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1.  Effect of Footwear and Orthotic Devices on Stress Reduction and Soft Tissue Strain of the Neuropathic Foot 
Ground reaction forces from walking result in stress (pressure) and soft tissue strain at the plantar aspect of the foot. Excessive plantar pressure and tissue strain on the insensate foot may lead to ulceration. Our study investigated the effect of therapeutic footwear and custom-made orthotic inserts on pressure and tissue strain along the second ray of the plantar foot, and how these two variables are associated.
Twenty subjects (mean age 57.3 [SD 9.3], 12 male, 8 female, body mass index 32.5 [SD 7.4]) with diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, and a history of a plantar ulcer participated. Plantar pressure data were recorded during computed tomography scans for four conditions (barefoot, shoe, shoe+total contact insert, and shoe+total contact insert+metatarsal pad). For each condition tested, tissue strain and plantar pressure were determined at the second metatarsal head and at 15 other points along the second ray.
Differences were noted between the 4 conditions for pressure (p < 0.004) and soft tissue strain (p < 0.042) at the second metatarsal head. Correlation coefficients demonstrated an association between pressure and strain (Barefoot r = 0.81, Shoe r = 0.75, Shoe+total contact insert r = 0.73, and Shoe+total contact insert+metatarsal pad r = 0.44).
Footwear and orthotic devices tested in this study decreased pressure and soft tissue strain at the second ray of the foot, and these two variables were strongly related. A better understanding of the role tissue strain plays in distributing plantar forces may lead to improvements in the design of orthotic devices.
PMCID: PMC1847616  PMID: 17182156
Plantar ulceration; Diabetes mellitus; Metatarsal pad; Total contact insert
2.  Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: Are structure and anthropometrics related to function? 
Gait & posture  2012;37(3):10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.09.008.
Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies.
Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals.
Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n = 12), rectus (n = 27) and planus (n = 22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function.
Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 10–37% of the model variance (adjusted R2) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R2 increased to 45–77% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 7–47% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 16–64% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (p < 0.05), supporting acceptance of the hypothesis.
Discussion and conclusion
Foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology.
PMCID: PMC3878980  PMID: 23107624
Foot and ankle; Gait; Foot type; Plantar pressures; Structure and function
3.  Mid foot kinetics characterize structural polymorphism in diabetic foot disease 
Diabetic foot disease is characterized by progressive foot deformities that lead to amputation and disabling morbidity. The purpose is to investigate the classification of two distinct phenotypes of mid foot structural polymorphism in individuals using plantar kinetic and pressure distribution and tarsal bone density assessments.
Twenty-two individuals (26 ft) with diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy and at least one mid foot deformity were compared to 29 age-, gender- and race-matched healthy controls (58 ft). Eleven subjects with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (11 ft) had lateral deformity; 11 subjects (15 ft) had medial deformity. Each subject had calcaneal bone mineral density and plantar force and pressure assessments walking barefoot over an EMED-ST P-2 platform.
Control subjects had lower mid foot vertical forces and pressures despite significantly higher preferred walking speed. In subjects with diabetes and neuropathy, maximum vertical force was 6-fold greater, force–time integral 9.5-fold greater, peak pressure 6.7-fold higher, pressure–time integral was 9.7-fold greater, contact area 2-fold greater and contact time 1.9-fold higher than controls. Pressure values were larger in involved vs uninvolved (P ≤ 0.05). During stance in the mid foot, subjects with medial column phenotype showed greater pressure in the medial mask; subjects with lateral column phenotype had greater pressures in the lateral mask (P < 0.05). Calcaneal bone density was lower for the deformity foot vs the non-deformity foot; bone mineral density was lower in medial column phenotype vs lateral column phenotype (P = 0.02).
Diabetic foot disease can be classified as stereotypical, structurally-distinct phenotypes of deformities of the medial and lateral columns of the mid foot. Assessments of pedal bone density and plantar mid foot force and pressure during barefoot walking can characterize the structural polymorphic phenotypes and may assist the foot care specialist in clinical decision making.
PMCID: PMC2517423  PMID: 17602806
Mid foot deformity; Plantar pressure; Tarsal bone density
4.  Hallux Valgus and Lesser Toe Deformities are Highly Heritable in Adult Men and Women: the Framingham Foot Study 
Arthritis care & research  2013;65(9):1515-1521.
To estimate heritability of three common disorders affecting the forefoot: hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar forefoot soft tissue atrophy in adult Caucasian men and women.
Between 2002-2008, a trained examiner used a validated foot exam to document presence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy in 2,446 adults from the Framingham Foot Study. Among these, 1,370 participants with available pedigree structure were included. Heritability (h2) was estimated using pedigree structures by Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) package. Results were adjusted for age, sex and BMI.
Mean age of participants was 66 years (range 39 to 99 years) and 57% were female. Prevalence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy was 31%, 29.6% and 28.4%, respectively. Significant h2 was found for hallux valgus (0.29 ~ 0.89, depending on age and sex) and lesser toe deformity (0.49 ~ 0.90 depending on age and sex). The h2 for lesser toe deformity in men and women aged 70+ years was 0.65 (p= 9×10−7). Significant h2 was found for plantar soft tissue atrophy in men and women aged 70+ years (h2 = 0.37; p=3.8×10−3).
To our knowledge, these are the first findings of heritability of foot disorders in humans, and they confirm the widely-held view that hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities are highly heritable in European-descent Caucasian men and women, underscoring the importance of future work to identify genetic determinants of the underlying genetic susceptibility to these common foot disorders.
PMCID: PMC3775916  PMID: 23696165
hallux valgus; lesser toe deformities; heritability; fat pad atrophy; foot disorders; pedigree
5.  Clinical Characteristics of the Causes of Plantar Heel Pain 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2011;35(4):507-513.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the causes of plantar heel pain and find differences in the clinical features of plantar fasciitis (PF) and fat pad atrophy (FPA), which are common causes of plantar heel pain, for use in differential diagnosis.
This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of 250 patients with plantar heel pain at the Foot Clinic of Rehabilitation Medicine at Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital from January to September, 2008.
The subjects used in this study were 114 men and 136 women patients with a mean age of 43.8 years and mean heel pain duration of 13.3 months. Causes of plantar heel pain were PF (53.2%), FPA (14.8%), pes cavus (10.4%), PF with FPA (9.2%), pes planus (4.8%), plantar fibromatosis (4.4%), plantar fascia rupture (1.6%), neuropathy (0.8%), and small shoe syndrome (0.8%). PF and FPA were most frequently diagnosed. First-step pain in the morning, and tenderness on medial calcaneal tuberosity correlated with PF. FPA mainly involved bilateral pain, pain at night, and pain that was aggravated by standing. Heel cord tightness was the most common biomechanical abnormality of the foot. Heel spur was frequently seen in X-rays of patients with PF.
Plantar heel pain can be provoked by PF, FPA, and other causes. Patients with PF or FPA typically show different characteristics in clinical features. Plantar heel pain requires differential diagnosis for appropriate treatment.
PMCID: PMC3309235  PMID: 22506166
Plantar heel pain; Plantar fasciitis; Fat pad atrophy
6.  A Novel Experimental Knee-Pain Model Affects Perceived Pain and Movement Biomechanics 
Journal of Athletic Training  2013;48(3):337-345.
Knee injuries are prevalent, and the associated knee pain is linked to disability. The influence of knee pain on movement biomechanics, independent of other factors related to knee injuries, is difficult to study and unclear.
(1) To evaluate a novel experimental knee-pain model and (2) better understand the independent effects of knee pain on walking and running biomechanics.
Crossover study.
Biomechanics laboratory.
Patients or Other Participants:
Twelve able-bodied volunteers (age = 23 ± 3 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m, mass = 75 ± 14 kg).
Participants walked and ran at 3 time intervals (preinfusion, infusion, and postinfusion) for 3 experimental conditions (control, sham, and pain). During the infusion time interval for the pain and sham conditions, hypertonic or isotonic saline, respectively, was continuously infused into the right infrapatellar fat pad for 22 minutes.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
We used repeated-measures analyses of variance to evaluate the effects of time and condition on (1) perceived knee pain and (2) key biomechanical characteristics (ground reaction forces, and joint kinematics and kinetics) of walking and running (P < .05).
The hypertonic saline infusion (1) increased perceived knee pain throughout the infusion and (2) reduced discrete characteristics of each component of the walking ground reaction force, walking peak plantar-flexion angle (range = 62°–67°), walking peak plantar-flexion moment (range = 95–104 N·m), walking peak knee-extension moment (range = 36–49 N·m), walking peak hip-abduction moment (range = 62–73 N·m), walking peak support moment (range = 178–207 N·m), running peak plantar-flexion angle (range = 38°–77°), and running peak hip-adduction angle (range = 5–21°).
This novel experimental knee pain model consistently increased perceived pain during various human movements and produced altered running and walking biomechanics that may cause abnormal knee joint-loading patterns.
PMCID: PMC3655747  PMID: 23675793
gait; infusion; hypertonic saline; kinematics; kinetics
7.  Heel pain and HIV-associated lipodystrophy: a report of two cases 
Plantar fasciitis is diagnosed based on a pathognomonic clinical presentation and physical examination including plantar heel pain with the initial few steps after a period of inactivity. People living with HIV/AIDS, who are taking anti-retroviral medications, often have an associated redistribution of body fat (lipodystrophy). Lipoatrophy of the extremities may involve the heel fat-pad in this population and result in the signs and symptoms of plantar fasciitis. Two cases of plantar heel pain in HIV-associated lipodystrophy are presented to discuss the possible clinical association between the two conditions. Although conservative therapies have limited evidence, they are commonly used and have been seen, clinically, to result in a resolution of symptoms. In the presented cases, the individuals benefited from soft tissue therapy, modalities, activity modification and education on proper footwear. Clinicians should be aware that the association between these two conditions may be a significant cause of morbidity in a population of patients with HIV.
PMCID: PMC2391020  PMID: 18516231
heel pain; lipodystrophy; HIV; chiropractic
8.  Predictors of Barefoot Plantar Pressure during Walking in Patients with Diabetes, Peripheral Neuropathy and a History of Ulceration 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0117443.
Elevated dynamic plantar foot pressures significantly increase the risk of foot ulceration in diabetes mellitus. The aim was to determine which factors predict plantar pressures in a population of diabetic patients who are at high-risk of foot ulceration.
Patients with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy and a history of ulceration were eligible for inclusion in this cross sectional study. Demographic data, foot structure and function, and disease-related factors were recorded and used as potential predictor variables in the analyses. Barefoot peak pressures during walking were calculated for the heel, midfoot, forefoot, lesser toes, and hallux regions. Potential predictors were investigated using multivariate linear regression analyses. 167 participants with mean age of 63 years contributed 329 feet to the analyses.
The regression models were able to predict between 6% (heel) and 41% (midfoot) of the variation in peak plantar pressures. The largest contributing factor in the heel model was glycosylated haemoglobin concentration, in the midfoot Charcot deformity, in the forefoot prominent metatarsal heads, in the lesser toes hammer toe deformity and in the hallux previous ulceration. Variables with local effects (e.g. foot deformity) were stronger predictors of plantar pressure than global features (e.g. body mass, age, gender, or diabetes duration).
The presence of local deformity was the largest contributing factor to barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in high-risk diabetic patients and should therefore be adequately managed to reduce plantar pressure and ulcer risk. However, a significant amount of variance is unexplained by the models, which advocates the quantitative measurement of plantar pressures in the clinical risk assessment of the patient.
PMCID: PMC4315609  PMID: 25647421
9.  Plantar heel pain and fasciitis 
Clinical Evidence  2008;2008:1111.
Plantar heel pain causes soreness or tenderness of the sole of the foot under the heel, which sometimes extends into the medial arch. The prevalence and prognosis are unclear, but the symptoms seem to resolve over time in most people.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for plantar heel pain? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: casted orthoses (custom-made insoles), corticosteroid injection (alone, or plus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), extracorporeal shock wave therapy, heel cups, heel pads (alone or with corticosteroid injection), lasers, local anaesthetic injection (alone or with corticosteroid injection), night splints plus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, stretching exercises, surgery, taping, and ultrasound.
Key Points
Plantar heel pain causes soreness or tenderness of the sole of the foot under the heel, which sometimes extends into the medial arch. The prevalence and prognosis are unclear, but in most people the symptoms seem to resolve over time.
Casted orthoses (custom-made insoles) may improve function (but not pain) at 3 months in people with plantar heel pain compared with a sham orthosis, but they may be no better than appropriate prefabricated orthoses.
Supportivetaping may improve pain in the short term at 1 week, but we found no evidence on its effectiveness beyond 1 week.
We don't know whether heel pads, heel cups, or night splints reduce pain.
Corticosteroid injections are commonly used to treat plantar heel pain, but we don't know whether they reduce pain compared with placebo or other treatments. Corticosteroid injections have been associated with long-term complications.We don't know whether local anaesthetic injections, alone or added to corticosteroids, improve pain relief compared with corticosteroids alone.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy may reduce pain, but we don't know for sure that it is beneficial.
We don't know whether laser treatment, ultrasound, or surgery reduce symptoms compared with sham treatment or no treatment.
We don't know whether stretching exercises reduce pain compared with no treatment or other treatments.
PMCID: PMC2907928  PMID: 19450330
10.  The impact of increasing body mass on peak and mean plantar pressure in asymptomatic adult subjects during walking 
Diabetic Foot & Ankle  2010;1:10.3402/dfa.v1i0.5518.
The implication of high peak plantar pressure on foot pathology in individuals both with and without diabetes has been recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate and clarify the relationship between increasing body mass and peak and mean plantar pressure in an asymptomatic adult population during walking.
Thirty adults without any relevant medical history, structural foot deformities or foot posture assessed as highly pronated or supinated, and within a normal body mass index range were included in the study. An experimental, same subjects, repeated measures design was used. Peak and mean plantar pressure were evaluated with the F-Scan in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system under four different loading conditions (0, 5, 10, and 15 kg) simulated with a weighted vest. Pressure data were gathered from three stances utilizing the mid-gait protocol.
There were statistically significant increases in peak pressure between the 10 and 15 kg load conditions compared to the control (0 kg) within the heel and second to fifth metatarsal regions. The first metatarsal and hallux regions only displayed statistically significant increases in peak pressure between 15 kg and the control (0 kg). The midfoot and lesser digits regions did not display any statistically significant differences in peak pressure between any load conditions compared to the control (0 kg). The second to fifth metatarsal region displayed statistically significant increases in mean pressure in the 5, 10 and 15 kg groups compared to the control (0 kg). A statistically significant increase in peak pressure between the 15 kg and control (0 kg) group was evident in all other regions.
The relationship between increasing body mass and peak and mean plantar pressure was dependent upon the plantar region. This study provides more detail outlining the response of peak and mean pressure to different loading conditions than previously reported in the literature. Further research including measurement of temporal parameters is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3284282  PMID: 22396809
plantar pressure; body mass index; obesity; diabetes; body weight; distribution
11.  Interface corrective force measurements in Boston brace treatment 
European Spine Journal  2002;11(4):332-335.
Brace application has been reported to be effective in treating idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. The exact working mechanism of a thoracolumbo spinal orthosis is a result of different mechanisms and is not completely understood. One of the supposed working mechanisms is a direct compressive force working through the brace upon the body and thereby correcting the scoliotic deformity, achieving optimal fit of the individual orthosis. In this study we measured these direct forces exerted by the pads in a Boston brace in 16 patients with idiopathic adolescent scoliosis, using the electronic PEDAR measuring device (Novel, Munich, Germany). This is designed as an in-shoe measuring system consisting of two shoe insoles (size 8 1/2), wired to a computer, recording static and dynamic pressure distribution under the plantar surface of the foot. After positioning the inserts between the lumbar and thoracic pads and the body, we measured the forces acting upon the body in eight different postures. In all positions the mean corrective force through the lumbar brace pad was larger than the mean corrective force over the thoracic brace pad. Some changes in body posture resulted in statistically significant alterations in the exerted forces. There was no significant correlation between the magnitude of the compressive force over the lumbar and thoracic brace-pad and the degree of correction of the major curve. Comparing the corrective forces in a relatively new (<6 months) and old (>6 months) brace, there was no statistically relevant difference, although the corrective force was slightly larger in the new braces. We think that the use of this pressure measurement device is practicable and of value for studies of the working mechanism of brace treatment, and in the future it might be of help in achieving optimal fit of the individual orthosis.
PMCID: PMC3610478  PMID: 12193994
Idiopathic scoliosis Brace treatment Corrective force measurements
12.  Sensate composite calcaneal flap in leg amputation: a full terminal weight-bearing surface—experience in eight adult patients 
Despite modern reconstruction techniques and replantation, the preservation of a severely traumatised limb, or even a limb affected by a congenital malformation, usually gives poorer functional results compared with amputation and prosthetisation. The aim of this study was to describe a hind foot (including the calcaneum and fat pad) sensate flap with a surface that allows full terminal weight bearing in transtibial amputations in adults. Between June 2007 and September 2008, eight patients underwent leg amputations with a sensate composite calcaneal flap reconstruction of the stump. Patients consisted of four men and four women with a mean age of 46.5 (26–66) years. All amputations were unilateral. The mean follow-up was 28.3 (25–42) months. There were no complications. Calcaneum tibial fusion was observed in all patients in a mean time of 3.5 (3–4) months. A below-knee prosthesis was adapted at 16 weeks postoperatively in all cases, and no need for stump revision occurred in this series during the entire follow-up period. A transtibial amputation covered with a sensate plantar flap preserving the calcaneum was proposed. In theory, the anatomic structures spared in this technique provide a strong, full, weight-bearing terminal surface of the stump that will last a lifetime.
PMCID: PMC3150647  PMID: 21789589
Heel; Leg; Extremities
13.  Sensate composite calcaneal flap in leg amputation: a full terminal weight-bearing surface—experience in eight adult patients 
Despite modern reconstruction techniques and replantation, the preservation of a severely traumatised limb, or even a limb affected by a congenital malformation, usually gives poorer functional results compared with amputation and prosthetisation. The aim of this study was to describe a hind foot (including the calcaneum and fat pad) sensate flap with a surface that allows full terminal weight bearing in transtibial amputations in adults. Between June 2007 and September 2008, eight patients underwent leg amputations with a sensate composite calcaneal flap reconstruction of the stump. Patients consisted of four men and four women with a mean age of 46.5 (26–66) years. All amputations were unilateral. The mean follow-up was 28.3 (25–42) months. There were no complications. Calcaneum tibial fusion was observed in all patients in a mean time of 3.5 (3–4) months. A below-knee prosthesis was adapted at 16 weeks postoperatively in all cases, and no need for stump revision occurred in this series during the entire follow-up period. A transtibial amputation covered with a sensate plantar flap preserving the calcaneum was proposed. In theory, the anatomic structures spared in this technique provide a strong, full, weight-bearing terminal surface of the stump that will last a lifetime.
PMCID: PMC3150647  PMID: 21789589
Heel; Leg; Extremities
14.  Higher Body Mass Index is Associated with more Adverse Changes in Calf Muscle Characteristics in Peripheral Arterial Disease 
Journal of Vascular Surgery  2012;55(4):1015-1024.
To determine whether higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with more adverse lower extremity muscle characteristics at baseline and more adverse changes in muscle over time among participants with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Longitudinal, observational study.
Academic medical center in Chicago.
Participants were 425 men and women with PAD and 261 without PAD.
Computed Tomography was used to measure calf muscle characteristics at baseline and every two years. Knee extension isometric strength, power, and six-minute walk were measured at baseline and annually. Baseline BMI categories were ideal (20-25 kg/m2), overweight (>25-30 kg/m2), and obese (>30 kg/m2). Analyses adjust for age, race, gender, ankle brachial index (ABI), comorbidities, and other covariates.
At baseline, among participants with PAD, higher BMI was associated with greater calf muscle area (ideal BMI: 5181 mm2, overweight: 5513 mm2, obese: 5695 mm2, p trend=0.0009), higher calf muscle percent fat (6.38%, 10.28%, 17.44% respectively, p trend<0.0001), lower calf muscle density (p trend<0.0001), and higher isometric knee extension strength (p trend=0.015). Among participants with PAD, higher BMI was associated with greater declines in calf muscle area p trend=0.030) and greater increases in calf muscle percent fat (p trend=0.023). Among participants without PAD, there were no significant associations of baseline BMI with changes in lower extremity muscle outcomes over time.
Among PAD participants, higher BMI is associated with greater calf muscle area at baseline. However, higher BMI is associated with more adverse calf muscle density and percent fat at baseline and greater declines in calf muscle area over time.
PMCID: PMC3319256  PMID: 22365177
15.  Risks and complications in rhinoplasty 
Rhinoplasty is regarded to be associated with many risks as the expectations of patient and physician are not always corresponding. Besides of postoperative deformities many other risks and complications have to be considered.
Reduction-rhinoplasty e.g. can cause breathing disturbances which are reported in 70% of all revision-rhinoplasty-patients. One has to be aware however that scars and loss of mucosal-sensation can also give the feeling of a “blocked nose”.
The main risks of autogenous transplants are dislocation and resorption, while alloplasts can cause infection and extrusion. In this respect silicone implants can have a complication rate between 5-20%. Less complications are reported with other materials like Gore-Tex.
Complications of skin and soft tissues can be atrophy, fibrosis, numbness, cysts originating from displaced mucosa or subcutaneous granulomas caused by ointment material. Postoperative swelling depends mainly on the osteotomy technique. Percutaneous osteotomies cause less trauma, but may result in visible scars.
Infections are rare but sometimes life-threatening (toxic-shock-syndrome). The risk is higher, when sinus surgery and rhinoplasty are combined. Osteotomies can also cause injuries of the orbital region. Necrosis of eye-lids by infections and blindness by central artery occlusion are known. There are reports on various other risks like rhinoliquorrhea, brain damage, fistulas between sinus-cavernosus and carotid artery, aneurysms and thrombosis of the cavernous sinus. Discoloration of incisors are possible by damage of vessels and nerves. Rhinoplasty can also become a court-case in dissatisfied patients, a situation that may be called a “typical complication of rhinoplasty”. It can be avoided by proper patient selection and consideration of psychological disturbances.
Postoperative deformities are considered as main risks of rhinoplasty, causing revision surgery in 5% to 15% of the cases. The analysis of postoperative deformities allowes the identification of specific risks. The most frequent postoperative deformity is the “pollybeak” when a deep naso-frontal angle, cartilaginous hump and reduced tip projection are present preoperatively. The pollybeak is the indication in about 50% of all revision rhinoplasties. Other frequent postoperative deformities are a pendant and wide nasal tip, retractions of the columella base or irregularities of the nasal dorsum. These deformities are very often combined and caused by a loss of septal support. This is why the stability of the caudal septum in septorhinoplasty is the key for a predictable result. Maintaining the position of the tip and the columella is one of the main issues to avoid typical postoperative deformities.
The risks for rhinoplasty-complications can be reduced with increasing experience. A prerequisite is continuing education and an earnest distinction between complication and mistake.
PMCID: PMC3199839  PMID: 22073084
16.  Magnitude estimation of softness 
The human capacity to estimate the magnitude of softness of silicone rubber disks of differing compliance was studied under experimental conditions that altered the mode of contact. Subjects were able to scale softness regardless of whether they (1) actively indented each specimen by tapping or pressing it with the finger pad, (2) received passive indentation of the finger pad by each specimen via a force controlled tactile stimulator, thus eliminating kinesthetic cues, or (3) actively indented each specimen with a stylus that was manipulated either by tapping with one finger, or held by two fingers in a precision grip, thereby removing tactile cues provided by direct mechanical contact between the finger pad and specimen. Ratings of softness were independent of moderate variations in peak compressional force and force-rate. Additionally, functions for scaling softness were affected by the mode of contact; the slopes of the functions were greater in the tasks with a complete complement of compliance cues. When subjects were asked to classify objects as either hard or soft, specimens were classified as soft if the compliance were greater than that of the human finger. This suggests that the classification of softness depends on whether the object conforms to the body, and that tactile information about the spatial profile of object deformation is sufficient for the magnitude scaling of softness. But typically, kinesthetic information about the magnitude of object displacement, along with contact vibratory cues is also used while judging softness especially in the absence of direct skin contact with the object when using a tool.
PMCID: PMC2574806  PMID: 18679665
Compliance; Finger pad; Tool use; Active touch; Passive touch; Psychophysics
17.  Foam pads properties and their effects on posturography in participants of different weight 
Foam pads are increasingly used on force platforms during balance assessments in order to produce increased instability thereby permitting the measurement of enhanced posturographic parameters. A variety of foam pads providing different material properties have thus been used, although it is still unclear which characteristics produce the most effective and reliable tests. Furthermore, the effects of participant bodyweight on the performance of the foam pads and outcome of the test are unknown. This project investigated how different foam samples affected postural sway velocity in participants of different weights.
Four foam types were tested according to a modified American Society for Testing and Materials standard method for testing flexible cellular materials. Thirty-six healthy male factory workers divided into three groups according to body mass were tested three times for each of the 13 randomly-selected experimental situations for changes in postural sway velocity in this cross-over study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare the results and evaluate the difference in sway velocity between mass groups.
For the materials considered here, the modulus of elasticity of the foam pads when compressed by 25% of their original heights was inversely proportional to their density. The largest changes in postural sway velocity were measured when the pads of highest stiffness were used, with memory foam pads being the least likely to produce significant changes.
The type of foam pads used in posturography is indeed important. Our study shows that the samples with a higher modulus of elasticity produced the largest change in postural sway velocity during quiet stance. The results suggest that foam pads used for static computerised posturography should 1) possess a higher modulus of elasticity and 2) show linear deformation properties matched to the participants’ weight.
PMCID: PMC4308009  PMID: 25648275
Balance; Foam pads; Posturography; Modulus of elasticity; Biomechanics
18.  Role of Comorbidities as Limiting Factors to the Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen in Diabetic Foot Patients: A Retrospective Analysis 
Diabetes Therapy  2014;5(2):535-544.
The effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on selected diabetic foot wounds continues to be controversial. A holistic approach to diabetes and its comorbidities may be beneficial in the discussion of the proper application of this treatment modality. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the efficacy of HBOT on diabetic foot wounds and provide clinical data that may support this knowledge.
The present study was a retrospective analysis of the effect of HBOT on diabetic foot lesions ranging 3–5 on the Wagner Grading System. Patients had been treated with HBOT and monitored for 12 months. The results were analyzed in relation to age, gender, diabetes duration and type, microangiopathic complications, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), history of coronary artery disease, stroke, hypertension, smoking habits, glycated hemoglobin, blood sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and number of HBOT sessions. Microangiopathies were evaluated as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. PAD was determined by available color Doppler ultrasonography and/or angiographic data depending on a modified scoring system. The data of arteries from the aorta to the dorsal pedal artery were scored singly. Average scores of aorto-iliac, femoral, popliteal and pedal levels were also evaluated with this system to compare the healing results in relation to PAD.
One hundred and seventeen patients with 126 diabetic foot wounds were treated. Histories of coronary artery disease, stroke, and non-proliferative or proliferative retinopathy had negative effects on HBOT (P = 0.002, P = 0.015, P = 0.022, respectively). Depending on the scorings of PAD, the single arterial scores and average scores of aorto-iliac, popliteal and pedal levels had no relation to outcomes, while the average scores of the femoral arterial level affected the results (P = 0.048).
Diabetic foot patients with histories of coronary artery diseases or stroke and non-proliferative or proliferative retinopathy might resist HBOT. PAD at the femoral arterial level has been shown to have a significant negative effect on HBOT outcomes that should be first considered for surgery. In contrast, PAD below the knee does not seem to be an obstacle to the efficacy of HBOT.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13300-014-0085-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4269652  PMID: 25273365
Comorbidities; Diabetic foot; Hyperbaric oxygen; Macrovascular complications; Microvascular complications; Peripheral arterial disease; Wound healing; Retinopathy
19.  Foot loading patterns in normal weight, overweight and obese children aged 7 to 11 years 
Childhood obesity is thought to predispose to structural foot changes and altered foot function. Little is currently understood about whether similar changes occur in overweight children. The aim of this study was determine foot loading characteristics in obese, overweight and normal weight children aged 7 to 11 years during level walking.
Dynamic plantar pressures were measured in 22 obese, 22 overweight and 56 normal weight children recruited from local primary and secondary schools in East London. Peak pressure, peak force, normalised peak force, pressure–time and force-time integrals were analysed at six regions of the plantar foot: lateral heel, medial heel, midfoot, 1st metatarsophalangeal joint, 2nd-5th metatarsophalangeal joint and hallux. A one-way ANOVA was used to test for significant differences in variables across the groups. Where differences existed Tukey post-hoc tests were used to ascertain the location of the difference.
Children who were obese and overweight demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher peak pressures and peak forces as well as significantly higher force-time and pressure–time integrals under the midfoot and 2nd-5th metatarsal regions. After normalisation of peak force, similar trends existed where the obese and overweight children demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) greater loading at the midfoot and 2nd-5th metatarsals.
Findings from this study indicated that overweight children, as young as seven, displayed differences in foot loading during walking, when compared with normal weight children. These findings were consistent with loading patterns of children who were obese and suggest that early assessment and intervention may be required in overweight children to mitigate against the development of musculoskeletal complications associated with excessive body mass.
PMCID: PMC3846107  PMID: 23985125
Gait; Childhood obesity; Feet
20.  Diabetic Foot Biomechanics and Gait Dysfunction 
Diabetic foot complications represent significant morbidity and precede most of the lower extremity amputations performed. Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes shown to affect gait. Glycosylation of soft tissues can also affect gait. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the changes in gait for persons with diabetes and highlight the effects of glycosylation on soft tissues at the foot–ground interface.
PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EBSCOhost® on-line databases were searched for articles pertaining to diabetes and gait. Bibliographies from relevant manuscripts were also searched.
Patients with diabetes frequently exhibit a conservative gait strategy where there is slower walking speed, wider base of gait, and prolonged double support time. Glycosylation affects are observed in the lower extremities. Initially, skin thickness decreases and skin hardness increases; tendons thicken; muscles atrophy and exhibit activation delays; bones become less dense; joints have limited mobility; and fat pads are less thick, demonstrate fibrotic atrophy, migrate distally, and may be stiffer.
In conclusion, there do appear to be gait changes in patients with diabetes. These changes, coupled with local soft tissue changes from advanced glycosylated end products, also alter a patient’s gait, putting them at risk of foot ulceration. Better elucidation of these changes throughout the entire spectrum of diabetes disease can help design better treatments and potentially reduce the unnecessarily high prevalence of foot ulcers and amputation.
PMCID: PMC2909514  PMID: 20663446
biomechanics; diabetes; foot
21.  Distribution and correlates of plantar hyperkeratotic lesions in older people 
Plantar hyperkeratotic lesions are common in older people and are associated with pain, mobility impairment and functional limitations. However, little has been documented in relation to the frequency or distribution of these lesions. The aim of this study was to document the occurrence of plantar hyperkeratotic lesions and the patterns in which they occur in a random sample of older people.
A medical history questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 301 people living independently in the community (117 men, 184 women) aged between 70 and 95 years (mean 77.2, SD 4.9), who also underwent a clinical assessment of foot problems, including the documentation of plantar lesion locations, toe deformities and the presence and severity of hallux valgus.
Of the 301 participants, 180 (60%) had at least one plantar hyperkeratotic lesion. Those with plantar lesions were more likely to be female (χ2 = 18.75, p < 0.01; OR = 2.86), have moderate to severe hallux valgus (χ2 = 6.15, p < 0.02; OR = 2.95), a larger dorsiflexion range of motion at the ankle (39.4 ± 9.3 vs 36.3 ± 8.4°; t = 2.68, df = 286, p < 0.01), and spent more time on their feet at home (5.1 ± 1.0 vs 4.8 ± 1.3 hours, t = -2.46, df = 299, p = 0.01). No associations were found between the presence of plantar lesions and body mass index, obesity, foot posture, dominant foot or forefoot pain. A total of 53 different lesions patterns were observed, with the most common lesion pattern being "roll-off" hyperkeratosis on the medial aspect of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ), accounting for 12% of all lesion patterns. "Roll-off" lesions under the 1st MPJ and interphalangeal joint were significantly associated with moderate to severe hallux valgus (p < 0.05), whereas lesions under the central MPJs were significantly associated with deformity of the corresponding lesser toe (p < 0.05). Factor analysis indicated that 62% of lesion patterns could be grouped under three broad categories, relating to medial, central and lateral locations.
Plantar hyperkeratotic lesions affect 60% of older people and are associated with female gender, hallux valgus, toe deformity, increased ankle flexibility and time spent on feet, but are not associated with obesity, limb dominance, forefoot pain or foot posture. Although there are a wide range of lesion distribution patterns, most can be classified into medial, central or lateral groups. Further research is required to determine whether these patterns are related to the dynamic function of the foot or other factors such as foot pathology or morphology.
PMCID: PMC2669075  PMID: 19331676
22.  Stenting for Peripheral Artery Disease of the Lower Extremities 
Executive Summary
In January 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat received an application from University Health Network to provide an evidentiary platform on stenting as a treatment management for peripheral artery disease. The purpose of this health technology assessment is to examine the effectiveness of primary stenting as a treatment management for peripheral artery disease of the lower extremities.
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a progressive disease occurring as a result of plaque accumulation (atherosclerosis) in the arterial system that carries blood to the extremities (arms and legs) as well as vital organs. The vessels that are most affected by PAD are the arteries of the lower extremities, the aorta, the visceral arterial branches, the carotid arteries and the arteries of the upper limbs. In the lower extremities, PAD affects three major arterial segments i) aortic-iliac, ii) femoro-popliteal (FP) and iii) infra-popliteal (primarily tibial) arteries. The disease is commonly classified clinically as asymptomatic claudication, rest pain and critical ischemia.
Although the prevalence of PAD in Canada is not known, it is estimated that 800,000 Canadians have PAD. The 2007 Trans Atlantic Intersociety Consensus (TASC) II Working Group for the Management of Peripheral Disease estimated that the prevalence of PAD in Europe and North America to be 27 million, of whom 88,000 are hospitalizations involving lower extremities. A higher prevalence of PAD among elderly individuals has been reported to range from 12% to 29%. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) estimated that the prevalence of PAD is 14.5% among individuals 70 years of age and over.
Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with PAD include advanced age, male gender, family history, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. PAD is a strong predictor of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and cardiovascular death. Annually, approximately 10% of ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events can be attributed to the progression of PAD. Compared with patients without PAD, the 10-year risk of all-cause mortality is 3-fold higher in patients with PAD with 4-5 times greater risk of dying from cardiovascular event. The risk of coronary heart disease is 6 times greater and increases 15-fold in patients with advanced or severe PAD. Among subjects with diabetes, the risk of PAD is often severe and associated with extensive arterial calcification. In these patients the risk of PAD increases two to four fold. The results of the Canadian public survey of knowledge of PAD demonstrated that Canadians are unaware of the morbidity and mortality associated with PAD. Despite its prevalence and cardiovascular risk implications, only 25% of PAD patients are undergoing treatment.
The diagnosis of PAD is difficult as most patients remain asymptomatic for many years. Symptoms do not present until there is at least 50% narrowing of an artery. In the general population, only 10% of persons with PAD have classic symptoms of claudication, 40% do not complain of leg pain, while the remaining 50% have a variety of leg symptoms different from classic claudication. The severity of symptoms depends on the degree of stenosis. The need to intervene is more urgent in patients with limb threatening ischemia as manifested by night pain, rest pain, ischemic ulcers or gangrene. Without successful revascularization those with critical ischemia have a limb loss (amputation) rate of 80-90% in one year.
Diagnosis of PAD is generally non-invasive and can be performed in the physician offices or on an outpatient basis in a hospital. Most common diagnostic procedure include: 1) Ankle Brachial Index (ABI), a ratio of the blood pressure readings between the highest ankle pressure and the highest brachial (arm) pressure; and 2) Doppler ultrasonography, a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of ultrasound and wave form recordings to evaluate arterial flow in blood vessels. The value of the ABI can provide an assessment of the severity of the disease. Other non invasive imaging techniques include: Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA). Definitive diagnosis of PAD can be made by an invasive catheter based angiography procedure which shows the roadmap of the arteries, depicting the exact location and length of the stenosis / occlusion. Angiography is the standard method against which all other imaging procedures are compared for accuracy.
More than 70% of the patients diagnosed with PAD remain stable or improve with conservative management of pharmacologic agents and life style modifications. Significant PAD symptoms are well known to negatively influence an individual quality of life. For those who do not improve, revascularization methods either invasive or non-invasive can be used to restore peripheral circulation.
Technology Under Review
A Stent is a wire mesh “scaffold” that is permanently implanted in the artery to keep the artery open and can be combined with angioplasty to treat PAD. There are two types of stents: i) balloon-expandable and ii) self expandable stents and are available in varying length. The former uses an angioplasty balloon to expand and set the stent within the arterial segment. Recently, drug-eluting stents have been developed and these types of stents release small amounts of medication intended to reduce neointimal hyperplasia, which can cause re-stenosis at the stent site. Endovascular stenting avoids the problem of early elastic recoil, residual stenosis and flow limiting dissection after balloon angioplasty.
Research Questions
In individuals with PAD of the lower extremities (superficial femoral artery, infra-popliteal, crural and iliac artery stenosis or occlusion), is primary stenting more effective than percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in improving patency?
In individuals with PAD of the lower extremities (superficial femoral artery, infra-popliteal, crural and iliac artery stenosis or occlusion), does primary stenting provide immediate success compared to PTA?
In individuals with PAD of the lower extremities (superficial femoral artery, infra-popliteal, crural and iliac artery stenosis or occlusion), is primary stenting associated with less complications compared to PTA?
In individuals with PAD of the lower extremities (superficial femoral artery, infra-popliteal, crural and iliac artery stenosis or occlusion), does primary stenting compared to PTA reduce the rate of re-intervention?
In individuals with PAD of the lower extremities (superficial femoral artery, infra-popliteal, crural and iliac artery stenosis or occlusion) is primary stenting more effective than PTA in improving clinical and hemodynamic success?
Are drug eluting stents more effective than bare stents in improving patency, reducing rates of re-interventions or complications?
Research Methods
Literature Search
A literature search was performed on February 2, 2010 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA). Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. The quality of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low or very low according to GRADE methodology.
Inclusion Criteria
English language full-reports from 1950 to January Week 3, 2010
Comparative randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs
Proven diagnosis of PAD of the lower extremities in all patients.
Adult patients at least 18 years of age.
Stent as at least one treatment arm.
Patency, re-stenosis, re-intervention, technical success, hemodynamic (ABI) and clinical improvement and complications as at least an outcome.
Exclusion Criteria
Non-randomized studies
Observational studies (cohort or retrospective studies) and case report
Feasibility studies
Studies that have evaluated stent but not as a primary intervention
Outcomes of Interest
The primary outcome measure was patency. Secondary measures included technical success, re-intervention, complications, hemodynamic (ankle brachial pressure index, treadmill walking distance) and clinical success or improvement according to Rutherford scale. It was anticipated, a priori, that there would be substantial differences among trials regarding the method of examination and definitions of patency or re-stenosis. Where studies reported only re-stenosis rates, patency rates were calculated as 1 minus re-stenosis rates.
Statistical Analysis
Odds ratios (for binary outcomes) or mean difference (for continuous outcomes) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each endpoint. An intention to treat principle (ITT) was used, with the total number of patients randomized to each study arm as the denominator for each proportion. Sensitivity analysis was performed using per protocol approach. A pooled odds ratio (POR) or mean difference for each endpoint was then calculated for all trials reporting that endpoint using a fixed effects model. PORs were calculated for comparisons of primary stenting versus PTA or other alternative procedures. Level of significance was set at alpha=0.05. Homogeneity was assessed using the chi-square test, I2 and by visual inspection of forest plots. If heterogeneity was encountered within groups (P < 0.10), a random effects model was used. All statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5. Where sufficient data were available, these analyses were repeated within subgroups of patients defined by time of outcome assessment to evaluate sustainability of treatment benefit. Results were pooled based on the diseased artery and stent type.
Summary of Findings
Balloon-expandable stents vs PTA in superficial femoral artery disease
Based on a moderate quality of evidence, there is no significant difference in patency between primary stenting using balloon-expandable bare metal stents and PTA at 6, 12 and 24 months in patients with superficial femoral artery disease. The pooled OR for patency and their corresponding 95% CI are: 6 months 1.26 (0.74, 2.13); 12 months 0.95 (0.66, 1.38); and 24 months 0.72 (0.34. 1.55).
There is no significant difference in clinical improvement, re-interventions, peri and post operative complications, mortality and amputations between primary stenting using balloon-expandable bare stents and PTA in patients with superficial femoral artery. The pooled OR and their corresponding 95% CI are clinical improvement 0.85 (0.50, 1.42); ankle brachial index 0.01 (-0.02, 0.04) re-intervention 0.83 (0.26, 2.65); complications 0.73 (0.43, 1.22); all cause mortality 1.08 (0.59, 1.97) and amputation rates 0.41 (0.14, 1.18).
Self-expandable stents vs PTA in superficial femoral artery disease
Based on a moderate quality of evidence, primary stenting using self-expandable bare metal stents is associated with significant improvement in patency at 6, 12 and 24 months in patients with superficial femoral artery disease. The pooled OR for patency and their corresponding 95% CI are: 6 months 2.35 (1.06, 5.23); 12 months 1.54 (1.01, 2.35); and 24 months 2.18 (1.00. 4.78). However, the benefit of primary stenting is not observed for clinical improvement, re-interventions, peri and post operative complications, mortality and amputation in patients with superficial femoral artery disease. The pooled OR and their corresponding 95% CI are clinical improvement 0.61 (0.37, 1.01); ankle brachial index 0.01 (-0.06, 0.08) re-intervention 0.60 (0.36, 1.02); complications 1.60 (0.53, 4.85); all cause mortality 3.84 (0.74, 19.22) and amputation rates 1.96 (0.20, 18.86).
Balloon expandable stents vs PTA in iliac artery occlusive disease
Based on moderate quality of evidence, despite immediate technical success, 12.23 (7.17, 20.88), primary stenting is not associated with significant improvement in patency, clinical status, treadmill walking distance and reduction in re-intervention, complications, cardiovascular events, all cause mortality, QoL and amputation rates in patients with intermittent claudication caused by iliac artery occlusive disease. The pooled OR and their corresponding 95% CI are: patency 1.03 (0.56, 1.87); clinical improvement 1.08 (0.60, 1.94); walking distance 3.00 (12.96, 18.96); re-intervention 1.16 (0.71, 1.90); complications 0.56 (0.20, 1.53); all cause mortality 0.89 (0.47, 1.71); QoL 0.40 (-4.42, 5.52); cardiovascular event 1.16 (0.56, 2.40) and amputation rates 0.37 (0.11, 1.23). To date no RCTs are available evaluating self-expandable stents in the common or external iliac artery stenosis or occlusion.
Drug-eluting stent vs balloon-expandable bare metal stents in crural arteries
Based on a very low quality of evidence, at 6 months of follow-up, sirolimus drug-eluting stents are associated with a reduction in target vessel revascularization and re-stenosis rates in patients with atherosclerotic lesions of crural (tibial) arteries compared with balloon-expandable bare metal stent. The OR and their corresponding 95% CI are: re-stenosis 0.09 (0.03, 0.28) and TVR 0.15 (0.05, 0.47) in patients with atherosclerotic lesions of the crural arteries at 6 months follow-up. Both types of stents offer similar immediate success. Limitations of this study include: short follow-up period, small sample and no assessment of mortality as an outcome. Further research is needed to confirm its effect and safety.
PMCID: PMC3377569  PMID: 23074395
23.  Ankle Brachial Index Values, Leg Symptoms, and Functional Performance Among Community‐Dwelling Older Men and Women in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Study 
The prevalence and significance of low normal and abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI) values in a community‐dwelling population of sedentary, older individuals is unknown. We describe the prevalence of categories of definite peripheral artery disease (PAD), borderline ABI, low normal ABI, and no PAD and their association with lower‐extremity functional performance in the LIFE Study population.
Methods and Results
Participants age 70 to 89 in the LIFE Study underwent baseline measurement of the ABI, 400‐m walk, and 4‐m walking velocity. Participants were classified as follows: definite PAD (ABI <0.90), borderline PAD (ABI 0.90 to 0.99), low normal ABI (ABI 1.00 to 1.09), and no PAD (ABI 1.10 to 1.40). Of 1566 participants, 220 (14%) had definite PAD, 250 (16%) had borderline PAD, 509 (33%) had low normal ABI, and 587 (37%) had no PAD. Among those with definite PAD, 65% were asymptomatic. Adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, and comorbidities, lower ABI was associated with longer mean 400‐m walk time: (definite PAD=533 seconds; borderline PAD=514 seconds; low normal ABI=503 seconds; and no PAD=498 seconds [P<0.001]). Among asymptomatic participants with and without PAD, lower ABI values were also associated with longer 400‐m walk time (P<0.001) and slower walking velocity (P=0.042).
Among older community‐dwelling men and women, 14% had PAD and 49% had borderline or low normal ABI values. Lower ABI values were associated with greater functional impairment, suggesting that lower extremity atherosclerosis may be a common preventable cause of functional limitations in older people.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: Unique identifier: NCT01072500.
PMCID: PMC3886743  PMID: 24222666
aging; exercise; peripheral vascular disease
24.  MRI identifies plantar plate pathology in the forefoot of patients with rheumatoid arthritis 
Clinical Rheumatology  2011;31(4):621-629.
Previous cadaveric studies have suggested that forefoot deformities at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) might result from the failure of the ligamentous system and displacement of the plantar plates. This study aimed to examine the relationship between plantar plate pathology and the rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (RAMRIS) of the lesser (second to fifth) MTP joints in patients with RA using high-resolution 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 24 patients with RA, the forefoot was imaged using 3 T MRI. Proton density fat-suppressed, T2-weighted fat-suppressed and T1-weighted post gadolinium sequences were acquired through 96 lesser MTP joints. Images were scored for synovitis, bone marrow oedema and bone erosion using the RAMRIS system and the plantar plates were assessed for pathology. Seventeen females and 7 males with a mean age of 55.5 years (range 37–71) and disease duration of 10.6 years (range 0.6–36) took part in the study. Plantar plate pathology was most frequently demonstrated on MRI at the fifth MTP joint. An association was demonstrated between plantar plate pathology and RAMRIS-reported synovitis, bone marrow oedema and bone erosion at the fourth and fifth MTP joints. In patients with RA, 3 T MRI demonstrates that plantar plate pathology at the lesser MTP joints is associated with features of disease severity. Plantar plate pathology is more common at the fourth and fifth MTP joints in subjects with RA in contrast to the predilection for the second MTP reported previously in subjects without RA.
PMCID: PMC3314823  PMID: 22143913
Forefoot; Magnetic resonance imaging; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Plantar plate; RAMRIS; Rheumatoid arthritis
25.  Prediction of peak pressure from clinical and radiological measurements in patients with diabetes 
Various structural and functional factors of foot function have been associated with high local plantar pressures. The therapist focuses on these features which are thought to be responsible for plantar ulceration in patients with diabetes. Risk assessment of the diabetic foot would be made easier if locally elevated plantar pressure could be indicated with a minimum set of clinical measures.
Ninety three patients were evaluated through vascular, orthopaedic, neurological and radiological assessment. A pressure platform was used to quantify the barefoot peak pressure for six forefoot regions: big toe (BT) and metatarsals one (MT-1) to five (MT-5). Stepwise regression modelling was performed to determine which set of the clinical and radiological measures explained most variability in local barefoot plantar peak pressure in each of the six forefoot regions. Comprehensive models were computed with independent variables from the clinical and radiological measurements. The difference between the actual plantar pressure and the predicted value was examined through Bland-Altman analysis.
Forefoot pressures were significant higher in patients with neuropathy, compared to patients without neuropathy for the whole forefoot, the MT-1 region and the MT-5 region (respectively 138 kPa, 173 kPa and 88 kPa higher: mean difference). The clinical models explained up to 39 percent of the variance in local peak pressures. Callus formation and toe deformity were identified as relevant clinical predictors for all forefoot regions. Regression models with radiological variables explained about 26 percent of the variance in local peak pressures. For most regions the combination of clinical and radiological variables resulted in a higher explained variance. The Bland and Altman analysis showed a major discrepancy between the predicted and the actual peak pressure values.
At best, clinical and radiological measurements could only explain about 34 percent of the variance in local barefoot peak pressure in this population of diabetic patients. The prediction models constructed with linear regression are not useful in clinical practice because of considerable underestimation of high plantar pressure values. Identification of elevated plantar pressure without equipment for quantification of plantar pressure is inadequate. The use of quantitative plantar pressure measurement for diabetic foot screening is therefore advocated.
PMCID: PMC2637873  PMID: 19055706

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