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1.  Secondary Chemoprevention of Barrett’s Esophagus With Celecoxib: Results of a Randomized Trial 
Background
Barrett’s esophagus is a premalignant condition that is a risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a disease whose incidence is rapidly increasing. Because aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, such as celecoxib, may decrease the risk of developing esophageal cancer, we investigated the effect of long-term administration of celecoxib in patients with Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia.
Methods
Chemoprevention for Barrett’s Esophagus Trial (CBET) is a phase IIb multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial of celecoxib in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and low- or high-grade dysplasia. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with 200 mg of celecoxib or placebo, both administered orally twice daily, and then stratified by grade of dysplasia. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 48 weeks of treatment in the proportion of biopsy samples with dysplasia between the celecoxib and placebo arms. Secondary and tertiary outcomes included evaluation of changes in histology and expression levels of relevant biomarkers. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results
From April 1, 2000, through June 30, 2003, 222 patients were registered into CBET, and 100 of them with low- or high-grade Barrett’s dysplasia were randomly assigned to treatment (49 to celecoxib and 51 to placebo). After 48 weeks of treatment, no difference was observed in the median change in the proportion of biopsy samples with dysplasia or cancer between treatment groups in either the low-grade (median change with celecoxib = − 0.09, interquartile range [IQR] = − 0.32 to 0.14 and with placebo = − 0.07, IQR = − 0.26 to 0.12; P = .64) or high-grade (median change with celecoxib = 0.12, IQR = − 0.31 to 0.55, and with placebo = 0.02, IQR = − 0.24 to 0.28; P = .88) stratum. No statistically significant differences in total surface area of the Barrett’s esophagus; in prostaglandin levels; in cyclooxygenase-1/2 mRNA levels; or in methylation of tumor suppressor genes p16, adenomatous polyposis coli, and E-cadherin were found with celecoxib compared with placebo.
Conclusions
Administration of 200 mg of celecoxib twice daily for 48 weeks of treatment does not appear to prevent progression of Barrett’s dysplasia to cancer.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djk112
PMCID: PMC3755596  PMID: 17405999
2.  Selenomethionine and α-Tocopherol do not Inhibit Prostate Carcinogenesis in the Testosterone plus Estradiol-Treated NBL Rat Model 
Previous studies with selenium and/or vitamin E in prostate carcinogenesis animal models have been negative, but these models may not involve oxidative stress mechanisms. In this study, we examined the potential of selenomethionine and α-tocopherol to modulate prostate cancer development in the testosterone plus estradiol-treated NBL rat, a model that does involve sex-hormone induced oxidative stress mechanisms and prostatic inflammation. One week following implantation with hormone-filled Silastic implants, rats were fed diets containing L-selenomethionine (1. 5 or 3. 0 mg/kg), DL-α-tocopherol acetate (2,000 mg/kg or 4,000 mg/kg), or a natural ingredient control diet (NIH-07). Development of prostate carcinomas was not affected by dietary treatment with either agent. Food intake, body weight, and mortality were also not affected. The high dose of selenomethionine reduced the severity of epithelial dysplasia in the lateral prostate that was not associated with inflammation and α-tocopherol reduced in a dose-related fashion the incidence of marked inflammation and marked epithelial dysplasia in the lateral prostate, regardless of whether these lesions were associated with inflammation. α-Tocopherol significantly increased the incidence of adenocarcinomas of the mammary glands at both dietary concentrations. Collectively, our findings suggest that selenomethionine and α-tocopherol supplementation does not prevent prostate cancer in rats fed diets with nutritionally adequate levels of selenium and vitamin E. Importantly, the results of the current animal studies and those reported previously were fully predictive of the outcome of the SELECT trial.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0152
PMCID: PMC2833232  PMID: 20179302
Selenium; Vitamin E; Selenomethionine; α-Tocopherol; Prostate Cancer; Hormonal Carcinogenesis; NBL Rat
3.  Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis and Prevention in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Using Rat Duodenoesophageal Reflux Models 
Cancers  2011;3(3):3206-3224.
Development from chronic inflammation to Barrett's adenocarcinoma is known as one of the inflammation-related carcinogenesis routes. Gastroesophageal reflux disease induces regurgitant esophagitis, and esophageal mucosa is usually regenerated by squamous epithelium, but sometimes and somewhere replaced with metaplastic columnar epithelium. Specialized columnar epithelium, so-called Barrett's epithelium (BE), is a risk factor for dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in esophagus. Several experiments using rodent model inducing duodenogastroesophageal reflux or duodenoesophageal reflux revealed that columnar epithelium, first emerging at the proliferative zone, progresses to dysplasia and finally adenocarcinoma, and exogenous carcinogen is not necessary for cancer development. It is demonstrated that duodenal juice rather than gastric juice is essential to develop esophageal adenocarcinoma in not only rodent experiments, but also clinical studies. Antireflux surgery and chemoprevention by proton pump inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, green tea, retinoic acid and thioproline showed preventive effects on the development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma in rodent models, but it remains controversial whether antireflux surgery could regress BE and prevent esophageal cancer in clinical observation. The Chemoprevention for Barrett's Esophagus Trial (CBET), a phase IIb, multicenter, randomized, double-masked study using celecoxib in patients with Barrett's dysplasia failed to prove to prevent progression of dysplasia to cancer. The AspECT (Aspirin Esomeprazole Chemoprevention Trial), a large multicenter phase III randomized trial to evaluate the effects of esomeprazole and/or aspirin on the rate of progression to high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma in patients with BE is now ongoing.
doi:10.3390/cancers3033206
PMCID: PMC3759194  PMID: 24212953
inflammation-metaplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence; Barrett's esophagus; duodenogastroesophageal reflux; chemoprevention for esophageal adenocarcinoma; antireflux surgery; proton pump inhibitors; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors; thioproline
4.  mRNA expression of the DNA replication-initiation proteins in epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:395.
Background
The tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are characterized by high mitotic activity, and early detection is desirable. Overexpression of the DNA replication-initiation proteins has been associated with dysplasia and malignancy. Our aim was to determine whether these proteins are useful biomarkers for assessing the development of tongue SCC.
Methods
We analyzed the mRNA expression of CDC6, CDT1, MCM2 and CDC45 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded benign and malignant tongue tissues using quantitative real-time PCR followed by statistical analysis.
Results
We found that the expression levels are significantly higher in malignant SCC than mild precancerous epithelial dysplasia, and the expression levels in general increase with increasing grade of precancerous lesions from mild, moderate to severe epithelial dysplasia. CDC6 and CDC45 expression is dependent of the dysplasia grade and lymph node status. CDT1 expression is higher in severe dysplasia than in mild and moderate dysplasia. MCM2 expression is dependent of the dysplasia grade, lymph node status and clinical stage. The expression of the four genes is independent of tumor size or histological grade. A simple linear regression analysis revealed a linear increase in the mRNA levels of the four genes from the mild to severe dysplasia and SCC. A strong association was established between CDC6 and CDT1, and between MCM2 and CDC45 expression. The nonparametric receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that MCM2 and CDC45 had a higher accuracy than CDC6 and CDT1 for distinguishing dysplasia from tongue SCC.
Conclusion
These proteins can be used as biomarkers to distinguish precancerous dysplasia from SCC and are useful for early detection and diagnosis of SCC as an adjunct to clinicopathological parameters.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-395
PMCID: PMC2648984  PMID: 19116018
5.  Selenomethionine Induced Transcriptional Programs in Human Prostate Cancer Cells 
The Journal of urology  2007;177(2):743-750.
Purpose
We determined the effects of selenomethionine, the major organic selenium containing compound found in the diet and the form of selenium being used in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial, on prostate cancer cells.
Materials and Methods
We assessed global transcript profiles of selenomethionine treated LNCaP using cDNA microarrays and compared them to those of cells treated with methylselenic acid, a direct precursor of methylselenol, which is the active form of selenium in vivo.
Results
After treatment with selenomethionine 2,336 unique genes showed expression changes of at least 1.5-fold in at least 3 time points during 48 hours and 366 unique transcripts differed significantly between selenomethionine and methylselenic acid treated LNCaP. Approximately half of the 76 cell cycle regulated genes affected by selenomethionine were down-regulated and enriched for genes associated with the G2/M phase. Flow cytometry analysis showed that selenomethionine induced G2/M arrest in LNCaP at low concentrations. Selenomethionine also affected expression levels of 35 known androgen responsive genes and 18 of these transcripts showed changes that were the inverse of those seen after androgen stimulation. At high concentrations selenomethionine decreased prostate specific antigen promoter driven luciferase expression.
Conclusions
Selenomethionine modulates transcript levels of genes involved in a number of biological processes, including cell cycle/apoptosis androgen signaling, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. Although the pathways affected paralleled in many ways those that are modulated by methylselenic acid, distinct differences in transcript patterns and effects on cell cycle regulation suggest that different selenium compounds could exert unique effects in prostate cells.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2006.09.071
PMCID: PMC2729366  PMID: 17222674
prostate; prostatic neoplasms; selenomethionine; microarray analysis; gene expression
6.  Cyclin E involved in early stage carcinogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma by SNP DNA microarray and immunohistochemical studies 
BMC Gastroenterology  2014;14:78.
Background
Cyclin E is a cell cycle regulator which is critical for driving G1/S transition. Abnormal levels of cyclin E have been found in many cancers. However, the level changes of cyclin E in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precancerous lesion have not been well studied. Here, we focus on the gene amplification and expression of cyclin E in these lesions, and aim to ascertain the relationship with clinicopathological characteristics.
Methods
Genomic DNA was analyzed from 116 esophageal adenocarcinoma and 26 precancerous lesion patients using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 arrays. The protein overexpression of cyclin E was also detected using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays containing esophageal adenocarcinoma and precancerous lesions. Patient survival and other clinical data were collected and analyzed. The intensity and percentage of the cyclin E expressing cells in tissue microarrays were scored by two pathologists. Fisher exact tests and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to analyze data.
Results
By genomic analysis, cyclin E was amplified in 19.0% of the EAC samples. By immunohistochemistry, high expression of cyclin E was observed in 2.3% of squamous mucosa tissues, 3.7% in columnar cell metaplasia, 5.8% in Barrett’s esophagus, 19.0% in low grade dysplasia, 35.7% in high grade dysplasia, and 16.7% in esophageal adenocarcinoma. The differences in cyclin E high expression between neoplastic groups and non-dysplasia groups are statistically significant (p < 0.05). The prognosis for patients with high cyclin E expression appeared slightly better than for those with low cyclin E expression although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.13).
Conclusions
The expression of cyclin E significantly increases from non-dysplasia esophageal lesion to low and high grade dysplasia, suggesting that cyclin E plays an important role in the early stage of carcinogenesis. Importantly, cyclin E is also amplified and highly expressed in a subset of esophageal adenocarcinoma patients, but this increase is not associated with worse prognosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-14-78
PMCID: PMC3998234  PMID: 24742107
Esophageal adenocarcinoma; Cyclin E; Amplification; High expression; Barrett’s esophagus; SNP DNA microarray; Biomarker; Overall survival
7.  Predictors of Progression in Barrett’s Esophagus II: Baseline 17p (p53) Loss of Heterozygosity Identifies a Patient Subset at Increased Risk for Neoplastic Progression 
OBJECTIVES
Most patients with Barrett’s esophagus do not progress to cancer, but those who do seem to have markedly increased survival when cancers are detected at an early stage. Most surveillance programs are based on histological assessment of dysplasia, but dysplasia is subject to observer variation and transient diagnoses of dysplasia increase the cost of medical care. We have previously validated flow cytometric increased 4N fractions and aneuploidy as predictors of progression to cancer in Barrett’s esophagus. However, multiple somatic genetic lesions develop during neoplastic progression in Barrett’s esophagus, and it is likely that a panel of objective biomarkers will be required to manage the cancer risk optimally.
METHODS
We prospectively evaluated endoscopic biopsies from 325 patients with Barrett’s esophagus, 269 of whom had one or more follow-up endoscopies, by a robust platform for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis, using baseline 17p (p53) LOH as a predictor and increased 4N, aneuploidy, high-grade dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma as outcomes.
RESULTS
The prevalence of 17p (p53) LOH at baseline increased from 6% in negative for dysplasia to 57% in high-grade dysplasia (p < 0.001). Patients with 17p (p53) LOH had increased rates of progression to cancer (relative risk [RR] = 16, p < 0.001), high-grade dysplasia (RR = 3.6, p = 0.02), increased 4N (RR = 6.1, p < 0.001), and aneuploidy (RR = 7.5, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Patients with 17p (p53) LOH are at increased risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma as well as high-grade dysplasia, increased 4N, and aneuploidy. 17p (p53) LOH is a predictor of progression in Barrett’s esophagus that can be combined with a panel of other validated biomarkers for risk assessment as well as intermediate endpoints in prevention trials.
PMCID: PMC1808263  PMID: 11693316
8.  Risk of gastric carcinoma in patients with mucosal dysplasia associated with atrophic gastritis: a follow up study. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1996;49(12):979-984.
AIMS: To assess the risk of gastric carcinoma in patients with histologically verified dysplasia and atrophic gastritis of the stomach. METHODS: One hundred and one patients with mild (n = 84), moderate (n = 14), or severe (n = 3) dysplasia among 359 elderly men who smoked underwent gastroscopy because of low serum pepsinogen. Patients with dysplasia were prospectively followed up for an average of four years with repeated gastroscopies and multiple biopsies. RESULTS: Four of the 84 (4.8%) cases of mild dysplasia had progressed to moderate dysplasia during the follow up. Most of the cases of mild dysplasia had resolved spontaneously. No surgical intervention was required. Three of the 14 (21%) cases of moderate dysplasia had progressed to severe dysplasia, but no carcinomas were observed during follow up. Five moderately dysplastic lesions were removed surgically or endoscopically. In two of these five cases, moderate or severe dysplasia recurred. Two of the three severe dysplasias progressed to carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: In atrophic gastritis progression of mild and moderate dysplastic lesions seems to be a slow process and is rare in mild dysplasia. However, severe dysplasia is highly predictive of subsequent cancer. It is suggested that a five year follow up interval is sufficient in cases with mild dysplasia and two years in those with moderate dysplasia. Local removal of moderate dysplasia is indicated but does not guarantee that the lesion will not progress. Severe dysplasia requires immediate surgical intervention.
Images
PMCID: PMC499645  PMID: 9038734
9.  Role of Measurement of Antioxidant Enzymes in Evaluation of Antioxidant Therapy in Tobacco Abusers with Oral Leukoplakia 
Antioxidants are widely used in chemoprevention of malignancy. Numerous studies in medical literature have reported the evaluation of this treatment protocol by indirect methodology—epidemiology, invitro studies, pharmacology and animal models etc. However, there is a paucity of literature on the measurement of antioxidant enzymes as a parameter for assessing the outcome of antioxidant therapy. This study explores the efficacy and outcome of antioxidant enzyme assay in relation to antioxidant therapy in tobacco abusers, hitherto unreported in medical literature. A prospective cohort study with control in 50 patients carried out at a tertiary care teaching Institution (Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India). Out of these patients, 10 patients acted as control, rest 40 patients—all tobacco users in some form, were divided into three groups on the basis of histopathological grading of dysplasia—no dysplasia, mild or moderate dysplasia. The levels of Lipid peroxidase (LPO), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in mucosa and serum were assayed in each group, and re-evaluated at the end of 3 months after intervention with antioxidant treatment. To detect any alteration in degree of dysplasia a repeat biopsy was also done at the end of 3 months. The results were statistically analysed using paired t test. A statistically significant decrease in level of LPO and SOD, and an increase in CAT levels were recorded both in mucosa and serum. However, no change in dysplasia and no new case of dysplasia were observed. Further, antioxidant treatment was continued for a year and the final out come of the lesion was assessed by “Carter’s criteria”. A final success rate of 74.19% was recorded in terms of partial or complete regression of the lesion. This study confirms the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants in oral leukoplakia, and cites the importance of LPO, SOD and CAT in evaluating the efficacy of antioxidant treatment. However, the study failed to elucidate any relationship between enzyme measurement and the final outcome of the lesion.
doi:10.1007/s12070-011-0266-y
PMCID: PMC3227828  PMID: 23024938
Leukoplakia; Antioxidant; Antioxidant enzymes; Lipid peroxidase; Superoxide dismutase; Catalase
10.  DNA promoter hypermethylation of p16 and APC predicts neoplastic progression in Barrett’s esophagus 
Introduction
Prediction of progression to cancer in patients with Barrett’s esophagus is difficult using current techniques. We determined whether DNA promoter hypermethylation of genes frequently methylated in esophageal adenocarcinoma (p16 and APC) could be used as predictors of progression in Barrett’s esophagus.
Methods
We first performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of gene hypermethylation in biopsies from patients with normal esophagus (n=17), Barrett’s esophagus (n=102), and adenocarcinoma (n=42). We then performed a nested case-control study comparing gene hypermethylation in Barrett’s esophagus patients who progressed from baseline pathology to high-grade dysplasia or cancer (n=7) versus patients who did not progress (n=50).
Results
None of the patients with normal esophagus had p16 or APC hypermethylation. Hypermethylation was prevalent in Barrett’s esophagus without dysplasia or low-grade dysplasia (p16=31% and APC=50%; p<0.01) and high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma (p16=54% and APC=68%; p<0.001) compared to normal esophagus (not detected). Patients who progressed from baseline pathology to high-grade dysplasia or cancer had higher prevalence of hypermethylation in their initial esophagus biopsies compared to those who did not progress for both p16 (100% vs. 33%; p=0.008) and APC (86% vs. 40%; p=0.02). Hypermethylation of both p16 and APC was a strong predictor of subsequent progression to cancer during a mean follow-up time of 4.1 years (adjusted OR [95% CI]=14.97 [1.73,inf], p=0.01). Among patients who were negative for both p16 and APC hypermethylation, none progressed from baseline pathology to high-grade dysplasia or cancer.
Conclusions
Hypermethylation of both p16 and APC strongly predicts progression to high-grade dysplasia or cancer in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. Absence of p16 and APC hypermethylation is associated with a benign course.
doi:10.1038/ajg.2009.300
PMCID: PMC3090447  PMID: 19584833
11.  Association of traffic-related hazardous air pollutants and cervical dysplasia in an urban multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study 
Environmental Health  2014;13:52.
Background
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause in the development of cervical cancer; however, not all women infected with HPV develop cervical cancer indicating that other risk factors are involved. Our objective was to determine the association between exposure to ambient levels of common traffic-related air toxics and cervical dysplasia, a precursor lesion for cervical cancer.
Methods
The study sample consisted of women enrolled in a Phase II clinical trial to evaluate diagnostic techniques for cervical disease in Houston, Texas. The current assessment is a secondary data analysis in which cases were defined as women diagnosed with cervical dysplasia, while those without cervical dysplasia served as controls. Residential census tract-level estimates of ambient benzene, diesel particulate matter (DPM), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used to assess exposure. Census tract-level pollutant estimates were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, and HPV status.
Results
Women in the highest residential exposure categories for benzene and DPM had an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia compared to the lowest exposure category (Benzene: aOR [95% CI] for high exposure = 1.97[1.07-3.62], very high exposure = 2.30[1.19-4.46]. DPM: aOR [95% CI] for high exposure = 2.83[1.55-5.16], very high exposure = 2.10[1.07-4.11]). Similarly, women with high residential exposure to PAHs had an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia (aOR [95% CI] = 2.46[1.35-4.48]). The highest PAH exposure category was also positively associated with cervical dysplasia prevalence but was not statistically significant. Assessment of the combined effect of HAP exposure indicates that exposure to high levels of more than one HAP is positively associated with cervical dysplasia prevalence (p for trend = 0.004).
Conclusions
Traffic-related HAPs, such as benzene, DPM, and PAHs, are not as well-regulated and monitored as criteria air pollutants (e.g., ozone), underscoring the need for studies evaluating the role of these toxicants on disease risk. Our results suggest that exposure to traffic-related air toxics may increase cervical dysplasia prevalence.
doi:10.1186/1476-069X-13-52
PMCID: PMC4063240  PMID: 24924773
Benzene; Cervical dysplasia; Diesel particulate matter; Hazardous air pollutants; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
12.  Histological precursors of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: results from a 13 year prospective follow up study in a high risk population 
Gut  2005;54(2):187-192.
Background: Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a very poor prognosis, which is largely due to late diagnosis. Successful early detection strategies will require identification of clinically relevant precursor lesions that can be targets for screening and treatment.
Aims: To identify the clinically relevant histological precursors of OSCC.
Subjects: A cohort of 682 endoscoped patients from a high risk rural population in Linxian, China.
Methods: Subjects were endoscoped and biopsied at baseline and followed for 13.5 years. We estimated the relative risk of developing OSCC for each of the initial histological diagnoses using Cox proportional hazards regression models.
Results: A total of 114 (16.7%) patients developed OSCC during the follow up period. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for incidence of this tumour, by initial histological diagnosis, were: normal 1.0 (reference), oesophagitis 0.8 (0.2–3.2), basal cell hyperplasia 1.9 (0.8–4.5), mild dysplasia 2.9 (1.6–5.2), moderate dysplasia 9.8 (5.3–18.3), severe dysplasia 28.3 (15.3–52.3), and carcinoma in situ 34.4 (16.6–71.4).
Conclusions: In this study, squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ were the only histological lesions associated with a significantly increased risk of developing OSCC within 13.5 years after endoscopy. There was no evidence that oesophagitis predisposed to this tumour. Increasing grades of dysplasia were strongly associated with increasing risk, indicating that the histological grading was clinically meaningful. The follow up experience of severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ was equivalent, suggesting that this distinction is not clinically relevant. Documenting these precursor lesions of OSCC should assist in the development of effective prevention, early detection, and treatment strategies for this disease.
doi:10.1136/gut.2004.046631
PMCID: PMC1774842  PMID: 15647178
oesophageal cancer; precursor lesions; squamous dysplasia; China; follow up study
13.  Serum 25(OH)-Vitamin D concentration and risk of esophageal squamous dysplasia 
Background
Squamous dysplasia is the precursor lesion for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and nutritional factors play an important role in the etiology of this cancer. Previous studies using a variety of measures of vitamin D exposure have reached different conclusions about the association between vitamin D and risk of developing esophageal cancer.
Methods
We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in a cross-sectional analysis of 720 subjects from Linxian, China, a population at high risk for developing ESCC. All subjects underwent endoscopy and biopsy and were categorized by presence or absence of histologic squamous dysplasia. We used crude and multivariate adjusted generalized linear models to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between squamous dysplasia and sex-specific quartiles of serum 25(OH)D concentration.
Results
Two hundred and thirty (32%) of 720 subjects had squamous dysplasia. Subjects with dysplasia had significantly higher median serum 25(OH)D concentrations then subjects without dysplasia, 36.5 and 31.5 nmol/L respectively (Wilcoxon two-sample test p = 0.0004). In multivariate adjusted models, subjects in the highest compared to the lowest quartile were at significantly increased risk of squamous dysplasia, RR (95% CI) = 1.86 (1.35–2.62). Increased risks were similar when examined in men and women separately: Men RR (95% CI) = 1.74 (1.08–2.93); Women RR (95% CI) = 1.96 (1.28–3.18).
Conclusions
Higher serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with significantly increased risk of squamous dysplasia. No obvious source of measured or unmeasured confounding explains this finding.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0461
PMCID: PMC2812415  PMID: 17855710
Esophageal cancer; Squamous dysplasia; Vitamin D; Serum 25(OH)D; China
14.  Durability of Radiofrequency Ablation in Barrett’s Esophagus with Dysplasia 
Gastroenterology  2011;141(2):460-468.
Background & Aims
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can eradicate dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia in patients with dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and reduce rates of esophageal adenocarcinoma. We assessed long-term rates of eradication, durability of neosquamous epithelium, disease progression, and safety of RFA in patients with dysplastic BE.
Methods
We performed a randomized trial of 127 subjects with dysplastic BE; after cross-over subjects were included 119 received RFA. Subjects were followed for a mean time of 3.05 years; the study was extended to 5 years for patients with eradication of intestinal metaplasia at 2 years. Outcomes included eradication of dysplasia or intestinal metaplasia after 2 and 3 years, durability of response, disease progression, and adverse events.
Results
After 2 years, 101/106 patients had complete eradication of all dysplasia (95%) and 99/106 had eradication of intestinal metaplasia (93%). After 2 years, among subjects with initial low-grade dysplasia, all dysplasia was eradicated in 51/52 (98%) and intestinal metaplasia was eradicated in 51/52 (98%); among subjects with initial high-grade dysplasia, all dysplasia was eradicated in 50/54 (93%) and intestinal metaplasia was eradicated in 48/54 (89%). After 3 years, dysplasia was eradicated in 55/56 of subjects (98%) and intestinal metaplasia was eradicated in 51/56 (91%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that dysplasia remained eradicated in >85% of patients and intestinal metaplasia in >75%, without maintenance RFA. Serious adverse events occurred in 4/119 subjects (3.4%); the rate of stricture was 7.6%. The rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma was 1/181 pt-yrs (0.55%/pt-yr); there was no cancer-related morbidity or mortality. The annual rate of any neoplastic progression was 1/73 pt-yrs (1.37%/pt-yr).
Conclusion
In subjects with dysplastic BE, RFA therapy has an acceptable safety profile, is durable, and is associated with a low rate of disease progression, for up to 3 years.
doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.04.061
PMCID: PMC3152658  PMID: 21679712
esophagus; cancer; prevention; endoscopic therapy
15.  C-reactive Protein and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma According to Celecoxib Treatment 
Background
Inflammation, as measured by the circulating inflammatory marker high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), has been associated with cardiovascular disease. However, data regarding CRP and risk of colorectal cancer have been conflicting. The Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib (APC) trial demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib prevents recurrence of colorectal adenoma but increases risk of cardiovascular events. We examined if serum hsCRP modified these results.
Methods
We measured hsCRP from serum specimens provided at study entry by patients enrolled in the APC trial. Patients were stratified according to use of low-dose aspirin, randomized to receive three years of treatment with placebo, 200-mg-bid celecoxib, or 400-mg-bid celecoxib, and underwent follow-up colonoscopies at Year 1 and 3.
Results
Among 1,680 patients, the estimated three-year cumulative incidence of adenoma was 42% for patients with hsCRP <1mg/L, compared with 43% (RR=1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.85–1.22) for hsCRP 1–3mg/L, and 41% (RR=1.1; CI=0.90–1.34) for hsCRP >3mg/L. The effect of celecoxib on adenoma recurrence did not vary among patients with high (>3mg/L) compared with low (≦3mg/L) hsCRP. However, among patients with high hsCRP, the RR of cardiovascular events compared with placebo was 2.27 (95%CI=0.72–7.14) for those randomized to celecoxib 200-mg-bid and 3.28 (CI=1.09–9.91) for 400-mg-bid. In contrast, among patients with low hsCRP, the corresponding RRs were 0.99 (CI=0.53–1.83) and 1.11 (CI=0.61–2.02).
Conclusions
HsCRP may predict risk of celecoxib-associated cardiovascular toxicity, but not adenoma recurrence or celecoxib treatment efficacy. Patients with low hsCRP may be a subgroup with a favorable risk-benefit profile for celecoxib chemoprevention.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0403
PMCID: PMC3151679  PMID: 21816845
Adenoma; celecoxib; c-reactive protein; inflammation; chemoprevention
16.  Dysplasia and aneuploidy as markers of malignant degeneration in Barrett's oesophagus. The Rotterdam Oesophageal Tumour Study Group. 
Gut  1994;35(10):1348-1351.
The role of dysplasia and aneuploidy as markers in columnar epithelium for malignant degeneration in Barrett's oesophagus was compared in a case control study comprising 38 patients with benign Barrett's oesophagus and 50 patients with Barrett's oesophagus associated with adenocarcinoma. Tissue specimens of columnar epithelium were reviewed for the presence of specialised columnar epithelium and the grade of dysplasia. Ploidy was determined using the method for formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue described by Hedley. There was no significant difference in the frequency of specialised columnar epithelium between both groups. Dysplasia was found more often in columnar epithelium associated with adenocarcinoma compared with benign Barrett's oesophagus (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed an increased risk of malignancy in Barrett's oesophagus in case of dysplasia (odds ratio 9.4, p = 0.003 for mild dysplasia and 33.1, p < 0.001 for moderate or severe dysplasia). Ploidy was not statistically significantly correlated with dysplasia. Aneuploidy or increased G2/tetraploidy proved to be an independent risk factor for younger patients (age < 65 years: odds ratio 44.7, p = 0.003). In conclusion, dysplasia and aneuploidy or increased G2/tetraploidy in columnar epithelium are independent risk factors for malignant degeneration. Patients with these risk factors should be offered a more intensive screening programme.
PMCID: PMC1375001  PMID: 7959183
17.  Gastric ulcer patients are more susceptible to developing gastric cancer compared with concomitant gastric and duodenal ulcer patients 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(6):2790-2794.
Intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia are precancerous lesions of gastric cancer (GC); however, the prevalence of IM and dysplasia in patients exhibiting single gastric ulcer (GU) and concomitant gastric and duodenal ulcer (CGDU) varies. In the present study consecutive patients who had undergone esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy were retrospectively screened, and those presenting with GU or CGDU were further evaluated for IM and dysplasia. Patients diagnosed with GC or lymphoma and patients with a history of anti-Helicobacter pylori, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine (NSAIM), H2-receptor antagonist or proton pump inhibitor therapy, were excluded from the present study. Of the 204,073 consecutively screened cases, 8,855 (4.3%) and 2,397 (1.2%) were diagnosed with GU and CGDU, respectively. A total of 1,722 GU and 233 CGDU patients were excluded; thus, 7,133 and 2,164 cases of GU and CGDU, respectively (n=9,297), were included in the present study. IM and dysplasia were observed in 1,348 (14.5%) and 210 (2.3%) patients, respectively. IM was more frequently identified in GU patients compared with CGDU patients (16.4 vs. 8.3%; odds ratio [OR], 2.158; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.830–2.545; χ2=86.932; P<0.001); furthermore, GU patients exhibited significantly more frequent IM compared with CGDU patients at the gastric antrum (14.2 vs. 5.5%; OR, 2.818; 95% CI, 2.199–3.610; χ2=72.299; P<0.001), gastric incisura (24.0 vs. 14.1%; OR, 1.922; 95% CI, 1.502–2.432; χ2=30.402; P<0.001) and gastric corpus (12.6 vs. 3.3%; OR, 4.259; 95% CI, 1.030–17.609; χ2=4.736; P=0.026). Dysplasia was significantly more frequently identified in GU patients compared with CGDU patients (2.7 vs. 0.7%; OR, 4.027; 95% CI, 2.376–6.823; χ2=31.315; P<0.001), with GU patients exhibiting significantly more severe dysplasia at the gastric antrum (2.4 vs. 0.7%; OR, 3.339; 95% CI, 1.735–6.425; χ2=14.652; P<0.001) and the gastric incisura (2.9 vs. 0.7%; OR, 4.255; 95% CI, 1.694–10.689; χ2=11.229; P<0.001). Additionally, mild IM was more frequently identified in GU patients compared with CGDU patients (15.2 vs. 7.1%; OR, 2.353; 95% CI, 1.972–2.807; χ2=94.798; P<0.001) and dysplasia of a mild (1.7 vs. 0.6%; OR, 2.807; 95% CI, 1.580–4.987; χ2=13.519; P<0.001) or moderate/severe grade (1.1 vs. 0.09%; OR, 11.642; 95% CI, 2.857–47.439; χ2=18.896; P<0.001) was more frequent in GU patients compared with CGDU patients. IM and dysplasia were more frequently observed in GU compared with CGDU patients in the present study, which may be associated with an increased probability of developing GC.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2583
PMCID: PMC4214478  PMID: 25364467
concomitant gastric and duodenal ulcers; gastric ulcer; intestinal metaplasia; dysplasia; gastric cancer
18.  Anal Dysplasia Screening 
Executive Summary
Objective
This review considered the role of the anal Pap test as a screening test for anal dysplasia in patients at high risk of anal SCC. The screening process is now thought to be improved with the addition of testing for the human papillomavirus (HPV) in high-risk populations. High-resolution anoscopy (a method to view the rectal area, using an anoscope, a lighted instrument inserted into the rectum) rather than routine anoscopy-guided biopsy, is also now considered to be the diagnostic standard.
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
Anal cancer, like cervical cancer, is a member of a broader group of anogenital cancers known to be associated with sexually transmitted viral HPV infection. Human papillomavirus is extremely prevalent, particularly in young, sexually active populations. Sexual practices involving receptive anal intercourse lead to significantly elevated risk for anal dysplasia and cancer, particularly in those with immune dysfunctions.
Anal cancer is rare. It occurs at a rate of about 1 to 2 per 100,000 in the general population. It is the least common of the lower gastrointestinal cancers, representing about 4% of them, in contrast to colorectal cancers, which remain the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy. Certain segments of the population, however, such as HIV-positive men and women, other chronic immune-suppressed patients (e.g., after a transplant), injection drug users, and women with genital dysplasia /cancer, have a high susceptibility to anal cancer.
Those with the highest identified risk for anal cancer are HIV-positive homosexual and bisexual men, at a rate of 70 per 100,000 men. The risk for anal cancer is reported to be increasing dramatically in HIV-positive males and females, particularly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s. The introduction of effective viral therapy has been said to have transformed the AIDS epidemic in developed countries into a chronic disease state of long-term immunosuppression. In Ontario, there are about 25,000 people living with HIV infection; more than 6,000 of these are women. About 28% of the newly diagnosed HIV infections are in women, a doubling since 1999. It has also been estimated that 1 of 3 people living with HIV do no know it.
Health Technology Description
Anal Pap test screening involves the blind insertion of a swab into the anal canal and fixing cells either on a slide or in fluid for cytological examination. Anal cytology classified by the standardized Bethesda System is the same classification used for cervical cytology. It has 4 categories: normal, atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, or squamous intraepithelial lesions which are further classified into low- or high-grade lesions. Abnormal cytological findings are subjected to further evaluations by high-resolution anoscopy, a technique similar to cervical colposcopy, and biopsy. Several HPV deoxyribonucleic acid detection technologies such as the Hybrid 11 Capture and the polymerase chain reaction are available to detect and differentiate HPV viral strains.
Unlike cervical cancer, there are no universally accepted guidelines or standards of care for anal dysplasia. Moreover, there are no formal screening programs provincially, nationally, or internationally. The New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute has recently recommended (March 2007) annual anal pap testing in high-risk groups. In Ontario, reimbursement exists only for Pap tests for cervical cancer screening. That is, there is no reimbursement for anal Pap testing in men or women, and HPV screening tests for cervical or anal cancer are also not reimbursed.
Methods
The scientific evidence base was evaluated through a systematic literature review. Assessments of current practices were obtained through consultations with various agencies and individuals including the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care AIDS Bureau; Public Health Infectious Diseases Branch, Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Cancer Care Ontario; HIV/AIDS researchers; pathology experts; and HIV/AIDS clinical program directors. An Ontario-based budget impact was also done.
Findings
No direct evidence was found for the existence of controlled studies evaluating the effectiveness of anal Pap test screening programs for impact on anal cancer morbidity or mortality. In addition, no studies were found on the use of HPV DNA testing in the screening or diagnostic setting for anal dysplasia. The reported prevalence of HPV infection in high-risk groups, particularly HIV-positive males, however, was sufficiently high to preclude any utility of HPV testing as an adjunct to anal Pap testing.
Nine reports involving studies in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada were identified that evaluated the performance characteristics of anal Pap test screening for anal dysplasia. All involved hospital-based specialty HIV/AIDS care clinics with mainly HIV-positive males. All studies involved experienced pathologists, so the results generally represent best-case scenarios. Estimates of anal Pap test sensitivity and specificity were highly variable, and depended on the varying prevalence of cytology abnormality and differential thresholds for abnormality for both cytology and histopathology.
In the largest study of HIV-positive males, sensitivity varied from 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36%–56%) to 69% (95% CI, 60%–78%). Specificity ranged from 59% (95% CI, 53%–65%) to 81% (95% CI, 76%–85%). In the only study of HIV-negative males, sensitivity ranged from 26% (95% CI, 5%-47%) to 47% (95% CI, 26%–68%). Specificity ranged from 81% (95% CI, 76%–85%) to 92% (95% CI, 89%–95%).
In comparison, cervical Pap testing has also been evaluated mainly in settings where there is a high prevalence of the disease, and estimates of sensitivitykij and specificity were also low and highly variable. In a systematic review involving cervical Pap testing, sensitivity ranged from 30% to 87% (mean, 47%) and specificity from 86% to 100% (mean, 95%).
Conclusions
No direct evidence exists to support the effectiveness of an anal Pap test screening program to reduce anal cancer mortality or morbidity. There are, however, strong parallels with cervical pap testing for cervical cancer. Sexually transmitted HPV viral infection is currently the acknowledged common causative agent for both anal and cervical cancer. Anal cancer rates in high-risk populations are approaching those of cervical cancer before the implementation of Pap testing.
The anal Pap test, although it has been mainly evaluated only in HIV-positive males, has similar operating characteristics of sensitivity and specificity as the cervical Pap test. In general, the treatment options for precancer dysplasia in the cervix and the anus are similar, but treatment involving a definitive surgical resection in the anus is more limited because of the higher risk of complications. A range of ablative therapies has been applied for anal dysplasia, but evidence on treatment effectiveness, tolerability and durability, particularly in the HIV-positive patient, is limited.
PMCID: PMC3377578  PMID: 23074504
19.  Prospective Study of the Progression of Low-Grade Dysplasia in Ulcerative Colitis Using Current Cancer Surveillance Guidelines 
Inflammatory bowel diseases  2012;18(12):2240-2246.
Background
The goal of this study was to assess the natural history of low-grade dysplasia and its risk of progression in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients by prospective endoscopic surveillance.
Methods
42 UC patients with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) were followed prospectively using a uniform approach to surveillance colonoscopy with an average of 43 biopsies per exam. The interval between colonoscopies ranged from 3–12 months. Progression was defined as development of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or cancer (CA) at subsequent colonoscopy or at colectomy. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify risk factors associated with progression.
Results
Patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years (range 1–13). Over that period 19% (8/42) of patients progressed to advanced neoplasia (2 cancers, 6 HGD) while 17% (7/42) had persistent LGD and 64% (27/42) had indefinite dysplasia or no dysplasia at the end of follow-up. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the number of biopsies with low grade dysplasia at baseline was associated with an increased risk of progression to advanced neoplasia (RR-5.8, 95%CI (1.29–26.04). Among the 15 patients who underwent colectomy, four were found to have higher grade neoplasia on their colectomy specimen that their pre-operative colonoscopy, and these patients were more likely to be nonadherent with recommendations for colectomy.
Conclusions
The majority (81%) of UC patients with LGD did not progress to higher grades of dysplasia during a 4 year follow-up. Patients with 3 or more biopsies demonstrating low grade dysplasia at a single colonoscopy were at increased risk for progression to advanced neoplasia.
doi:10.1002/ibd.22912
PMCID: PMC3402625  PMID: 22508402
low-grade dysplasia; ulcerative colitis; neoplasia; dysplasia; colon cancer
20.  Comparative genomic study of gastric epithelial cells co-cultured with Helicobacter pylori 
AIM: To identify genes potentially involved in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastric carcinogenesis.
METHODS: GES-1 cells were co-cultured with H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric carcinoma (GC, n = 10) or chronic gastritis (CG, n = 10) for in vitro proliferation and apoptosis assays to identify the most and least virulent strains. These two strains were cagA-genotyped and used for further in vivo carcinogenic virulence assays by infecting Mongolian gerbils for 52 wk, respectively; a broth free of H. pylori was lavaged as control. Genomic profiles of GES-1 cells co-cultured with the most and least virulent strains were determined by microarray analysis. The most differentially expressed genes were further verified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in GES-1 cells infected with the most and least virulent strains, and by immunohistochemistry in H. pylori positive CG, precancerous diseases, and GC biopsy specimens in an independent experiment.
RESULTS: GC-derived H. pylori strains induced a potent proliferative effect in GES-1 cells in co-culture, whereas CG-derived strains did not. The most (from a GC patient) and least (from a CG patient) virulent strains were cagA-positive and negative, respectively. At week 52, CG, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and GC were observed in 90.0%, 80.0%, 80.0%, 90%, and 60.0%, respectively, of the animals lavaged with the most virulent strain. However, only mild CG was observed in 90% of the animals lavaged with the least virulent strain. On microarray analysis, 800 differentially expressed genes (49 up- and 751 down-regulated), involving those associated with cell cycle regulation, cell apoptosis, cytoskeleton, immune response, and substance and energy metabolisms, were identified in cells co-cultured with the most virulent strain as compared with those co-cultured with the least virulent strain. The six most differentially expressed genes (with a betweenness centrality of 0.1-0.2) were identified among the significant differential gene profile network, including JUN, KRAS, BRCA1, SMAD2, TRAF1, and HDAC6. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses verified that HDAC6 and TRFA1 mRNA expressions were significantly more up-regulated in GES-1 cells co-cultured with the most virulent strain than in those co-cultured with the least virulent strain. Immunohistochemistry of gastric mucosal specimens from H. pylori-positive patients with CG, intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and GC showed that moderately positive and strongly positive HDAC6 expression was detected in 21.7% of CG patients, 30.0% of IM patients, 54.5% of dysplasia patients, and 77.8% of GC patients (P < 0.001). The up-regulation of TRAF1 expressions was detected in 34.8%, 53.3%, 72.7%, and 88.9% specimens of CG, IM, dysplasia, and GC, respectively (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The overexpression of HDAC6 and TRAF1 in GES-1 cells co-cultured with the GC-derived strain and in H. pylori-positive dysplasia and GC suggests that HDAC6 and TRAF1 may be involved in H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i48.7212
PMCID: PMC3544023  PMID: 23326126
Helicobacter pylori; Gastric carcinoma; Proliferation; Genomic profiles
21.  Class-specific herpes simplex virus antibodies in sera and cervical secretions from patients with cervical neoplasia: a multi-group comparison 
Epidemiology and Infection  1988;100(3):455-465.
Serum and cervical secretions were collected from patients with cervical dysplasia, carcinoma-in-situ (CIS), squamous cell carcinoma (cervical SCC), and controls with normal cervices, attending clinics within the West Lambeth Health District, London. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to examine cervical secretory IgA (sIgA) and serum IgG and IgA antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV). Sexual and demographic factors were considered during data analysis, which involved fitting multiple linear or multiple logistic regressions to HSV antibody levels. Prevalence of sIgA-HSV and levels of serum antibodies to HSV in all groups were compared with those of gynaecology controls. Caucasian women with mild dysplasia had a significantly higher prevalence of sIgA-HSV. Serum IgG levels to HSV (IgG-HSV) were significantly elevated in women with mild dysplasia and severe dysplasia/CIS. Serum IgA levels to HSV1 (IgG-HSV1) were significantly higher in women with cervical SCC (after adjusting for smoking habits) and other genital tumours. Significantly higher levels of serum IgA to HSV2 (IgA-HSV2) were also found among Caucasian women with cervical SCC. The possible role of HSV as a co-factor in cervical carcinogenesis is discussed.
PMCID: PMC2249362  PMID: 2837405
22.  Pancreatic Cyst Fluid and Serum Mucin Levels Predict Dysplasia in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas 
Annals of surgical oncology  2010;18(1):199-206.
Introduction
There are no reliable markers of dysplasia in patients with incidentally discovered intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN). IPMN dysplasia may be associated with mucin protein (MUC) expression and histopathologic subtype. We hypothesize that MUC expression in cyst fluid and serum can identify lesions with high risk of malignancy.
Methods
Cyst fluid and serum were collected from 40 patients during pancreatectomy for IPMN between 2005 and 2009. Samples were grouped into low-risk (low-grade or moderate dysplasia, n = 21) and high-risk groups (high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma, n = 19). Mucin expression (MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC) was assessed utilizing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
Results
MUC2 and MUC4 cyst fluid concentrations were elevated in high-risk versus low-risk groups (10 ± 3.0 ng/ml vs. 4.4 ± 1.2 ng/ml, p = 0.03; 20.6 ± 10.6 ng/ml vs. 4.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml, p = 0.03, respectively). Corresponding serum samples revealed higher levels of MUC5AC in high-risk compared with low-risk patients (19.9 ± 9.3 ng/ml vs. 2.2 ± 1.1 ng/ml, p = 0.04). Histopathologic subtype was significantly associated with grade of dysplasia, and the intestinal subtype displayed increased MUC2 cyst fluid concentrations (13.8 ± 6.5 ng/ml vs. 4.1 ± 0.9 ng/ml, p = 0.02).
Conclusions
In this study, high-risk IPMN showed elevated cyst fluid concentrations of MUC2 and MUC4, and increased serum levels of MUC5AC. High-risk IPMN also displayed a distinct mucin expression profile in specific histologic subtypes. These data, if validated, may allow surgeons to more appropriately select patients for operative resection.
doi:10.1245/s10434-010-1225-7
PMCID: PMC4241376  PMID: 20717734
23.  Expression of prostasin and its inhibitors during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:201.
Background
Clinical trials where cancer patients were treated with protease inhibitors have suggested that the serine protease, prostasin, may act as a tumour suppressor. Prostasin is proteolytically activated by the serine protease, matriptase, which has a very high oncogenic potential. Prostasin is inhibited by protease nexin-1 (PN-1) and the two isoforms encoded by the mRNA splice variants of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1), HAI-1A, and HAI-1B.
Methods
Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for prostasin and PN-1 in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 116), severe dysplasia (n = 13), mild/moderate dysplasia (n = 93), and in normal tissue from the same individuals. In addition, corresponding tissues were examined from healthy volunteers (n = 23). A part of the cohort was further analysed for the mRNA levels of the two variants of HAI-1, here denoted HAI-1A and HAI-1B. mRNA levels were normalised to β-actin. Immunohistochemical analysis of prostasin and HAI-1 was performed on normal and cancer tissue.
Results
The mRNA level of prostasin was slightly but significantly decreased in both mild/moderate dysplasia (p < 0.001) and severe dysplasia (p < 0.01) and in carcinomas (p < 0.05) compared to normal tissue from the same individual. The mRNA level of PN-1 was more that two-fold elevated in colorectal cancer tissue as compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.001) and elevated in both mild/moderate dysplasia (p < 0.01), severe dysplasia (p < 0.05) and in colorectal cancer tissue (p < 0.001) as compared to normal tissue from the same individual. The mRNA levels of HAI-1A and HAI-1B mRNAs showed the same patterns of expression. Immunohistochemistry showed that prostasin is located mainly on the apical plasma membrane in normal colorectal tissue. A large variation was found in the degree of polarization of prostasin in colorectal cancer tissue.
Conclusion
These results show that the mRNA level of PN-1 is significantly elevated in colorectal cancer tissue. Future studies are required to clarify whether down-regulation of prostasin activity via up regulation of PN-1 is causing the malignant progression or if it is a consequence of it.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-201
PMCID: PMC2717118  PMID: 19555470
24.  Safety of Prior Endoscopic Mucosal Resection in Patients Receiving Radiofrequency Ablation of Barrett’s Esophagus 
BACKGROUND & AIMS
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is safe and effective treatment for flat dysplasia associated with Barrett’s esophagus (BE). However, there are limited data on the safety of RFA in patients who had prior endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), which might increase the risk of complications. We compared complications and histologic outcomes between patients who had EMR before RFA and those who received only RFA.
METHODS
We performed a retrospective analysis of data collected from patients treated for BE, associated with dysplasia or intramucosal cancer, at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, from 1998–2009. Patients were divided into groups that had RFA after EMR (group 1, n = 44) or only RFA (group 2, n = 46). We compared the incidence of complications (strictures, bleeding, and esophageal perforation) and histologic features (complete resolution of dysplasia and complete resolution of intestinal metaplasia [CR-IM]) between groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess predictors of stricture formation.
RESULTS
Stricture rates were 14% in group 1 and 9% in group 2 (odds ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 –9.74). The rates of CR-IM were 43% in group 1 and 74% in group 2 (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14 – 0.78). The rates of complete resolution of dysplasia were 76% in group 1 and 71% in group 2 (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.39 – 4.17). The adjusted odds ratio for CR-IM in group 1 (adjusting for age, segment length, and grade of dysplasia) was 0.50 (95% CI, 0.15–1.66).
CONCLUSIONS
Stricture rates among patients who receive only RFA are comparable to those of patients who had prior EMR. EMR appears safe to perform prior to RFA.
doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2011.10.030
PMCID: PMC3351797  PMID: 22056303
Esophageal Neoplasms; Barrett’s Esophagus; Ablation Techniques; Endoscopy
25.  Celecoxib-related gastroduodenal ulcer and cardiovascular events in a randomized trial for gastric cancer prevention 
AIM: To evaluate the long-term risk of gastroduodenal ulcer and cardiovascular events induced by celecoxib in a population-based, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
METHODS: From 2004 to 2006, a total of 1024 Chinese patients (aged 35 to 64 years) with severe chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg of celecoxib twice daily or placebo in Linqu County (Shandong Province, China), a high-risk area of gastric cancer. All gastroduodenal ulcer and cardiovascular events occurred were recorded and the patients were followed up for 1.5 years after treatment. At the end of the trial, a systematic interview survey about other adverse events was conducted.
RESULTS: Gastroduodenal ulcer was detected in 19 of 463 (3.72%) patients who received celecoxib and 17 of 473 (3.31%) patients who received placebo, respectively (odds ratio = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.58-2.19). Cardiovascular (CV) events occurred in 4 patients who received celecoxib and in 5 patients who received placebo, respectively. Compared with those who received placebo, patients who received celecoxib had no significant increase in occurrence of CV events (hazard ratio = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.23-3.15). Among the adverse events acquired by interview survey, only the frequency of bloating was significantly higher in patients treated with celecoxib than in those treated with placebo.
CONCLUSION: Treatment of gastric cancer with celecoxib is not associated with increased risk of gastroduodenal ulcer and cardiovascular events.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.4535
PMCID: PMC2731282  PMID: 18680235
Celecoxib; Gastroduodenal ulcer; Cardiovascular diseases; Adverse effects; Epidemiology; Randomized controlled trial

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