Chyle fistula is one of the rare complications of neck dissections. Even though no consented algorithm for the management of this entity has been established yet, conservative treatment options including somatostatin analogues have been suggested as an adequate modality for low output fistulas.
Here we present a patient with a right-sided neck fistula which was resistant to conventional treatment, and was finally treated by surgery. The neck dissection was performed for a malignant right neck mass that was accepted as the lymph node metastasis of formerly treated papillary thyroid carcinoma. The pathology of the specimen revealed a contralateral neck metastasis of previously treated breast carcinoma.
We assume that consecutive surgeries on axillary and neck lymph pathways resulted in such a complicated and exceptional case.
Chyle fistula; Breast cancer; Thyroid cancer
Chylous fistulas can occur after neck surgery. Both nonoperative measures and direct fistula ligation may lead to fistula resolution. However, a refractory fistula requires upstream thoracic duct ligation. This can be accomplished minimally invasively. Success depends on lymphatic flow interruption where the duct enters the thorax. We report on the utility of frozen section confirmation in achieving this goal.
Persistent chylous fistulas occurred in 2 patients after left cervical operations. In the first patient, attempted direct fistula ligation and sclerosant application failed. Fasting, parenteral nutrition, and somatostatin-analog provided no benefit. For the second patient, nonoperative treatment was also ineffective. Prior radiation therapy and multiple cervical operations militated against attempted direct fistula ligation. Both patients underwent thoracoscopic thoracic duct interruption.
In both cases, a duct candidate was identified between the aorta and azygos vein. Frozen section analysis of tissue resected between endoclips verified it as thoracic duct. Fistula resolution ensued promptly in both instances.
This report lends further credence to the efficacy of minimally invasive thoracic duct ligation in treating postoperative cervical chylous fistulas. Frozen section confirmation of thoracic duct tissue is useful. It allows one facile with thoracoscopy, but less familiar with thoracic duct ligation, to confidently terminate the operation.
Chylous fistula; Frozen section; Ligation; Thoracoscopy
A thoracic duct injury complicated with a chylous fistula is a rather rare occurrence associated with left subclavicular catheterization. We present a new method of its conservative management which seems to be the least interventional described so far. It can be used in cases of this iatrogenic injury irrespective of the rate of chyle loss.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
Our case report involves a 59-year-old patient with a high-output chyle fistula due to left subclavicular vein catheterization, in which biological cyanoacrylic glue was used through percutaneous infusion to the venous angle, where the thoracic duct was leaking. An extensive review of the relevant literature is presented.
Most of the high-output fistulas require a long time of conservative treatment, which may result in severe complications due to the prolongation of chyle loss. An operation may be needed in selected cases. Our proposed interventional method can be used in cases of percutaneous injury of a chyle duct, with immediate results.
An iatrogenic chyle fistula due to left subclavicular catheterization can be obtained with a percutaneous injection of biological glue directly onto the injured vessel.
Thoracic duct injury; Chyle fistula; Biological glue
A 26-year-old Asian male was found to have chyle leakage from the port incision after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for excision of pulmonary bullae. The diagnosis was confirmed by oral intake of Sudan black and by lymphoscintigraphy. The leakage resolved after 5 days of restricted oral intake and total parenteral nutrition. No leakage recurred after return of oral intake. Possible explanations for the port incision chyle leakage are obstruction of the thoracic duct, which induced retrograde drainage of the lymphoid fluid, or an aberrant collateral branch of the thoracic duct in the chest wall.
An 82-year-old patient underwent a mastectomy and axillary lymph node clearance for a large multicentric lobular cancer of the left breast. On day 11 after her operation, white viscous fluid was noted in her axillary drain.
We analysed case reports in the literature, noting the interval between surgery and diagnosis of chyle, the duration of the chyle leak, the volume of chyle during the first 24 h, the median volume and the administered treatment.
25 cases were reported in 13 publications. Our case was unusual in that chyle was noted 11 days after surgery. In most cases, chyle leakage subsides spontaneously by simply leaving the drain in situ.
A conservative observant approach appears appropriate in most cases. Only for persistent and large-volume leaks, dietary intervention (medium-chain lipid diet, nil by mouth, total parenteral nutrition) is justified. Surgery with re-exploration of the axilla and oversewing of the chyle duct can be used as the last reserve for persistent chyle leaks.
Breast cancer; Complication; Lymph node dissection; Parenteral nutrition; Breast neoplasm; Axillary clearance
Chylous ascites as a result of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is a rare complication which carries significant morbidity, including severe protein-calorie malnutrition and an associated immunocompromised state. We report a patient who underwent hand-assisted left LDN and subsequently developed chylous ascites. He failed conservative therapy including low-fat diet with medium-chain triglycerides (LFD/MCT) and oral protein supplementation as well as strict NPO status with intravenous (IV) total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and subcutaneous (SQ) somatostatin analogue administration. Laparoscopic re-exploration and intracorporeal suture ligation and clipping of leaking lymph channels successfully sealed the chyle leak. We review the literature to date including diagnosis, incidence, management options, psychosocial aspects and clinical outcomes of chylous ascites after LDN.
Chylous ascites; donor nephrectomy; living kidney donor complications
Many low-risk patients with solitary papillary thyroid cancer located in one lobe had undergone surgery that was less extensive than hemithyroidectomy in China. An acceptable completion surgery regimen was suggested for these patients based on our experience. A total of 117 enrolled patients underwent completion surgery. Thirty-two patients had prior tumor resection, 46 patients had prior partial thyroidectomy and 39 patients had prior subtotal thyroidectomy. No neck dissection was performed. Reoperation was scheduled a median of 1.2 months (range, 3 days–6.5 months) after primary surgery for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Among the 117 patients, residual tumor was pathologically confirmed in 60 patients, with a residual rate of 51.28%. Among these 60 patients, residual tumor was identified in the thyroid bed alone in 18 patients and in compartment VI alone in 28 patients, while 14 patients exhibited residual tumor in both of these regions. Lymph node metastasis was observed in compartment VI in 42 patients (35.90%), and an average of 6.5 nodes were removed (range, 2–14 nodes for each patient). Additionally, 3.14 positive lymph nodes were removed on average from each of the 42 patients. We conclude that the completion regimen, including the ipsilateral residual lobe, the isthmus and ipsilateral compartment VI (prelaryngeal, pretracheal and paratracheal lymph nodes), is reasonable and acceptable for low-risk patients undergoing surgery that is less extensive than hemithyroidectomy.
papillary thyroid cancer; central compartment; lobectomy
Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is an established operation for organ procurement in living donor transplantation. Living donor renal transplantation is being performed more frequently and is associated with better graft function and survival. The minimal access approach for organ procurement from healthy individuals ensures early convalescence and improved patient participation. Here we describe a rare complication of LDN. Postoperative chylous ascites frequently occurs secondary to aortic surgery. Though previously described after LDN, its treatment remains contentious. Conventional strategies have adopted an expectant approach with medical management. These include parenteral feeding, bowel rest and somatostatin analogue usage. We report laparoscopic suture ligation as the principal management of postoperative chyle leak. We advocate surgical exploration in acute onset, high output chylous ascites. Pre-existing port site incisions were used for undertaking successful laparoscopic repair. This surgical approach enabled faster convalescence and reduced hospital stay—important considerations for our healthy living donor.
This is a case report of a 44-year-old woman with papillary carcinoma of a thyroglossal duct cyst.
A 44 year-old woman presented to the otolaryngology outpatient clinic with an asymptomatic anterior midline neck mass. A cervical ultrasound showed a lesion which appeared to be a thyroglossal duct cyst and surgical resection using Sistrunk's procedure was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary carcinoma evolving from a thyroglossal duct cyst, confined to the thyroglossal cyst, with a tumor diameter of 2 cm. The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. The final pathology reported an 8 mm papillary cancer in the left lobe of the thyroid without any metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. The patient was treated with radioactive iodide and thyroid suppresion therapy was given as adjuvant treatment. The patient has been following for two years without any metastasis.
Malignancy within a thyroglossal duct cyst is very rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a midline neck mass.
The aim of this study was to investigate the complications following surgical treatment of thyroid cancer and the association between the extent of surgery and complication rates. A total of 2,636 patients who underwent surgery due to thyroid cancer were retrospectively reviewed to identify surgical complications. Complication rates were assessed according to the extent of surgery, which was classified as follows; less-than-total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND) (Group I, n=636), total thyroidectomy with CCND (Group II, n=1,390), total thyroidectomy plus ipsilateral neck dissection (Group III, n=513), and total thyroidectomy plus bilateral neck dissection (Group IV, n=97). The most common surgical complication was symptomatic hypoparathyroidism, of which 28.4% of cases were transient and 0.3% permanent. The other surgical complications included vocal cord palsy (0.7% transient, and 0.2% permanent), hematoma (0.5%), seroma (4.7%), chyle fistula (1.8%), and Horner's syndrome (0.2%). The complication rates increased significantly with increasing the extent of surgery from Group I to Group IV. The more extensive surgery makes more complications, such as hypoparathyroidism, seroma, and others.
Intraoperative Complications; Thyroid Neoplasms; Thyroidectomy; Lymph Node Excision
Prophylactic central neck dissection in papillary thyroid cancer is controversial. In this retrospective cohort study, the aim was to assess possible advantages of prophylactic central neck dissection with total thyroidectomy in cN0 papillary thyroid cancer. A total of 244 consecutive patients with papillary thyroid cancer, without clinical and ultrasound nodal metastases (cN0), were evaluated out of 1373 patients operated for a thyroid disease at the Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan, Italy from 1994 to 2006. Of these 244 patients, 126 (Group A) underwent thyroidectomy with central neck dissection, while 118 (Group B) underwent thyroidectomy alone. Demographic, clinical and pathological features were analysed. Overall recurrence rate was 6.3% (8/126) in Group A and 7.7% (9/118) in Group B, with a mean follow-up of 47 (Group A) and 64 (Group B) months. In Group A patients, 47% were pN1a and all patients with recurrence had nodal involvement (p = 0.002). Survival rate did not differ in the two groups. Nine patients were lost to follow-up. Group A patients were older and their tumours were larger in size; according to the pT distribution, a higher extra-capsular invasion rate was observed. The two groups were equivalent as far as concerns histological high risk variants and multifocality. Nodal metastases correlated with stage: pT1-2 vs. pT3-T4a, p = 0.0036. A lower risk of nodal metastases was related to thyroiditis (p = 0.0034). In conclusion, central neck metastases were predictive of recurrence without influencing prognosis. From data obtained, possible greatest efficacy of central neck dissection in pT3-4 papillary thyroid cancer without thyroiditis is suggested.
Thyroid; Papillary thyroid cancer; Nodal metastases; Central neck dissection
The intra- and postoperative complications resulting from surgery for giant thyroid gland tumors (diameter greater than 10 cm) present serious challenges to patient recovery. Although there are a number of methods, all have limitations. In this study, we present our experience with several complications of surgical treatment of giant thyroid gland tumors to increase the awareness and aid the prevention of these complications. A total of 137 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment in Henan Tumor Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Statistics pertaining to the patients’ clinical factors were gathered. We found that the most common surgical complications were recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury and symptomatic hypoparathyroidism. Other complications included incision site infections, bleeding, infection and chyle fistula, the incidence of which increased significantly with increasing extent of surgery from group I (near-total thyroidectomy) to group V (total thyroidectomy plus lateral neck dissection). Low complication rates may be achieved with more accurate knowledge of the surgical anatomy, skilled surgical treatment and experience. More extensive surgery results in a greater number of complications.
complications; giant thyroid gland; recurrent laryngeal nerve; hypoparathyroidism
Papillary thyroid microcarcinomas are tumors often found accidentally after thyroidectomy for other thyroid disorders.
Patients with enlarged lateral cervical masses, with unknown thyroid disease, found to have metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma ≤10 mm in diameter, were compared to patients operated on for nodular or multinodular goiter, who were incidentally found to have papillary thyroid microcarcinomas.
Group A included 24 patients with an enlarged lateral cervical mass whereas group B included 30 patients presenting with nodular or multinodular goiter. Patients in both groups underwent surgery. After thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection, pathology revealed multifocal papillary carcinomas of 1–10 mm, with invasion of the thyroid capsule and surrounding soft tissue in most of the cases in group A. Two patients presented with distant metastases at diagnosis which were surgically removed. During follow up, 3 patients (12.5%) presented with new cervical metastases which were surgically removed or treated with additional radioactive iodine. At last follow-up, all patients were alive. In contrast, all patients in group B had unifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma 1–10 mm in maximum diameter, with no infiltration or extension into the adjacent tissue, or cervical lymph node metastases.
Two groups of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas characterized by different clinical and biological behaviours are identified. Significant differences were found between these groups concerning the age, tumor size, number of tumor foci, lymph nodes metastases and extrathyroidal extension of the tumor. Papillary thyroid carcinomas of small (≤10 mm) size may have aggressive behaviour or be metastatic, and this subgroup should be treated and followed up as are other large, differentiated thyroid cancers.
Total thyroidectomy is currently the preferred treatment for thyroid cancer, multinodular goitre and Graves disease; however, many surgeons choose not to perform total thyroidectomy to treat benign thyroid diseases owing to the associated risk of postoperative hypoparathyroidism and recurrent laryngeal nerve damage. We reviewed 932 total thyroidectomies performed for benign thyroid diseases when surgery was indicated. We sought to assess whether the results support the hypothesis that total thyroidectomy is safe and can be considered as the optimal surgical approach for treating benign thyroid diseases.
A total of 932 patients underwent thyroidectomy between 1985 and 2005. We excluded patients with thyroid cancer or suspicion of thyroid malignancy. We evaluated indications for total thyroidectomy, cancer incidence, complication rates, local recurrence rate and long-term outcome after total thyroidectomy.
Diagnoses before surgery were multinodular goitre (n = 734, 78.8%), Graves disease (n = 166, 17.8%) and recurrent (after previous partial thyroidectomy) nodular goitre (n = 32, 3.4%). The incidence of permanent bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was 0% and that of permanent unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was 0.2%, whereas the incidence of temporary unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was 1.3%. Permanent hypocalcemia occurred in 0.3% and overall temporary hypocalcemia occurred in 7.3% of patients. Hemorrhage requiring repeat surgery occurred in 0.2% of patients. There was no wound infection, and postoperative mortality was 0%. We observed no disease recurrences during a median follow-up of 9 (range 2–20) years.
Total thyroidectomy is safe and is associated with a low incidence of disabilities. Complication rates for recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism are similar to results of specialist endocrine surgery units. Furthermore, total thyroidectomy seems to be the optimal procedure, when surgery is indicated, for Graves disease and multinodular goitre, as total thyroidectomy has the advantages of immediate and permanent cure and no recurrences.
A case report of a chyle leak following radical neck dissection for residual lymph nodal disease performed after chemoradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This is the first case report of the use of cyanoacrylate for a persistent chyle leak following radical neck dissection.
Thyroid carcinoma is rare comprising 1% of all malignancies and commonly presents as a neck lump. Papillary thyroid carcinoma unlike follicular thyroid carcinoma tends not to metastasise to distant sites.
We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases and highlight current management of bone metastases. A 59-year old female was found on abdominal computerised tomography to have an incidental finding of a 4.5 cm soft tissue mass in the right iliac bone. Biopsy of the lesion confirmed metastatic thyroid carcinoma. There was no history of a neck lump, head and neck examination was normal. Further imaging confirmed focal activity in the right lobe of the thyroid. A total thyroidectomy and level VI neck dissection was performed and histology confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
Early detection of bone metastases have been shown to improve prognosis and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary malignancy.
A non-recurrent variant of the inferior laryngeal nerve has been seldom reported. These reports are mostly based on cadaveric dissection studies or large chart review studies in which the emphasis is placed on the determination of the frequency of the variation, and not on the clinical appearance of this variant. We graphically describe the intraoperative identification of a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve.
A 44-year old Caucasian man was referred to the Head and Neck Surgery Outpatient Clinic with the diagnosis of a nodular mass in his left thyroid lobe that had been growing for one year. A fine needle aspiration puncture was compatible with thyroid papillary cancer. It was decided that the patient should undergo total thyroidectomy. During surgery, a non-recurrent right inferior laryngeal nerve was noted. This nerve emanated from the right vagus nerve, entering the larynx 3 cm after its origin. The nerve did not show a recurrent course. The nerve on the left side had a normal configuration. The surgery and post-operative period were uneventful, and the patient had no change in his voice.
This paper allows those interested to become acquainted with the normal intraoperative appearance of a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve. This will undoubtedly be of significance for all of those performing invasive diagnostic and surgical procedures in the neck and upper thoracic regions, in order to minimize the risk of iatrogenic injury to this nerve. This is of extreme importance, since a unilateral lesion of this nerve may result in permanent hoarseness, and a bilateral lesion may lead to aphonia and life-threatening dyspnea.
A 75-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer 7 years previously presented with a palpable neck mass. Computed tomography (CT) showed two metastatic masses on the thyroid bed and another mass that looked benign originating from the esophageal wall. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed a hypoechoic mass in the esophageal wall that looked similar to a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The mass on the esophagus had intense fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which suggested the possibility of malignancy. Subsequently, after surgery, the mass in the esophagus was confirmed as a metastasis from the thyroid papillary carcinoma. Here we report this unusual case of papillary thyroid cancer that recurred as an esophageal submucosal tumor.
Esophagus; Papillary thyroid cancer
We describe the case of chylothorax after esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma. Lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-human serum albumin-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid showed an abnormal radioisotope accumulation on the left side of the thoracic duct. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) combined with computed tomography (CT) revealed a hot spot directly on the site at, which the thoracic duct was ligated during surgery, which was the suggested site of chyle leakage. We emphasize that lymphoscintigraphy with SPECT/CT is very useful tool for accurately identifying the site of the chyle leakage.
Chylothorax; esophagectomy; lymphoscintigraphy; single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography
The role for pre-thyroidectomy (pre-Tx) imaging with F-18 flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), FDG PET–computed tomography (CT), in differentiated thyroid cancer is controversial as is the significance of positive and negative FDG uptake in this setting. We reviewed the records of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) who had pre-Tx FDG PET-CT to determine whether FDG uptake was associated with features noted on pre-Tx ultrasonography (US) and parameters determined after post-Tx.
Patients were selected for a retrospective review of their records if they had a total Tx with central lymph node dissection for PTC and pre-Tx FDG PET-CT and US between 2006 and 2009. Sixty patients who met these criteria were studied. Patients who had a history of head and neck irradiation, surgery, or sclerotherapy with ethanol in the last 3 months were excluded. The clinicopathologic factors—age, sex, size, tumor–node–metastasis (TNM) staging, the presence of extrathyroidal extention, multifocality, cervical lymph node metastases (CLNM), Hashimoto thyroiditis, and US characteristics—were evaluated to determine whether they were associated with positive pre-Tx FDG uptake.
Forty-three (71.6%) of patients in the study had positive FDG uptake. Larger tumors and the presence of CLNM were associated with a greater likelihood of positive FDG uptake. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for CLNM detection by FDG PET-CT showed low statistical values. When considering the excellence of US for evaluating a thyroid nodule size and the presence of CLNM, the clinical value of pre-Tx FDG PET-CT is comparatively limited.
Pre-Tx FDG PET is not recommended for routine use in patients with PTC.
Postoperative leakage is a serious complication in patients after gastric surgery. It can lead to a rapid deterioration in the patient's condition and quality of life. Treatment is guided by the type of anastomosis and the patient's clinical status. The role of interventional radiology in gastrointestinal tract is evolving. Metallic stent placement has shown encouraging results for the palliation of gastrointestinal tract obstruction and fistula in malignant patients. We encountered a case of the leakage of jejunal end of Roux limb after total gastrectomy. This patient required a drainage procedure with long-term parenteral nutrition. We performed peroral placement of a covered metallic stent to avoid surgery and long-term parenteral nutrition, and he resumed adequate oral intake immediately after stent placement. This minimally invasive procedure is very promising for the treatment of a gastrointestinal fistula to avoid surgery and long-term parenteral nutritional support in selected cases.
The significance of nodal metastases, very common in papillary thyroid cancer, and the role of lymph node dissection in the neoplasm management, are still controversial. The impact of lymph node involvement on local recurrence and long-term survival remains subject of active research. With the aim to better analyze the predictive value of lymph node involvement on recurrence and survival, we investigated the clinico-pathological patterns of local relapse following total thyroidectomy associated with lymph node dissection, for clinical nodal metastases papillary thyroid cancer, in order to identify the preferred surgical treatment.
Clinical records, between January 2000 and December 2006, of 69 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy associated with selective lymph node dissection for clinical nodal metastases papillary thyroid cancer, were retrospectively evaluated. Radioiodine ablation, followed by Thyroid Stimulating Hormone suppression therapy was recommended in every case. In patients with loco regional lymph nodal recurrence, a repeated lymph node dissection was carried out. The data were compared with those following total thyroidectomy not associated with lymph node dissection in 210 papillary thyroid cancer patients without lymph node involvement, at preoperative ultrasonography and intra operative inspection.
Incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism (iPTH < 10 pg/ml) and permanent monolateral vocal fold paralysis were respectively 1.4 % (1/69) and 1.4% (1/69), similar to those reported after total thyroidectomy "alone". The rate of loco regional recurrence, with positive cervical lymph nodes, following 8 year follow-up, was 34.7% (24/69), higher than that reported in patients without nodal metastases (4.2%). A repeated lymph node dissection was carried out without significant complications.
Nodal metastases are a predictor of local recurrence, and a higher rate of lymph node involvement is expected after therapeutic lymph node dissection associated with total thyroidectomy. The prognostic significance of nodal metastases on long-term survival remains unclear, and more prospective randomized trials are requested to better evaluate the benefits of different therapeutic approaches.
Total thyroidectomy; Papillary thyroid cancer; Lymph node recurrence; Lymph node neck dissection; Radio active iodine ablation
We report a rare case of papillary thyroid carcinoma incidentally found within a branchial cleft cyst. Only four other cases have been described in the literature. A total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection was performed, and no evidence of occult primary disease was found after review of fine sections. Branchial cleft cysts are the most common lateral neck masses. Ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cleft cyst is an unusual phenomenon, and papillary thyroid carcinoma arising from this tissue is extremely rare. Clinicians are left with a diagnostic dilemma when presented with thyroid tissue neoplasm within a neck cyst in the absence of a thyroid primary—is this a case of metastatic disease with a missed primary or rather carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue? A thorough discussion of the etiologies of these lateral neck masses is reviewed including the embryogenesis of thyroid tissue in a branchial cleft cyst. The prognosis of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma in lateral neck cysts without a primary site identified appears to be good following excision of the cyst and total thyroidectomy. Other management recommendations regarding these unique lateral neck malignancies are also presented.
Thyroid disease is common, thyroid cancer is uncommon. Most goitres are investigated using blood tests, fine needle aspiration cytology together with ultrasound. Surgery usually entails either lobectomy or total thyroidectomy, and for malignancy, patients may need a neck dissection. Recently, significant advances have been made regarding mechanisms involved in both thyroid growth and function (goitrogenesis) and carcinogenesis at a molecular level.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
In the study cohort, 1113 patients had benign disease and 387 malignancy. For benign disease, 716 patients had lobectomy or isthmusectomy, 44 had near-total thyroidectomy and 318 a total thyroidectomy. For malignancy, patients received initial lobectomy (180) or total thyroidectomy (152). One hundred and eleven had completion surgery. Thirty patients had extensive surgery. Thyroid growth and function was investigated using 500 human thyroid cell primary cultures obtained at surgery, as well as in three animal models. The role of pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG), PTTG binding factor (PBF) and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in thyroid cell function was then evaluated.
Temporary and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy rates were 2.4% and 0.4%. Other complications included temporary (21%) and permanent (3%) hypoparathyroidism, wound infection (1.2%), haematoma (1.2%) and poor scar (0.8%). Six patients have died. Regarding thyroid growth and function, TSH represents (either directly or indirectly) the main factor mediating thyroid follicular cell growth. For carcinogenesis, over-expression of the proto-oncogenes PTTG and PBF induces tumours in nude mice, and PTTG can induce proliferation of human thyroid cells and, in addition, both repress expression and function of NIS.
Thyroid disease including cancer; Growth factors; Thyroid surgery
Papillary carcinoma is the most common differentiated malignant thyroid neoplasm. The biological course of this cancer is typically indolent with a protracted clinical course. Metastases commonly occur in regional lymph nodes, and distant metastasis is a late and rare occurrence. We report a patient who presented with cerebellar metastasis prior to the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and review the literature of brain metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma.
A 75-year old female presented at the emergency room with progressive dizziness, headache and vomiting, where a brain CT and MRI showed a posterior cerebellar tumor. Surgical resection revealed papillary carcinoma consistent with thyroid origin. Subsequent ultrasound and CT-scan revealed a thyroid nodule, after which the patient underwent total thyroidectomy. Pathologic evaluation was consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Brain metastasis may rarely be the initial presentation of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Solitary brain metastasis can completely be resected with better prognosis.