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1.  Concordant Oral-Genital HPV Infection in South Africa Couples: Evidence for Transmission 
Frontiers in Oncology  2013;3:303.
Objective: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in South Africa. However, little is known about oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence settings.
Method: Thirty-four adult heterosexual couples attending an HIV testing center in Soweto, South Africa were enrolled. Each participant provided an oral rinse sample and genital swab, which were tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and completed a risk behavior survey.
Results: Median age was 31 years and 9% (3/34) of men and 29% (10/34) of women enrolled tested HIV-positive; median CD4 count was 437 cells/mm3. Oral HPV prevalence was similar in women and men (12 vs. 18%, p = 0.48), and was non-significantly higher in HIV-infected vs. HIV-uninfected (23 vs. 13%, p = 0.34) subjects. Most men (82%) and women (84%) reported ever performing oral sex. Median number of lifetime sexual partners was “2–5” while median number of lifetime oral sex partners was 1. Oncogenic HPV subtypes were detected in 4% of oral, 26% of penile, and 74% of vaginal samples, including HPV16 in 1, 12, and 21% of these samples respectively. Genital HPV prevalence was significantly higher than oral HPV prevalence (75 vs. 15%, p ≤ 0.001). Thirty-five percent of couples (12/34) had at least one type-specific concordant vaginal-penile HPV infection but only one of nine couples with oral HPV had concordant oral–oral infection. However, 67% (4/6) of men and 25% (1/4) of women with oral HPV infection had partners with concordant genital HPV infection.
Implications and Impact: Oral–oral HPV concordance between couples is low, but oral-genital and genital–genital HPV concordance is higher, including concordance of male oral HPV infection with their partners’ vaginal HPV infection. This data is consistent with possible transmission of vaginal HPV infection to the oral cavity of sexual partners performing oral sex.
PMCID: PMC3860183  PMID: 24377087
HIV; oral sex; South Africa; HPV; oral; genital; concordance; transmission
2.  Comparison of Physician- and Self-Collected Genital Specimens for Detection of Human Papillomavirus in Men 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(2):513-517.
There is currently no consensus regarding the most appropriate methods of sampling for the detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) in men. We employed a recently developed collection method involving abrasion and moistened swabbing of the genital skin surface for the detection of HPV in a cohort of 136 university-affiliated males in Hawaii. Genital specimens collected by physicians using this method were compared with self-collected specimens from the same individuals obtained 24 h later. Self-collected specimens yielded a greater proportion of sufficient specimens than physician-collected specimens. HPV detection was comparable in physician- and self-collected specimens; detection was highest in the penile shaft (51.2% and 51.5%, respectively, P = 0.96), followed by the scrotum (41.2% and 46.2%, P = 0.43), the glans/coronal sulcus (31.9% and 33.1%, P = 0.84), and the foreskin (33.3% and 28.6%, P = 0.74). Site-specific agreement in HPV detection between paired physician- and self-collected samples ranged from 67.2% (kappa = 0.34) for the penile shaft to 95.0% (kappa = 0.89) for the foreskin. There was a high degree of concordance in HPV genotypes in HPV-positive pairs. The most common type was HPV type 84, which comprised approximately 15% of the specimens. The emery paper-swab method offers an efficient sampling method for genital HPV DNA detection in men that could be used both within and outside of the clinical setting.
PMCID: PMC1392697  PMID: 16455906
3.  Use of PGMY Primers in L1 Consensus PCR Improves Detection of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Genital Samples 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(3):902-907.
The novel PGMY L1 consensus primer pair is more sensitive than the MY09 and MY11 primer mix for detection and typing with PCR of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in genital specimens. We assessed the diagnostic yield of PGMY primers for the detection and typing of HPV by comparing the results obtained with PGMY09/PGMY11 and MY09/MY11/HMB01 on 299 genital samples. Amplicons generated with PGMY primers were typed with the line blot assay (PGMY-line blot), while HPV amplicons obtained with the degenerate primer pool MY09/MY11/HMB01 were detected with type-specific radiolabeled probes in a dot blot assay (standard consensus PCR test). Cervicovaginal lavage samples (N = 272) and cervical scrape samples (N = 27) were tested in parallel with both PCR tests. The PGMY-line blot test detected the presence of HPV DNA more frequently than the standard consensus PCR assay. The concordance for HPV typing between the two assays was 84.3% (214 of 255 samples), for a good kappa value of 0.69. Of the 177 samples containing HPV DNA by at least one method, 40 samples contained at least one HPV type detected only with PGMY-line blot, whereas positivity exclusively with the standard consensus PCR test was found for only 7 samples (P < 0.001). HPV types 45 and 52 were especially more frequently detected with PGMY than MY primers. However, most HPV types were better amplified with PGMY primers, including HPV-16. Samples with discordant results between the two PCR assays more frequently contained multiple HPV types. Studies using PGMY instead of MY primers have the potential to report higher detection rates of HPV infection not only for newer HPV types but also for well-known genital types.
PMCID: PMC120235  PMID: 11880413
4.  Comparison of Real-Time Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) PCR Assays with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra Assay▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(5):1907-1912.
Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59. Here, we evaluated clinical specimen concordance and compared the limits of detection (LODs) between multiplex HPV PCR assays and the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay, which detects 28 types, for the 14 HPV types common to both of these methods. Overall HPV detection agreement rates were >90% for swabs and >95% for thin sections. Statistically significant differences in detection were observed for HPV6, HPV16, HPV18, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59 in swabs and for HPV45, HPV58, and HPV59 in thin sections. Where P was <0.05, discordance was due to detection of more HPV-positive samples by the multiplex HPV PCR assays. LODs were similar for eight HPV types, significantly lower in multiplex assays for five HPV types, and lower in INNO-LiPA for HPV6 only. LODs were under 50 copies for all HPV types, with the exception of HPV39, HPV58, and HPV59 in the INNO-LiPA assay. The overall percent agreement for detection of 14 HPV types between the type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and INNO-LiPA genotyping assays was good. The differences in positive sample detection favored multiplex HPV PCR, suggesting increased sensitivity of HPV DNA detection by type-specific multiplex HPV PCR assays.
PMCID: PMC3122697  PMID: 21068278
5.  Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men 
Journal of medical virology  2013;85(9):10.1002/jmv.23635.
Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All lesions were sampled by swabbing the surface of the lesion with a pre-wetted Dacron swab and taking a shave biopsy. HPV genotyping was performed using Linear Array for swab samples and INNO-LiPA for biopsy samples. The kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the concordance of detecting HPV types in swab and biopsy samples. Both sampling methods had high agreement for detection of HPV DNA in condyloma (87.8% agreement) and PeIN (100% agreement). There was also high concordance for detection of HPV16 (kappa = 1.00) and HPV18 (kappa = 1.00) in PeIN, however, agreement was low to moderate for detecting HPV6 (kappa = 0.31) and HPV11 (kappa = 0.56) in condyloma. Low to moderate agreement was also observed between sampling methods for detecting individual HPV types in the non-condyloma and lesions with an indefinite histology. The results suggest that obtaining a biopsy in addition to swabbing the surface of a lesion may provide additional information about specific HVP types associated with male genital lesions.
PMCID: PMC3879682  PMID: 23852680
HPV; condyloma; penile intraepithelial neoplasia; kappa
6.  International Proficiency Study of a Consensus L1 PCR Assay for the Detection and Typing of Human Papillomavirus DNA: Evaluation of Accuracy and Intralaboratory and Interlaboratory Agreement 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(3):1080-1086.
The PGMY L1 consensus primer pair combined with the line blot assay allows the detection of 27 genital human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. We conducted an intralaboratory and interlaboratory agreement study to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of PCR for HPV DNA detection and typing using the PGMY primers and typing amplicons with the line blot (PGMY-LB) assay. A test panel of 109 samples consisting of 29 HPV-negative (10 buffer controls and 19 genital samples) and 80 HPV-positive samples (60 genital samples and 20 controls with small or large amounts of HPV DNA plasmids) were tested blindly in triplicate by three laboratories. Intralaboratory agreement ranged from 86 to 98% for HPV DNA detection. PGMY-LB assay results for samples with a low copy number of HPV DNA were less reproducible. The rate of intralaboratory agreement excluding negative results for HPV typing ranged from 78 to 96%. Interlaboratory reliability for HPV DNA positivity and HPV typing was very good, with levels of agreement of >95% and kappa values of >0.87. Again, low-copy-number samples were more prone to generating discrepant results. The accuracy varied from 91 to 100% for HPV DNA positivity and from 90 to 100% for HPV typing. HPV testing can thus be accomplished reliably with PCR by using a standardized written protocol and quality-controlled reagents. The use of validated HPV DNA detection and typing assays demonstrating excellent interlaboratory agreement will allow investigators to better compare results between epidemiological studies.
PMCID: PMC150263  PMID: 12624033
7.  Comparison of Real-Time Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) PCR Assays with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping PCR Assay and Influence of DNA Extraction Method on HPV Detection▿‡ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(5):1899-1906.
Real-time human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific multiplex PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in specimens collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). We evaluated the concordance between type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and the widely used, commercially available Roche Linear Array genotyping PCR assay. Female genital swab specimens were tested for the presence of L1, E6, and E7 sequences of HPV type 6 (HPV6), HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV45, HPV52, and HPV58 and E6 and E7 sequences of HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV51, HPV56, and HPV59 in type- and gene-specific real-time multiplex PCR assays. Specimens were also tested for the presence of L1 sequences using two versions of the Roche Linear Array genotyping assay. Measures of concordance of a modified version of the Linear Array and the standard Linear Array PCR assay were evaluated. With specimen DNA extraction using the Qiagen Spin blood kit held as the constant, multiplex PCR assays detect more HPV-positive specimens for the 14 HPV types common to both than either version of the Linear Array HPV genotyping assay. Type-specific agreements between the assays were good, at least 0.838, but were often driven by negative agreement in HPV types with low prevalence, as evidenced by reduced proportions of positive agreement. Overall HPV status agreements ranged from 0.615 for multiplex PCR and standard Linear Array to 0.881 for multiplex PCR and modified Linear Array. An alternate DNA extraction technique, that used by the Qiagen MinElute kit, impacted subsequent HPV detection in both the multiplex PCR and Linear Array assays.
PMCID: PMC3122643  PMID: 21346041
8.  Perinatal transmission of human papilomavirus DNA 
Virology Journal  2009;6:83.
The purpose was to study the perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA) in 63 mother-newborn pairs, besides looking at the epidemiological factors involved in the viral DNA transmission. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, when was recruited, in cervix and clinical lesions of the vagina, vulva and perineal region; (2) in the newborn, (a) buccal, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the children, buccal was repeated in the 4th week and 6th and 12th month of life. HPV-DNA was identified using two methodologies: multiplex PCR (PGMY09 and MY11 primers) and nested-PCR (genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58). Perinatal transmission was considered when concordance was found in type-specific HPV between mother/newborn or mother/child. HPV-DNA genital was detected in 49 pregnant women submitted to delivery. Eleven newborns (22.4%, n = 11/49) were HPV-DNA positive. In 8 cases (16.3%, n = 8/49) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. At the end of the first month of life three children (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA positive, while two remained positive from birth. In 3 cases (100%, n = 3/3) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. In the 6th month, a child (2%, n = 1/49) had become HPV-DNA positive between the 1st and 6th month of life, and there was type specific HPV concordance of mother/newborn samples. All the HPV-DNA positive children (22.4%, n = 11/49) at birth and at the end first month of life (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA negative at the age of 6 months. The HPV-DNA positive child (2%, n = 1/49) from 1st to the 6th month of life became HPV-DNA negative between the 6th and 12th month of life and one child had anogenital warts. In the twelfth month all (100%, n = 49/49) the children studied were HPV-DNA negative. A positive and significant correlation was observed between perinatal transmission of HPV-DNA and the immunodepression of maternal variables (HIV, p = 0.007). Finally, the study suggests that perinatal transmission of HPV-DNA occurred in 24.5% (n = 12/49) of the cases studied.
PMCID: PMC2717078  PMID: 19545396
9.  Genotyping of 27 Human Papillomavirus Types by Using L1 Consensus PCR Products by a Single-Hybridization, Reverse Line Blot Detection Method 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1998;36(10):3020-3027.
Amplification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by L1 consensus primer systems (e.g., MY09/11 or GP5+/6+) can detect as few as 10 to 100 molecules of HPV targets from a genital sample. However, genotype determination by dot blot hybridization is laborious and requires at least 27 separate hybridizations for substantive HPV-type discrimination. A reverse blot method was developed which employs a biotin-labeled PCR product hybridized to an array of immobilized oligonucleotide probes. By the reverse blot strip analysis, genotype discrimination of multiple HPV types can be accomplished in a single hybridization and wash cycle. Twenty-seven HPV probe mixes, two control probe concentrations, and a single reference line were immobilized to 75- by 6-mm nylon strips. Each individual probe line contained a mixture of two bovine serum albumin-conjugated oligonucleotide probes specific to a unique HPV genotype. The genotype spectrum discriminated on this strip includes the high-risk, or cancer-associated, HPV genotypes 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 68 (ME180), MM4 (W13B), MM7 (P291), and MM9 (P238A) and the low-risk, or non-cancer-associated, genotypes 6, 11, 40, 42, 53, 54, 57, 66, and MM8 (P155). In addition, two concentrations of β-globin probes allowed for assessment of individual specimen adequacy following amplification. We have evaluated the performance of the strip method relative to that of a previously reported dot blot format (H. M. Bauer et al., p. 132–152, in C. S. Herrington and J. O. D. McGee (ed.), Diagnostic Molecular Pathology: a Practical Approach, (1992), by testing 328 cervical swab samples collected in Digene specimen transport medium (Digene Diagnostics, Silver Spring, Md.). We show excellent agreement between the two detection formats, with 92% concordance for HPV positivity (kappa = 0.78, P < 0.001). Nearly all of the discrepant HPV-positive samples resulted from weak signals and can be attributed to sampling error from specimens with low concentrations (<1 copy/μl) of HPV DNA. The primary advantage of the strip-based detection system is the ability to rapidly genotype HPVs present in genital samples with high sensitivity and specificity, minimizing the likelihood of misclassification.
PMCID: PMC105104  PMID: 9738060
10.  Sex-Specific Immunization for Sexually Transmitted Infections Such as Human Papillomavirus: Insights from Mathematical Models 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(12):e1001147.
Johannes Bogaards and colleagues use mathematical models to investigate whether vaccinating females only, males only, or both sexes is the best way to achieve the most effective reduction in the population prevalence of sexually-transmitted infections
Sex-specific differences regarding the transmissibility and the course of infection are the rule rather than the exception in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Human papillomavirus (HPV) provides an example: disease outcomes differ between men and women, as does the potential for transmission to the opposite sex. HPV vaccination of preadolescent girls was recently introduced in many countries, and inclusion of boys in the vaccination programs is being discussed. Here, we address the question of whether vaccinating females only, males only, or both sexes is the most effective strategy to reduce the population prevalence of an STI like HPV.
Methods and Findings
We use a range of two-sex transmission models with varying detail to identify general criteria for allocating a prophylactic vaccine between both sexes. The most effective reduction in the population prevalence of infection is always achieved by single-sex vaccination; vaccinating the sex with the highest prevaccine prevalence is the preferred strategy in most circumstances. Exceptions arise only when the higher prevaccine prevalence is due to a substantially lower rate of natural immunity, or when natural immunity is lifelong, and a prolonged duration of infectiousness coincides with increased transmissibility. Predictions from simple models were confirmed in simulations based on an elaborate HPV transmission model. Our analysis suggests that relatively inefficient genital transmission from males to females might render male vaccination more effective in reducing overall infection levels. However, most existing HPV vaccination programs have achieved sufficient coverage to continue with female-only vaccination.
Increasing vaccine uptake among preadolescent girls is more effective in reducing HPV infection than including boys in existing vaccination programs. As a rule, directing prophylactic immunization at the sex with the highest prevaccine prevalence results in the largest reduction of the population prevalence.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
About 10% of cancers in women occur in the cervix, the structure that connects the womb to the vagina. Every year, more than a quarter of a million women (85% of them in developing countries) die because of cervical cancer, which only occurs after the cervix has been infected with a human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual intercourse (HPV is one of more than thirty sexually transmissable organisms that, globally, cause many millions of sexually transmitted infections every year). There are many types of HPV, a virus that infects the skin and the mucosa (the moist membranes that line various parts of the body, including the cervix). Most people become infected with HPV at some time during their life, but most never know they have been infected. Some HPV types cause harmless warts on the skin or around the genital area, and several—in particular HPV16 and HPV18, so-called high-risk HPVs—can cause cervical cancer (and some other cancers, including anal, penile, head, and neck cancers). HPV infections are usually cleared by the immune system, but about 10% of women infected with a high-risk HPV develop a long-term infection that puts them at risk of developing cervical cancer.
Why Was This Study Done?
Screening programs have greatly reduced cervical cancer deaths in developed countries by detecting the cancer early, when it can be treated. However, it would be better to prevent cervical cancer ever developing. Moreover, most women in developing countries do not have access to screening. Because infection with specific HPV types can cause the development of some types of cervical cancer, vaccination of girls against HPV before the onset of sexual activity might be one way to prevent cervical cancer. Scientists recently developed a vaccine that prevents infection with HPV16 and HPV18, and HPV vaccination programs have been introduced in several countries. These programs are currently directed only at girls because HPV-related illness and death are higher among women than men, but should boys also be included in HPV vaccination programs? Men would benefit directly from immunization against HPV-related diseases, but, in addition, vaccination of boys might help to reduce the circulation of HPV in the population, thereby indirectly improving the protection of women through so-called “herd immunity.” In this study, the researchers used mathematical models to investigate whether vaccinating girls only, boys only, or both sexes is the most effective way to reduce the population prevalence of HPV infection (the proportion of the population infected with HPV).
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers first used a range of standard two-sex mathematical models of infection and transmission in heterosexual populations to identify general criteria for allocating an HPV vaccine between the sexes. They found that the most effective reduction in the population prevalence of HPV infection was always achieved by single-sex vaccination and that, in most situations, the preferred strategy was to vaccinate the sex with the highest prevaccine prevalence of HPV infection. The researchers confirmed these predictions using a more elaborate HPV transmission model that incorporated differences among individuals in age and level of sexual activity. Importantly, this second analysis also suggested that for existing girl-only vaccination programs, increasing coverage of vaccination among girls would bolster herd immunity more effectively than switching to a policy of vaccinating both sexes.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The findings of this study suggest that increasing vaccine uptake among preadolescent girls is a more effective way to reduce HPV infection than including boys in existing vaccination programs. They also suggest that directing HPV vaccination at the sex with the highest prevaccine prevalence of infection will reduce the population prevalence of HPV most effectively. Although the accuracy of these findings is dependent on the assumptions included in the mathematical transmission models used by the researchers, these findings support a policy of increasing female HPV vaccine coverage as far as possible, within the limits set by vaccine acceptance and economic constraints. More generally, these findings suggest that single-sex preventative interventions might be the best way to reduce heterosexual transmission of other sexually transmitted infections and that targeting the sex with the highest prevalence of infection might achieve the most effective reduction in the population prevalence of these common diseases.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
The US National Cancer Institute provides information about cervical cancer for patients and for health professionals, including information on HPV vaccines (in English and Spanish)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also has information about cervical cancer and HPV
The UK National Health Service Choices website has pages on cervical cancer and HPV vaccination (available in several languages and including a short video of girls talking about HPV vaccination)
The PREHDICT project investigates health-economic modeling of prevention strategies for HPV-related diseases in European countries; information about this project is available from the European Cervical Cancer Association
More information about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination is available from Macmillan Cancer Support
Personal stories about cervical cancer are available through the charity Healthtalkonline
MedlinePlus provides links to additional resources about cervical cancer and other sexually transmitted infections (in English and Spanish)
PMCID: PMC3243713  PMID: 22205887
11.  Transplacental transmission of Human Papillomavirus 
Virology Journal  2008;5:106.
This paper aimed at studying the transplacental transmission of HPV and looking at the epidemiological factors involved in maternal viral infection. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, (a) genital; (b) peripheral blood; (2) in the newborn, (a) oral cavity, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the placenta. The HPV DNA was identified using two methods: multiplex PCR of human β-globin and of HPV using the PGMY09 and PGMY11 primers; and nested-PCR, which combines degenerated primers of the E6/E7 regions of the HPV virus, that allowed the identification of genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58. Transplacental transmission was considered when type-specific HPV concordance was found between the mother, the placenta and the newborn or the mother and cord blood. The study included 49 HPV DNA-positive pregnant women at delivery. Twelve placentas (24.5%, n = 12/49) had a positive result for HPV DNA. Eleven newborn were HPV DNA positive in samples from the nasopharyngeal or buccal and body or cord blood. In 5 cases (10.2%, n = 5/49) there was HPV type-specific agreement between genital/placenta/newborn samples. In one case (2%, n = 1/49) there was type specific HPV concordance between genital/cord blood and also suggested transplacental transmission. A positive and significant correlation was observed between transplacental transmission of HPV infection and the maternal variables of immunodepression history (HIV, p = 0.011). In conclusion the study suggests placental infection in 23.3% of the cases studied and transplacental transmission in 12.2%. It is suggested that in future HPV DNA be researched in the normal endometrium of women of reproductive age. The possible consequence of fetal exposure to HPV should be observed.
PMCID: PMC2567316  PMID: 18817577
12.  Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18, 31, 45 DNA loads and HPV-16 integration in persistent and transient infections in young women 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2010;10:326.
HPV burden is a predictor for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer. The natural history of HPV load in young women being recently exposed to HPV is described in this paper.
A total of 636 female university students were followed for 2 years. Cervical specimens with HPV-16, -18, -31, or -45 DNA by consensus PCR were further evaluated with type-specific and β-globin real-time PCR assays. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of infection clearance. Generalized estimating equations assessed whether HPV loads was predictive of HPV infection at the subsequent visit.
HPV loads were consistently higher among women <25 years old, and those who had multiple sex partners, multiple HPV type infections and smokers. HPV-16 integration was encountered only in one sample. Infection clearance was faster among women at lower tertiles of HPV-16 (HR = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.0-8.1), HPV-18 (HR = 3.5, 95%CI: 1.1-11.2) or combined (HR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.8-6.2) DNA loads. The relationship between HPV-16 and HPV-18 DNA loads and infection clearance followed a clear dose-response pattern, after adjusting for age and number of sexual partners. GEE Odds Ratios for HPV persistence of the middle and upper tertiles relative to the lower tertile were 2.7 and 3.0 for HPV-16 and 3.8 and 39.1 for HPV-18, respectively. There was no association between HPV-31 or -45 DNA loads and persistence.
The association between HPV load and persistence is not uniform across high-risk genital genotypes. HPV-16 integration was only rarely demonstrated in young women.
PMCID: PMC2993709  PMID: 21070660
13.  Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection in women from North Sardinia, Italy 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:785.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several disorders of the genital tract, skin and oropharynx. The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection in women between 15 and 54 years of age in North Sardinia, Italy, to identify the prevalence of High Risk - Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) genotypes and to establish a correlation between molecular and cytological results.
From 2007 to 2009 we consecutively enrolled women aged 15-54 years admitted to public and private outpatient settings. All the participants filled in a questionnaire about the socio-cultural state, sexual activity and awareness about HPV. 323 cervical specimens were tested for HPV-DNA and HPV genotypes with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping CE Amp kit. Samples showing positivity to some HPV genotypes were re-tested using "in house" quantitative Real-Time PCR assays.
Overall HPV-DNA positivity was detected in 35.9% of the women. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection among HPV positive samples was 93.1% with a specific prevalence of HPV 16, 51, 31, 53 and 18 of 54.3%, 37.9%, 10.3%, 6.9% and 5.2%, respectively. Co-infection with any HPV, HR-HPV, LR-HPV and HR/LR-HPV type was 18.3%, 14.9%, 0.9% and 2.5%, respectively; HPV 16/51 co-infection was detected in 64.6% of the HR-HPV co-infection group. The most frequent HPV-genotypes detected were 16 (32.5%) and 51 (22.7%). Among the 57 patients harboring mono-infection the most prevalent HPV genotypes were 16 (38.6%) and 31(10.5%). A multivariate analysis identified a statistical significant association between HPV infection and age and between HPV infection and previous sexual transmitted diseases. A statistically significant association between cytological cervical lesions and generic HPV exposure was identified.
To our knowledge, this is the first survey evaluating the prevalence of HPV infection in Northern Sardinia and drawing attention to the unusual high proportion of genotype HPV 51. Given the recent implementation of a widespread immunization program with vaccines not containing HPV 51, it has been relevant to prove the high prevalence of this HPV genotype from the start of the vaccination campaign, in order to avoid in the future attributing to the vaccination program a possible selection effect (HPV replacement).
PMCID: PMC3208589  PMID: 21989375
14.  Serum Antibody Response Following Genital α9 Human Papillomavirus Infection in Young Men 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2011;204(2):209-216.
Background. Although the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genital infection is similarly high in males and females, seroprevalence is lower in males. This study assessed rates and determinants of seroconversion after detection of genital HPV infection in young men.
Methods. We investigated HPV type-specific seroconversion in a cohort of heterosexual male university students who had an α9 HPV type (HPV-16, -31, -33, -35, -52, -58, or -67) detected in the genital tract (n = 156). HPV DNA and antibodies were detected and typed using liquid bead-based multiplex assays. We calculated seroconversion using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards models with generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations with seroconversion.
Results. Within 24 months of detecting genital HPV infection, type-specific seroconversion ranged from 4% for HPV–52 to 36% for HPV-31. HPV-16 seroconversion at 24 months was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%–25%). Among incident HPV infections, ever cigarette smoking and infection site(s) (shaft/scrotum and glans/urine vs shaft/scrotum or glans/urine only) were positively associated with type-specific seroconversion.
Conclusions. For each of the α9 HPV types, type-specific seroconversion within 24 months was observed in 36% or less of infected men. Seroconversion might be related to cigarette smoking and genital site(s) infected.
PMCID: PMC3114468  PMID: 21673030
15.  Diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection by dry vaginal swabs in military women 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2001;77(4):260-264.
Objective: Human papillomavirus (HPV) assays are likely to be used with increasing frequency in clinical management of women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and in cervical cancer screening. Our objective was to simplify the method of collection of female genital tract specimens. The utility of vaginal dry swabs for HPV diagnosis was evaluated.
Methods: Specimens for cytology and for HPV identification were collected by a clinician from 189 female soldiers attending a military clinic. Three methods of specimen collection for HPV identification were compared: a vaginal dry swab (v-DRY), and vaginal and cervical swabs placed into specimen transport medium (v-STM and c-STM). Swabs were shipped to a STD laboratory for processing. Specific HPV types were identified by a consensus primer based PCR based method. Results from 165 women were evaluable.
Results: HPV prevalence by the three methods was similar and ranged from 44.8% to 50.9%. 53 (32.1%) women were HPV positive and 60 (36.4%) women were HPV negative by all three collection methods. With respect to the risk categories of specific HPV types, there was greater agreement between the results from the two vaginal (v-DRY and v-STM) samples (kappa values of 0.69–0.81) than between the cervical (c-STM) and either of the vaginal samples (kappa values of 0.37–0.55). The HPV yield from c-STM was somewhat greater than that from the vaginal specimens but the correlation between cytological abnormalities and HPV was high for all three methods.
Conclusion: A dry vaginal swab may be an acceptable method of specimen collection for HPV diagnosis.
Key Words: human papillomaviruses; diagnostic assays; dry swabs
PMCID: PMC1744351  PMID: 11463925
16.  Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Detecting and Typing Genital Human Papillomavirus 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(12):5563-5571.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are important in the development of human cancers, including cervical and oral tumors. However, most existing methods for HPV typing cannot routinely distinguish among the more than 100 distinct types of HPV or the natural HPV intratypic variants that have also been documented. To address this problem, we developed a novel method, general primer-denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (GP-dHPLC), for the detection and typing of genital HPV using an automated 96-well plate format. GP-dHPLC uses general primer PCR (GP-PCR) to amplify the viral DNA and then analyzes the GP-PCR products by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC). A number of different primer pairs with homology to most known genital HPV types were tested, and the L1C1-L1C2M pair specific for the L1 region of the viral genome was chosen. A set of HPV standard control patterns, consisting of those for HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 6, and 11, was established for genital HPV typing. One hundred eighty-six frozen and formalin-fixed cervical cancer tissue samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV and the HPV type by this method, and 95.8% of them were found to contain HPV DNA. GP-dHPLC accurately discriminated among HPV variants that differed by as little as one nucleotide. Several new variants of HPV types 16, 18, 39, 45, 52, and 59 were identified. Moreover, multiple HPV infections were detected in 26.6% of the samples. Our results indicate that HPV typing by GP-dHPLC permits discrimination of common genital HPV types, detection of multiple HPV infections, and identification of HPV variants in clinical samples.
PMCID: PMC309016  PMID: 14662941
17.  Transmission of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) between Parents and Infant: a Prospective Study of HPV in Families in Finland 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(1):376-381.
The Finnish HPV Family Study is a prospective cohort study assessing the dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission between parents and infant. Serial genital and oral scrapings from 76 families, including mother, father, and infant, and semen samples were collected over 2 years of follow-up, analyzed by nested PCR, and confirmed by hybridization with 12 high-risk (HR) HPV types. The most common HPV profile was HR HPV in all family members (29%), followed by HPV-positive mother-infant pairs (26%). HPV-positive father-infant pairs were less frequent (11%), and in six (8%) families, only the infant was HR HPV positive. The prevalence of genital HR HPV in the parents ranged from 13 to 25%, and that of oral HPV ranged from 8 to 34%. In the infants, HPV DNA was detected in 15% of the genital and 10% of the oral samples at birth, reaching peaks of 18 and 21%, respectively, at 6 months, and declining to 10% at 24 months. Persistent HPV in the mother was a risk factor for oral HPV in the infant (odds ratio [OR], 5.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.5 to 21.3), while oral HPV in the mother at 6 months was a risk factor for genital HR HPV (OR, 6.38; 95% CI, 1.15 to 35.32). No such independent risk could be attributed to subclinical HPV in the father. Persistent maternal cervical HPV and subclinical oral HPV affect the risk of infant HPV. The age of 6 months is a critical point for the infant to acquire or be free of HR HPV DNA.
PMCID: PMC540188  PMID: 15634997
18.  Oral HPV Infection and Sexuality: A Cross-Sectional Study in Women 
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for cervical cancers and is associated with close to 36% of oropharyngeal cancers. There is increasing evidence that oral HPV transmission is related to sexual behavior but to our knowledge studies that involve women who have sex with women have not been performed. We examined the prevalence of oral HPV according to sexual behavior among a population-based sample of 118 women and have made some inferences of possible predictors of oral HPV infection. Women were categorized as heterosexual (history of vaginal sex and/or oral sex with males only, n = 75), bisexual (history of vaginal sex and oral sex with females, n = 32) and other (no history of vaginal sex but oral sex with females [homosexuals], virgins and women with incomplete sexual exposure data, n = 11) The prevalence of oral HPV infection was 12/118 (10.2%) for the overall study population and was not significantly different between heterosexual and bisexual women (10.7% (8/75) vs. 12.5% (4/32), p = 0.784). There was no oral HPV detected among homosexual women, virgins or among women where sexual exposure was unknown. Never smokers were more likely to be oral HPV+ compared to former smokers (Adjusted Odds Ratio (Adj OR) = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.0–1.1) and there was no difference in risk between never smokers and current smokers (Adj OR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.1–4.6). Twenty-five percent (3/12) of oral HPV+ women had a history of HPV and/or genital warts compared to 9% (10/106) of oral HPV-women (p = 0.104). For the women with a history of vaginal sex (n = 110), oral HPV status was statistically significantly different according to oral sex exposure (p = 0.039). A higher proportion of oral HPV-positive women reported that they had no history of oral sex exposure compared to oral HPV-negative women (4/12, 33% vs. 7/98, 8%). The prevalence of cervical HPV infection did not vary between heterosexuals and bisexuals (35.7% (25/70) vs. 35.5% (11/31), p-value 0.411) and for all other women the cervical HPV prevalence was significantly lower (11.1%, 1/9). Our study suggests that smoking and sexual behavior involving males rather than female partners may be possible predictors of oral HPV infection in women. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these findings.
PMCID: PMC3131599  PMID: 21747715
sexual behavior; HPV; oral; cervical
19.  Dried cervical spots for Human Papillomaviruses identification 
Journal of medical virology  2013;85(7):1222-1228.
Financial and operational constraints limit low-resource countries in the screening of high-risk genital Human Papillomaviruses (HR-HPV), the etiological agents of cervical cancer. With its simple storage, conservation and shipping, dried cervical sample (DCS) could represent an efficient tool.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of HPV genotyping from DCS. Cervical samples were obtained from 50 women infected with HIV-1 in Côte d’Ivoire. After DNA extraction from both DCS and matched liquid cervical samples (LCS), HPV genotyping was performed and the concordance of genotyping results was evaluated.
HPV prevalence was 88 % in LCS and 78 % in DCS. κappa statistic was 0.51 for the presence of any genotype (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.77) and 0.73 for HR-HPV (0.45-0.99). Out of 50 samples, 45 were HPV-positive for DCS and/or LCS, and HR-HPV were detected in 37 samples (74%) with 36 HR-HPV multiple infections. Any genotype and HR genotype identification was concordant/compatible in 86% (43/50) and 88% (44/50) of samples, respectively. In most instances, κappa statistics for detection of type-specific HPV was over 0.6 (including HPV-16,-18,-31-33). An excellent agreement (κappa statistic ≥ 0.81) was evidenced for eight genotypes (HPV-6, -31, -35, -40, -56, -58, -66, -82).
In spite of interfering factors (multiple infections, different HPV loads, amplification competition, different inputs), DCS and LCS led to concordant/compatible results in most cases. DCS could represent an efficient tool for epidemiological field studies in resource-limited settings, and more importantly for improving the screening coverage and care management in women infected with HPV.
PMCID: PMC4456434  PMID: 23595602
Human Papillomavirus; cervical cancer screening; cervical sample; dried spot; HPV genotyping
20.  Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2010;10:223.
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in heterosexual couples has been sparsely studied, it is relevant to understand disease burden and transmission mechanisms. The present study determined the prevalence and concordance of type-specific HPV infection as well as the determinants of infection in heterosexual couples in a rural area of Mexico.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 504 clinically healthy heterosexual couples from four municipalities in the State of Mexico, Mexico. HPV testing was performed using biotinylated L1 consensus primers and reverse line blot in cervical samples from women and in genital samples from men. Thirty-seven HPV types were detected, including high-risk oncogenic types and low-risk types. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate factors associated with HPV.
The prevalence of HPV infection was 20.5% in external male genitals and 13.7% in cervical samples. In 504 sexual couples participating in the study, concordance of HPV status was 79%; 34 partners (6.7%) were concurrently infected, and 21 out of 34 partners where both were HPV positive (61.8%) showed concordance for one or more HPV types. The principal risk factor associated with HPV DNA detection in men as well as women was the presence of HPV DNA in the respective regular sexual partner (OR = 5.15, 95%CI 3.01-8.82). In men, having a history of 10 or more sexual partners over their lifetime (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.3 - 4.8) and having had sexual relations with prostitutes (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.01 - 2.8) increased the likelihood of detecting HPV DNA.
In heterosexual couples in rural regions in Mexico, the prevalence of HPV infection and type-specific concordance is high. High-risk sexual behaviors are strong determinants of HPV infection in men.
PMCID: PMC2941497  PMID: 20667085
21.  Human Papillomavirus Detection from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Colombian Women's Paired Urine and Cervical Samples 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56509.
Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.
PMCID: PMC3572052  PMID: 23418581
22.  Survey of human papillomavirus types and their vertical transmission in pregnant women 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:109.
The prevalence, genotypes, and vertical transmission characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV) among pregnant women from Nanjing, China was investigated.
Cervical cells were collected from healthy pregnant women (n = 3139; stage of gestation, 24.6 ± 2.1 weeks) for cytological evaluation and determination of HPV infection status. Exfoliated oral and genital cells were collected from neonates (<1-day-old, n = 233) whose mothers were positive for HPV DNA. We used HPV Gene Chip technology with 23 HPV genotype probes to conduct our analysis.
Overall prevalence of HPV DNA among pregnant women was 13.4% (422/3139). The most frequently detected HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (29.6%, 125/422), -18 (14.7%, 62/422), and -58 (14.2%, 60/422). The rate of concordance for HPV DNA in maternal-neonatal pairs was 23.6% (55/233), with HPV type-specific concordance occurring in 26 cases. A higher prevalence of HPV DNA was apparent in female neonates compared with males (17.7 vs. 11.6%).
The prevalence of cervical HPV DNA in pregnant women from Nanjing was low, with vertical transmission rates slightly higher. From our findings, we concluded that there was efficient vertical transmission of three HPV genotypes, with HPV-16 the most prevalent type in pregnant women and newborn babies.
PMCID: PMC3598550  PMID: 23446269
Human papillomavirus; Pregnancy; Vertical transmission
23.  Comparison of Two PCR-Based Human Papillomavirus Genotyping Methods▿ †  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(10):3437-3445.
We compared two consensus primer PCR human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping methods for the detection of individual HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV genotypes as a group, using a stratified sample of enrollment cervical specimens from sexually active women participating in the NCI/Costa Rica HPV16/18 Vaccine Efficacy Trial. For the SPF10 method, DNA was extracted from 0.1% of the cervical specimen by using a MagNA Pure LC instrument, a 65-bp region of the HPV L1 gene was targeted for PCR amplification by using SPF10 primers, and 25 genotypes were detected by reverse-line blot hybridization of the amplicons. For the Linear Array (LA) method, DNA was extracted from 0.5% of the cervical specimen by using an MDx robot, a 450-bp region of the HPV L1 gene was targeted for PCR amplification by using PGMY09/11 L1 primers, and 37 genotypes were detected by reverse-line blot hybridization of the amplicons. Specimens (n = 1,427) for testing by the LA method were randomly selected from strata defined on the basis of enrollment test results from the SPF10 method, cytology, and Hybrid Capture 2. LA results were extrapolated to the trial cohort (n = 5,659). The LA and SPF10 methods detected 21 genotypes in common; HPV16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68, and -73 were considered the carcinogenic HPV genotypes. There was no difference in the overall results for grouped detection of carcinogenic HPV by the SPF10 and LA methods (35.3% versus 35.9%, respectively; P = 0.5), with a 91.8% overall agreement and a kappa value of 0.82. In comparisons of individual HPV genotypes, the LA method detected significantly more HPV16, HPV18, HPV39, HPV58, HPV59, HPV66, and HPV68/73 and less HPV31 and HPV52 than the SPF10 method; inclusion of genotype-specific testing for HPV16 and HPV18 for those specimens testing positive for HPV by the SPF10 method but for which no individual HPV genotype was detected abrogated any differences between the LA and SPF10 methods. The LA method detected more carcinogenic-HPV-genotype infections per specimen than the SPF10 method (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the LA method and the SPF10 method with HPV16 and HPV18 genotype-specific detection among ungenotyped HPV-positive specimens were comparable for detection of HPV16 and HPV18, the two HPV genotypes targeted by current prophylactic HPV vaccines. Both approaches are suitable for monitoring the impact of HPV16/18 vaccines in clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC2566086  PMID: 18716224
24.  Can human papillomavirus DNA testing of self-collected vaginal samples compare with physician-collected cervical samples and cytology for cervical cancer screening in developing countries? 
Cancer epidemiology  2009;33(6):10.1016/j.canep.2009.10.013.
To determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-reverse line blot assay and examine the concordance between HPV by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and PCR on self-collected vaginal and physician-collected cervical samples and cytology.
This was a cross-sectional study of 546 sexually active women aged ≥30 years with persistent vaginal discharge, intermenstrual or postcoital bleeding or an unhealthy cervix. Participants self-collected vaginal samples (HPV-S) and physicians collected cervical samples for conventional Pap smear and HPV DNA (HPV-P) testing and performed colposcopy, with directed biopsy, if indicated. HPV testing and genotyping was done by HC2 and PCR reverse line blot assay. Concordance between HC2 and PCR results of self- and physician-collected samples was determined using a Kappa statistic (κ) and Chi-square test.
Complete data were available for 512 sets with 98% of women providing a satisfactory self-sample. PCR detected oncogenic HPV in 12.3% of self- and 13.0% of physician-collected samples. Overall, there was 93.8% agreement between physician-collected and self-samples (κ = 76.31%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.97–82.29%, p = 0.04)—complete concordance in 473 cases (57 positive, 416 negative), partial concordance in seven pairs and discordance in 32 pairs. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of self-sampling for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2+ disease were 82.5%, 93.6%, 52.4% and 98.4%, respectively; for physician-sampling they were 87.5%, 93.2%, 52.2% and 98.9%, respectively; and for cytology they were 77.5%, 87.3%, 34.1% and 97.9%, respectively. Concordance between HC2 and PCR was 90.9% for self-samples (κ = 63.7%, 95% CI: 55.2–72.2%) and 95.3% for physician-collected samples (κ = 80.4%, 95% CI: 71.8–89.0%).
Self-HPV sampling compares favourably with physician-sampling and cytology. A rapid, affordable, HPV self-test kit can be used as the primary method of cervical cancer screening in low-resource situations.
PMCID: PMC3816517  PMID: 19931499
HPV types; Self-sampling; Screening; Hybrid Capture 2; PCR; CIN; Genotyping
25.  Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and types among Turkish women at a gynecology outpatient unit 
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-known pathogen for lower genital tract neoplasias, yet little is known regarding HPV prevalence in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA and to determine HPV types distribution among women with normal and abnormal cytology.
A total of five hundred seven (n = 507) women were retrospectively evaluated between 2004-2008. Conventional polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of HPV types in cervicovaginal samples obtained from patients during gynecologic examination.
One hundred four (n = 104) of the women were excluded from the study because of the incomplete data and a total of 403 women were used for the final analysis. There were, 93 (23%) women with cytologic abnormality and 310 (77%) women with normal cytology. Overall, 23% of the women was HPV positive. The overall prevalence of HPV in women with abnormal Pap smears was 36% (93/403), of which in ASCUS 22%, LSIL 51% and HSIL 60%. Also, HPV DNA was positive in 20% of the women with normal cervical cytology. The most common HPV types in cytologically normal women were as follows; HPV 16 (36%), HPV 6 (22%) and HPV 18 (13%). The rate of other HPV types were as follows; HPV11 4.4%, HPV45 4.4%, HPV90 4.4%, HPV35 2.2%, HPV67 2.2%, HPV81 2.2%, and multiple type HPVs 8.9%. The most common HPV types in cytologically abnormal women were HPV 16 (35%), HPV6 (19%) and HPV18 (8%). The rate of multiple HPV infections in women with normal Pap test was 2.2%.
HPV prevalence and type distribution in this study were similar to that reported worldwide at least in our study population. Hovewer, HPV prevalence was more common compared with previous studies reported from Turkey. This might be related with methodology and hospital based patient accrual and high rate of women with abnormal cytology. Further population based prospective studies are needed to eliminate the drawbacks of our study and to determine nonhospital based HPV prevalence in Turkish women.
PMCID: PMC2789077  PMID: 19948015

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