specific metastasis. We have recently shown that PCa cell lines and primary prostate tumors express CXCR5, which correlates with PCa grade. In this study, we present the first evidence that CXCL13, the only ligand for CXCR5, and IL-6 were significantly elevated in PCa patient serum compared to serum from subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) as well as normal healthy donors (NHD). Serum CXCL13 levels significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), whereas serum IL-6 levels significantly (p < 0.0003) correlated with CXCL13 serum levels. CXCL13 was found to be a better predictor of PCa than PSA. In addition, CXCL13 was highly expressed by human bone marrow endothelial (HBME) cells and osteoblasts (OBs), but not osteoclasts (OCs), following treatment with physiologically relevant levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). We further demonstrate that CXCL13, produced by IL-6-treated HBME cells, was able to induce PCa cell invasion in a CXCR5-dependent manner. CXCL13-mediated PCa cell αvβ3-integrin clustering and adhesion to HBME cells was abrogated by CXCR5 blockade. These results demonstrate that the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis is significantly associated with PCa progression.
chemokine; prostate; integrin; adhesion; invasion
TMPRSS2-ETS gene fusions have been found recurrently in prostate carcinomas, but not in the presumed precursor lesion, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). However, HGPIN lesions may share chromosomal changes with prostate cancer. To determine the relative order of genetic events in prostate carcinogenesis, we have analyzed 34 prostate carcinomas, 19 paired HGPIN lesions, 14 benign prostate hyperplasias, and 11 morphologically normal prostatic tissues for TMPRSS2-ERG and TMPRSS2-ETV1 rearrangements and genomic imbalances. TMPRSS2 exon 1 was fused in-frame with ERG exon 4 in 17 of 34 (50%) prostate carcinomas and in 4 of 19 (21%) HGPIN lesions, but in none of controls. The findings were further validated by sequencing analysis and by the real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript and the ERG exons 5/6:exons 1/2 expression ratio. Chromosome copy number changes were detected by comparative genomic hybridization in 42% of clinically confined carcinomas and in none of the 16 HGPIN lesions analyzed. We demonstrate for the first time that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene can be detected in a proportion of HGPIN lesions and that this molecular rearrangement is an early event that may precede chromosome-level alterations in prostate carcinogenesis.
TMPRSS2-ETS fusion oncogenes; prostate cancer; high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia; chromosomal changes; ERG
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of calcium-binding proteins S100A2 and S100A4. We also sought to determine the prognostic value of these markers for patients with prostate adenocarcinoma.
Materials and Methods
Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect S100A2 and S100A4 expression in 26 tissue samples obtained during transurethral resection from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 67 tissue samples obtained during prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy from patients with prostate carcinoma. The immunoreactivity of these proteins was stratified on a scale of 0 to 3 and was correlated with the pathologic features of prostate adenocarcinoma.
High expression of S100A2 was observed in the tissue of patients with BPH, whereas low or no expression was observed in prostate cancer (CaP) cells. The protein level of S100A4 was significantly higher in CaP than in BPH cells. The higher level of S100A4 observed in CaP tissue correlated with increasing tumor grade.
Decreased expression of S100A2 and increased expression of S100A4 may be important in the progression of CaP. This finding could aid in identifying aggressive CaP. The simultaneous analysis of S100A2 and S100A4 expression in prostate tissues may be a useful prognostic marker for CaP.
Prostatic hyperplasia; Prostatic neoplasms; S100A2 protein, human; S100A4 protein, human
Bif-1 protein is a member of the endophilin B family that binds to and activates the pro-apoptotic Bax protein in response to apoptotic signals. Loss of Bif-1 suppresses the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and promotes tumorigenesis. We examined the expression levels of Bif-1 protein in human prostate cancer.
Thirty-nine archival tissues specimens of human prostate cancer, and a human prostate cancer tissue microarray containing 19 samples of normal prostate (NR), 26 samples of benign prostatic hyperplasias (BPH), 30 samples of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and 153 samples of prostate cancer (CA), were selected for immuno-histochemical staining with Bif-1 antibody. The slides were scored by two independent observers.
Non TMA samples: moderate to strong Bif-1 staining was identified in 38 of 39 CA. In 32 cases foci of PIN were identified adjacent to CA. Of these, twenty-nine (91%) showed strong and diffuse Bif-1 staining. BPH, identified in 27 cases, was weakly Bif-1 positive in 89% of cases. TMA samples: 38.6% (59/153) of CA showed moderate-strong Bif-1 expression, and 21.5% (33/153) were Bif-1 negative. Bif-1 expression was moderate-strong in 76.6% (23/30) of PIN. Bif-1 was weak-moderate in 53.8% (14/26) of BPH and negative in 46.1% (12/26) of them. Low-moderate Bif-1 was seen in 89.5% of NR.
The loss of Bif-1 expression in a subset of CAs is in agreement with the proapoptotic function of Bif-1. The significance of the increased Bif-1 in a subgroup of CA and in PIN remains to be determined. It seems that Bif-1 has a role in prostate cancer, providing the rationale for using Bif-1 as a target for prostate anticancer therapy.
Bif-1; prostate adenocarcinoma; PIN; immunohistochemistry
In our recent study, Periostin was up-regulated in prostate cancer(PCa) compared with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) by proteomics analysis of prostate biopsies. We investigated the effect of sliencing Periostin by RNA interference (RNAi) on the proliferation and migration of PCa LNCap cell line.
All the prostate biopsies from PCa, BPH and BPH with local prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm(PIN) were analyzed by iTRAQ(Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) technology. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used to verify Periostin expression in the tissues of PCa. Periostin expression in different PCa cell lines was determined by immunofluorescence staining, western blotting and reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR). The LNCap cells with Periostin expression were used for transfecting shRNA-Periostin lentiviral particles. The efficancy of transfecting shRNA lentiviral particles was evaluated by immunofluorescence, western blotting and Real-time PCR. The effect of silencing Periostin expression by RNAi on proliferation of LNCap cells was determined by MTT assay and tumor xenografts. The tissue slices from theses xenografts were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The expression of Periostin in the xenografts was deteminned by Immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. The migration of LNCap cells after silencing Periostin gene expression were analyzed in vitro.
Periostin as the protein of interest was shown 9.12 fold up-regulation in PCa compared with BPH. The overexpression of Periostin in the stroma of PCa was confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Periostin was only expressed in PCa LNCap cell line. Our results indicated that the transfection ratio was more than 90%. As was expected, both the protein level and mRNA level of Periostin in the stably expressing shRNA-Periostin LNCap cells were significantly reduced. The stably expressing shRNA-Periostin LNCap cells growed slowly in vitro and in vivo. The tissues of xenografts as PCa were verificated by HE staining. Additionally, the weak positive Periostin expressed tumor cells could be seen in the tissues of 6 xenografts from the group of down-regulated Periostin LNCap cells which had a significant decrease of the amount of Periostin compared to the other two group. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that sliencing Periostin could inhibit migration of LNCap cells in vitro.
Our data indicates that Periostin as an up-regulated protein in PCa may be a promising target of therapeutical intervention for PCa in future.
Periostin; Prostate cancer; RNAi; Proliferation; Migration
Microvilli are actin-based organelles found on apical plasma membranes that are involved in nutrient uptake and signal transduction. Numerous components, including ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, have been identified that link filamentous actins to transmembrane proteins, but the signals driving microvillus biogenesis are not known. In this study, we show that the conditional and/or ectopic expression of a nuclear receptor, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), triggers microvillus morphogenesis. We also demonstrate that HNF4α expression induces ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) expression and that attenuation of EBP50 using RNA interference inhibits microvillus development. We conclude that HNF4α acts as a morphogen to trigger microvillus formation.
Galectins, soluble intracellular and extracellular β-galactoside-binding proteins, are known to be involved in the progression and metastasis of various cancers, including prostate adenocarcinoma, but the detailed mechanism of their biological roles remains elusive. In the prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU-145, galectin 3 (gal3) is present at normal levels, whereas in LNCaP, its expression is silenced. In LNCaP, the gal3 promoter was heavily methylated, whereas PC-3 or DU-145 cells showed negligible or no methylation in the gal3 promoter indicating a negative correlation between gal3 promoter methylation and its expression. On immunohistochemical analysis of normal and tumor prostate tissues, gal3 was found expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of benign prostatic hyperplasia, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and stage I. The expression of the gal3 was found drastically downregulated in advanced stages and, interestingly, mostly in the cytoplasm. On methylation analysis, the gal3 promoter in stage II prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) was found heavily methylated, whereas in stages III and IV, it was only lightly methylated. However, in stage I PCa, both heavy and light methylations were observed in the gal3 promoter. In normal and benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues, the gal3 promoter was almost unmethylated. The differential cytosine methylation in the gal3 promoter in stages I to IV PCa enabled us to develop and validate a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction-based sensitive assay specific for stages I and II PCa. These stages are considered the critical stages for successful intervention, thus underscoring the significance of this diagnostic assay.
Pim‐1 is a serine/threonine kinase that has been shown to play an integral role in the development of a number of human cancers, such as haematolymphoid malignancies. Recently, evidence has shown Pim‐1 to be important in prostatic carcinogenesis. In order to further our understanding of its role in prostate cancer, we investigated Pim‐1 expression in normal, premalignant, and malignant prostate tissue.
Using immunohistochemistry, Pim‐1 expression was analysed in prostate tissue from 120 radical prostatectomy specimens. In each case, Pim‐1 staining was evaluated in benign prostatic epithelium, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and prostatic adenocarcinoma. The number of positively staining cells was estimated, and the intensity of staining was scored on a scale of 0 to 3+.
Pim‐1 immunoreactivity was identified in 120 cases (100%) of adenocarcinoma, 120 cases (100%) of high grade PIN, and 62 cases (52%) of benign glands. The number of cells staining in benign epithelium (mean 34%) was much lower than that in high grade PIN (mean 80%; p<0.0001) or adenocarcinoma (mean, 84%; p<0.0001). There was no significant difference between high grade PIN and adenocarcinoma in the percentage of cells staining positively for Pim‐1 (p = 0.34). The staining intensity for Pim‐1 was significantly lower in benign prostatic epithelium than in PIN and adenocarcinoma (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant correlation between the level of Pim‐1 expression and Gleason score, patient age, tumour stage, lymph node metastasis, perineural invasion, vascular invasion, surgical margin status, extraprostatic extension, or seminal vesicle invasion.
Pim‐1 expression is elevated in PIN and prostatic adenocarcinoma compared with benign prostatic epithelium. This finding suggests that upregulation of Pim‐1 may play a role in prostatic neoplasia.
prostate; prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia; adenocarcinoma; Pim‐1; biomarkers; progression; carcinogenesis
Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a recently defined homologue of the Thy-1/Ly-6 family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface antigens. The purpose of the present study was to examine the expression status of PSCA protein and mRNA in clinical specimens of human prostate cancer (Pca) and to validate it as a potential molecular target for diagnosis and treatment of Pca.
Materials and Methods
Immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses of PSCA expression were simultaneously performed on paraffin-embedded sections from 20 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 20 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN) and 48 prostate cancer (Pca) tissues, including 9 androgen-independent prostate cancers. The level of PSCA expression was semiquantitatively scored by assessing both the percentage and intensity of PSCA-positive staining cells in the specimens. Then compared PSCA expression between BPH, PIN and Pca tissues and analysed the correlations of PSCA expression level with pathological grade, clinical stage and progression to androgen-independence in Pca.
In BPH and low grade PIN, PSCA protein and mRNA staining were weak or negative and less intense and uniform than that seen in HGPIN and Pca. There were moderate to strong PSCA protein and mRNA expression in 8 of 11 (72.7%) HGPIN and in 40 of 48 (83.4%) Pca specimens examined by IHC and ISH analyses, with statistical significance compared with BPH (20%) and low grade PIN (22.2%) samples (p < 0.05, respectively). The expression level of PSCA increased with high Gleason grade, advanced stage and progression to androgen-independence (p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, IHC and ISH staining showed a high degree of correlation between PSCA protein and mRNA overexpression.
Our data demonstrate that PSCA as a new cell surface marker is overexpressed by a majority of human Pca. PSCA expression correlates positively with adverse tumor characteristics, such as increasing pathological grade (poor cell differentiation), worsening clinical stage and androgen-independence, and speculatively with prostate carcinogenesis. PSCA protein overexpression results from upregulated transcription of PSCA mRNA. PSCA may have prognostic utility and may be a promising molecular target for diagnosis and treatment of Pca.
Prostate; Neoplasm; Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA)
Loss of cell polarity is one of the initial alterations in the development of human epithelial cancers. Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) homologous adaptors 1 and 2 are membrane-associated proteins composed of two amino (N)-terminal PDZ domains and an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-binding (EB) carboxyl (C)-terminal region. We describe here an intramolecular conformation of NHERF1/EBP50 (ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50) in which the C-terminal EB region binds to the PDZ2 domain. This novel head-to-tail conformation masked the interaction of both PDZ domains with PDZ domain-specific ligands, such as PTEN and β-catenin. An EB region composite structure comprising an α-helix ending in a PDZ-binding motif imparted opposite effects to NHERF1 associations, mediating binding to ERM proteins and inhibiting binding of PDZ domain ligands. The PDZ domain inhibition was released by prior association of ezrin with the EB region, a condition that occurs in vivo and likely disrupts NHERF1 head-to-tail interaction. In contrast, NHERF2 did not present a regulatory mechanism for protein complex formation. Functionally, NHERF1 is required to organize complexes at the apical membranes of polarized epithelial cells. The regulation of NHERF1 interactions at the apical membrane thus appears to be a dynamic process that is important for maintaining epithelial-tissue integrity.