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1.  Detection of human papillomavirus DNA on the fingers of patients with genital warts 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  1999;75(5):317-319.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with genital warts carry human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA on their fingers. METHODS: 14 men and eight women with genital warts had cytobrush samples taken from genital lesions, finger tips, and tips of finger nails. Samples were examined for the presence of HPV DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in all female genital samples and in 13/14 male genital samples. HPV DNA was detected in the finger brush samples of three women and nine men. The same HPV type was identified in genital and hand samples in one woman and five men. CONCLUSION: This study has identified hand carriage of genital HPV types in patients with genital warts. Although sexual intercourse is considered the usual mode of transmitting genital HPV infection, our findings raise the possibility of transmission by finger-genital contact. 

PMCID: PMC1758241  PMID: 10616355
2.  International Proficiency Study of a Consensus L1 PCR Assay for the Detection and Typing of Human Papillomavirus DNA: Evaluation of Accuracy and Intralaboratory and Interlaboratory Agreement 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(3):1080-1086.
The PGMY L1 consensus primer pair combined with the line blot assay allows the detection of 27 genital human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. We conducted an intralaboratory and interlaboratory agreement study to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of PCR for HPV DNA detection and typing using the PGMY primers and typing amplicons with the line blot (PGMY-LB) assay. A test panel of 109 samples consisting of 29 HPV-negative (10 buffer controls and 19 genital samples) and 80 HPV-positive samples (60 genital samples and 20 controls with small or large amounts of HPV DNA plasmids) were tested blindly in triplicate by three laboratories. Intralaboratory agreement ranged from 86 to 98% for HPV DNA detection. PGMY-LB assay results for samples with a low copy number of HPV DNA were less reproducible. The rate of intralaboratory agreement excluding negative results for HPV typing ranged from 78 to 96%. Interlaboratory reliability for HPV DNA positivity and HPV typing was very good, with levels of agreement of >95% and kappa values of >0.87. Again, low-copy-number samples were more prone to generating discrepant results. The accuracy varied from 91 to 100% for HPV DNA positivity and from 90 to 100% for HPV typing. HPV testing can thus be accomplished reliably with PCR by using a standardized written protocol and quality-controlled reagents. The use of validated HPV DNA detection and typing assays demonstrating excellent interlaboratory agreement will allow investigators to better compare results between epidemiological studies.
PMCID: PMC150263  PMID: 12624033
3.  Evidence for Vertical Transmission of HPV from Mothers to Infants 
Few large studies have evaluated concordance based on a broad spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in oral and genital specimens of mothers and their recently born infants. This information is important in determining whether HPV vaccines administered prior to pregnancy may be useful for preventing vertical transmission. HPV DNA was positive in 30% of mothers and 1.5% of newborns. Maternal/newborn concordance (HPV+/+ or HPV−/−) was 71%. Among HPV DNA+ mothers, only 3% of their infants were DNA+ and only 1 pair had the same HPV type. Among HPV− women, 0.8% of infants were HPV+. HPV DNA detected in hospitalized newborns reflects current infection transmitted to infants during pregnancy or delivery. None of the mother/baby HPV DNA+ concordance pairs detected viral types found in HPV vaccines suggesting that vaccination prior to pregnancy is unlikely to be efficacious in preventing vertical transmission.
PMCID: PMC2838362  PMID: 20300545
4.  Transmission of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) between Parents and Infant: a Prospective Study of HPV in Families in Finland 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(1):376-381.
The Finnish HPV Family Study is a prospective cohort study assessing the dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission between parents and infant. Serial genital and oral scrapings from 76 families, including mother, father, and infant, and semen samples were collected over 2 years of follow-up, analyzed by nested PCR, and confirmed by hybridization with 12 high-risk (HR) HPV types. The most common HPV profile was HR HPV in all family members (29%), followed by HPV-positive mother-infant pairs (26%). HPV-positive father-infant pairs were less frequent (11%), and in six (8%) families, only the infant was HR HPV positive. The prevalence of genital HR HPV in the parents ranged from 13 to 25%, and that of oral HPV ranged from 8 to 34%. In the infants, HPV DNA was detected in 15% of the genital and 10% of the oral samples at birth, reaching peaks of 18 and 21%, respectively, at 6 months, and declining to 10% at 24 months. Persistent HPV in the mother was a risk factor for oral HPV in the infant (odds ratio [OR], 5.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.5 to 21.3), while oral HPV in the mother at 6 months was a risk factor for genital HR HPV (OR, 6.38; 95% CI, 1.15 to 35.32). No such independent risk could be attributed to subclinical HPV in the father. Persistent maternal cervical HPV and subclinical oral HPV affect the risk of infant HPV. The age of 6 months is a critical point for the infant to acquire or be free of HR HPV DNA.
PMCID: PMC540188  PMID: 15634997
Journal of medical virology  2009;81(4):713-721.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) RNA levels may be a more sensitive early indicator of predisposition to carcinogenesis than DNA levels. We evaluated whether levels of HPV-16 and HPV-18 DNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) in newly detected infections are associated with cervical lesion development. Female university students were recruited from 1990-2004. Cervical samples for HPV DNA, HPV mRNA, and Papanicolaou testing were collected tri-annually, and women were referred for colposcopically-directed biopsy when indicated. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of L1 and E7 DNA and E7 mRNA was performed on samples from women with HPV-16 and HPV-18 infections that were incidently detected by consensus PCR. Adjusting for other HPV types, increasing E7 cervical HPV-16 mRNA levels at the time of incident HPV-16 DNA detection were associated with an increased risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 to 3 (HR per 1 log10 increase in mRNA=6.36,95%CI=2.00-20.23). Increasing HPV-16 mRNA levels were also associated with an increased risk of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions; the risk was highest at the incident positive visit and decreased over time. Neither HPV-16 E7 DNA levels nor HPV-18 E7 DNA nor mRNA levels were significantly associated with cervical lesion development. Report of >1 new partner in the past 8 months (relative to no new partners) was associated with increased HPV mRNA (viral level ratio [VLR]=10.05,95%CI=1.09-92.56) and increased HPV DNA (VLR=16.80,95%CI=1.46-193.01). In newly detected HPV-16 infections, increasing levels of E7 mRNA appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing cervical pre-cancer.
PMCID: PMC3984467  PMID: 19235870
HPV; viral load; mRNA; cervical pre-cancer
6.  Comparison of Real-Time Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) PCR Assays with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping PCR Assay and Influence of DNA Extraction Method on HPV Detection▿‡ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(5):1899-1906.
Real-time human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific multiplex PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in specimens collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). We evaluated the concordance between type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and the widely used, commercially available Roche Linear Array genotyping PCR assay. Female genital swab specimens were tested for the presence of L1, E6, and E7 sequences of HPV type 6 (HPV6), HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV45, HPV52, and HPV58 and E6 and E7 sequences of HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV51, HPV56, and HPV59 in type- and gene-specific real-time multiplex PCR assays. Specimens were also tested for the presence of L1 sequences using two versions of the Roche Linear Array genotyping assay. Measures of concordance of a modified version of the Linear Array and the standard Linear Array PCR assay were evaluated. With specimen DNA extraction using the Qiagen Spin blood kit held as the constant, multiplex PCR assays detect more HPV-positive specimens for the 14 HPV types common to both than either version of the Linear Array HPV genotyping assay. Type-specific agreements between the assays were good, at least 0.838, but were often driven by negative agreement in HPV types with low prevalence, as evidenced by reduced proportions of positive agreement. Overall HPV status agreements ranged from 0.615 for multiplex PCR and standard Linear Array to 0.881 for multiplex PCR and modified Linear Array. An alternate DNA extraction technique, that used by the Qiagen MinElute kit, impacted subsequent HPV detection in both the multiplex PCR and Linear Array assays.
PMCID: PMC3122643  PMID: 21346041
7.  Serum Antibody Response Following Genital α9 Human Papillomavirus Infection in Young Men 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2011;204(2):209-216.
Background. Although the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genital infection is similarly high in males and females, seroprevalence is lower in males. This study assessed rates and determinants of seroconversion after detection of genital HPV infection in young men.
Methods. We investigated HPV type-specific seroconversion in a cohort of heterosexual male university students who had an α9 HPV type (HPV-16, -31, -33, -35, -52, -58, or -67) detected in the genital tract (n = 156). HPV DNA and antibodies were detected and typed using liquid bead-based multiplex assays. We calculated seroconversion using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards models with generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations with seroconversion.
Results. Within 24 months of detecting genital HPV infection, type-specific seroconversion ranged from 4% for HPV–52 to 36% for HPV-31. HPV-16 seroconversion at 24 months was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%–25%). Among incident HPV infections, ever cigarette smoking and infection site(s) (shaft/scrotum and glans/urine vs shaft/scrotum or glans/urine only) were positively associated with type-specific seroconversion.
Conclusions. For each of the α9 HPV types, type-specific seroconversion within 24 months was observed in 36% or less of infected men. Seroconversion might be related to cigarette smoking and genital site(s) infected.
PMCID: PMC3114468  PMID: 21673030
8.  Human Papillomavirus Type Distribution and Correlation with Cyto-Histological Patterns in Women from the South of Italy 
Human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific distribution was evaluated in genital samples collected from 654 women from the South of Italy undergoing voluntary screening and correlated with cyto-histological abnormalities. HPV DNA was detected in 45.9% of the samples, 41.7% of which had multiple infection and 89.0% had high-risk HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV infection and the rate of multiple infections decreased with age, suggesting natural selection of HPV types with better fitness. In line with other Italian studies, the most common HPV types were HPV-6 and HPV-16, followed by HPV-51, HPV-31, HPV-53, and HPV-66, in women with both normal and abnormal cytology. Cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or 3 were associated with high-risk HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-51 infection. These data indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the burden of HPV-related cervical lesions in this population, but also suggest the potential utility of new vaccines with larger type coverage.
PMCID: PMC2817385  PMID: 20145716
9.  Detection of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 DNA in Consecutive Genital Samples Does Not Always Represent Persistent Infection as Determined by Molecular Variant Analysis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(9):3388-3393.
Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the uterine cervix is a risk factor for progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Detection in consecutive genital samples of HPV-16 DNA, a frequently encountered HPV type, may represent persistent infection or reinfection. We undertook a study using PCR–single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing of PCR products (PCR-sequencing) to determine if consecutive HPV-16-positive samples contained the same HPV-16 variant. Fifty women (36 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] seropositive, 14 HIV seronegative) had at least two consecutive genital specimens obtained at 6-month intervals that contained HPV-16 DNA as determined by a consensus L1 PCR assay. A total of 144 samples were amplified with two primer pairs for SSCP analysis of the entire long control region. Fifteen different SSCP patterns were identified in our population, while 22 variants were identified by PCR-sequencing. The most frequent SSCP pattern was found in 75 (53%) samples from 27 (54%) women. The SSCP patterns obtained from consecutive specimens were identical for 46 (92%) of 50 women, suggesting persistent infection. Four women exhibited in consecutive specimens different HPV-16 SSCP patterns that were all confirmed by PCR-sequencing. The additional information on the nature of persistent infection provided by molecular variant analysis was useful for 6% of women, since three of the four women who did not have identical consecutive specimens would have been misclassified as having persistent HPV-16 infection on the basis of HPV typing.
PMCID: PMC87391  PMID: 10970388
10.  Evaluation of Transported Dry and Wet Cervical Exfoliated Samples for Detection of Human Papillomavirus Infection▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(9):3068-3072.
We determined the feasibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in cervical exfoliated cells collected as dry swab samples. Both dry cervical swab and specimen transport medium (STM) cervical swab samples were collected from 135 patients attending either colposcopy or women's clinics in Guayaquil, Ecuador, who had a cytology diagnosis within 6 months. HPV was detected by dot blot hybridization and genotyped by the liquid bead microarray assay (LBMA). Overall, 23.1% of dry samples were positive for any high-risk HPV types, and 24.6% of STM samples were positive for any high-risk HPV types. Of 125 paired samples, the type-specific high-risk HPV proportion positive agreement was 60.7% (kappa, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.82). Of six women with cytological evidence of invasive cervical cancer, high-risk HPV DNA was detected in three of their STM samples and in five of their dry samples. Dry samples were more likely to be insufficient for HPV testing than STM samples. Consistent with this observation, the amount of genomic DNA quantitated with the β-actin gene was almost 20 times lower in dry samples than in STM samples when detected by the real-time TaqMan assay; however, HPV DNA viral loads in dry samples were only 1.6 times lower than those in matched STM samples. We concluded that exfoliated cervical cells could be collected as dry swab samples for HPV detection.
PMCID: PMC2937663  PMID: 20610686
11.  Ano-genital human papillomavirus type 97 infection is detected in Canadian men but not women at risk or infected with the human immunodeficiency virus 
Virology Journal  2012;9:243.
Human papillomavirus type 97 (HPV97) DNA was detected in nearly 5% of anal samples collected from HIV-seropositive men living in Montreal, Canada. The rate of detection of HPV97 in the genital tract of Canadian women is unknown. Whether HPV97 is a local epidemic in HIV-seropositive men living in Montreal is also unknown. The prevalence of human papillomavirus type 97 (HPV97) was assessed in cervicovaginal cells from women living in Canada and in anal samples from HIV-seropositive men living in Toronto.
Cervicovaginal lavages collected from 904 women (678 HIV-seropositive, 226 HIV-seronegative) women living in Canada and anal cells collected from 123 HIV-seropositive men living in Toronto were tested for the presence of HPV97 with PCR. HPV97-positive samples were further tested by PCR-sequencing for molecular variant analysis to assess if all HPV97-positive men were infected with the same strain. All cervicovaginal samples were negative for HPV97. HPV97 was detected in anal samples from 6 HIV-seropositive men (4.9%, 95% confidence interval 2.0-10.5%), of whom five had high-grade and one had low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, in addition to 2 to 8 HPV genital genotypes per sample. Four HPV97 variants were defined by four variation sites in the viral control region.
These findings indicate that HPV97 infects in the anal canal of HIV-seropositive men but is not detected in the genital tract of women.
PMCID: PMC3499219  PMID: 23092191
HPV; STD; HIV; AIN; Dysplasia
12.  Human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution and serological response to HPV type 6 virus-like particles in patients with genital warts. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(8):2058-2063.
Thirty-nine patients with condylomas (12 women and 27 men) attending a dermatology clinic were tested for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and for seroprevalence to HPV type 6 (HPV6) L1 virus-like particles. The L1 consensus PCR system (with primers MY09 and MY11) was used to determine the presence and types of HPV in sample specimens. All 37 (100%) patients with sufficient DNA specimens were positive for HPV DNA, and 35 (94%) had HPV6 DNA detected at the wart site. Three patients (8%) had HPV11 detected at the wart site, and one patient had both HPV6 and -11 detected at the wart site. Thirteen additional HPV types were detected among the patients; the most frequent were HPV54 (8%) and HPV58 (8%). Baculovirus-expressed HPV6 L1 virus-like particles were used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to determine seroprevalence among the patients with warts. Seronegativity was defined by a control group of 21 women who were consistently PCR negative for HPV DNA. Seroprevalence was also determined for reference groups that included cytologically normal women who had detectable DNA from either HPV6 or HPV16 and women with HPV16-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Among the asymptomatic women with HPV6, only 2 of 9 (22%) were seropositive, compared with 12 of 12 (100%) female patients with warts. A similar trend in increased HPV6 seropositivity with increased grade of disease was found with the HPV16 DNA-positive women, whose seroprevalence increased from 1 in 11 (9%) in cytologically normal women to 6 in 15 (40%) among women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 or 3. However, only 4 of 25 (16%) male patients were seropositive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC228335  PMID: 7559948
13.  Value of high-risk human papillomavirus 16 deoxyribonucleic acid testing with cytological entities in peri and postmenopausal women 
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by HPV. Some types of HPV, called high-risk (HR) types may cause cell changes that sometimes lead to cervical cancer. HPV screening has been proposed for symptomatic female population; however, Pap test is the main stay in low resource setting.
To detect HR HPV 16 positivity in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and its association with cytological entities diagnosed on Pap smear.
Materials and Methods:
Pap smears and cervical scrapes were collected from 230 women consisting of 120 perimenopausal women approaching menopause and 110 postmenopausal women with a cervix after cessation of menstruation and processed as per routine procedure for detection of HR-HPV 16 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Cytologically abnormal HPV 16 negative cases were also tested for other HR-HPV types.
Among the perimenopausal women 12 (10%) cases were positive for HR-HPV 16 consisting of 6 (5%) abnormal cases and 108 (90%) were HPV 16 negative consisting of 5 (4.1%) abnormal cases. However, among 110 postmenopausal women 14 (12.7%) were positive for HPV 16 DNA consisting of 6 (5.4%) abnormal cases and 96 (87.2%) were HPV 16 negative consisting of 4 (3.6%) abnormal cases. HPV 16 negative abnormal cases (9) were positive for low risk-HPV 6/11 consisting of atypical squamous cells (3) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions-HPV (6).
There is not much variation in HPV 16 positive cases in peri and postmenopausal women. By combining HPV DNA testing with Pap smear more cases having potential for pre-cancer lesions may be detected; however, HPV test cannot replace the Pap smear in low resource setting.
PMCID: PMC3793357  PMID: 24130412
Human papillomavirus 16 deoxyribonucleic acid; menopause; Pap smear; uterine cervix
14.  Comparison of the Novel Human Papillomavirus 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and with the PCR HPV Typing Set Test in the Detection of High-Risk HPV Including HPV 16 and 18 Genotypes in Cervical Specimens 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(4):579-584.
The aim of this study was to compare the novel human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis (ACE) test with the hybrid capture (HC) 2 assay for the detection of high-risk HPVs. In addition, we compared the HPV 4 ACE test with the polymerase chain reaction HPV Typing Set test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes. One hundred ninety-nine cervical swab samples obtained from women with previous abnormal Pap smears were subjected to testing with the three HPV tests. The HPV 4 ACE test and the HC 2 assay showed substantial agreement for detection of high-risk HPVs (85.4%, kappa=0.71). The HPV 4 ACE test also showed substantial agreement with the PCR HPV Typing Set test in the detection of HPV 16 and HP V 18 genotypes (89.9%, kappa=0.65). In correlation with cytologic results, the sensitivities and specificities of the HPV 4 ACE test and HC 2 assay were 92.9% vs. 92.9% and 48.1% vs. 50.8%, respectively, when high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were regarded as abnormal cytologies. The novel HPV 4 ACE test is a valuable tool for the detection of high-risk HPVs and for genotyping of HPV 16 and HPV 18.
PMCID: PMC2719217  PMID: 19654936
HPV Typing Methods; ACE; HC2; HPV Typing Set Test
15.  Circumcision and acquisition of HPV infection in young men 
Sexually transmitted diseases  2011;38(11):1074-1081.
The role of circumcision in male HPV acquisition is not clear.
Male university students (18–20 years of age) were recruited from 2003–2009 and followed tri-annually. Shaft/scrotum, glans, and urine samples were tested for 37 alpha HPV genotypes. Cox proportional hazards methods were used to evaluate the association between circumcision and HPV acquisition. Logistic regression was used to assess whether number of genital sites infected at incident HPV detection or site of incident detection varied by circumcision status.
In 477 men, rates of acquiring clinically-relevant HPV types (high-risk types plus types 6 and 11) did not differ significantly by circumcision status (hazard ratio [HR] for uncircumcised relative to circumcised subjects: 0.9[95%CI:0.7–1.2]). However, compared to circumcised men, uncircumcised men were 10.1 (95%CI:2.9–35.6) times more likely to have the same HPV type detected in all 3 genital specimens than in a single genital specimen and were 2.7 (95%CI:1.6–4.5) times more likely to have an HPV-positive urine or glans specimen at first detection.
While the likelihood of HPV acquisition did not differ by circumcision status, uncircumcised men were more likely than circumcised men to have infections detected at multiple genital sites, which may have implications for HPV transmission.
PMCID: PMC3210112  PMID: 21992987
HPV; human papilloma virus; circumcision; epidemiology; risk factors
16.  Concordance and Transmission of Human Papillomavirus Within Heterosexual Couples Observed Over Short Intervals 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2013;207(8):1286-1294.
Background. Because many human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient, rates of transmission may be miscalculated if the interval between testing spans several months. We examined rates of concordance and transmission in heterosexual couples over short intervals.
Methods. Twenty-five adult couples were enrolled and sampled for HPV DNA from the genitals, hand, and mouth 5 times over a 6-week period, including 24 hours after sexual intercourse and after 48 hours of abstinence. Concordance and transmission patterns were described.
Results. Concordance between the couple's genital sites ranged from 64% to 95% for at least 1 HPV type. The highest rates of concordance were observed 24 hours after sexual intercourse. A similar peak in concordance was not seen between genital and nongenital anatomic sites. Transmission rates for female genital to male genital ranged from 26.8 to 187.5 per 100 person-months and for male genital to female genital from 14.5 to 100 per 100 person-months.
Conclusions. High rates of concordance shortly after intercourse suggest that some DNA detections in the genital area are contaminants from a partner and not established HPV infections. Female-to-male transmission appeared more common than male-to-female transmission.
PMCID: PMC3603534  PMID: 23319742
heterosexual transmission; HPV
17.  The interrelation of HIV, cervical human papillomavirus, and neoplasia among antenatal clinic attenders in Tanzania 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2001;77(4):248-254.
* Died April 2000
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and interrelation of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), HIV, and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among urban antenatal clinic attenders in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Methods: Genital swabs were collected from 660 pregnant women and tested for a range of RTIs and for cervical cytology. Cervical HPV-DNA was detected by PCR and genotyped. HIV and syphilis serologies were performed.
Results: HPV prevalence was 34% (209/612 women). Of the 144 typeable samples, 83% were high risk (HR-HPV) oncogenic strains (56% HPV 16 related types). SIL was detected in 43 women (7%), with high grade SIL in 3%. There was a high prevalence of HIV (15%), and of any RTI (83%). Genital warts were detected in 20 women (3%). HPV infection was associated with some behavioural factors (short duration of relationship, single status, not using condoms) and gonorrhoea. There was no overall association between HPV and HIV (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.6–1.6), but a non-significant trend towards a stronger association with HR-HPV in women aged 15–19 (OR=2.79, 95% CI 0.8–9.5) and women aged ≥30 (OR=3.20, 95% CI 0.7–15). SIL was associated with HPV (OR=3.66, 95% CI 1.9–7.0), but not significantly with HIV (OR=1.54, 95% CI 0.7–3.4). Prevalence of SIL was higher among women dually positive for HPV/HIV compared to HPV infection only (21% v 12%), although this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.17).
Conclusions: HPV infection was highly prevalent in this young antenatal population. The association of HIV with HR-HPV types in older women may suggest that the principal HIV/HPV interaction in this population is for HIV to upregulate HPV persistence, leading to subsequent development of SIL.
Key Words: human papillomavirus; squamous intraepithelial lesion; HIV/AIDS; Africa
PMCID: PMC1744347  PMID: 11463923
18.  Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2010;10:223.
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in heterosexual couples has been sparsely studied, it is relevant to understand disease burden and transmission mechanisms. The present study determined the prevalence and concordance of type-specific HPV infection as well as the determinants of infection in heterosexual couples in a rural area of Mexico.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 504 clinically healthy heterosexual couples from four municipalities in the State of Mexico, Mexico. HPV testing was performed using biotinylated L1 consensus primers and reverse line blot in cervical samples from women and in genital samples from men. Thirty-seven HPV types were detected, including high-risk oncogenic types and low-risk types. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate factors associated with HPV.
The prevalence of HPV infection was 20.5% in external male genitals and 13.7% in cervical samples. In 504 sexual couples participating in the study, concordance of HPV status was 79%; 34 partners (6.7%) were concurrently infected, and 21 out of 34 partners where both were HPV positive (61.8%) showed concordance for one or more HPV types. The principal risk factor associated with HPV DNA detection in men as well as women was the presence of HPV DNA in the respective regular sexual partner (OR = 5.15, 95%CI 3.01-8.82). In men, having a history of 10 or more sexual partners over their lifetime (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.3 - 4.8) and having had sexual relations with prostitutes (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.01 - 2.8) increased the likelihood of detecting HPV DNA.
In heterosexual couples in rural regions in Mexico, the prevalence of HPV infection and type-specific concordance is high. High-risk sexual behaviors are strong determinants of HPV infection in men.
PMCID: PMC2941497  PMID: 20667085
19.  HPV type infection in different anogenital sites among HIV-positive Brazilian women 
To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types, and risk factors for HPV positivity across cervix, vagina and anus, we conducted a study among 138 women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Compare the prevalence of different HPV types and the risk factors for HPV positivity in three sites.
The most frequently detected HPV types in all sites were, in decreasing order, HPV16, 53, 18, 61 and 81. Agreement between the cervix and vagina was good (kappa 0.60 – 0.80) for HPV16 and 53 and excellent (Kappa > 0.80) for HPV18 and 61. HPV positivity was inversely associated with age for all combinations including the anal site.
In HIV positive women, HPV18 is the most spread HPV type found in combinations of anal and genital sites. The relationship of anal to genital infection has implications for the development of anal malignancies. Thus, the efficacy of the current HPV vaccine may be considered not only for the cervix, but also for prevention of HPV18 anal infection among immunossuppressed individuals.
PMCID: PMC2358880  PMID: 18341690
20.  A prospective study of antibody responses to defined epitopes of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 in relationship to genital and anorectal presence of HPV DNA. 
The aim of this study was to investigate whether antibody responses against synthetic peptides derived from genital human papillomavirus (HPV) proteins are associated with laboratory-proven genital and anorectal HPV infection. In this study, 158 heterosexual patients (110 women and 48 men) were followed prospectively. At each visit we collected serum samples as well as specimens from several sites in the anogenital area for detection of HPV type 6/11 (HPV-6/11), -16, -18, and -33 DNAs by PCR. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG responses against disrupted bovine papilloma virions and eight different synthetic peptides derived from HPV-6/11, -16, and -18 were determined for serum samples from the first and the last visits. The subjects attended the Municipal Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, two to seven times (mean, four times) at approximately 4-month intervals. Women were monitored over a period of 155 person-years, and men were monitored over 65 person-years. The magnitudes of the IgA responses against HPV-16 late protein epitopes L1:13, L1:31, and L2:49 were significantly higher in the sera from the last visit among the currently HPV DNA-positive participants than in HPV DNA-negative persons (P = 0.02). When the persons positive for any HPV type at any time during the follow-up period were compared with those who were negative at all times during the follow-up period, we also found a significant elevation of IgA responses against L1:31 and L2:49 (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC368378  PMID: 8556513
21.  Prevalence of various Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women who subjected to routine Pap smear test in Bushehr city (South west of Iran)2008-2009 
Virology Journal  2010;7:65.
Some genotypes of human papillomaviruses can infect the genital tract and they are important infectious agents which their oncogenicity is regardable. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) among women being subjected to routine pap smear test in Bushehr city of Iran.
Based on the collected data, 11(5.5%) samples were detected positive for HPV DNA and 189(94.5%) samples out of 200 samples were detected negative for HPV DNA. Meanwhile 4(2%) samples detected positive for HPV DNA by PCR were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test as well. On the other hand 5 samples which were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test didn't have HPV DNA after being tested by PCR method. Among the 11 positive samples 7 samples were identified as HPV-16, 3 samples were HPV-18 and one was HPV-53.
Regarding the prevalence of highly carcinogen genotypes of HPV in our study determination of genital HPV prevalence among the normal population of women of Bushehr city is recommended.
PMCID: PMC2848216  PMID: 20302680
22.  Human papillomavirus infection in women in Puerto Rico: Agreement between physician-versus self-collected anogenital specimens 
Journal of lower genital tract disease  2013;17(2):10.1097/LGT.0b013e318260e312.
To describe the prevalence and concordance between cervical and anal HPV infection and compare cervicovaginal and anal self-collection methods for HPV testing between physician and self-collected specimens in women in Puerto Rico.
Materials and Methods
Specimens for HPV-DNA testing were obtained from 100 women aged 18-34 years attending a general gynecology clinic for a routine Pap smear. HPV testing was performed using PCR MY09/MY11 primers. Positive samples were typed for 39 genotypes. Agreement between sampling methods was determined by % agreement and the kappa statistic.
38.4% (38/99) of cervicovaginal and 33.7% (30/89) of anal physician-collected samples were HPV+, for the 39 genotypes evaluated; whereas, 35.1% (34/97) of cervicovaginal and 32.0% (31/97) of anal self-collected samples were positive. HPV-16 was the most common type identified in the cervix (8.3%, 8/97) and the anus (5.6%, 5/89) of physician-collected samples, with similar prevalence in self-collected samples. Concordance between cervical and anal HPV infection was high (>90%) for all HPV types evaluated. There was strong % agreement between physician and self-collected cervicovaginal and anal samples (>95% for all HPV types) and good-excellent agreement (kappa>0.60) for most HPV types.
The clinic-based prevalence of anal and cervicovaginal HPV infection was high, with strong concordance between cervical and anal infection and good to excellent agreement between physician and self-collected samples. This study supports the feasibility of utilizing cervical and anal self-sampling methods in future population-based studies of HPV infection in PR, and as an HPV screening method in women.
PMCID: PMC3885164  PMID: 23422638
Human papillomavirus; anal cancer; cervical cancer; screening; self-sampling
23.  Comparison of Real-Time Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) PCR Assays with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra Assay▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(5):1907-1912.
Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59. Here, we evaluated clinical specimen concordance and compared the limits of detection (LODs) between multiplex HPV PCR assays and the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay, which detects 28 types, for the 14 HPV types common to both of these methods. Overall HPV detection agreement rates were >90% for swabs and >95% for thin sections. Statistically significant differences in detection were observed for HPV6, HPV16, HPV18, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59 in swabs and for HPV45, HPV58, and HPV59 in thin sections. Where P was <0.05, discordance was due to detection of more HPV-positive samples by the multiplex HPV PCR assays. LODs were similar for eight HPV types, significantly lower in multiplex assays for five HPV types, and lower in INNO-LiPA for HPV6 only. LODs were under 50 copies for all HPV types, with the exception of HPV39, HPV58, and HPV59 in the INNO-LiPA assay. The overall percent agreement for detection of 14 HPV types between the type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and INNO-LiPA genotyping assays was good. The differences in positive sample detection favored multiplex HPV PCR, suggesting increased sensitivity of HPV DNA detection by type-specific multiplex HPV PCR assays.
PMCID: PMC3122697  PMID: 21068278
24.  Randomization Modeling to Ascertain Clustering Patterns of Human Papillomavirus Types Detected in Cervicovaginal Samples in the United States 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82761.
Detection of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types in the genital tract is common. Associations among HPV types may impact HPV vaccination modeling and type replacement. The objectives were to determine the distribution of concurrent HPV type infections in cervicovaginal samples and examine type-specific associations. We analyzed HPV genotyping results from 32,245 cervicovaginal specimens collected from women aged 11 to 83 years in the United States from 2001 through 2011. Statistical power was enhanced by combining 6 separate studies. Expected concurrent infection frequencies from a series of permutation models, each with increasing fidelity to the real data, were compared with the observed data. Statistics were computed based on the distributional properties of the randomized data. Concurrent detection occurred more than expected with 0 or ≥3 HPV types and less than expected with 1 and 2 types. Some women bear a disproportionate burden of the HPV type prevalence. Type associations were observed that exceeded multiple hypothesis corrected significance. Multiple HPV types were detected more frequently than expected by chance and associations among particular HPV types were detected. However vaccine-targeted types were not specifically affected, supporting the expectation that current bivalent/quadrivalent HPV vaccination will not result in type replacement with other high-risk types.
PMCID: PMC3867389  PMID: 24367553
25.  Human Papillomavirus Detection from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Colombian Women's Paired Urine and Cervical Samples 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56509.
Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.
PMCID: PMC3572052  PMID: 23418581

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