Previous randomized studies have demonstrated that fesoterodine significantly improves the Overactive Bladder (OAB) symptoms and their assessment by patients compared with tolterodine extended-release (ER). This study aimed to assess the effect of aging and dose escalation on patient-reported treatment benefit, after changing their first Overactive Bladder (OAB) therapy with tolterodine-ER to fesoterodine in daily clinical practice.
A post-hoc analysis of data from a retrospective, cross-sectional and observational study was performed in a cohort of 748 OAB adults patients (OAB-V8 score ≥8), who switched to fesoterodine from their first tolterodine-ER-based therapy within the 3–4 months before study visit. Effect of fesoterodine doses (4 mg vs. 8 mg) and patient age (<65 yr vs. ≥65 yr) were assessed. Patient reported treatment benefit [Treatment Benefit Scale (TBS)] and physician assessment of improvement with change [Clinical Global Impression of Improvement subscale (CGI-I)] were recorded. Treatment satisfaction, degree of worry, bother and interference with daily living activities due to urinary symptoms were also assessed.
Improvements were not affected by age. Fesoterodine 8 mg vs. 4 mg provides significant improvements in terms of treatment benefit [TBS 97.1% vs. 88.4%, p < 0.001; CGI-I 95.8% vs. 90.8% p < 0.05)], degree of worry, bother and interference with daily-living activities related to OAB symptoms (p <0.05).
A change from tolterodine ER therapy to fesoterodine with dose escalation to 8 mg in symptomatic OAB patients, seems to be associated with greater improvement in terms of both patient-reported-treatment benefit and clinical global impression of change. Improvement was not affected by age.
Overactive bladder; Fesoterodine; Tolterodine ER; Dose escalation; Age; Patient-reported treatment benefit
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who were dissatisfied with previous tolterodine treatment.
This was a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose study of adults with OAB (≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 3 urgency episodes per 24 h) who had been treated with tolterodine (immediate- or extended-release) for OAB within 2 years of screening and reported dissatisfaction with tolterodine treatment. Subjects received fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks; thereafter, daily dosage was maintained at 4 mg or increased to 8 mg based on the subject’s and physician’s subjective assessment of efficacy and tolerability. Subjects completed 5-day diaries, the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) at baseline and week 12 and rated treatment satisfaction at week 12 using the Treatment Satisfaction Question (TSQ). Safety and tolerability were assessed.
Among 516 subjects treated, approximately 50% opted for dose escalation to 8 mg at week 4. Significant improvements from baseline to week 12 were observed in micturitions, urgency urinary incontinence episodes, micturition-related urgency episodes and severe micturition-related urgency episodes per 24 h (all p< 0.0001). Approximately 80% of subjects who responded to the TSQ at week 12 reported satisfaction with treatment; 38% reported being very satisfied. Using the PPBC, 83% of subjects reported improvement at week 12 with 59% reporting improvement ≥ 2 points. Significant improvements from baseline (p< 0.0001) exceeding the minimally important difference (10 points) were observed in OAB-q Symptom Bother and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) scales and all four HRQL domains. Dry mouth (23%) and constipation (5%) were the most common adverse events; no safety issues were identified.
Flexible-dose fesoterodine significantly improved OAB symptoms, HRQL, and rates of treatment satisfaction and was well tolerated in subjects with OAB who were dissatisfied with prior tolterodine therapy.
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a highly prevalent condition, affecting males and females. The prevalence increases with age. Behavioral therapy and antimuscarinic therapy remain the first-line therapies for management of OAB. Despite improvements in symptoms, persistence with antimuscarinic therapy has remained low. Multiple factors including patient expectations, adverse effects and cost may affect persistence. Fesoterodine is one of the newest antimuscarinic agent approved for the management of OAB. It is unique in that it shares the same active metabolite as tolterodine, 5-hydoxymethyltolterodine (5-HMT); however, this conversion is established via ubiquitous esterases and not via the cytochrome P450 system, thus providing a faster and more efficient conversion to 5-HMT. Fesoterodine is available in 2 doses, 4 mg and 8 mg. Clinical trials have established a dose response relationship in efficacy parameters as well as improvements in quality of life. As with all antimuscarinics, dry mouth and constipation are the more common side effects. A combination of medical therapy and behavioral therapy improves the overall outcome in management of OAB. Dose flexibility may help improve efficacy outcomes and patient education on the management of common adverse effects may improve tolerability with these agents.
overactive bladder; antimuscarinic agent; esterase; 5-HMT; fesoterodine
We assessed the efficacy and safety of solifenacin compared with tolterodine for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in Korean patients.
Materials and methods:
The study was randomised, double-blind, tolterodine-controlled trial in Korea. Patients had average frequency of ≥ 8 voids per 24 h and episodes of urgency or urgency incontinence ≥ 3 during 3-day voiding diary period. Patients were randomised to 12-week double-blind treatment with either tolterodine immediate release (IR) 2 mg twice daily (TOL4) or solifenacin 5 mg (SOL5) or 10 mg (SOL10) once daily. The outcome measure was mean change in daily micturition frequency, volume, daily frequency of urgency incontinence, urgency and nocturia from baseline to week 12. Quality of life was assessed using the King’s Health Questionnaire.
A total of 357 were randomised and 329 were evaluated for efficacy. All voiding parameters recorded in micturition diary improved after treatment in all three groups. Mean changes in volume voided were 19.30 ml (26.69%) in TOL4, 30.37 ml (25.89%) in SOL5 and 37.12 ml (33.36%) in SOL10 group (p = 0.03). Speed of onset of SOL10 efficacy on urgency incontinence was faster than that of SOL5 and TOL4. Quality of life improved in all three groups. Dry mouth was the most common adverse event; its incidence was the lowest in SOL5 group (7.63%, compared with 19.49% and 18.64% in SOL10 and TOL4 groups respectively).
Solifenacin succinate 5 and 10 mg once daily improve OAB symptoms with acceptable tolerability levels compared with tolterodine IR 4 mg. Solifenacin 5 mg is a recommended starting dose in Korean patients with OAB.
Awakening from sleep to urinate is the hallmark of nocturia, a condition that impacts several facets of health related quality of life and for which current therapy is suboptimal. Given the paucity of prospective data on antimuscarinics for the management of nocturia, we investigated the efficacy and safety of flexible dose fesoterodine for the treatment of nocturnal urgency in subjects with nocturia and overactive bladder.
Materials and Methods
Subjects with 2 to 8 nocturnal urgency episodes per 24 hours began a 2-week, single-blind, placebo run-in followed by 1:1 randomization to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with fesoterodine (4 mg daily for 4 weeks with an optional increase to 8 mg) or placebo using predefined criteria for nocturnal urgency episodes, nocturnal urine volume voided and total 24-hour urine volume voided. The primary end point was change from baseline to week 12 in the mean number of micturition related nocturnal urgency episodes per 24 hours.
Overall 963 subjects were randomized from 2,990 screened, and 82% of subjects treated with fesoterodine and 84% of those treated with placebo completed the study. Significant improvements in the primary end point (−1.28 vs −1.07), in nocturnal micturitions per 24 hours (−1.02 vs −0.85) and in nocturnal frequency urgency sum (−4.01 vs −3.42) were observed with fesoterodine vs placebo (all p ≤0.01). Health related quality of life measures (overactive bladder questionnaire Symptom Bother −20.1 vs −16.5, sleep 22.3 vs 19.9 and other domains; all p <0.05) were improved with fesoterodine.
To our knowledge this is the first prospective study to assess antimuscarinic efficacy for reducing nocturnal urgency. Flexible dose fesoterodine significantly reduced nocturnal urgency episodes vs placebo in subjects with overactive bladder.
muscarinic antagonists; urinary bladder; overactive; nocturia; lower urinary tract symptoms; treatment outcome
Fesoterodine is an antimuscarinic for the treatment of overactive bladder, a syndrome of urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia. Our objective was to develop predictive models to describe the dose response of fesoterodine.
Data from subjects enrolled in double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II and III trials were used for developing longitudinal dose-response models.
The models predicted that clinically significant and near-maximum treatment effects would be seen within 3 to 4 weeks after treatment initiation. For a typical patient with 11 micturitions per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.2, -1.7, and -2.2 micturitions for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. For a typical patient with 2 UUI episodes per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.05, -1.26, and -1.43 UUI episodes for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. Increase in mean voided volume was estimated at 9.7 mL for placebo, with an additional 14.2 mL and 28.4 mL for fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively.
A consistent dose response for fesoterodine was demonstrated for bladder diary endpoints in subjects with overactive bladder, a result that supports the greater efficacy seen with fesoterodine 8 mg in post hoc analyses of clinical trial data. The dose-response models can be used to predict outcomes for doses not studied or for patient subgroups underrepresented in clinical trials.
The phase III trials used in this analysis have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00220363 and NCT00138723).
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a prevalent and costly condition that can affect any age group. Typical symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence and nocturia. OAB occurs as a result of abnormal contractions of the bladder detrusor muscle caused by the stimulation of certain muscarinic receptors. Therefore, antimuscarinic agents have long been considered the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for OAB. Currently, there are five such agents approved for the management of OAB in the United States: oxybutynin, tolterodine, trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin. This article summarizes the efficacy, contraindications, precautions, dosing and common side effects of these agents. All available clinical trials on trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin were reviewed to determine its place in therapy.
overactive bladder; urinary incontinence; pharmacologic management; antimuscarinic agents; anticholinergics
Overactive bladder is a symptom syndrome with urgency, frequency and, in many cases, nocturia. Urge incontinence is not present in all. There is no direct correlation with detrusor overactivity, an objective finding during urodynamic testing where involuntary contractions can be noticed. In the pathophysiology, much more attention has been given to the afferent/sensory arm of the micturition reflex in the last decade. Anatomical and infectious causes have to be diagnosed or ruled out. Diagnosis of overactive bladder is made mostly by history-taking, but other tests can be necessary in specific patients. Treatment consists of behavioral measures, a good explanation of the condition, training, and pelvic floor physiotherapy. Drugs are often used. Until recently, antimuscarinic drugs have been the mainstay of pharmacological therapy. Fesoterodine is a newer antimuscarinic agent which is more pharmacodynamically stable then tolterodine. Fesoterodine has been extensively researched using different dosages and compared with placebo and tolterodine, in different age groups, and under different conditions. Fesoterodine is superior to placebo and to tolterodine in the short term and long term. Its safety is very acceptable.
overactive bladder; fesoterodine; incontinence; urgency; lower urinary tract
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a prevalent condition which has an adverse effect on quality of life. The presence of urgency incontinence confers significant morbidity above and beyond that of OAB sufferers who are continent. The primary treatment for OAB and urgency incontinence is a combination of behavioral measures and antimuscarinic drug therapy. The ideal antimuscarinic agent should effectively relieve the symptoms of OAB, with the minimum of side effects; it should be available as a once-daily sustained release formulation and in dosage strength that allows easy dose titration for the majority of sufferers. Solifenacin succinate was launched in 2005, and has been shown in both short and long term clinical trials to fulfill these requirements. Solifenacin is a competitive M3 receptor antagonist with a long half-life (45–68 hours). It is available in two dosage strengths namely a 5 or 10 mg once-daily tablet. The efficacy and tolerability of solifenacin for the treatment of all symptoms of OAB has been evaluated in a number of large, placebo controlled, randomized trials. Long-term safety, efficacy, tolerability and persistence with treatment have been established in an open label 40 week continuation study.
solifenacin; urinary incontinence; overactive bladder
Introduction and objective:
Patient perception of overactive bladder (OAB) treatment outcomes can be a useful indicator of benefit and may help drive persistence on treatment, which is known to be poor in OAB. It remains unclear whether OAB patients dissatisfied with one antimuscarinic can achieve satisfaction with another and supporting data are limited. This study investigated patient-reported outcomes and clinical parameters during darifenacin treatment in OAB patients who expressed dissatisfaction with prior extended-release (ER) oxybutynin or tolterodine therapy (administered for ≥ 1 week within the past year).
This open-label study was conducted in darifenacin-naïve OAB patients. Patients received 7.5 mg darifenacin once daily with the possibility of up-titrating to 15 mg after 2 weeks, for up to 12 weeks. Efficacy parameters included the Patient’s Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), patient satisfaction with treatment, micturition frequency and number of urgency and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded.
In total, 497 patients were treated (84.1% women). Darifenacin treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements in PPBC scores, micturition frequency, urgency and UUI episodes from baseline at 12 weeks. The improvements were similar for patients previously treated with oxybutynin ER or tolterodine ER. More than 85% of patients expressed satisfaction with darifenacin. As noted in other studies, the most common AEs were dry mouth and constipation, but these infrequently resulted in treatment discontinuation, which was low overall.
In this study, PPBC score and OAB symptoms were significantly improved, and satisfaction was high during treatment with darifenacin (7.5/15 mg) in patients who were dissatisfied with the previous antimuscarinic treatment.
Antimuscarinic agents used in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) differ in their potential to impair cognitive function. It is hypothesised that low brain concentrations and relatively low selectivity for the M1 muscarinic receptor may reduce the potential for adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects with darifenacin, compared with other antimuscarinics, particularly oxybutynin.
Cognitive function studies evaluating darifenacin, oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin and/or trospium were identified from publications databases (Medline, Biosis and Embase) and congress abstracts. Preclinical studies and randomised controlled trials in adults were reviewed.
Five randomised, double-blind, multiple-dose studies of cognitive function were identified. Oxybutynin was consistently associated with cognitive deficit (four studies), whereas darifenacin did not impair cognition (three studies). These findings were supported by data from sleep/attention and EEG studies. Tolterodine data were limited to one small study with each formulation. For solifenacin and trospium, there were no human studies evaluating memory, the cognitive function most vulnerable to CNS anticholinergics.
There is compelling evidence of cognitive impairment with oxybutynin, whereas darifenacin stands out by demonstrating no impairment of memory or other cognitive functions in three randomised, controlled trials. This may be attributed to the differences in physicochemical properties, efflux mechanisms and relative M1 muscarinic receptor sparing. The risk of CNS impairment is of particular concern for vulnerable populations such as the elderly (a substantial proportion of the OAB population), and CNS-compromised neurogenic bladder patients such as those with multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease.
Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a chronic condition characterised by urgency, with or without associated urge incontinence. Solifenacin succinate is a once daily, bladder selective antimuscarinic available in two doses (5 and 10 mg). The recommended dose is 5 mg once daily and can be increased to 10 mg once daily if 5 mg is well tolerated. This article presents pooled efficacy and safety data from four large, placebo-controlled, multinational phase III trials of solifenacin succinate with a total enrolment of over 2800 patients. Data from these trials show that solifenacin 5 and 10 mg once daily is significantly more effective than placebo at reducing urgency, incontinence, micturition frequency and nocturia and at increasing volume voided per micturition. Adverse events were mainly mild-to-moderate in all treatment groups. The results of these phase III trials support the use of solifenacin in the treatment of OAB.
Solifenacin; overactive bladder; antimuscarinic
To investigate the tolerability of tolterodine extended release (ER) in older subjects with overactive bladder (OAB).
This was a retrospective analysis of pooled data from five large, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Subjects with OAB symptoms, including urinary frequency and urgency (and nocturia in two studies) with or without urgency urinary incontinence, received qd treatment with tolterodine ER (4 mg) or placebo for 8–12 weeks. Data were stratified post hoc by age group: < 65 (n = 2531), 65–74 (n = 1059) and ≥ 75 years (n = 573). Tolerability was assessed by evaluating the occurrence of adverse events (AEs). AE occurrences from each study were mapped to the MedDRA coding dictionary of preferred terms.
Discontinuation rates were slightly higher among subjects ≥ 75 years of age vs. those < 65 years of age; however, this was observed in subjects treated with placebo as well as tolterodine ER. Overall, there were no significant differences in the occurrence of dry mouth, headache, constipation, nausea, urinary tract infection, blurred vision, dry eye, dizziness and micturition disorder in older (65–74 or ≥ 75 years) vs. younger (< 65 years) subjects treated with tolterodine ER relative to placebo (treatment × age; all p > 0.1). Dry mouth was the only AE consistently associated with tolterodine ER treatment (< 65 years, 17%; 65–74 years, 16%; ≥ 75 years, 15%). The occurrence of all other AEs was ≤ 5% in most age and treatment cohorts. Most AEs were mild or moderate in all age and treatment cohorts.
The nature and frequency of AEs associated with tolterodine ER treatment were similar across age groups in subjects with OAB, suggesting that tolterodine ER was not associated with an increased risk of AEs in older vs. younger subjects and, thus, is a suitable first-line pharmacotherapy treatment for OAB in this population.
Previous studies demonstrate that tolterodine extended release (ER) significantly improves urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes. Instruments that measure patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provide additional information that is valuable for assessing whether clinical improvements are meaningful to the patient. This study determined the correlation of changes in bladder diary variables and other PROs in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB).
Subjects with OAB, urinary frequency, and UUI were treated with 4 mg once-daily tolterodine ER or placebo for 12 weeks. Subjects completed 7-day bladder diaries, the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) at baseline and week 12. Only subjects who reported at least some minor bladder-related problems at baseline (PPBC score ≥ 3) were included in this analysis.
Reductions in UUI episodes per week were significantly greater in the tolterodine ER group (n = 500) compared with the placebo group (n = 487) at week 12 (-71% vs -33%, P < 0.0001). A significantly greater percentage of subjects in the tolterodine ER group reported improvement on the PPBC versus placebo (58% vs 45%, P < 0.0001), and 7 of 10 KHQ domains were significantly improved versus placebo (all P < 0.05). Significant correlations were found for median percentage changes in UUI episodes with changes in PPBC scores (r = 0.35,P < 0.0001) and the 7 improved KHQ domains (r = 0.16–0.32, P ≤ 0.0011). Changes in PPBC scores and all KHQ domains were significantly correlated (r = 0.13–0.38, P ≤ 0.009) in the tolterodine ER group. Correlations among endpoints in the placebo group were similar to those observed in the tolterodine ER group.
Improvement in UUI episodes after 12 weeks of treatment with tolterodine ER or placebo was correlated with improvements in patients' perception of their bladder-related problems and health-related quality of life. Correlations were moderate in magnitude but statistically significant, suggesting that PROs are important and relevant measures for evaluating OAB treatment.
Objectives. To prospectively examine the efficacy and safety of propiverine hydrochloride in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms who poorly responded to previous treatment with solifenacin, tolterodine or imidafenacin. Methods. Patients aged ≥20 with persisting OAB symptoms (≥6 in OAB symptom score (OABSS)) even after at least 4-week treatment using solifenacin, tolterodine or imidafenacin were enrolled. Propiverine 20 mg/day was administered for 12 weeks to 70 patients who desired the further improvement of OAB symptoms and 3 who had intolerable adverse events of previous drugs. The OABSS and postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) were determined before and at 4 and 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Of 73 patients enrolled (29 males and 44 females, median age 71 years), 52 completed the protocol treatment. The OABSS was significantly improved by propiverine treatment (9.0 at baseline, 6.2 at 4 weeks, 6.3 at 12 weeks (P < 0.001)). The scores of OAB symptoms (nighttime frequency, urgency and urge incontinence) except daytime frequency also improved significantly. No increase in PVR was observed. The most frequent adverse event was dry mouth (13.7%), followed by constipation (6.8%). Conclusions. Propiverine is useful to improve OAB for patients who poorly respond to solifenacin, tolterodine or imidafenacin.
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a medical syndrome defined by symptoms of urgency, with or without urge urinary incontinence (any involuntary loss of urine), usually with frequency and nocturia. Although anticholinergic agents have been the first-line treatment for OAB for many years, the efficacious pharmacologic management of this condition has been compromised by concerns regarding tolerability. Flavoxate was the first anticholinergic and antispasmodic agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat symptoms of OAB but is not routinely used today since newer agents are more effective. The more recent drugs, oxybutynin and tolterodine, have appeared to be equally efficacious in treating the symptoms of OAB in clinical trials; however, tolterodine has proven to be better tolerated with fewer adverse effects. In 2004, the FDA approved the three newest agents for the class: darifenacin, solifenacin, and trospium. Compared with oxybutynin and tolterodine, these agents have a more favorable side effect profile, which can enhance tolerability and patient compliance. Side effects are reduced in part because of the drugs' greater tissue selectivity for inhibiting the bladder muscle contraction over other anticholinergic receptors in the body. In recent clinical trials, darifenacin, solifenacin, and trospium have shown superiority to placebo and efficacy comparable to that of oxybutynin and tolterodine.
Mirabegron is a novel, once-daily, orally active, first-in-class, potent β3-adrenoceptor agonist recently approved by Food and Drug Administration for overactive bladder therapy. Phase II studies and four large-scale phase III multinational randomized, controlled trials have supported the efficacy and tolerability of mirabegron in the clinical trial setting of patients with overactive bladder for up to 12 weeks of therapy and in the long term (12 months). The reported incidence and severity of treatment-emergent and serious adverse effects were similar to antimuscarinics, but with a more than threefold lower incidence of dry mouth compared with tolterodine. However, the effects on the cardiovascular system, pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs, and increased incidence of new malignant events will require careful evaluation in the near future.
β3-adrenoceptor agonist; efficacy; mirabegron; overactive bladder; safety; urinary incontinence
Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a constellation of distressing symptoms that significantly impair quality of life, sexual function, and work productivity, and imposes a significant economic burden to society. Pharmacological treatment with antimuscarinic agents, behavioral modification, bladder retraining, and/or pelvic floor exercises are often used alone or in combination as the mainstay treatment in the management of OAB. Oxybutynin has been used in the treatment of OAB for over 20 years with proven efficacy and is often the comparator in drug treatment trials. Oral formulations of oxybutynin have proven efficacy, but not without significant antimuscarinic effects, which reduce patient persistence with medical treatment. Low levels of patient persistence with oral formulations of oxybutynin provided an impetus for the development of a transdermal oxybutynin delivery system. The oxybutynin transdermal formulation has been found to have side effects similar to that of a placebo in randomized controlled trials while providing excellent efficacy. Patient persistence with therapy, improved quality of life, sexual function and interpersonal relationships have been observed with use of the transdermal oxybutynin delivery system. Its twice weekly dosing, low side effect profile, and high efficacy have made it a good choice for initial treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.
overactive bladder syndrome; oxybutynin; transdermal delivery
Imidafenacin is an antimuscarinic agent with high affinity for the M3 and M1 muscarinic receptor subtypes and low affinity for the M2 subtype, and is used to treat overactive bladder. Several animal studies have demonstrated that imidafenacin has organ selectivity for the bladder over the salivary glands, colon, heart, and brain. In Phase I studies in humans, the approximately 2.9-hour elimination half-life of imidafenacin was shorter than that of other antimuscarinics such as tolterodine and solifenacin. Imidafenacin was approved for clinical use in overactive bladder in Japan in 2007 after a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II study and a propiverine-controlled Phase III study conducted in Japanese patients demonstrated that imidafenacin 0.1 mg twice daily was clinically effective for treating overactive bladder and was not inferior to propiverine for reduction of episodes of incontinence, with a better safety profile than propiverine. Several short-term clinical studies have demonstrated that imidafenacin also improves sleep disorders, nocturia, and nocturia-related quality of life. In addition, it is speculated that addon therapy with imidafenacin is beneficial for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia whose overactive bladder symptoms are not controlled by alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonists. No cognitive impairment or influence of imidafenacin on the QTc interval has been observed. Although there have been very few relevant long-term clinical studies, the available information suggests the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of imidafenacin, with less frequent severe adverse events, such as dry mouth and constipation. In addition, imidafenacin can be used safely for a long time even for cognitively vulnerable elderly patients with symptoms of overactive bladder. Thus, it is highly likely that imidafenacin is safe, efficacious, and tolerable to control symptoms of overactive bladder even over the long term. However, it remains unknown if the practical effectiveness of imidafenacin is applicable to ethnic groups other than Japanese.
overactive bladder; antimuscarinics; imidafenacin; long-term efficacy
Overactive bladder (OAB) affects the lives of millions of people worldwide and antimuscarinics are the pharmacological treatment of choice. Meta-analyses of all currently used antimuscarinics for treating OAB found similar efficacy, making the choice dependent on their adverse event profiles. However, conventional meta-analyses often fail to quantify and compare adverse events across different drugs, dosages, formulations, and routes of administration. In addition, the assessment of the broad variety of adverse events is dissatisfying. Our aim was to compare adverse events of antimuscarinics using a network meta-analytic approach that overcomes shortcomings of conventional analyses.
Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialized Trials Register, previous systematic reviews, conference abstracts, book chapters, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials comparing at least one antimuscarinic for treating OAB with placebo or with another antimuscarinic, and adverse events as outcome measures. Two authors independently extracted data. A network meta-analytic approach was applied allowing for joint assessment of all adverse events of all currently used antimuscarinics while fully maintaining randomization.
69 trials enrolling 26′229 patients were included. Similar overall adverse event profiles were found for darifenacin, fesoterodine, transdermal oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine, and trospium chloride but not for oxybutynin orally administered when currently used starting dosages were compared.
The proposed generally applicable transparent network meta-analytic approach summarizes adverse events in an easy to grasp way allowing straightforward benchmarking of antimuscarinics for treating OAB in clinical practice. Most currently used antimuscarinics seem to be equivalent first choice drugs to start the treatment of OAB except for oral oxybutynin dosages of ≥10 mg/d which may have more unfavorable adverse event profiles.
Introduction and hypothesis
Mirabegron is a potent and selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist that may represent an alternative treatment option in place of antimuscarinics for patients with overactive bladder.
Patients completed a single-blinded, 2-week placebo run-in period followed by 12 weeks of randomized (n = 928) double-blinded treatment with mirabegron oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg once-daily (QD), placebo or tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg QD. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to end-of-treatment in mean number of micturition episodes/24 h. Secondary endpoints included changes in mean volume voided per micturition; mean number of urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence, and urgency episodes/24 h; severity of urgency; nocturia; and quality of life measures. Safety parameters included vital signs, adverse events, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram measurements and post-void residual volume.
Mirabegron 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg resulted in dose-dependent reductions (improvements) from baseline to end-of-treatment in micturition frequency of 1.9, 2.1, 2.1, and 2.2 micturitions/24 h respectively, versus 1.4 micturitions/24 h with placebo (p ≤ 0.05 for the mirabegron 50-, 100-, and 200-mg comparisons). There was a statistically significant improvement with mirabegron compared with placebo for most secondary endpoints including quality of life variables. While there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase from baseline in pulse rate in the mirabegron 100-mg and 200-mg groups, this was not associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular adverse events.
The favorable efficacy and tolerability of mirabegron in this phase II dose-finding study has led to its successful advancement into a phase III clinical development program.
β3-adrenoceptor agonist; Mirabegron; Overactive; Urinary bladder
To examine pooled efficacy data from three, large phase III studies comparing mirabegron (50 and 100 mg) with placebo, and pooled safety data including additional mirabegron 25 mg and tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg results.
This prespecified pooled analysis of three randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week studies, evaluated efficacy and safety of once-daily mirabegron 25 mg (safety analysis), 50 or 100 mg (efficacy and safety analyses) and tolterodine ER 4 mg (safety analysis) for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Co-primary efficacy measures were change from baseline to Final Visit in the mean number of incontinence episodes/24 h and mean number of micturitions/24 h. Key secondary efficacy end-points included mean number of urgency episodes/24 h and mean volume voided/micturitions, while other end-points included patient-reported outcomes according to the Treatment Satisfaction-Visual Analogue Scale (TS-VAS) and responder analyses [dry rate (posttreatment), ≥ 50% reduction in incontinence episodes/24 h, ≤ 8 micturitions/24 h (post hoc analysis)]. The safety analysis included adverse event (AE) reporting, laboratory assessments, ECG, postvoid residual volume and vital signs (blood pressure, pulse rate).
Mirabegron (50 and 100 mg once daily) demonstrated statistically significant improvements compared with placebo for the co-primary end-points, key secondary efficacy variables, TS-VAS and responder analyses (all comparisons p < 0.05). Mirabegron is well tolerated and demonstrates a good safety profile. The most common AEs (≥ 3%) included hypertension, nasopharyngitis and urinary tract infection (UTI); the incidence of hypertensive events and UTIs decreased with increasing dose. For mirabegron, the incidence of the bothersome antimuscarinic AE, dry mouth, was at placebo level and of a lesser magnitude than tolterodine.
The efficacy and safety of mirabegron are demonstrated in this large pooled clinical trial dataset in patients with OAB.
Objectives. Overactive bladder (OAB) is a chronic disease, but comparative trials of anticholinergics, which are commonly used for treatment of OAB, have generally been performed for up to 12 weeks only. There is no comparative study of a long-term intervention. Methods. We conducted a 52-week prospective randomized comparative study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two anticholinergics. Results. Forty-one Japanese patients with untreated OAB were randomly assigned to imidafenacin and solifenacin groups. There was no difference in OABSS and KHQ scores between the two groups, but the severity and incidence of adverse events caused by the anticholinergics showed increased differences between the groups with time. The severity of dry mouth and the incidence of constipation were significantly lower in the imidafenacin group (P = 0.0092 and P = 0.0013, resp.). Conclusions. This study is the first long-term trial to show differences in the properties of anticholinergics that were not detected in short-term studies. Since OAB is a chronic disease, we conclude that imidafenacin is preferable to solifenacin from a perspective of safety.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes associated with the initiation of treatment for urgency-predominant incontinence in women diagnosed by a simple 3-item questionnaire.
We conducted a multicenter, double-blinded, 12-week randomized trial of pharmacologic therapy for urgency-predominant incontinence in ambulatory women diagnosed by the simple 3-item questionnaire. Participants (N = 645) were assigned randomly to fesoterodine therapy (4-8 mg daily) or placebo. Urinary incontinence was assessed with the use of voiding diaries; postvoid residual volume was measured after treatment.
After 12 weeks, women who had been assigned randomly to fesoterodine therapy reported 0.9 fewer urgency and 1.0 fewer total incontinence episodes/day, compared with placebo (P ≤ .001). Four serious adverse events occurred in each group, none of which was related to treatment. No participant had postvoid residual volume of ≥250 mL after treatment.
Among ambulatory women with urgency-predominant incontinence diagnosed with a simple 3-item questionnaire, pharmacologic therapy resulted in a moderate decrease in incontinence frequency without increasing significant urinary retention or serious adverse events, which provides support for a streamlined algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of female urgency-predominant incontinence.
antimuscarinic therapy; diagnostic algorithm; fesoterodine; urgency incontinence
After lifestyle and behavioral measures to control overactive bladder, the mainstay of pharmacological treatment is the use of antimuscarinic therapy. Overactive bladder predominantly affects older people, who experience the most severe disease, and are also at a greater risk of side effects from antimuscarinic therapy. Thus it is imperative that data are available on the efficacy and tolerability of this group of drugs when used in older people. This article reviews the pathophysiology of the condition, its effect on the elderly and the evidence for the use of extended release tolterodine in the elderly using data from placebo and active drug controlled studies.
overactive bladder; tolterodine; urgency incontinence