Recent studies have suggested that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) may be implicated in the development and progression of breast cancer. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a serine protease, may play a role in the regulation of IGFs' function through cleavage of IGFBP-3, resulting in release of active IGFs from IGFBP-3. As IGFs, IGFBPs and PSA are all present in breast cancer, possible associations among these proteins were speculated. In this study, we have measured PSA, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 in tumour tissue cytosols from 200 women with primary breast cancer, and have examined relationships between IGFs or IGFBPs and PSA along with other markers, including p53 protein, steroid hormone receptors (oestrogen and progesterone), cathepsin-D, epidermal growth factor receptor, Her-2/neu protein, S-phase fraction and DNA ploidy. Correlations or associations between PSA and IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 or IGFBP-3 were not observed. IGF-II was positively correlated with both IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-1. IGF-I was not associated with either of the two binding proteins, nor with IGF-II. Both IGF-II and IGFBP-3 were inversely associated with the oestrogen receptor, and IGFBP-3 was also positively associated with S-phase fraction. Our finding of IGF-II and IGFBP-3 in association with unfavourable prognostic indicators of breast cancer suggests that IGFs may be involved in the progression of breast cancer.
Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and II) are important endocrine, paracrine and autocrine mediators of physiological growth. They promote cellular proliferation, survival and differentiation. Their effects are mediated mainly through the IGF-I receptor, but IGFs also bind to the IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate and insulin receptors. IGF activity is modulated by a family of six high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs); in most situations, IGFBPs inhibit IGF actions but they may also enhance them. Assays are now available for IGF-I, IGF-II and individual IGFBPs. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 assays have some utility in the diagnosis and management of acromegaly and growth hormone deficiency. There is a large body of in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting a pathogenic role for alterations in the IGF system in many diseases, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease and neuromuscular disease. More recently, epidemiological studies have linked high IGF-I levels with some cancers and low IGF-I levels with ischaemic heart disease. Preliminary studies of recombinant IGF-I as a treatment for diabetes, osteoporosis and neuromuscular disease have been performed in humans. In contrast, there is considerable interest in developing IGF inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. This apparent paradox highlights the need to develop therapeutics beyond the natural ligands and inhibitors, with characteristics such as ligand and tissue specificity. This will only become possible as we increase our understanding of this complex system. Additionally, as IGF and IGFBP assays are becoming more readily available, their role in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases should be more clearly defined in the near future.
Background. The pathogenetic mechanisms of fetal growth restriction associated with placental malaria are largely unknown. We sought to determine whether placental malaria and related inflammation were associated with disturbances in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, a major regulator of fetal growth.
Method. We measured IGF-1 and IGF-2 concentrations in plasma from 88 mother-neonate pairs at delivery and IGF binding proteins 1 and 3 (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3, respectively) in cord plasma from a cohort of Papua New Guinean women with and without placental malaria. Messenger RNA levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, and the IGF receptors were measured in matched placental biopsy specimens.
Results. Compared with those for uninfected pregnancies, IGF-1 levels were reduced by 28% in plasma samples from women with placental Plasmodium falciparum infection and associated inflammation (P = .007) and by 25% in their neonates (P = .002). Levels of fetal IGFBP-1 were elevated in placental malaria with and without inflammation (P = .08 and P = .006, respectively) compared with uninfected controls. IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 plasma concentrations and placental IGF ligand and receptor messenger RNA transcript levels were similar across groups.
Conclusion. Placental malaria-associated inflammation disturbs maternal and fetal levels of IGFs, which regulate fetal growth. This may be one mechanism by which placental malaria leads to fetal growth restriction.
Experimental evidence suggests that an overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is implicated in human pancreatic tumors. Increased IGF-II and decreased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) serum concentrations have been linked to a number of other cancers.
We conducted a nested case-control study in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial cohort of men and women 55–74 years of age at baseline, to test whether pre-diagnostic circulating IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, andIGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio concentrations were associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer risk. Between 1994 and 2006, 187 incident cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma occurred (follow-up to 11.7 years). Two controls (n=374), who were alive at the time the case was diagnosed, were selected for each case and matched by age, race, sex and date of blood draw. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for smoking.
IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (highest compared with lowest quartile, OR=1.58, 95% CI 0.91–2.76, p-trend=0.25; OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.49–1.50, p-trend=0.31; and OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.51–1.51, p-trend=0.47, respectively). However, a significant positive trend was observed with high IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio levels (highest compared with lowest quartile OR=1.54, 95% CI 0.89–2.66, p-trend=0.04).
A higher IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio represents increased free IGF-I, which maybe a risk factor for pancreatic cancer.
Our results highlight the importance of this biomarker for further investigation in large prospective cohort studies and pooled analysis with other prospective cohorts.
IGF-I; IGF-II; IGFBP-3; IGF-I/IGFBP-3; Pancreatic
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I stimulates the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the primary source of extracellular matrix accumulation in liver fibrosis. In contrast, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) 3, the most abundant IGFBP in circulation, negatively modulates HSC mitogenesis. To investigate the role of the IGF axis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease among high-risk patients, we prospectively evaluated HCV-viremic/HIV-positive women.
A cohort investigation.
Total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in baseline serum specimens obtained from 472 HCV-viremic/HIV-positive subjects enrolled in the Women's Inter-agency HIV Study, a large multi-institutional cohort. The aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), a marker of liver fibrosis, was assessed annually.
Normal APRI levels (< 1.0) at baseline were detected in 374 of the 472 HCV-viremic/HIV-positive subjects tested, of whom 302 had complete liver function test data and were studied. IGF-I was positively associated [adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest and lowest quartiles (AORq4–q1), 5.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17–29.1; Ptrend = 0.03], and IGFBP-3 was inversely associated (AORq4–q1, 0.13; 95% CI 0.02–0.76; Ptrend = 0.04), with subsequent (incident) detection of an elevated APRI level(> 1.5), after adjustment for the CD4 T-cell count, alcohol consumption, and other risk factors.
High IGF-I may be associated with increased risk and high IGFBP-3 with reduced risk of liver disease among HCV-viremic/HIV-positive women.
aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index; APRI; hepatitis C virus (HCV); HIV; IGFBP-3; IGF; liver disease
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in blood form two complexes with specific binding proteins (BPs): a large, growth hormone (GH)-dependent complex with restricted capillary permeability, and a smaller complex, inversely related to GH, with high turnover of its IGF pool and free capillary permeability. The distribution of BPs and of IGFs I and II between these complexes was studied in sera from healthy adults treated with IGF I or/and GH and from patients with extrapancreatic tumor hypoglycemia. Like GH, IGF I administration raises IGF I and two glycosylation variants of IGFBP-3 in the large complex, but unlike GH drastically reduces IGF II. During IGF I infusion, IGFBP-3 appears in the small complex whose IGFBP-2 and IGF I increase three- to fivefold and fivefold, respectively. GH treatment, associated with elevated insulin levels, suppresses IGFBP-2 and inhibits its increase owing to infused IGF I. The small complex of tumor sera contains increased amounts of IGFBP-2 and -3, and two- to threefold elevated IGF II. Conclusions: low GH and/or insulin during IGF I infusion and in extrapancreatic tumor hypoglycemia enhance expression of IGFBP-2 and favor partition of IGFBP-3 into the small complex. Free capillary passage and high turnover of its increased IGF I or II pools may contribute to compensate for suppressed insulin secretion during IGF I infusion or to development of tumor hypoglycemia.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) promotes breast cancer and disease progression. Bioavailability of IGF1 is modulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). IGFBP4 inhibits IGF1 activity but cleavage by pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) protease releases active IGF1.
Expression of IGF pathway components and PAPP-A was assessed by western blot or RT–PCR. IGFBP4 (dBP4) resistant to PAPP-A cleavage, but retaining IGF-binding capacity, was used to block IGF activity in vivo. 4T1.2 mouse mammary adenocarcinoma cells transfected with empty vector, vector expressing wild-type IGFBP4 or vector expressing dBP4 were implanted in the mammary fat pad of BALB/c mice and tumour growth was assessed. Tumour angiogenesis and endothelial cell apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry.
4T1.2 cells expressed the IGF1R receptor and IGFBP4. PAPP-A was expressed within mammary tumours but not by 4T1.2 cells. Proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by 4T1.2 cells was increased by IGF1(E3R) (recombinant IGF1 resistant to binding by IGFBPs) but not by wild-type IGF1. IGF1-stimulated microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was blocked by recombinant IGFBP4. 4T1.2 tumours expressing dBP4 grew significantly more slowly than controls or tumours expressing wild-type IGFBP4. Inhibition of tumour growth by dBP4 was accompanied by the increased endothelial cell apoptosis.
Protease-resistant IGFBP4 blocks IGF activity, tumour growth and angiogenesis .
insulin-like growth factor; insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-4; pregnancy-associated plasma protein A; angiogenesis; breast cancer
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is an important regulator of bone formation. The IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) are the most abundant growth factors produced by bone, and are regulated by their six high affinity binding proteins (IGFBPs). The IGFBPs are produced by osteoblasts and are responsible for transporting the IGFs and extending their half-lives. In general, IGFBP-1, -2, -4, and -6 inhibit and IGFBP-3 and –5 stimulate osteoblast function. IGFBP-4 and -5 are the most abundant IGFBPs produced by osteoblasts, and therefore they are the primary focus of this review. IGFBP-5 is an important stimulator of bone formation and may also function independently of IGFs. IGFBP-4 inhibits osteoblast function by sequestering IGF and preventing it from binding to its receptor. This review focuses on the specific IGF-dependent and IGF-independent roles of the IGFBPs in bone formation, as well as their potential mechanisms of action. In addition, discussion of the regulation of the IGFBPs by post-translational modification (i.e., proteolysis) has been included. Studies on the regulation of production and actions of IGFBPs suggest that the IGFBP system in bone is pleiotropic and capable of serving multiple effector inputs from systemic and local sources.
Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins; Insulin-like growth factors; Bone; Osteoblasts; Growth
Circulating insulin-like growth factor-one (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels have been associated with common diseases. Although family-based studies suggest that genetic variation contributes to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels, analyses of associations with multiple IGF-I and IGFBP-3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been limited, especially among African Americans. We evaluated 30 IGF-I and 15 IGFBP-3 SNPs and estimated diplotypes in association with plasma IGF-I and IGFBP-3 among 984 premenopausal African American and Caucasian women. In both races, IGFBP-3 rs2854746 (Ala32Gly) was positively associated with plasma IGFBP-3 (CC versus GG mean difference among Caucasians = 631 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval: 398, 864; African Americans = 897 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval: 656, 1138), and IGFBP-3 diplotypes with the rs2854746 GG genotype had lower mean IGFBP-3 levels than referent diplotypes with the CG genotype, while IGFBP-3 diplotypes with the CC genotype had higher mean IGFBP-3 levels. IGFBP-3 rs2854744 (−202 A/C) was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2854746 in Caucasians only, but was associated with plasma IGFBP-3 in both races. Eight additional IGFBP-3 SNPs were associated with 5% or greater differences in mean IGFBP-3 levels, with generally consistent associations between races. Twelve IGF-I SNPs were associated with 10% or greater differences in mean IGF-I levels, but associations were generally discordant between races. Diplotype associations with plasma IGF-I did not parallel IGF-I SNP associations. Our study supports that common IGFBP-3 SNPs, especially rs2854746, influence plasma IGFBP-3 levels among African Americans and Caucasians, but provides less evidence that IGF-I SNPs affect plasma IGF-I levels.
insulin-like growth factor I; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3; genetic polymorphisms; women; African Americans
Deregulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, including the autocrine production of IGFs, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), IGFBP proteases, and the expression of the IGF receptors, has been identified in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Characteristic alterations detected in HCC and hepatoma cell lines comprise the increased expression of IGF-II and the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), which have emerged as crucial events in malignant transformation and the growth of tumours. Alterations of IGFBP production and the proteolytic degradation of IGFBPs resulting in an excess of bioactive IGFs, as well as the defective function of the IGF degrading IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor (IGF-II/M6PR), may further potentiate the mitogenic effects of IGFs in the development of HCC.
insulin-like growth factors; insulin-like growth factor binding proteins; insulin-like growth factor I receptor; insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor; hepatocarcinogenesis; hepatocellular carcinoma
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I induces growth in pancreatic cancer cells and blockade of the IGF-I receptor has antitumour activity. The association of plasma IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) with pancreatic cancer risk has been investigated in two small studies, with conflicting results. We conducted a nested case–control study within four large, prospective cohorts to investigate whether prediagnostic plasma levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 were associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Plasma levels in 212 cases and 635 matched controls were compared by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for other known pancreatic cancer risk factors. No association was observed between plasma levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, or IGFBP-3 and incident diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Relative risks for the highest vs the lowest quartile of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 were 0.94 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60–1.48), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.61–1.52), and 1.21 (95% CI, 0.75–1.92), respectively. The relative risk for the molar ratio of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, a surrogate measure for free IGF-I, was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.54–1.31). Additionally, no association was noted in stratified analyses or when requiring longer follow-up. In four prospective cohorts, we found no association between the risk of pancreatic cancer and prediagnostic plasma levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, or IGFBP-3.
pancreatic cancer; insulin-like growth factor; insulin-like growth factor binding protein; insulin
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and has been implicated in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) modify IGF-I actions independently of IGF binding, but a receptor-based mechanism by which they function has not been elucidated. We investigated the role of IGFBP-2 and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase β (RPTPβ) in regulating IGF-I signaling and cellular proliferation. IGFBP-2 bound RPTPβ, which led to its dimerization and inactivation. This enhanced PTEN tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibited PTEN activity. Utilization of substrate trapping and phosphatase-dead mutants showed that RPTPβ bound specifically to PTEN and dephosphorylated it. IGFBP-2 knockdown led to decreased PTEN tyrosine phosphorylation and decreased AKT Ser473 activation. IGFBP-2 enhanced IGF-I-stimulated VSMC migration and proliferation. Analysis of aortas obtained from IGFBP-2−/− mice showed that RPTPβ was activated, and this was associated with inhibition of IGF-I stimulated AKT Ser473 phosphorylation and VSMC proliferation. These changes were rescued following administration of IGFBP-2. These findings present a novel mechanism for coordinate regulation of IGFBP-2 and IGF-I signaling functions that lead to stimulation of VSMC proliferation. The results have important implications for understanding how IGFBPs modulate the cellular response to IGF-I.
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family consists of ligands (IGF-I, IGF-II, insulin), several receptors (including IGF-1R), and six binding proteins (IGFBP-1 through IGFBP-6). Members of this family regulate key cellular activities and they also play an important role in the development and progression of both adult and childhood cancers. Binding of a ligand to the receptor leads to its activation, followed by signal transduction along several pathways. In some childhood malignancies, IGF-1R can be activated by endocrine, autocrine, or paracrine mechanisms. Although mutations in IGF-1R have not been identified, this signaling pathway is upregulated in many childhood cancers. These findings have led to the development of a host of IGF-1R signaling modulators that are currently being tested in clinical trials. This review explores the role of IGF-1R in a range of childhood malignancies.
IGF-1R; Pediatric malignancy; Molecular targeting; Therapeutic antibody
To assess the role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in growth and transformation of normal (myometrium) and tumorous smooth muscle cell (SMC) tissues, in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis for insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) mRNAs was combined with detection of IGF peptides, their receptors and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). mRNAs for both IGFs were detected in smooth muscle cells in normal, benign and malignant SMC tissues, together with the IGF peptides, both IGF receptors and IGFBP-3. This suggests an autocrine role for both IGFs. Leiomyomas had higher IGF-I peptide levels and higher levels of type I IGF receptors than myometrium, supporting the idea that IGFs play a role in the growth and transformation of these tumours. Low-grade leiomyosarcomas contained more IGF-II mRNAs than myometrium and leiomyoma, fewer type II IGF/mannose 6-phosphate receptors and less IGFBP-3 than myometrium and, in addition, fewer IGF-I mRNAs and type I IGF receptors than leiomyoma. Intermediate- and high-grade leiomyosarcomas had intermediate levels of IGF-II mRNAs and peptide, ranging between those in myometrium and low-grade leiomyosarcomas. Thus, growth and transformation of leiomyosarcomas may be regulated by IGF-II, although more markedly in low-grade than in high-grade leiomyosarcomas. In conclusion, the various categories of SMC tissues are associated with a distinct expression pattern of the IGF system. This suggests that each category of SMC tumours arises as a distinct entity and that there is no progression of transformation in these tissues.
Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and its main binding protein, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), have been associated with risk of several types of cancer. Heritable factors explain up to 60% of the variation in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in studies of adult twins.
We systematically examined common genetic variation in 18 genes in the IGF signaling pathway for associations with circulating levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. A total of 302 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in over 5500 Caucasian men and 5500 Caucasian women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).
After adjusting for multiple testing, SNPs in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes were significantly associated with circulating IGF-1 (p<2.1×10−4); SNPs in the IGFBP3 and IGFALS genes were significantly associated with circulating IGFBP-3. Multi-SNP models explained R2=0.62% of the variation in circulating IGF-1 and 3.9% of the variation in circulating IGFBP-3. We saw no significant association between these multi-SNP predictors of circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 and risk of prostate or breast cancers.
Common genetic variation in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes appears to influence circulating IGF-1 levels, and variation in IGFBP3 and IGFALS appears to influence circulating IGFBP-3. However, these variants explain only a small percentage of the variation in circulating IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in Caucasian men and women.
Further studies are needed to explore contributions from other genetic factors such as rare variants in these genes and variation outside of these genes.
insulin-like growth factors; genetic association; breast cancer; prostate cancer
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are bound by several IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) that appear to regulate IGF transportation, receptor binding and action. In adult human serum, most of IGFs are bound in a 150 kDa complex which could not cross the capillary wall. We measured IGF-I and IGFBPs in chyle by radioimmunoassay and western ligand blot. The concentration of IGF-I in chyle was only 15% of the corresponding serum level and most of IGF-I was found in 50 kDa complex. The IGFBPs profile in chyle, especially IGFBP-3, was different from that of serum. The concentration of IGFBP-3 in chyle was much less than in serum and the size of glycosylated IGFBP-3 was different from that of serum. However, the size and relative amount of IGFBP-1 and -2 in chyle were similar to serum. This finding indicates that IGF-I and IGFBPs in chyle to a large extent originate in the vascular system and only the 50 kDa complex can cross the capillary barrier.
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system includes IGF-I and IGF-II, the type I and type II IGF receptors, and specific IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6). These factors regulate both normal and malignant brain growth. Enhanced expression of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA transcripts has been demonstrated in gliomas, meniningiomas, and other tumours. Abnormal imprinting of IGF-II occurs in gliomas, medulloblastomas, and meningiomas. Both types of IGF receptor are expressed in gliomas and, in particular, the type I IGF receptor appears to be upregulated in malignant brain tissue. Antisense IGF-I receptor mRNA induces an antitumour response, resulting in complete brain tumour regression. Clinical trials for the treatment of brain tumours in humans based on a gene transfer protocol using IGF-I receptor antisense are under way. All six IGFBPs are expressed to a variable extent in brain tumours. High concentrations of IGFBP-2 are found in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with malignant central nervous system tumours; therefore, IGFBP-2 might be a useful marker for these tumours. IGFBP-4 appears to be a negative regulator of tumour proliferation. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that the IGF system represents an important target for the treatment of malignant central nervous system tumours and the ongoing trials should provide valuable information for future therapeutic approaches.
insulin-like growth factor; insulin-like growth factor binding protein; central nervous system; brain tumours
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a central role in cellular growth, differentiation, survival, and cell cycle progression. It is expressed early during development and its effects are mediated through binding to a tyrosine kinase receptor, the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). In the circulation, the IGFs bind to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), which determine their bioavailability and regulate the interaction between the IGFs and IGF-1R. Studies in animal models and in humans have established critical roles for IGFs in skeletal growth and development. In this review we present new and old findings from mouse models of the IGF system and discuss their clinical relevance to normal and pathological skeletal physiology. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR; GROWTH HORMONE, BONE ACCRUAL; SKELETAL GROWTH; CORTICAL-BONE
The present study aimed to elucidate the clinicopathologic role of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) in patients with pancreatic cancer. The function of IGFBP3 is controversial, because both inhibition and facilitation of the action of IGF as well as IGF-independent effects have been reported. In this study, IGF1R and IGFBP3 expression was examined, and their potential roles as prognostic markers in patients with pancreatic cancer were evaluated.
Clinicopathological features of 122 patients with curatively resected pancreatic cancer were retrospectively reviewed, and expression of IGF1R and IGFBP3 was immunohistochemically analyzed.
Expression of IGF1R and IGFBP3 was observed in 50 (41.0%) and 37 (30.3%) patients, respectively. IGF1R expression was significantly associated with histological grade (p = 0.037). IGFBP3 expression had a significant association with tumor location (p = 0.023), and a significant inverse association with venous invasion (p = 0.037). Tumors with IGF1R-positive and IGFBP3-negative expression (n = 32) were significantly frequently Stage II and III (p = 0.011). The prognosis for IGF1R positive patients was significantly poorer than that for IGF1R negative patients (p = 0.0181). IGFBP3 protein expression did not correlate significantly with patient survival. The subset of patients with both positive IGF1R and negative IGFBP3 had worse overall survival (8.8 months versus 12.6 months, respectively, p < 0.001).
IGF1R signaling might be associated with tumor aggressiveness, and IGFBP3 might show antiproliferative effects in pancreatic cancer. Both high IGF1R expression and low IGFBP3 expression represent useful prognostic markers for patients with curatively resected pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic cancer; IGF1R; IGFBP3; Prognosis
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its major binding protein IGFBP-3 have been implicated in breast carcinogenesis. We examined the associations between genetic variants and circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 with proliferative benign breast disease (BBD), a marker of increased breast cancer risk, in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). Participants were 359 pathology-confirmed proliferative BBD cases and 359 matched controls. Circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels were measured in blood samples collected between 1996 and 1999. Thirty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 genes were selected using a haplotype tagging approach and genotyped in cases and controls. Circulating IGF-I levels were not associated with proliferative BBD risk. Higher circulating IGFBP-3 levels were significantly associated with increased risk of proliferative BBD (highest vs. lowest quartile odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)), 1.70 (1.06–2.72); p-trend = 0.03). The minor alleles of two IGFBP-3 SNPs were associated with lower proliferative BBD risk (homozygous variant vs. homozygous wild-type OR (95% CI): rs3110697: 0.6 (0.4–0.9), p-trend = 0.02; rs2132570: 0.2 (0.1–0.6), p-trend = 0.02). Three other IGFBP-3 SNPs (rs2854744, rs2960436, and rs2854746) were significantly associated with circulating IGFBP-3 levels (p < 0.01). Although these SNPs were not significantly associated with proliferative BBD risk, there was suggestive evidence that the alleles associated with higher circulating IGFBP-3 levels were also associated with higher risk of proliferative BBD. These results suggest that genetic variants and circulating levels of IGFBP-3 may play a role in the early stage of breast carcinogenesis.
IGF-I; IGFBP-3; Circulating levels; Genetic Variation; Proliferative BBD
To evaluate the relationship between serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), and IGF-1 binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) and fasting insulin, fasting glucose, adiposity, and mortality in older adults.
A prospective cohort study with mean follow-up of 6.2 years.
Participants were recruited and followed at two centers affiliated with academic medical institutions.
Six hundred twenty-five men and women aged 70 and older and in good health at the time of enrollment.
Serum IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-2; fasting serum insulin; fasting serum glucose; visceral fat; and total percent fat.
Higher IGFBP-1 and higher IGFBP-2 were significantly associated with lower fasting insulin, lower fasting glucose, and lower adiposity, but higher IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 were associated with greater mortality. In multivariate adjusted models, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.14–1.92) per standard deviation (SD) increase in IGFBP-2 and 1.34 (95% CI = 1.01–1.76) per SD increase in IGFBP-1. No association was found between IGF-1 and all-cause mortality.
Higher IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 are associated with lower adiposity and decreased glucose tolearance but also with greater all-cause mortality. Higher levels of serum IGF-1 binding protein (IGFBP) may indicate greater IGF-1 activity and thus represent an association between higher IGF-1 activity and mortality in humans.
aging; IGF-1; IGFBP; mortality
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway plays a critical role in the growth and development of the uterus and is believed to function as a mediator of steroid hormone actions in the endometrium. The local expression of genes encoding IGFs and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are important in determining IGF bioactivity in the uterus. Genetic variation in key genes within the IGF pathway may influence the rate of cellular proliferation and differentiation in the uterus and ultimately affect the risk of endometrial cancer. Our hypothesis is that variant alleles in key genes involved in the IGF pathway will influence the development of endometrial cancer.
We conducted a case-control study nested within the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and the Women's Health Study (WHS) to investigate the association between forty-four polymorphisms within IGFI, IGFII, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 with endometrial cancer risk using 692 invasive endometrial cancer cases and 1723 matched controls. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the risk of endometrial cancer.
We observed an inverse association with IGFII rs3741211 and endometrial cancer risk (OR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.99)) and IGFII rs1004446 and endometrial cancer risk (OR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.94)). We also observed an inverse association with IGFBP-3 rs2453839 and endometrial cancer risk (OR= 0.81 (95%CI: 0.67, 0.98). However, we did not observe any statistically significant associations with the polymorphisms in IGFI and IGFBP1 and endometrial cancer risk.
Genetic variation with IGFII and IGFBP-3 may influence endometrial cancer risk in Caucasians. Polymorphisms in IGFI and IGFBP-1 were not associated with endometrial cancer risk, but further research is needed.
endometrial cancer; polymorphisms; genetics; IGF
The diverse biological activities of the insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2) are mediated by the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-IR). These actions are modulated by a family of six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-1–6; 22–31 kDa) that via high affinity binding to the IGFs (KD ~ 300–700 pM) both protect the IGFs in the circulation and attenuate IGF action by blocking their receptor access. In recent years, IGFBPs have been implicated in a variety of cancers. However, the structural basis of their interaction with IGFs and/or other proteins is not completely understood. A critical challenge in the structural characterization of full-length IGFBPs has been the difficulty in expressing these proteins at levels suitable for NMR/X-ray crystallography analysis. Here we describe the high-yield expression of full-length recombinant human IGFBP-2 (rhIGFBP-2) in E. coli. Using a single step purification protocol, rhIGFBP-2 was obtained with >95% purity and structurally characterized using NMR spectroscopy. The protein was found to exist as a monomer at the high concentrations required for structural studies and to exist in a single conformation exhibiting a unique intra-molecular disulfide-bonding pattern. The protein retained full biologic activity. This study represents the first high-yield expression of wild-type recombinant human IGFBP-2 in E. coli and first structural characterization of a full-length IGFBP.
Recombinant human IGF- binding protein-2 (rhIGFBP-2); E coli Expression; Protein Purification; Protein Structure; Secondary Structure; G-matrix Fourier transform (GFT) NMR
We have compared the expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) in ten paired samples of normal and tumour colonic tissue with regard to both mRNA and protein. We have compared sensitivity of these tissues to IGF-I using primary cultures of epithelial cells of colonic mucosa, and we have examined the production of IGFs and IGFBPs by these cells. In the tissues, IGFBP-2 mRNA was expressed in all normal and cancer samples but other IGFBPs showed variable expression. mRNAs for IGF-I were expressed in all normal and cancer tissues but IGF-II mRNA was only detected in cancer tissue (3 out of 10). Immunostaining of sections of normal and cancer tissue was negative for IGF-I and IGF-II; IGFBP-2 was positive in 2 out of 10 cancer tissues and 7 out of 10 normal tissues; IGFBP-3 was positive in 7 out of 10 cancer tissues and 7 out of 10 normal tissues; and IGFBP-4 was positive in 5 out of 10 cancer tissues and 6 out of 10 normal tissues. In the cells in culture, cancer cells showed increased incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein and [3H]thymidine into DNA (P < 0.02) when treated with IGF-I. Western blotting of serum-free conditioned media from cells in culture showed that 8 out of 10 normal and 3 out of 10 cancer cultures produced a 32-kDa immunoreactive IGFBP-2. No IGFBP-3 was secreted by any culture but 24-kDa IGFBP-4 was found in 3 out of 10 normal and 5 out of 10 cancer tissues. Because of the discrepancy between mRNA and protein expression for IGFBP-2, degradation of native IGFBPs was assessed using tissue extracts. Colon cancer extracts were able to degrade exogenous IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4, whereas normal tissue extracts were without effect on IGFBP-2. We conclude that IGFBPs are synthesized and secreted by cells of the colonic mucosa but that proteolysis of secreted IGFBP-2 occurs in colon cancer tissue. This selective degradation may confer a growth advantage.
Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) have mitogenic and antiapoptotic functions, and may be involved in tumor growth. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of IGF components in seminoma compared to normal testis. Normal testicular tissues from autopsy cases and seminoma from surgery cases were obtained for microarray and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF receptor type 1 (IGF-R1), IGF-R2, insulin receptor isoforms A (IR-A) and B (IR-B), and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) 1–6. IGF-2 was localized by immunohistochemistry. IGFBP-5 protein expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. mRNA expression in microarray and real-time RT-PCR showed similar tendencies: IGF-1, IGF-R1, IGF-R2, IR-A, and IGFBP-2 were not different in both groups. IGF-2, IR-B, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-4, and IGFBP-6 mRNA were downregulated in seminoma. IGFBP-3 tended to be upregulated in pT1 seminoma, but downregulated in pT2 stages. IGFBP-5 and IGF-2 protein expression correlated with mRNA expression. In conclusion, downregulation of mainly inhibiting IGFBPs may allow a stimulated tumor growth. The downregulated IGF-2 does not seem to be involved in the growth regulation of seminoma. Constantly expressed genes (e.g., IGF-1, IGF-R1, IR-A, and IGFBP-2) may reflect an involvement in spermatogenesis, but may also play a major role in tumor growth as their expression is not downregulated despite the lack of spermatogenesis in tumor tissue.
IGF; insulin receptor; germ cell tumor; seminoma; testis