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1.  Idiopathic premature ventricular contractions and ventricular tachycardias originating from the vicinity of tricuspid annulus: Results of radiofrequency catheter ablation in thirty-five patients 
Background
In recent years, catheter ablation has increasingly been used for ablation of idiopathic premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) or ventricular tachycardias (IVTs). However, the mapping and catheter ablation of the arrhythmias originating from the vicinity of tricuspid annulus (TA) may not be fully understood. This study aimed to investigate electrophysiologic characteristics and effects of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for patients with symptomatic PVCs and IVTs originating from the vicinity of TA.
Methods
Characteristics of body surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and electrophysiologic recordings were analyzed in 35 patients with symptomatic PVCs/ IVTs originating from the vicinity of TA. RFCA was performed using pace mapping and activation mapping.
Results
Among the 35 patients with PVCs/IVTs arising from the vicinity of TA, complete elimination of PVCs/IVTs could be achieved by RFCA in 32 patients (success rate 91.43%) during a median follow-up period of 21 months. PVCs/IVTs originating from the vicinity of TA had distinctive ECG characteristics that were useful for identifying the precise origin. An rS pattern was recorded in lead V1 in 93.1% of patients with PVCs/IVTs from the free wall of TA, vs 16.7% of patients with PVCs/IVTs from the septal TA, whereas a QS pattern in lead V1 occurred in 83.3% of patients with PVCs/IVTs from the septal TA vs 6.9% of patients with PVCs from the free wall of the TA. The precordial R wave transition occurred by lead V3 or earlier in all patients with PVCs/IVTs originating from the septal portion of the TA, as compared to transition beyond V3 in all patients with PVCs/IVTs from the free wall of the TA.
Conclusions
RFCA is an effective curative therapy for symptomatic PVCs/IVTs originating from the vicinity of TA. There are specific characteristics in ECG and the ablation site could be located by ECG analysis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-32
PMCID: PMC3393631  PMID: 22551200
2.  Catheter Ablation of Idiopathic Premature Ventricular Contractions and Ventricular Tachycardias Originating from Right Ventricular Septum 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e67038.
Background
Idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and ventricular tachycardias (IVTs) originating from the subtricuspid septum and near the His bundle have been reported. However, little is known about the prevalence, distribution, electrocardiographic characteristics and the efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for the ventricular arrhythmias arising from the right ventricular (RV) septum. This study aimed to investigate electrocardiographic characteristics and effects of RFCA for patients with symptomatic PVCs/IVTs, originating from the different portions of the RV septum.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Characteristics of body surface electrocardiogram and electrophysiologic recordings were analyzed in 29 patients with symptomatic PVCs/IVTs originating from the RV septum. Among 581 patients with PVCs/IVTs, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias originating from the RV septum was 5%. Twenty (69%) had PVCs/IVTs from the septal portion of the tricuspid valvular RV region (3 from superoseptum, 15 from midseptum, 2 from inferoseptum), and 9 (31%) from the septal portion of the basal RV (1 from superoseptum, 4 from midseptum, 4 from inferoseptum). There were different characteristics of ECG of PVCs/VT originating from the different portions of the RV septum. Twenty-seven of 29 patients with PVCs/IVTs arising from the RV septum were successfully ablated (93.1% acute success).
Conclusions/Significance
ECG characteristics of PVCs/VTs originating from the different portions of the RV septum are different, and can help regionalize the origin of these arrhythmias. The septal portion of the tricuspid valvular RV region was the preferential site of origin. RFCA was effective and safe for the PVCs/IVTs arising from the RV septum.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067038
PMCID: PMC3692551  PMID: 23825610
3.  Electrocardiogram features of premature ventricular contractions/ventricular tachycardia originating from the left ventricular outflow tract and the treatment outcome of radiofrequency catheter ablation 
Background
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) has been used for the ablation of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) or ventricular tachycardia (VT). To date, the mapping and catheter ablation of the arrhythmias originating from the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) has not been specified. This study investigates the electrocardiogram (ECG) feature of PVCs or VT originating from the LVOT. Moreover, the treatment outcome of RFCA is analyzed.
Methods
Mapping and ablation were performed on the supravalvular or subvalvular aorta in 52 cases with PVCs/VT originating from the LVOT. The data were compared with those from 104 patients with PVCs/VT originating from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). A differential procedure was prepared based on the comparison of the ECG features of PVCs/VT originating from the RVOT, LVOT, and their different parts.
Results
Among 52 cases with PVCs originating from the LVOT, 47 were successfully treated by RFCA, with a success rate of 90.38%. Several differences among the 12-lead ECG features were observed from the RVOT and LVOT in the left and right coronary sinus groups, as well as under the left coronary sinus group (left fibrous trigone): (1) If the precordial leads transition 0 are considered as the diagnostic parameters of PVCs/VT originating from the LVOT, then the sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values are 94.12%, 93.00%, 87.27%, and 96.88%, respectively; (2) The analysis of different subgroups of the LVOT are as follows: (a) A mainly positive wave of r or m pattern was recorded in the lead I in 72.73% of patients in the right coronary sinus group, versus 12.90% of patients in the left coronary sinus group, and 0% in the under left coronary sinus group. (b) All patients in the right coronary sinus group presented waves of RII>RIII and QSaVR>QSaVL, whereas most patients in the other two groups showed waves of RIII>RII and QSaVL>QSaVR. (c) Most patients in the under left coronary sinus group in lead V1 had a mainly positive wave (R) (77.78%), whereas those in the right (81.82%) and left (62.50%) coronary sinus groups had mainly negative waves (rS).
Conclusions
RFCA is a safe and effective curative therapy for PVCs/VT originating from the LVOT. The 12-lead ECG features of the LVOT from different origins exhibit certain distinctions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-112
PMCID: PMC3571934  PMID: 23186541
Electrophysiology; Ventricular arrhythmia; Left ventricular outflow; Catheter ablation; Radiofrequency current
4.  Catheter Ablation of Idiopathic Premature Ventricular Contractions and Ventricular Tachycardias Originating from the Vicinity of Endocardial and Epicardial Mitral Annulus 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80777.
Background
Several previous reports have revealed that idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), including premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and ventricular tachycardias (IVTs), can originate from endocardial mitral annulus (ENDO MA). However, these data are limited to ENDO MA VAs, and little is known about the electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics and the efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) via the coronary venous system for the VAs arising from the epicardial MA (EPI MA).
Methodology/Principal Findings
Characteristics of body surface electrocardiogram and electrophysiologic recordings were analyzed in 21 patients with symptomatic PVCs/IVTs originating from the vicinity of MA. Among 597 patients with PVCs/IVTs, the incidence of VAs originating from the ENDO and EPI MA was 3.52% (21 cases). Eleven (52%) from the ENDO MA, and 10 (48%) from the EPI MA. There were different characteristics of ECG of PVCs/VT originating from the ENDO and EPI MA. The prolonged pseudodelta wave time and intrinsicoid deflection time in lead V2 and the precordial maximum deflection index reliably differentiated EPI MA VAs from ENDO MA VAs with high sensitivity and specificity. Successful RFCA in 18 patients could be achieved (85.7% acute procedural success).
Conclusions/Significance
ECG characteristics of PVCs/VTs originating from the different portions of the MA are different, and can help regionalize the origin of these arrhythmias. RFCA within the coronary venous system was relatively effective and safe for the PVCs/IVTs and should be seen as an alternative approach, when the MA PVCs/IVTs could not be eliminated by RFCA from the endocardium.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080777
PMCID: PMC3842333  PMID: 24312241
5.  Noninvasive electrocardiographic mapping to guide ablation of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias 
Heart Rhythm  2014;11(4):587-594.
Background
Localizing the origin of outflow tract ventricular tachycardias (OTVT) is hindered by lack of accuracy of electrocardiographic (ECG) algorithms and infrequent spontaneous premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) during electrophysiological studies.
Objectives
To prospectively assess the performance of noninvasive electrocardiographic mapping (ECM) in the pre-/periprocedural localization of OTVT origin to guide ablation and to compare the accuracy of ECM with that of published ECG algorithms.
Methods
Patients with symptomatic OTVT/PVCs undergoing clinically indicated ablation were recruited. The OTVT/PVC origin was mapped preprocedurally by using ECM, and 3 published ECG algorithms were applied to the 12-lead ECG by 3 blinded electrophysiologists. Ablation was guided by using ECM. The OTVT/PVC origin was defined as the site where ablation caused arrhythmia suppression. Acute success was defined as abolition of ectopy after ablation. Medium-term success was defined as the abolition of symptoms and reduction of PVC to less than 1000 per day documented on Holter monitoring within 6 months.
Results
In 24 patients (mean age 50 ± 18 years) recruited ECM successfully identified OTVT/PVC origin in 23/24 (96%) (right ventricular outflow tract, 18; left ventricular outflow tract, 6), sublocalizing correctly in 100% of this cohort. Acute ablation success was achieved in 100% of the cases with medium-term success in 22 of 24 patients. PVC burden reduced from 21,837 ± 23,241 to 1143 ± 4039 (P < .0001). ECG algorithms identified the correct chamber of origin in 50%–88% of the patients and sublocalized within the right ventricular outflow tract (septum vs free-wall) in 37%–58%.
Conclusions
ECM can accurately identify OTVT/PVC origin in the left and the right ventricle pre- and periprocedurally to guide catheter ablation with an accuracy superior to that of published ECG algorithms.
doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.01.013
PMCID: PMC4067940  PMID: 24440381
CT, computed tomographic; EF, ejection fraction; ECG, electrocardiographic; ECM, electrocardiographic mapping; EPS, electrophysiological study; LV, left ventricular/ventricle; LVOT, left ventricular outflow tract; OTVT, outflow tract ventricular tachycardia; PVC, premature ventricular complex; PVS, programmed ventricular stimulation; RV, right ventricular/ventricle; RVOT, right ventricular outflow tract; VT, ventricular tachycardia; Ventricular tachycardia; Premature ventricular complex; Outflow tract tachycardia
6.  Idiopathic Epicardial Ventricular Arrhythmias: Diagnosis and Ablation Technique from the Aortic Sinus of Valsalva 
Idiopathic outflow tract arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardias or symptomatic premature ventricular contractions; OT-VT/PVCs) can originate from the left ventricular (LV) epicardium (Epi-VT/PVCs), and radiofrequency (RF) energy applications from the aortic sinus of Valsalva can eliminate Epi-VT/PVCs in selected patients. Among the various ECG findings, the R-wave duration index and R/S amplitude index in leads V1 or V2 are useful for identifying Epi-VT/PVCs, and the Q-wave ratio of leads aVL to aVR and S-wave amplitude in lead V1 are useful for differentiating between an Epi-VT/PVC originating from the LV epicardium remote from the left sinus of Valsalva (LSV) and that from the LSV. Tissue tracking imaging is a promising modality for identifying the origin of OT-VT/PVCs and for differentiating between an Epi-VT/PVC originating from the LV epicardium remote from the LSV and that from the LSV.
If the origin of the Epi-VT/PVC is identified within the LSV, coronary and aortic angiography should be performed to assess the anatomic relationships between the Epi-VT/PVC origin and coronary arteries and aortic valve before the RF energy delivery. To avoid potential complications, RF ablation should be performed at the LSV using a maximum power of 35 watts and maximum temperature of 55°C. Epicardial mapping through the coronary venous system and the presence of potentials recorded from the ablation site within the LSV and their changes before and after the RF energy applications may be useful for diagnosing Epi-VT/PVCs or predicting a successful catheter ablation from the LSV.
PMCID: PMC1502079  PMID: 16943950
Ventricular tachycardia; left sinus of Valsalva; potential; premature ventricular contraction; catheter ablation; tissue tracking imaging
7.  Electrophysiological Characteristics Related to Outcome after Catheter Ablation of Idiopathic Ventricular Arrhythmia Originating from the Papillary Muscle in the Left Ventricle 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(12):811-818.
Background and Objectives
The electrophysiological properties associated with favorable outcome of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia (VA) originating from the papillary muscle (PM) remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of electrophysiological characteristics and predictors with the outcome of RFCA in patients with VAs originating from PM in the left ventricle (LV).
Subjects and Methods
Twelve (4.2%) of 284 consecutive patients with idiopathic VAs originating from LV PM were assessed. The electrophysiological data were compared between the patients in the successful group and patients in the recurrence group after RFCA.
Results
In 12 patients with PM VAs, non-sustained ventricular tachycardias (VTs, n=6), sustained VTs (n=4) and premature ventricular complexes (n=2) were identified as the presenting arrhythmias. Seven of eight patients showing high-amplitude discrete potentials at the ablation site had a successful outcome (85.7%), while the remaining four patients who showed low-amplitude fractionated potentials at the ablation site experienced VA recurrence. The mean duration from onset to peak downstroke (Δt) on the unipolar electrogram was significantly longer in the successful group than in the recurrence group (58±8 ms vs. 37±9 ms, p=0.04). A slow downstroke >50 ms of the initial Q wave on the unipolar electrogram at ablation sites was also significantly associated with successful outcome (85.7% vs. 25.0%, p=0.03).
Conclusion
In PM VAs, the high-amplitude discrete potentials before QRS and slow downstroke of the initial Q wave on the unipolar electrogram at ablation sites were related to favorable outcome after RFCA.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2013.43.12.811
PMCID: PMC3875697  PMID: 24385992
Papillary muscles; Left ventricle; Arrhythmia; Catheter ablation
8.  Cardiomyopathy Due to Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia Originating from the Aortic Sinus Cusp 
We report a case of idiopathic nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) originating from the aortic sinus cusp referred for presyncope and LV dysfunction and frequent premature ventricular complex with no response to 3 months anti-arrhythmic medication for heart failure and arrhythmia. She was then referred to us for frequent PVC's and runs of nonsustained VT. ECG recorded during the nonsustained VT showed a left bundle branch block pattern in the precordial leads and an inferior axis and early transition in precordial leads in V3-V4. QS morphology in lead V1 was noticed with notching on the downward deflection. Electrophysiologic study was conducted to map ventricular outflow tract as a classic method, although pace map failed to find any matched QRS with the spontaneous PVCs. The mapping of aortic cusps was also performed. The best potential was recorded in a region located at the commissure of left-right aortic cusps. A single radiofrequency energy was delivered which resulted in immediate elimination of PVCs. The patient was discharged the day after ablation without any PVC recorded on monitor. Left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) improved to normal level two months later. There was no PVC detected at serial holter monitoring. It seems logical not to overlook even an isolated or nonsustained ventricular arrhythmia considering the available and effective treatments such as ablation rather than congestive heart failure(CHF) therapy especially in a young patient.
PMCID: PMC3987425  PMID: 24757616
Electrophysiology; Radiofrequency Ablation; PVC
9.  Impact of Radiofrequency Ablation of Frequent Post-Infarction Premature Ventricular Complexes on Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction 
Background
Frequent idiopathic premature ventricular complexes (PVC) are associated with a reversible form of cardiomyopathy. The effect of frequent PVCs on left ventricular function has not been evaluated in post-infarction patients.
Objective
To evaluate the value of post-infarction PVC ablation and possible determinants of a reversible cardiomyopathy.
Methods
Thirty consecutive patients (24 men, age 61±12, LVEF 0.36±0.12) with remote myocardial infarction referred for ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden death or for management of symptomatic ventricular tachycardia or PVCs were evaluated. Fifteen patients with a high PVC burden (≥5% of all QRS complexes on 24-hour Holter) underwent mapping and ablation of PVCs before ICD implantation. The remaining 15 patients served as a control group. LVEF was assessed by echocardiography, and scar burden was assessed by cardiac MRI with delayed enhancement (DE-MRI) in both groups.
Results
PVC ablation was successful in 15/15 patients and reduced the mean PVC burden from 22±12% to 2.6±5.0% (p<0.001). Following the procedure, LVEF increased significantly from 0.38±0.10 to 0.51±0.09 in the PVC ablation group (p=0.0001). In the control group, LVEF remained unchanged within the same time frame (0.34±0.14 vs. 0.33±0.15; p=0.6). Patients with frequent PVCs had a significantly smaller scar burden by DE-MRI compared to control patients. Five of the patients with frequent PVCs underwent ICD implantation.
Conclusion
Post-infarction patients with frequent PVCs may have a reversible form of cardiomyopathy. DE-MRI may identify patients in whom the LVEF may improve after ablation of frequent PVCs.
doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.08.004
PMCID: PMC2792731  PMID: 19879531
catheter ablation; left ventricular ejection fraction; magnetic resonance imaging; myocardial infarction; premature ventricular complexes
10.  Coexisting Sustained Tachyarrthymia in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Catheter Ablation 
Korean Circulation Journal  2010;40(5):235-238.
Background and Objectives
During the index procedure of catheter ablation (CA) for atrial fibrillation (AF), it is important to assess whether other atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmia coexist. Their symptoms are often attributed to residual tachycardia after successful elimination of AF by CA. This tachycardia could also be non-pulmonary vein (PV) foci initiated AF. This study examined the coexistence of other sustained tachyarrhythmia of patients who underwent radiofrequency CA (RFCA) for AF.
Subjects and Methods
Four hundred fifty-nine consecutive patients (375 males, aged 53.4±11.4 years) who underwent RFCA for AF were investigated. Atrial and ventricular programmed stimulation (PS) with or without isoproterenol infusion were performed, and spontaneously developed tachycardias were analyzed.
Results
Fifteen patients (3.3% of total) were diagnosed to have other sustained arrhythmias that included slow-fast type atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT, n=6), atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT, n=5) that utilized left posteroseptal (n=4) and parahisian bypass tract (n=1), atrial tachycardia (AT, n=2) originating from the foramen ovale (n=1) and the ostium of coronary sinus (n=1), sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT, n=2) involving one from the apical posterolateral wall of left ventricule in a normal heart and one from an anterolateral wall in an underlying myocardial infarction (MI). These sustained tachycardias were neither clinically documented nor had structural heart diseases, with the exception of one patient with MI associated VT. Two patients had the triple tachycardia; one involved AVNRT, AVRT, and AF, and the other involved VT, AT, and AF. All associated tachycardias were successfully eliminated by RFCA.
Conclusion
Fifteen (3.3%) patients with AF had coexisting sustained tachycardia. RFCA was successful in these patients. Identification of tachycardia by PS before RFCA for AF should be done to maximize the efficacy of the first ablation session.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2010.40.5.235
PMCID: PMC2877788  PMID: 20514334
Atrial fibrillation; Tachycardia supraventricular; Catheter ablation
11.  Catheter ablation for successful management of left posterior fascicular tachycardia: an approach guided by recording of fascicular potentials. 
Heart  1996;75(4):384-388.
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether catheter ablation of fascicular tachycardia can be facilitated by the recording of sharp deflections arising from the mid-septum---inferior apical septum of the left ventricle. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven consecutive patients (mean age 29 (range 16-43) years) with ventricular tachycardia originating from the left posterior fascicle underwent electrophysiology study and detailed mapping of endocardial activation. Selection of ablation sites in the last five patients was based on the recording, during left posterior fascicular tachycardia and sinus rhythm, of a discrete potential preceding the earliest ventricular electrogram, which was thought to represent conduction through the posterior fascicle. RESULTS: Patients were treated with low energy direct current or radiofrequency current ablation. The median fluoroscopy and procedure times were 23 (range 6-42) min and 110 (range 50-176) min, respectively. In a follow up period of 4 to 16 months, six patients were asymptomatic and one had minor symptoms. No patient had any change in intraventricular conduction. Similar potentials were also recorded from the left posterobasal septum in three of eight patients who underwent catheter ablation of left free wall accessory pathways. CONCLUSION: Fascicular potentials can be reproducibly recorded in left posterior fascicular tachycardia and may serve as a reliable marker for successful ablation procedures. The relation of these potentials with the substrate of the tachycardia, however, remains obscure.
Images
PMCID: PMC484316  PMID: 8705767
12.  Electroanatomical Characteristics of Idiopathic Left Ventricular Tachycardia and Optimal Ablation Target during Sinus Rhythm: Significance of Preferential Conduction through Purkinje Fibers 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(2):279-288.
Purpose
We hypothesized that Purkinje potential and their preferential conduction to the left ventricle (LV) posteroseptum during sinus rhythm (SR) are part of reentrant circuits of idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT) and reentry anchors to papillary muscle.
Materials and Methods
In 14 patients with ILVT (11 men, mean age 31.5±11.1 years), we compared Purkinje potential and preferential conduction during SR with VT by non-contact mapping (NCM). If clear Purkinje potential(SR) was observed in the LV posteroseptum and the earliest activation site (EA) of preferential conduction at SR (EASR) was well matched with that of VT (EAVT), EASR was targeted for radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Also, the anatomical locations of successful ablation sites were evaluated by echocardiography in five additional patients.
Results
1) All induced VTs exhibited clear Purkinje potential(VT) and preferential conduction in the LV posteroseptum. The Purkinje potential(VT) and EAVT was within 5.8±8.2 mm of EASR. However, the breakout sites of VT were separated by 30.2±12.6 mm from EAVT to the apical side. 2) Purkinje potential(SR) demonstrated a reversed polarity to Purkinje potential(VT), and the interval of Purkinje potential(SR)-QRS was longer than the interval of Purkinje potential(VT)-QRS (p<0.02) 3) RFCA targeting EASR eliminated VT in all patients without recurrence within 23.3±7.5 months, and the successful ablation site was discovered at the base of papillary muscle in the five additional (100%) patients.
Conclusion
NCM-guided localization of EASR with Purkinje potential(SR) matches well with EAVT with Purkinje potential(VT) and provides an effective target for RFCA, potentially at the base of papillary muscle in patients with ILVT.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.2.279
PMCID: PMC3282975  PMID: 22318814
Idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia; catheter ablation; non-contact map; Purkinje
13.  Electrophysiologic Studies and Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Ectopic Atrial Tachycardia in Children 
Pediatric Cardiology  2010;32(1):40-46.
Ectopic atrial tachycardia (EAT) often resists medical therapy, making radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) the preferred treatment. This study reviewed the records of 35 patients who underwent electrophysiologic studies (EPS) and 39 RFCA procedures for EAT during a 10-year period. Of the 35 patients, 10 (28%) presented with decreased ventricular function and tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC). The EAT originated on the right atrial side in 19 patients (54%) and on the left atrial side in the remaining 16 patients (46%). The right atrial sites included the right atrial appendage (RAA) (n = 9, 25%), the tricuspid annulus (n = 7, 20%), and the crista terminalis (n = 3). The left atrial sites included the left atrial appendage (LAA) (n = 6, 17%), the pulmonary veins (n = 5, 14%), the mitral annulus (n = 3), and the posterior wall of the left atrium (n = 2). The mechanism of all EAT probably is automaticity. All EATs could be abolished using RFCA. Follow-up data were available for all patients 2 to 8 years after RFCA. All 35 patients remained recurrence free, and ventricular function improved for all 10 patients with TIC. The origin of EAT in children differed from its origin in adults. The authors conclude that RFCA is a safe and effective treatment option for children with refractory EAT and should be considered early in the course of their illness.
doi:10.1007/s00246-010-9809-3
PMCID: PMC3018255  PMID: 20936469
Catheter Ablation; Children; Ectopic atrial tachycardia
14.  Coupling Interval Variability Differentiates Ventricular Ectopic Complexes Arising in the Aortic Sinus of Valsalva and Great Cardiac Vein From Other Sources 
Objectives
The objective of this study was to determine whether premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) arising from the aortic sinuses of Valsalva (SOV) and great cardiac vein (GCV) have coupling interval (CI) characteristics that differentiate them from other ectopic foci.
Background
PVCs occur at relatively fixed CI from the preceding normal QRS complex in most patients. However, we observed patients with PVCs originating in unusual areas (SOV and GCV) in whom the PVC CI was highly variable. We hypothesized that PVCs from these areas occur seemingly randomly because of the lack of electrotonic effects of the surrounding myocardium.
Methods
Seventy-three consecutive patients referred for PVC ablation were assessed. Twelve consecutive PVC CIs were recorded. The ΔCI (maximum – minimum CI) was measured.
Results
We studied 73 patients (age 50 ± 16 years, 47% male). The PVC origin was right ventricular (RV) in 29 (40%), left ventricular (LV) in 17 (23%), SOV in 21 (29%), and GCV in 6 (8%). There was a significant difference between the mean ΔCI of RV/LV PVCs compared with SOV/GCV PVCs (33 ± 15 ms vs. 116 ± 52 ms, p < 0.0001). A ΔCI of >60 ms demonstrated a sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 94%. Cardiac events were more common in the SOV/GCV group versus the RV/LV group (7 of 27 [26%] vs. 2 of 46 [4%], p < 0.02).
Conclusions
ΔCI is more pronounced in PVCs originating from the SOV or GCV. A ΔCI of 60 ms helps discriminate the origin of PVCs before diagnostic electrophysiological study and may be associated with increased frequency of cardiac events.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.02.551
PMCID: PMC4282189  PMID: 24657687
aortic sinus of Valsalva; oupling interval; great cardiac vein; premature ventricular contraction
15.  Pediatric Tachyarrhythmia and Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation: Results From 1993 to 2011 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(11):735-740.
Background and Objectives
We performed a retrospective study to elucidate the frequency of tachycardia mechanisms and the characteristics of accessory pathways (APs), confirmed by radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in pediatric tachycardia. In addition, we analyzed the efficacy and safety of pediatric RFCA.
Subjects and Methods
The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of a total of 260 patients (aged 2 to 18 years) who had undergone RFCA between August 1993 and July 2011 at two medical centers in Daegu.
Results
Two hundred and sixty patients underwent 272 RFCAs at less than 18 years of age. Of these 260 patients, 9 patients (3%) were younger than 6 years, and 175 patients (67%) were older than 12 years. The tachycardia mechanisms observed were atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (AVRT) in 175 patients (65%), atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) in 83 patients (30%), ventricular tachycardia in 12 patients (4%), and atrial tachycardia in 2 patients (0.7%). Among the patients with AVRT, there were 94 concealed APs and 81 manifest APs. Left-side APs were more common in concealed APs than in manifest APs (72/94, 77% vs. 33/81, 41%, p<0.001). Sixty-six percent (55/83) of AVNRT cases were located at the M1 and/or M2 sites. Four patients had multiple tachycardia mechanisms (AVNRT+AVRT) and 9 patients had multiple APs. The recurrence rate was 5% (13/272). Of these recurrent cases, 12 patients had AVRT. The overall success rate was 95%.
Conclusion
Pediatric RFCA provides a good success rate and an acceptable recurrence. In addition, we suggest that the APs location may be associated with concealed or manifest property of APs.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.11.735
PMCID: PMC3518706  PMID: 23236324
Pediatrics; Tachycardia, supraventricular; Catheter ablation
16.  Premature Ventricular Contractions and Non-sustained Ventricular Tachycardia: Association with Sudden Cardiac Death, Risk Stratification, and Management Strategies 
Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) are frequently encountered and a marker of electrocardiomyopathy. In some instances, they increase the risk for sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden cardiac death. While often associated with a primary cardiomyopathy, they have also been known to cause tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in patients without preceding structural heart disease. Medical therapy including beta-blockers and class III anti-arrhythmic agents can be effective while implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD) are indicated in certain patients. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is the preferred, definitive treatment in those patients that improve with anti-arrhythmic therapy, have tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, or have certain subtypes of PVCs/NSVT. We present a review of PVCs and NSVT coupled with case presentations on RFA of fascicular ventricular tachycardia, left-ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia, and Purkinje arrhythmia leading to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
PMCID: PMC2922873  PMID: 20811538
PVC; premature ventricular contractions; ventricular tachycardia; ablation; sudden death
17.  Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation for Unifocal Premature Ventricular Complexes Triggering Recurrent Ventricular Fibrillations in a Young Man Without Structural Heart Disease 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(8):575-579.
A 17-year-old man was referred for aborted sudden cardiac death. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was recorded by automated external defibrillator. Post-resuscitation electrocardiograms showed frequent monomorphic premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), with left bundle branch block configuration and inferior axis. Cardiac arrest due to VF recurred twice within the initial 42 hours. Rhythm monitoring revealed multiple episodes of sustained VF triggered by a triplet of monomorphic PVCs having similar morphology with isolated PVCs. Comprehensive cardiologic workup revealed no structural heart disease and ion-channelopathies. With the impression of idiopathic VF triggered by unifocal PVCs of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) origin, radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed to prevent frequent VF recurrence before implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. After successful ablation of the origin of unifocal PVCs at anterolateral wall of RVOT, the burden of PVCs decreased remarkably and VF did not recur. The patient was discharged after ICD implantation.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.8.575
PMCID: PMC3438271  PMID: 22977457
Ventricular fibrillation; Radiofrequency catheter ablation
18.  Idiopathic Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia 
Idiopathic fascicular ventricular tachycardia is an important cardiac arrhythmia with specific electrocardiographic features and therapeutic options. It is characterized by relatively narrow QRS complex and right bundle branch block pattern. The QRS axis depends on which fascicle is involved in the re-entry. Left axis deviation is noted with left posterior fascicular tachycardia and right axis deviation with left anterior fascicular tachycardia. A left septal fascicular tachycardia with normal axis has also been described. Fascicular tachycardia is usually seen in individuals without structural heart disease. Response to verapamil is an important feature of fascicular tachycardia. Rare instances of termination with intravenous adenosine have also been noted. A presystolic or diastolic potential preceding the QRS, presumed to originate from the Purkinje fibers can be recorded during sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia in many patients with fascicular tachycardia. This potential (P potential) has been used as a guide to catheter ablation. Prompt recognition of fascicular tachycardia especially in the emergency department is very important. It is one of the eminently ablatable ventricular tachycardias. Primary ablation has been reported to have a higher success, lesser procedure time and fluoroscopy time.
PMCID: PMC1501077  PMID: 16943977
Ventricular Tachycardia; Structural Normal Heart; Structural Normal Heart
19.  Pediatric Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation: Results of Initial 100 Consecutive Cases Including Congenital Heart Anomalies 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(5):740-746.
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) has recently become a management option for pediatric tachycardia. We reviewed the records of a total of 100 patients (aged 10 months to 19 yr) who had undergone RFCA, from March 2000 to June 2004. Types of arrhythmia (age, acute success rate) were as follows: atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT, 9.0±3.7 yr, 66/67), atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT, 13±2.5 yr, 16/16), ectopic atrial tachycardia (6.4±3.3 yr, 5/5), junctional ectopic tachycardia (10 month, 1/1), ventricular tachycardia (12±4.9 yr, 6/6), postsurgical intraatrial reentrant tachycardia (15.6±4.1 yr, 2/3), twin node tachycardia (4 yr, 0/1), and His bundle ablation (9 yr, 1/1). The age of AVNRT was older than that of AVRT (p=0.002). Associated cardiac disease was detected in 17 patients, including 6 univentricular patients, and 3 Ebstein's anomaly patients. RFCA for multiple accessory pathways required longer fluoroscopic times than did the single accessory pathway (53.9±4.8 vs. 36.2±24.1 min; p=0.03), and was associated with a higher recurrence rate (3/9 vs. 3/53; p=0.03). Regardless of the presence or absence of cardiac diseases, the overall acute success rate was 97% without major complications, the recurrence rate was 8.2%, and the final success rate was 97%. This experience confirmed the efficacy and safety of RFCA in the management of tachycardia in children.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.5.740
PMCID: PMC2779268  PMID: 16224145
Tachycardia; Catheter Ablation; Heart Defects, Congentital
20.  “Rescue” ablation of electrical storm in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in pregnancy 
Background
Radiofrequency ablation (RFCA) became a treatment of choice in patients with recurrent ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and appropriate interventions of implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), however, electrical storm (ES) ablation in a pregnant woman has not yet been reported.
Case presentation
We describe a case of a successful rescue ablation of recurrent ES in a 26-year-old Caucasian woman during her first pregnancy (23rd week). The arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) was diagnosed 3 years earlier and several drugs as well as 2 ablations failed to control recurrences of ventricular tachycardia. RFCA was performed on the day of the third electric storm. The use of electroanatomic mapping allowed very low X-ray exposure, and after applications in the right ventricular outflow tract, arrhythmia disappeared. Three months after ablation, a healthy girl was delivered without any complications. During twelve-month follow-up there was no recurrence of ventricular tachycardia or ICD interventions.
Conclusions
This case documents the first successful RFCA during ES due to recurrent unstable ventricular arrhythmias in a patient with ARVD/C in pregnancy. Current guidelines recommend metoprolol, sotalol and intravenous amiodarone for prevention of recurrent ventricular tachycardia in pregnancy, however, RFCA should be considered as a therapeutic option in selected cases. The use of 3D navigating system and near zero X-ray approach is associated with minimal radiation exposure for mother and fetus as well as low risk of procedural complication.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-13-58
PMCID: PMC3751358  PMID: 23937302
21.  Localization of premature ventricular contraction foci in normal individuals based on multichannel electrocardiogram signals processing 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:486.
A premature ventricular contraction (PVC) is relatively a common event where the heartbeat is initiated by the other pathway rather than by the Sinoatrial node, the normal heartbeat initiator. Determining PVC foci is important for ablation procedure and it can help in pre-procedural planning and potentially may improve ablation outcome.
In this study, 12-lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) of 87 patients without structural cardiac diseases, who had experienced PVC, were obtained. Initially, PVC foci were labeled based on Electrophysiology study (EPS) reports. PVC beats were detected by wavelet method and their foci were classified using Mahalanobis distance and One-way ANOVA. Using morphological, frequency and spectrogram features, these foci in the heart were classified into five groups: Left Ventricular Outflow Tract (LVOT), Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (RVOT) septum, basal Right Ventricular (RV), RVOT free-wall, and Aortic Cusp (AC).
The results showed that 88.4% of patients are classified correctly.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-486
PMCID: PMC3790125  PMID: 24098858
Electrocardiogram; Premature ventricular beats; PVC foci (focuses)
22.  Usefulness of Ventricular Endocardial Electric Reconstruction from Body Surface Potential Maps to Noninvasively Localize Ventricular Ectopic Activity in Patients 
Physics in medicine and biology  2013;58(11):3897-3909.
As radio frequency (RF) catheter ablation becomes increasingly prevalent in the management of ventricular arrhythmia in patients, an accurate and rapid determination of the arrhythmogenic site is of important clinical interest. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the inversely reconstructed ventricular endocardial current density distribution from body surface potential maps (BSPMs) can localize the regions critical for maintenance of a ventricular ectopic activity. Patients with isolated and monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were investigated by noninvasive BSPMs and subsequent invasive catheter mapping and ablation. Equivalent current density (CD) reconstruction (CDR) during symptomatic PVCs was obtained on the endocardial ventricular surface in 6 patients (4 men, 2 women, years 23–77), and the origin of the spontaneous ectopic activity was localized at the location of the maximum CD value. Compared with the last (successful) ablation site (LAS), the mean and standard deviation of localization error of the CDR approach were 13.8 mm and 1.3 mm, respectively. In comparison, the distance between the LASs and the estimated locations of an equivalent single moving dipole (SMD) in the heart was 25.5 ± 5.5 mm. The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the catheter ablation site also showed a high consistency with the invasively recorded electroanatomical maps. The noninvasively reconstructed endocardial CD distribution is suitable to predict a region of interest containing or close to arrhythmia source, which may have the potential to guide RF catheter ablation.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/58/11/3897
PMCID: PMC3776132  PMID: 23681281
electrocardiographic inverse problem; current density reconstruction; radio frequency catheter ablation; premature ventricular contraction; body surface potential mapping
23.  Noninvasive Imaging of Three-dimensional Cardiac Activation Sequence during Pacing and Ventricular Tachycardia 
Background
Imaging cardiac excitation within ventricular myocardium is important in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and might help improve our understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms.
Objective
This study aims to rigorously assess the imaging performance of a three-dimensional (3-D) cardiac electrical imaging (3-DCEI) technique with the aid of 3-D intra-cardiac mapping from up to 216 intramural sites during paced rhythm and norepinephrine (NE) induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart.
Methods
Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in thirteen healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous NE. Computer tomography images were obtained to construct geometry model.
Results
The non-invasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterparts, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72±0.04, and a relative error of 0.30±0.02 averaged over 520 paced beats as well as 73 NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. All PVCs and VT beats initiated in the subendocardium by a nonreentrant mechanism. The averaged distance from imaged site of initial activation to pacing site or site of arrhythmias determined from intra-cardiac mapping was ~5mm. For dual-site pacing, the double origins were identified when they were located at contralateral sides of ventricles or at the lateral wall and the apex.
Conclusion
3-DCEI can non-invasively delineate important features of focal or multi-focal ventricular excitation. It offers the potential to aid in localizing the origins and imaging activation sequence of ventricular arrhythmias, and to provide noninvasive assessment of the underlying arrhythmia mechanisms.
doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2011.03.014
PMCID: PMC3151469  PMID: 21397046
cardiac electric imaging; electrocardiography; inverse problem; cardiac mapping; pacing; ventricular tachycardia
24.  Mid-Septal Hypertrophy and Apical Ballooning; Potential Mechanism of Ventricular Tachycardia Storm in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;53(1):221-223.
Medically refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) storm can be controlled with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA), however, it may be difficult to control in some patients with hemodynamic overload. We experienced a patient with intractable VT storm controlled by hemodynamic unloading. The patient had mid-septal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) back-up. Because of the severe mid-septal hypertrophy, his left ventricle (LV) had an hourglass-like morphology and showed apical ballooning; the focus of VT was at the border of apical ballooning. Although we performed VT ablation because of electrical storm with multiple ICD shocks, VT recurred 1 hour after procedure. As the post-RFCA monomorphic VT was refractory to anti-tachycardia pacing or ICD shock, we reduced the hemodynamic overload of LV with β-blockade, hydration, and sedation. VT spontaneously stopped 1.5 hours later and the patient has remained free of VT for 24 months with β-blockade alone. In patients with VT storm refractory to antiarrhythmic drugs or RFCA, the mechanism of mechano-electrical feedback should be considered and hemodynamic unloading may be an essential component of treatment.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.1.221
PMCID: PMC3250344  PMID: 22187256
Catheter ablation; radiofrequency; electrical storm; ventricular tachycardia; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
25.  Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia: Success Rates and Complications during 14 Years of Experience 
Background:
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) has been introduced as the treatment of choice for supraventricular tachycardia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the success rate as well as procedural and in-hospital complications of RFCA for the treatment of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT).
Methods:
Between March 1995 and February 2009, 544 patients (75.9% female, age: 48.89 ± 13.19 years) underwent 548 RFCAs for AVNRT in two large university hospitals. Echocardiography was performed for all the patients before and after the procedure. Electrocardiograms were recorded on digital multichannel systems (EP-Med) or Bard EP system. Anticoagulation was initiated during the procedure.
Results:
From the 548 patients, 36 had associated arrhythmias, atrial flutter (4%), atrial fibrillation (0.7%), concurrent atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter (0.7%), and concealed atrioventricular pathway (0.4%). The overall success rate was 99.6%. There were 21 (3.9%) transient III-degree AV blocks (up to a few seconds) and 4 (0.7%) prolonged II- or III-degree AV blocks, 2 (0.25%) of which required permanent pacemaker insertion, 3(0.5%) deep vein thrombosis, and one (0.2%) arteriovenous fistula following the procedure. No difference was observed in the echocardiography parameters before and after the ablation.
Conclusion:
RFCA had a high success rate. The complication rate was generally low and in the above-mentioned centers it was similar to those in other large centers worldwide. Echocardiography showed no difference before and after the ablation. The results from this study showed that the risk of permanent II or III-degree AV block in patients undergoing RFCA was low and deep vein thrombosis was the second important complication. There was no risk of life-threatening complications.
PMCID: PMC3466826  PMID: 23074574
Tachycardia, Atrioventricular nodal reentry; Catheter ablation; Electrophysiological techniques, Cardiac

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