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1.  Evidence of association with type 1 diabetes in the SLC11A1 gene region 
BMC Medical Genetics  2011;12:59.
Linkage and congenic strain analyses using the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse as a model for human type 1 autoimmune diabetes (T1D) have identified several NOD mouse Idd (insulin dependent diabetes) loci, including Slc11a1 (formerly known as Nramp1). Genetic variants in the orthologous region encompassing SLC11A1 in human chromosome 2q35 have been reported to be associated with various immune-related diseases including T1D. Here, we have conducted association analysis of this candidate gene region, and then investigated potential correlations between the most T1D-associated variant and RNA expression of the SLC11A1 gene and its splice isoform.
Nine SNPs (rs2276631, rs2279015, rs1809231, rs1059823, rs17235409 (D543N), rs17235416 (3'UTR), rs3731865 (INT4), rs7573065 (-237 C→T) and rs4674297) were genotyped using TaqMan genotyping assays and the polymorphic promoter microsatellite (GT)n was genotyped using PCR and fragment length analysis. A maximum of 8,863 T1D British cases and 10,841 British controls, all of white European descent, were used to test association using logistic regression. A maximum of 5,696 T1D families were also tested for association using the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT). We considered P ≤ 0.005 as evidence of association given that we tested nine variants in total. Upon identification of the most T1D-associated variant, we investigated the correlation between its genotype and SLC11A1 expression overall or with splice isoform ratio using 42 PAXgene whole blood samples from healthy donors by quantitative PCR (qPCR).
Using the case-control collection, rs3731865 (INT4) was identified to be the variant most associated with T1D (P = 1.55 × 10-6). There was also some evidence of association at rs4674297 (P = 1.57 × 10-4). No evidence of disease association was obtained at any of the loci using the family collections (PTDT ≥ 0.13). We also did not observe a correlation between rs3731865 genotypes and SLC11A1 expression overall or with splice isoform expression.
We conclude that rs3731685 (INT4) in the SLC11A1 gene may be associated with T1D susceptibility in the European ancestry population studied. We did not observe a difference in SLC11A1 expression at the RNA level based on the genotypes of rs3731865 in whole blood samples. However, a potential correlation cannot be ruled out in purified cell subsets especially monocytes or macrophages.
PMCID: PMC3114708  PMID: 21524304
2.  Association of SLC11A1 with tuberculosis interactions with NOS2A and TLR2 in African-Americans and Caucasians 
Host defense factors may influence the development of active tuberculosis (TB).
To test variants in solute carrier family 11A, member 1 (SLC11A1), for an association with TB.
A mixed case-control study of TB cases, relatives or close contact controls, consisting of 474 African-Americans (243 families) and 381 Caucasians (192 families), examined 13 SLC11A1 polymorphisms for association with pulmonary TB using generalized estimating equations adjusting for age and gender.
Two associations were observed in Caucasians (rs3731863, P = 0.03, and rs17221959, P = 0.04) and one in African-Americans (rs3731865, P = 0.05). Multilocus analyses between polymorphisms in SLC11A1 and 11 TB candidate genes detected interactions between SLC11A1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2A) in Caucasians (rs3731863 [SLC11A1] × rs8073782 [NOS2A], P = 0.009; rs3731863 [SLC11A1] × rs17722851 [NOS2A], P = 0.007) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in African-Americans (rs3731865 [SLC11A1] x rs1816702, P = 0.005).
No association was detected with 5′(GT)n promoter polymorphism previously associated with lower SLC11A1 expression, rs17235409 (D543N), or rs17235416 (3′ TGTG insertion/deletion polymorphism). SLC11A1 polymorphism rs3731865 was associated with TB in African-Americans, consistent with previous findings in West Africans. These results suggest that variants in SLC11A1 increase susceptibility to pulmonary TB and interact with other variants that differ by race.
PMCID: PMC2902362  PMID: 19723394
SLC11A1; tuberculosis; genetic epidemiology; epistasis; innate immunity
3.  No detectable association of IGF2BP2 and SLC30A8 genes with type 2 diabetes in the population of Hyderabad, India☆ 
Meta Gene  2013;1:15-23.
Genome-wide association studies identified novel genes associated with T2DM which have been replicated in different populations. We try to examine here if certain frequently replicated SNPs of Insulin growth factor 2 m-RNA binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) (rs4402960, rs1470579) and Solute Carrier family 30 member 8 (SLC30A8) (rs13266634) genes, known to be implicated in insulin pathway, are associated with T2DM in the population of Hyderabad, which is considered to be a diabetic capital of India. Genotyping of the 1379 samples, 758 cases and 621 controls, for the SNPs was performed on sequenom massarray platform. The logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS software and the post-hoc power of the study was estimated using G power. The allele and genotype frequencies were similar between cases and controls, both for SNPs of IGF2BP2 and SLC30A8 genes. Logistic regression did not reveal significant allelic or genotypic association of any of the three SNPs with T2DM. Despite large sample size and adequate power, we could not replicate the association of IGF2BP2 and SLC30A8 SNPs with T2DM in our sample from Hyderabad (A.P.), India, albeit another study based on much larger sample but from heterogeneous populations from the northern parts of India showed significant association of two of the above 3 SNPs, suggesting variable nature of susceptibility of these genes in different ethnic groups. Although the IGF2BP2 and SLC30A8 genes are important in the functional pathway of Insulin secretion, it appears that these genes do not play a significant role in the susceptibility to T2DM in this population.
•First genetic association study of T2DM in the population of Hyderabad, India•1379 subjects were genotyped for three SNPs of IGF2BP2 and SLC30A8 genes•Despite adequate power, none of the SNPs could be replicated in our population•Ethnic variability and different genetic predisposition of Indians could explain
PMCID: PMC4205031  PMID: 25606370
T2DM, Type 2 diabetes mellitus; GWAS, Genome wide association studies; SNP, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism; IGF2BP2, Insulin growth factor 2 m-RNA binding protein 2; SLC30A8, Solute Carrier family 30 member 8; ADA, American Diabetes Association; FPG, Fasting Plasma Glucose; PPG, Post-prandial Plasma Glucose; RBG, Random Plasma Glucose; BMI, Body Mass Index; WHR, Waist Hip Ratio; SPSS, Statistical Package for Social Sciences; PyPop, Python for Population Genomics; SBP, Systolic Blood Pressure; DBP, Diastolic Blood Pressure; LD, Linkage Disequilibrium; IMP1, Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1; ZnT8, Zinc Transporter 8; PCOS, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome; O.R., Odds Ratio; C.I., Confidence Interval.; Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); Association; Population of Hyderabad; India
4.  SLC2A9 Is a High-Capacity Urate Transporter in Humans 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(10):e197.
Serum uric acid levels in humans are influenced by diet, cellular breakdown, and renal elimination, and correlate with blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, gout, and cardiovascular disease. Recent genome-wide association scans have found common genetic variants of SLC2A9 to be associated with increased serum urate level and gout. The SLC2A9 gene encodes a facilitative glucose transporter, and it has two splice variants that are highly expressed in the proximal nephron, a key site for urate handling in the kidney. We investigated whether SLC2A9 is a functional urate transporter that contributes to the longstanding association between urate and blood pressure in man.
Methods and Findings
We expressed both SLC2A9 splice variants in Xenopus laevis oocytes and found both isoforms mediate rapid urate fluxes at concentration ranges similar to physiological serum levels (200–500 μM). Because SLC2A9 is a known facilitative glucose transporter, we also tested whether glucose or fructose influenced urate transport. We found that urate is transported by SLC2A9 at rates 45- to 60-fold faster than glucose, and demonstrated that SLC2A9-mediated urate transport is facilitated by glucose and, to a lesser extent, fructose. In addition, transport is inhibited by the uricosuric benzbromarone in a dose-dependent manner (Ki = 27 μM). Furthermore, we found urate uptake was at least 2-fold greater in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells overexpressing SLC2A9 splice variants than nontransfected kidney cells. To confirm that our findings were due to SLC2A9, and not another urate transporter, we showed that urate transport was diminished by SLC2A9-targeted siRNA in a second mammalian cell line. In a cohort of men we showed that genetic variants of SLC2A9 are associated with reduced urinary urate clearance, which fits with common variation at SLC2A9 leading to increased serum urate. We found no evidence of association with hypertension (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9 to 1.05, p > 0.33) by meta-analysis of an SLC2A9 variant in six case–control studies including 11,897 participants. In a separate meta-analysis of four population studies including 11,629 participants we found no association of SLC2A9 with systolic (effect size −0.12 mm Hg, 95% CI −0.68 to 0.43, p = 0.664) or diastolic blood pressure (effect size −0.03 mm Hg, 95% CI −0.39 to 0.31, p = 0.82).
This study provides evidence that SLC2A9 splice variants act as high-capacity urate transporters and is one of the first functional characterisations of findings from genome-wide association scans. We did not find an association of the SLC2A9 gene with blood pressure in this study. Our findings suggest potential pathogenic mechanisms that could offer a new drug target for gout.
Editors' Summary
Blood is continually pumped around the human body to deliver the chemicals needed to keep the body's cells alive and to take cellular waste products to the kidneys where they are filtered out of the blood and excreted in the urine. In healthy people, the levels of nutrients and waste products in serum (the liquid part of blood) fall within “normal” ranges but in ill people these levels can be very different. For example, serum uric acid (urate) levels are usually increased in people with gout. In this arthritic condition, uric acid crystallizes in the joints (often those in the big toe) and causes swelling and intense pain. Increased serum urate levels, which are also associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, and several other important conditions, can be caused by eating food that is rich in chemicals called purines (for example, liver, dried beans, and port). The body also converts its own purines into uric acid so genetic variations in the enzymes involved in purine breakdown can alter serum urate levels, as can variations in the rate of urate removal from the body by the kidneys. Urinary urate excretion is controlled by urate transporters, proteins that carry urate into and out of the kidney cells. Uricosuric drugs, which are used to treat gout, reduce serum urate levels by inhibiting a urate transporter that reabsorbs urate from urine.
Why Was This Study Done?
Several urate transporters have already been identified but recently, using an approach called genome-wide association scanning, scientists found that some genetic variants of a human gene called SLC2A9 are more common in people with high serum urate levels than in people with normal levels. SLC2A9 encodes a glucose transporter (a protein that helps to move the sugar glucose through cell membranes) and is highly expressed in the kidney's main urate handling site. Given these facts, could SLC2A9 (the protein made from SLC2A9) be a urate transporter as well as a glucose transporter? In this study, the researchers investigate this possibility and also ask whether genetic variations in SLC2A9 might be responsible for the association between serum urate levels and high blood pressure.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers first expressed SLC2A9 in frog eggs, a type of cell that does not have its own urate transporter. They found that urate rapidly moved into eggs expressing SLC2A9 but not into control eggs, that SLC2A9 transported urate about 50 times faster than glucose, and that glucose stimulated SLC2A9-mediated urate transport. Similarly, overexpression of SLC2A9 in human embryonic kidney cells more than doubled their urate uptake. Conversely, when the researchers used a technique called RNA interference to reduce the expression of mouse SLC2A9 in mouse cells that normally makes this protein, urate transport was reduced. Next, the researchers looked at two small parts of SLC2A9 that vary between individuals (so-called single polynucleotide polymorphisms) in nearly 900 men who had had their serum urate levels and urinary urate excretion rates measured. They found that certain genetic variations at these two sites were associated with increased serum urate levels and decreased urinary urate excretion. Finally, the researchers used a statistical technique called meta-analysis to look for an association between one of the SLC2A9 gene variants and blood pressure. In two separate meta-analyses that together involved more than 20, 000 participants in several studies, there was no association between this gene variant and blood pressure.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Overall, these findings indicate that SLCA9 is a high capacity urate transporter and suggest that this protein plays an important part in controlling serum urate levels. They provide confirmation that common genetic variants in SLC2A9 affect serum urate levels to a marked degree, although they do not show exactly which genetic variant is responsible for increasing serum urate levels. They also provide important new insights into how the kidneys normally handle urate and suggest ways in which this essential process may sometimes go wrong. Thus, these findings could eventually lead to new treatments for gout and possibly for other diseases that are associated with increased serum urate levels.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The UK National Health Service Direct health encyclopedia provides detailed information for patients about gout
MedlinePlus provides links to many sources of information about gout (in English and Spanish), including “What is gout?”, an easy-to-read guide from the US National Institutes of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Wikipedia also has pages on gout, uric acid, and SCL2A9 (note: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
The Arthritis Research Campaign also has information on gout
Mark Caulfield and colleagues show that theSLC2A9 gene, which encodes a facilitative glucose transporter, is also a high-capacity urate transporter.
PMCID: PMC2561076  PMID: 18842065
5.  Association analysis of the SLC22A11 (organic anion transporter 4) and SLC22A12 (urate transporter 1) urate transporter locus with gout in New Zealand case-control sample sets reveals multiple ancestral-specific effects 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2013;15(6):R220.
There is inconsistent association between urate transporters SLC22A11 (organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4)) and SLC22A12 (urate transporter 1 (URAT1)) and risk of gout. New Zealand (NZ) Māori and Pacific Island people have higher serum urate and more severe gout than European people. The aim of this study was to test genetic variation across the SLC22A11/SLC22A12 locus for association with risk of gout in NZ sample sets.
A total of 12 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants in four haplotype blocks were genotyped using TaqMan® and Sequenom MassArray in 1003 gout cases and 1156 controls. All cases had gout according to the 1977 American Rheumatism Association criteria. Association analysis of single markers and haplotypes was performed using PLINK and Stata.
A haplotype block 1 SNP (rs17299124) (upstream of SLC22A11) was associated with gout in less admixed Polynesian sample sets, but not European Caucasian (odds ratio; OR = 3.38, P = 6.1 × 10-4; OR = 0.91, P = 0.40, respectively) sample sets. A protective block 1 haplotype caused the rs17299124 association (OR = 0.28, P = 6.0 × 10-4). Within haplotype block 2 (SLC22A11) we could not replicate previous reports of association of rs2078267 with gout in European Caucasian (OR = 0.98, P = 0.82) sample sets, however this SNP was associated with gout in Polynesian (OR = 1.51, P = 0.022) sample sets. Within haplotype block 3 (including SLC22A12) analysis of haplotypes revealed a haplotype with trans-ancestral protective effects (OR = 0.80, P = 0.004), and a second haplotype conferring protection in less admixed Polynesian sample sets (OR = 0.63, P = 0.028) but risk in European Caucasian samples (OR = 1.33, P = 0.039).
Our analysis provides evidence for multiple ancestral-specific effects across the SLC22A11/SLC22A12 locus that presumably influence the activity of OAT4 and URAT1 and risk of gout. Further fine mapping of the association signal is needed using trans-ancestral re-sequence data.
PMCID: PMC3978909  PMID: 24360580
6.  Association study of polymorphisms in the neutral amino acid transporter genes SLC1A4, SLC1A5 and the glycine transporter genes SLC6A5, SLC6A9 with schizophrenia 
BMC Psychiatry  2008;8:58.
Based on the glutamatergic dysfunction hypothesis for schizophrenia pathogenesis, we have been performing systematic association studies of schizophrenia with the genes involved in glutametergic transmission. We report here association studies of schizophrenia with SLC1A4, SLC1A5 encoding neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1, ASCT2, and SLC6A5, SLC6A9 encoding glycine transporters GLYT2, GLYT1, respectively.
We initially tested the association of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed in the four gene regions with schizophrenia using 100 Japanese cases-control pairs and examined allele, genotype and haplotype association with schizophrenia. The observed nominal significance were examined in the full-size samples (400 cases and 420 controls).
We observed nominally significant single-marker associations with schizophrenia in SNP2 (P = 0.021) and SNP3 (P = 0.029) of SLC1A4, SNP1 (P = 0.009) and SNP2 (P = 0.022) of SLC6A5. We also observed nominally significant haplotype associations with schizophrenia in the combinations of SNP2-SNP7 (P = 0.037) of SLC1A4 and SNP1-SNP4 (P = 0.043) of SLC6A5. We examined all of the nominal significance in the Full-size Sample Set, except one haplotype with insufficient LD. The significant association of SNP1 of SLC6A5 with schizophrenia was confirmed in the Full-size Sample Set (P = 0.018).
We concluded that at least one susceptibility locus for schizophrenia may be located within or nearby SLC6A5, whereas SLC1A4, SLC1A5 and SLC6A9 are unlikely to be major susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in the Japanese population.
PMCID: PMC2491607  PMID: 18638388
7.  The Search for a Genetic Factor Associating with Immune Restoration Disease in HIV Patients Co-Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Disease markers  2013;34(6):445-449.
BACKGROUND: Up to 43% of HIV-infected patients co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis experience exacerbations of tuberculosis (TB) after commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART). These are termed immune restoration disease (IRD). It is unclear why individual susceptibility varies.
OBJECTIVE: We investigate if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and their receptors associate with development of an IRD event in patients of two different ethnicities.
METHODS: DNA samples were available from small well-characterised groups of HIV patients treated in Cambodia (TB-IRD, n = 17; HIV+TB+ controls, n = 55) and India (TB-IRD, n = 19; HIV+TB+ controls, n = 43). HIV patients with a TB diagnosis but no evidence of IRD were included to control for susceptibility to TB per se. Sixteen SNP implicated in inflammation or mycobacterial disease were genotyped.
RESULTS: Susceptibility to TB-IRD associated with carriage of TNFA-1031*T (rs1799964; P=0.05) and SLC11A1 D543N*G (rs17235409; P=0.04) in Cambodian patients and carriage of IL18-607*G (rs1946518; P=0.02) and VDR FokI (F/f)*T (rs10735810; P=0.05) in Indian patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Associations between polymorphisms in immune-related genes and TB-IRD were found, but none were common across two ethnicities.
PMCID: PMC3809978  PMID: 23594560
TB-IRD susceptibility; immunogenetic factor; single nucleotide polymorphism
8.  Candidate Gene Sequencing of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in a Family with Severe Anaemia: Common SNPs, Rare Haplotypes, No Causative Mutation 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e35015.
Iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA) is a rare disorder which was linked to mutations in two genes (SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6). Common polymorphisms within these genes were associated with serum iron levels. We identified a family of Serbian origin with asymptomatic non-consanguineous parents with three of four children presenting with IRIDA not responding to oral but to intravenous iron supplementation. After excluding all known causes responsible for iron deficiency anaemia we searched for mutations in SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 that could explain the severe anaemia in these children.
We sequenced the exons and exon–intron boundaries of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in all six family members. Thereby, we found seven known and fairly common SNPs, but no new mutation. We then genotyped these seven SNPs in the population-based SAPHIR study (n = 1,726) and performed genetic association analysis on iron and ferritin levels. Only two SNPs, which were top-hits from recent GWAS on iron and ferritin, exhibited an effect on iron and ferritin levels in SAPHIR. Six SAPHIR participants carrying the same TMPRSS6 genotypes and haplotype-pairs as one anaemic son showed lower ferritin and iron levels than the average. One individual exhibiting the joint SLC11A2/TMPRSS6 profile of the anaemic son had iron and ferritin levels lying below the 5th percentile of the population's iron and ferritin level distribution. We then checked the genotype constellations in the Nijmegen Biomedical Study (n = 1,832), but the profile of the anaemic son did not occur in this population.
We cannot exclude a gene-gene interaction between SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6, but we can also not confirm it. As in this case candidate gene sequencing did not reveal causative rare mutations, the samples will be subjected to whole exome sequencing.
PMCID: PMC3324414  PMID: 22509377
9.  The Light Skin Allele of SLC24A5 in South Asians and Europeans Shares Identity by Descent 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(11):e1003912.
Skin pigmentation is one of the most variable phenotypic traits in humans. A non-synonymous substitution (rs1426654) in the third exon of SLC24A5 accounts for lighter skin in Europeans but not in East Asians. A previous genome-wide association study carried out in a heterogeneous sample of UK immigrants of South Asian descent suggested that this gene also contributes significantly to skin pigmentation variation among South Asians. In the present study, we have quantitatively assessed skin pigmentation for a largely homogeneous cohort of 1228 individuals from the Southern region of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm significant association of rs1426654 SNP with skin pigmentation, explaining about 27% of total phenotypic variation in the cohort studied. Our extensive survey of the polymorphism in 1573 individuals from 54 ethnic populations across the Indian subcontinent reveals wide presence of the derived-A allele, although the frequencies vary substantially among populations. We also show that the geospatial pattern of this allele is complex, but most importantly, reflects strong influence of language, geography and demographic history of the populations. Sequencing 11.74 kb of SLC24A5 in 95 individuals worldwide reveals that the rs1426654-A alleles in South Asian and West Eurasian populations are monophyletic and occur on the background of a common haplotype that is characterized by low genetic diversity. We date the coalescence of the light skin associated allele at 22–28 KYA. Both our sequence and genome-wide genotype data confirm that this gene has been a target for positive selection among Europeans. However, the latter also shows additional evidence of selection in populations of the Middle East, Central Asia, Pakistan and North India but not in South India.
Author Summary
Human skin color is one of the most visible aspects of human diversity. The genetic basis of pigmentation in Europeans has been understood to some extent, but our knowledge about South Asians has been restricted to a handful of studies. It has been suggested that a single nucleotide difference in SLC24A5 accounts for 25–38% European-African pigmentation differences and correlates with lighter skin. This genetic variant has also been associated with skin color variation among South Asians living in the UK. Here, we report a study based on a homogenous cohort of South India. Our results confirm that SLC24A5 plays a key role in pigmentation diversity of South Asians. Country-wide screening of the variant reveals that the light skin associated allele is widespread in the Indian subcontinent and its complex patterning is shaped by a combination of processes involving selection and demographic history of the populations. By studying the variation of SLC24A5 sequences among a diverse set of individuals, we show that the light skin associated allele in South Asians is identical by descent to that found in Europeans. Our study also provides new insights into positive selection acting on the gene and the evolutionary history of light skin in humans.
PMCID: PMC3820762  PMID: 24244186
10.  A genome-wide association study of serum uric acid in African Americans 
BMC Medical Genomics  2011;4:17.
Uric acid is the primary byproduct of purine metabolism. Hyperuricemia is associated with body mass index (BMI), sex, and multiple complex diseases including gout, hypertension (HTN), renal disease, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry (EA) have reported associations between serum uric acid levels (SUAL) and specific genomic loci. The purposes of this study were: 1) to replicate major signals reported in EA populations; and 2) to use the weak LD pattern in African ancestry population to better localize (fine-map) reported loci and 3) to explore the identification of novel findings cognizant of the moderate sample size.
African American (AA) participants (n = 1,017) from the Howard University Family Study were included in this study. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix® Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0. Imputation was performed using MACH and the HapMap reference panels for CEU and YRI. A total of 2,400,542 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed for association with serum uric acid under the additive genetic model with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, glomerular filtration rate, HTN, T2D, and the top two principal components identified in the assessment of admixture and population stratification.
Four variants in the gene SLC2A9 achieved genome-wide significance for association with SUAL (p-values ranging from 8.88 × 10-9 to 1.38 × 10-9). Fine-mapping of the SLC2A9 signals identified a 263 kb interval of linkage disequilibrium in the HapMap CEU sample. This interval was reduced to 37 kb in our AA and the HapMap YRI samples.
The most strongly associated locus for SUAL in EA populations was also the most strongly associated locus in this AA sample. This finding provides evidence for the role of SLC2A9 in uric acid metabolism across human populations. Additionally, our findings demonstrate the utility of following-up EA populations GWAS signals in African-ancestry populations with weaker linkage disequilibrium.
PMCID: PMC3045279  PMID: 21294900
11.  Whole Genome Studies Identify Solute Carrier Transporters in Cellular Susceptibility to Paclitaxel 
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics  2012;22(7):498-507.
Clinical use of paclitaxel is limited by variable responses and the potential for significant toxicity. To date, studies of association between variants in candidate genes and paclitaxel effects have yielded conflicting results. We sought to evaluate relationships between global gene expression and paclitaxel sensitivity.
We utilized well-genotyped lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from the International HapMap Project to evaluate relationships between cellular susceptibility to paclitaxel and global gene expression. Cells were exposed to varying concentrations of paclitaxel to evaluate paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Among the top genes, we identified solute carrier (SLC) genes associated with paclitaxel sensitivity and narrowed down the list to those that had single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with both their expression level of the SLC gene and also with paclitaxel sensitivity. We performed independent validation in an independent set of cell lines and also conducted functional studies using RNA interference.
Of all genes associated with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity at p<0.05 (1713 genes), there was a significant enrichment of SLC genes (31 genes). A subset of SLC genes, namely SLC31A2, SLC43A1, SLC35A5, and SLC41A2, were associated with paclitaxel sensitivity and had regulating SNPs that were also associated with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity. Multivariate modeling demonstrated that those 4 SLC genes jointly explain 20% of the observed variability in paclitaxel susceptibility. Using RNA interference, we demonstrated increased paclitaxel susceptibility with knockdown of 3 SLC genes, SLC31A2, SLC35A5, and SLC41A2.
Our findings are novel and lend further support to the role of transporters, specifically solute carriers in mediating cellular susceptibility to paclitaxel.
PMCID: PMC3376193  PMID: 22437668
paclitaxel; solute carrier genes; transporters; lymphoblastoid cell lines; pharmacogenomics
American journal of hypertension  2009;22(3):288-293.
Sodium lithium countertransport (SLC) activity, an intermediate phenotype of essential hypertension, has been linked to a region of baboon chromosome 5, homologous to human chromosome 4p. Human SLC34A2, located at chromosome 4p15.1-p15.3, is a positional candidate gene for SLC. The specific aim of this study was to identify genetic variants of the SLC34A2 gene in both baboon and human, and to examine the relationship of these polymorphisms with SLC activity and blood pressure.
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified by sequencing the SLC34A2 gene in 24 baboon founders and 94 unrelated individuals. All tag SNPs in SLC34A2 were genotyped in 1856 individuals from 252 pedigrees of mixed European ancestry. Three SNPs in baboon were genotyped in 634 baboons comprising 11 pedigrees.
In human, one SNP (rs12501856) was found to be significantly associated with SLC individually, though it did not pass multiple testing correction; however haplotype 2 containing allele C of SNP rs12501856 showed strong evidence of association with SLC (p=0.0037) after multiple comparison adjustment. This haplotype was also marginally associated with diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure. This finding was confirmed in baboons, where a highly significant association was detected between SLC and baboon SNP Asn136Asn (p=0.0001). However, the associated SNP did not account for the linkage signal on baboon chromosome 5.
Consistent results in two different species imply that SLC34A2 is associated with SLC activity and blood pressure.
PMCID: PMC2652891  PMID: 19119262
13.  A Haplotype Containing Quantitative Trait Loci for SLC1A1 Gene Expression and Its Association With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 
Archives of general psychiatry  2009;66(4):408-416.
Recent evidence from linkage analyses and follow-up candidate gene studies supports the involvement of SLC1A1, which encodes the neuronal glutamate transporter, in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
To determine the role of genetic variation of SLC1A1 in OCD in a large case-control study and to better understand how SLC1A1 variation affects functionality.
A case-control study.
Publicly accessible SLC1A1 expression and genotype data.
Three hundred twenty-five OCD probands and 662 ethnically and sex-matched controls.
Probands were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and the Saving Inventory–Revised. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. Multiple testing corrections for single-marker and haplotype analyses were performed by permutation.
Gene expression of SLC1A1 is heritable in lymphoblastoid cell lines. We identified 3 SNPs in or near SLC1A1 that correlated with gene expression levels, 1 of which had previously been associated with OCD. Two of these SNPs also predicted expression levels in human brain tissue, and 1 SNP was further functional in reporter gene studies. Two haplotypes at 3 SNPs, rs3087879, rs301430, and rs7858819, were significantly associated with OCD after multiple-testing correction and contained 2 SNPs associated with expression levels. In addition, another SNP correlating with SLC1A1 gene expression, rs3933331, was associated with an OCD-hoarding subphenotype as assessed by 2 independent, validated scales.
Our case-control data corroborate previous smaller family-based studies that indicated that SLC1A1 is a susceptibility locus for OCD. The expression and genotype database–mining approach we used provides a potentially useful complementary approach to strengthen future candidate gene studies in neuropsychiatric and other disorders.
PMCID: PMC2775716  PMID: 19349310
14.  Differential urinary specific gravity as a molecular phenotype of the bladder cancer genetic association in the urea transporter gene, SLC14A1 
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified associations between markers within the solute carrier family 14 (urea transporter), member 1 (SLC14A1) gene and risk of bladder cancer. SLC14A1 defines the Kidd blood groups in erythrocytes and is also involved in concentration of the urine in the kidney. We evaluated the association between a representative genetic variant (rs10775480) of SLC14A1 and urine concentration, as measured by urinary specific gravity (USG), in a subset of 275 population-based controls enrolled in the New England Bladder Cancer Study. Overnight urine samples were collected and USG was measured using refractometry. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate adjusted least square means for USG in relation to rs10775480. We also examined the mRNA expression of both urea transporters, SLC14A1 and SLC14A2, in a panel of human tissues. USG was decreased with each copy of the rs10775480 risk T allele (p-trend= 0.011) with a significant difference observed for CC vs. TT genotypes (p-valuetukey=0.024). RNA-sequencing in the bladder tissue showed high expression of SLC14A1 and the absence of SLC14A2, while both transporters were expressed in the kidney. We suggest that the molecular phenotype of this GWAS finding is the genotype-specific biological activity of SLC14A1 in the bladder tissue. Our data suggest that SLC14A1 could be a unique urea transporter in the bladder that has the ability to influence urine concentration and that this mechanism might explain the increased bladder cancer susceptibility associated with rs10775480.
PMCID: PMC3797230  PMID: 23754249
Bladder Cancer; Urinary Specific Gravity; Genome-wide association study; Epidemiology
15.  The Association Between the SLC6A3 VNTR 9-Repeat Allele and Alcoholism—A Meta-Analysis 
Dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) represents a promising candidate involved in the development of alcoholism. This study aimed to explore the association between the 9-repeat allele (A9) of a 40-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of the SLC6A3 gene and alcoholism.
The SLC6A3 VNTR was genotyped by PCR in unrelated Mexican Americans including 337 controls and 365 alcoholics. Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used to compare the genotype and allele distribution. Meta-analyses were performed for population-based case–control association studies of the SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphism with alcoholism. Data were analyzed under random effect models with the Comprehensive Meta-analysis (v.2) statistical software package.
In Mexican Americans, no significant difference was found in allele and genotype distribution between controls and alcoholics or between controls and alcoholics with alcohol withdrawal seizure (AWS) or delirium tremens (DT) (unadjusted p > 0.05). A total of 13 research articles were included in the meta-analyses. No significant difference of the SLC6A3 VNTR A9 was noted between controls and alcoholics at the genotypic and allelic level when all ethnic populations, only Caucasian populations, or only Asian populations were considered (p > 0.05). Significant associations were observed between SLC6A3 VNTR A9 and alcoholics with AWS or DT at the genotypic as well as allelic level when all ethnic populations or only Caucasian populations were considered (p < 0.05, OR 1.5–2.1).
Meta-analyses suggest a possible association between the SLC6A3 VNTR A9 and alcoholic subgroup with AWS or DT.
PMCID: PMC4084904  PMID: 21554332
Alcoholism; Dopamine Transporter; Variable Number Tandem Repeat; Meta-Analysis; Mexican American
16.  Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms of SLC2A2, SLC2A5, and KHK on Metabolic Phenotypes in Hypertensive Individuals 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e52062.
In the past few decades, consumption of added sugars has increased dramatically. Studies have linked high sugar intake with increased risk for a number of diseases. Importantly, fructose, a component of sugar, has been linked with the development of features of metabolic syndrome. This study determined if single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in fructose transport (solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter, member 2 (SLC2A2) and solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose/fructose transporter, member 5 (SLC2A5)) and metabolism (ketohexokinase (KHK)) affect inter-individual variability in metabolic phenotypes, such as increased serum uric acid levels.
The influence of SLC2A2, SLC2A5, and KHK SNPs on metabolic phenotypes was tested in 237 European Americans and 167 African Americans from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation and Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study. Using baseline untreated fasting data, associations were considered significant if p≤0.005. These SNPs were then evaluated for potential replication (p≤0.05) using data from the Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensives (GERA) studies.
SLC2A5 rs5438 was associated with an increase in serum uric acid in European American males. However, we were unable to replicate the association in GERA. The minor allele of SLC2A2 rs8192675 showed an association with lower high-density lipoproteins in European Americans (A/A: 51.0 mg/dL, A/G: 47.0 mg/dL, G/G: 41.5 mg/dL, p = 0.0034) in PEAR. The association between rs8192675 and lower high-density lipoproteins was replicated in the combined European American GERA study samples (A/A: 47.6 mg/dL, A/G: 48.6 mg/dL, G/G: 41.9 mg/dL, p = 0.0315).
The association between SLC2A2 rs8192675 and high-density lipoproteins suggests the polymorphism may play a role in influencing high-density lipoproteins and thus metabolic risk of cardiovascular disease.
PMCID: PMC3544854  PMID: 23341889
17.  Common Polymorphisms Influencing Serum Uric Acid Levels Contribute to Susceptibility to Gout, but Not to Coronary Artery Disease 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(11):e7729.
Recently, a large meta-analysis including over 28,000 participants identified nine different loci with association to serum uric acid (UA) levels. Since elevated serum UA levels potentially cause gout and are a possible risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI), we performed two large case-control association analyses with participants from the German MI Family Study. In the first study, we assessed the association of the qualitative trait gout and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers that showed association to UA serum levels. In the second study, the same genetic polymorphisms were analyzed for association with CAD.
Methods and Findings
A total of 683 patients suffering from gout and 1,563 healthy controls from the German MI Family Study were genotyped. Nine SNPs were identified from a recently performed genome-wide meta-analysis on serum UA levels (rs12129861, rs780094, rs734553, rs2231142, rs742132, rs1183201, rs12356193, rs17300741 and rs505802). Additionally, the marker rs6855911 was included which has been associated with gout in our cohort in a previous study. SNPs rs734553 and rs6855911, located in SLC2A9, and SNP rs2231142, known to be a missense polymorphism in ABCG2, were associated with gout (p = 5.6*10−7, p = 1.1*10−7, and p = 1.3*10−3, respectively). Other SNPs in the genes PDZK1, GCKR, LRRC16A, SLC17A1-SLC17A3, SLC16A9, SLC22A11 and SLC22A12 failed the significance level. None of the ten markers were associated with risk to CAD in our study sample of 1,473 CAD cases and 1,241 CAD-free controls.
SNP markers in SLC2A9 and ABCG2 genes were found to be strongly associated with the phenotype gout. However, not all SNP markers influencing serum UA levels were also directly associated with the clinical manifestation of gout in our study sample. In addition, none of these SNPs showed association with the risk to CAD in the German MI Family Study.
PMCID: PMC2766838  PMID: 19890391
18.  Evaluation of SLC11A1 as an inflammatory bowel disease candidate gene 
BMC Medical Genetics  2005;6:10.
Significant evidence suggests that a promoter polymorphism withinthe gene SLC11A1 is involved in susceptibility to both autoimmune and infectious disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SLC11A1 has a role in the susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by characterizing a promoter polymorphism within the gene and two short tandem repeat (STR) markers in genetic proximity to SLC11A1.
The studied population consisted of 484 Caucasians with IBD, 144 population controls, and 348 non-IBD-affected first-degree relatives of IBD patients. IBD subjects were re-categorized at the sub-disease phenotypic level to characterize possible SLC11A1 genotype-phenotype correlations. Polymorphic markers were amplified from germline DNA and typed using gel electrophoresis. Genotype-phenotype correlations were defined using case-control, haplotype, and family-based association studies.
This study did not provide compelling evidence for SLC11A1 disease association; most significantly, there was no apparent evidence of SLC11A1 promoter allele association in the studied Crohn's disease population.
Our results therefore refute previous studies that have shown SLC11A1 promoter polymorphisms are involved in susceptibility to this form of IBD.
PMCID: PMC555593  PMID: 15757519
19.  Sequence variants in SLC16A11 are a common risk factor for type 2 diabetes in Mexico 
Nature  2013;506(7486):97-101.
Performing genetic studies in multiple human populations can identify disease risk alleles that are common in one population but rare in others1, with the potential to illuminate pathophysiology, health disparities, and the population genetic origins of disease alleles. We analyzed 9.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each of 8,214 Mexicans and Latin Americans: 3,848 with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 4,366 non-diabetic controls. In addition to replicating previous findings2–4, we identified a novel locus associated with T2D at genome-wide significance spanning the solute carriers SLC16A11 and SLC16A13 (P=3.9×10−13; odds ratio (OR)=1.29). The association was stronger in younger, leaner people with T2D, and replicated in independent samples (P=1.1×10−4; OR=1.20). The risk haplotype carries four amino acid substitutions, all in SLC16A11; it is present at ≈50% frequency in Native American samples and ≈10% in East Asian, but rare in European and African samples. Analysis of an archaic genome sequence indicated the risk haplotype introgressed into modern humans via admixture with Neandertals. The SLC16A11 mRNA is expressed in liver, and V5-tagged SLC16A11 protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of SLC16A11 in heterologous cells alters lipid metabolism, most notably causing an increase in intracellular triacylglycerol levels. Despite T2D having been well studied by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in other populations, analysis in Mexican and Latin American individuals identified SLC16A11 as a novel candidate gene for T2D with a possible role in triacylglycerol metabolism.
PMCID: PMC4127086  PMID: 24390345
20.  Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of the Chromosome 6q21–22.31 Bipolar I Disorder Susceptibility Locus 
We previously reported genome-wide significant evidence for linkage between chromosome 6q and bipolar I disorder (BPI) by performing a meta-analysis of original genotype data from 11 genome scan linkage studies. We now present follow-up linkage disequilibrium mapping of the linked region utilizing 3,047 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in a case–control sample (N = 530 cases, 534 controls) and family-based sample (N = 256 nuclear families, 1,301 individuals). The strongest single SNP result (rs6938431, P=6.72× 10−5) was observed in the case–control sample, near the solute carrier family 22, member 16 gene (SLC22A16). In a replication study, we genotyped 151 SNPs in an independent sample (N = 622 cases, 1,181 controls) and observed further evidence of association between variants at SLC22A16 and BPI. Although consistent evidence of association with any single variant was not seen across samples, SNP-wise and gene-based test results in the three samples provided convergent evidence for association with SLC22A16, a carnitine transporter, implicating this gene as a novel candidate for BPI risk. Further studies in larger samples are warranted to clarify which, if any, genes in the 6q region confer risk for bipolar disorder.
PMCID: PMC4067321  PMID: 19308960
bipolar disorder; genetic; association; SLC22A16; 6q
21.  Sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium in the GABA transporter-1 gene (SLC6A1) in five populations: implications for pharmacogenetic research 
BMC Genetics  2007;8:71.
GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1; genetic locus SLC6A1) is emerging as a novel target for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. To understand how population differences might influence strategies for pharmacogenetic studies, we identified patterns of genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in SLC6A1 in five populations representing three continental groups.
We resequenced 12.4 kb of SLC6A1, including the promoters, exons and flanking intronic regions in African-American, Thai, Hmong, Finnish, and European-American subjects (total n = 40). LD in SLC6A1 was examined by genotyping 16 SNPs in larger samples. Sixty-three variants were identified through resequencing. Common population-specific variants were found in African-Americans, including a novel 21-bp promoter region variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), but no such variants were found in any of the other populations studied. Low levels of LD and the absence of major LD blocks were characteristic of all five populations. African-Americans had the highest genetic diversity. European-Americans and Finns did not differ in genetic diversity or LD patterns. Although the Hmong had the highest level of LD, our results suggest that a strategy based on the use of tag SNPs would not translate to a major improvement in genotyping efficiency.
Owing to the low level of LD and presence of recombination hotspots, SLC6A1 may be an example of a problematic gene for association and haplotype tagging-based genetic studies. The 21-bp promoter region VNTR polymorphism is a putatively functional candidate allele for studies focusing on variation in GAT-1 function in the African-American population.
PMCID: PMC2175509  PMID: 17941974
22.  Influences of polymorphic variants of DRD2 and SLC6A3 genes, and their combinations on smoking in Polish population 
BMC Medical Genetics  2009;10:92.
Polymorphisms in dopaminergic genes may influence cigarette smoking by their potential impact on dopamine reward pathway function. A1 allele of DRD2 gene is associated with a reduced dopamine D2 receptor density, and it has been hypothesised that A1 carriers are more vulnerable to smoking. In turn, the 9-repeat allele of dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) has been associated with a substantial reduction in dopamine transporter, what might result in the higher level of dopamine in the synaptic cleft, and thereby protective role of this allele from smoking. In the present study we investigated whether polymorphic variants of DRD2 and SLC6A3 genes and their combinations are associated with the smoking habit in the Polish population.
Genotyping for TaqIA polymorphism of DRD2 and SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphism was performed in 150 ever-smokers and 158 never-smokers. The association between the smoking status and smoking phenotypes (related to the number of cigarettes smoked daily and age of starting regular smoking), and genotype/genotype combinations was expressed by ORs together with 95% CI. Alpha level of 0.05, with Bonferroni correction whenever appropriate, was used for statistical significance.
At the used alpha levels no association between DRD2 and SLC6A3 genotypes and smoking status was found. However, A1 allele carriers reported longer abstinence periods on quitting attempts than non-carriers (p = 0.049). The ORs for heavier smoking were 0.38 (0.17-0.88), p = 0.023, and 0.39 (0.17-0.88), p = 0.021 in carriers compared to non-carriers of A1 or *9 allele, respectively, and the OR for this smoking phenotype was 8.68 (2.47-30.46), p = 0.0005 for the A1-/9- genotype combination, relatively to the A1+/9+. Carriers of *9 allele of SLC6A3 had over twice a lower risk to start smoking before the age of 20 years compared to non-carriers (sex-adjusted OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.22-0.89; p = 0.0017), and subjects with A1-/9- genotype combination had a higher risk for staring regular smoking before the age of 20 years in comparison to subjects with A1+/9+ genotype combination (sex-adjusted OR = 3.79; 95% CI:1.03-13.90; p = 0.003).
Polymorphic variants of DRD2 and SLC6A3 genes may influence some aspects of the smoking behavior, including age of starting regular smoking, the level of cigarette consumption, and periods of abstinence. Further large sample studies are needed to verify this hypothesis.
PMCID: PMC2758863  PMID: 19761593
23.  Glycophorin C (Gerbich Antigen Blood Group) and Band 3 Polymorphisms in Two Malaria Holoendemic Regions of Papua New Guinea 
The geographic overlap between the prevalence of erythrocyte polymorphisms and malaria endemicity is thought to be an example of natural selection on human populations. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), the Gerbich-negative phenotype is caused by an exon 3 deletion in the glycophorin C gene (GYPCΔex3) while heterozygosity for a 27-base pair deletion in the SLC4A1 gene (anion exchanger 1 or erythrocyte membrane protein, band 3), SLC4A1Δ27, results in Southeast Asian ovalocytosis. Two geographically and ethnically distinct malaria endemic regions of PNG (the Wosera [East Sepik Province] and Liksul [Madang Province]) were studied to illustrate the distribution of two prominent deletion polymorphisms (GYPCΔex3 and SLC4A1Δ27) and to determine if the genetic load associated with SLC4A1Δ27 would constrain independent assortment of GYPCΔex3 heterozygous and homozygous genotypes. The frequency of the GYPCΔex3 allele was higher in the Wosera (0.463) than Liksul (0.176) (χ2; P < 0.0001). Conversely, the frequency of the SLC4A1Δ27 allele was higher in Liksul (0.0740) than the Wosera (0.0005) (χ2; P < 0.0001). No individuals were homozygous for SLC4A1Δ27. In 355 Liksul residents, independent assortment of these two deletion polymorphisms resulted in 14 SLC4A1Δ27 carriers heterozygous for GYPCΔex3 and one SLC4A1Δ27 carrier homozygous for GYPCΔex3 (Fisher’s exact test; P = 0.8040). While homozygosity for SLC4A1Δ27 appears to be nonviable, the GYPCΔex3 allele is not lethal when combined with SLC4A1Δ27. Neither mutation was associated with altered susceptibility to asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax infection. While these erythrocyte polymorphisms apparently have no effect on blood-stage malaria infection, their contribution to susceptibility to clinical malaria morbidity requires further study.
PMCID: PMC3728820  PMID: 14695625
glycophorin C; Gerbich; band 3; Southeast Asian ovalocytosis; malaria; Papua New Guinea
24.  Association between SLC2A9 transporter gene variants and uric acid phenotypes in African American and white families 
Rheumatology (Oxford, England)  2010;50(5):871-878.
Objectives. SLC2A9 gene variants associate with serum uric acid in white populations, but little is known about African American populations. Since SLC2A9 is a transporter, gene variants may be expected to associate more closely with the fractional excretion of urate, a measure of renal tubular transport, than with serum uric acid, which is influenced by production and extrarenal clearance.
Methods. Genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the SLC2A9 gene were obtained in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy cohorts. The associations of SNPs with serum uric acid, fractional excretion of urate and urine urate-to-creatinine ratio were assessed with adjustments for age, sex, diuretic use, BMI, homocysteine and triglycerides.
Results. We identified SLC2A9 gene variants that were associated with serum uric acid in 1155 African American subjects (53 SNPs) and 1132 white subjects (63 SNPs). The most statistically significant SNPs in African American subjects (rs13113918) and white subjects (rs11723439) were in the latter half of the gene and explained 2.7 and 2.8% of the variation in serum uric acid, respectively. After adjustment for this SNP in African Americans, 0.9% of the variation in serum uric acid was explained by an SNP (rs1568318) in the first half of the gene. Unexpectedly, SLC2A9 gene variants had stronger associations with serum uric acid than with fractional excretion of urate.
Conclusions. These findings support two different loci by which SLC2A9 variants affect uric acid levels in African Americans and suggest SLC2A9 variants affect serum uric acid level via renal and extrarenal clearance.
PMCID: PMC3077913  PMID: 21186168
Uric acid; Fractional excretion of urate; SLC2A9; Race; Genetic epidemiology
25.  Association of Folate Receptor (FOLR1, FOLR2, FOLR3) and Reduced Folate Carrier (SLC19A1) Genes with Meningomyelocele 
Meningomyelocele (MM) results from lack of closure of the neural tube during embryologic development. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is a modifier of MM risk in humans, leading to an interest in the folate transport genes as potential candidates for association to MM.
This study used the SNPlex Genotyping (ABI, Foster City, CA) platform to genotype 20 single polymorphic variants across the folate receptor genes (FOLR1, FOLR2, FOLR3) and the folate carrier gene (SLC19A1) to assess their association to MM. The study population included 329 trio and 281 duo families. Only cases with MM were included. Genetic association was assessed using the transmission disequilibrium test in PLINK.
A variant in the FOLR2 gene (rs13908), three linked variants in the FOLR3 gene (rs7925545, rs7926875, rs7926987), and two variants in the SLC19A1 gene (rs1888530 and rs3788200) were statistically significant for association to MM in our population.
This study involved the analyses of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms across the folate receptor genes and the folate carrier gene in a large population sample. It provided evidence that the rare alleles of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms within these genes appear to be statistically significant for association to MM in the patient population that was tested.
PMCID: PMC3046546  PMID: 20683905
neural tube; meningomyelocele; folic acid; folate transport genes; single nucleotide polymorphisms

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