Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited variation in drug response. The goal of pharmacogenetics is to develop novel ways of maximizing drug efficacy and minimizing toxicity for individual patients. Personalized medicine has the potential to allow for a patient's genetic information to predict optimal dosage for a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, to select the most appropriate pharmacological agent for a given patient and to develop cost-effective treatments. Although there is supporting evidence in favour of pharmacogenetics, its adoption in clinical practice has been slow because of sometimes conflicting findings among studies. This failure to replicate findings may result from a lack of high-quality pharmacogenetic studies, as well as unresolved methodological and statistical issues. The objective of this review is to discuss the benefits of incorporating pharmacogenetics into clinical practice. We will also address outstanding methodological and statistical issues that may lead to heterogeneity among reported pharmacogenetic studies and how they may be addressed.
Pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics is the study of how genetic variation affects pharmacology, the use of drugs to treat disease. When drug responses are predicted in advance, it is easier to tailor medications to different diseases and individuals. Pharmacogenetics provides the tools required to identify genetic predictors of probable drug response, drug efficacy, and drug-induced adverse events—identifications that would ideally precede treatment decisions. Drug abuse and addiction genetic data have advanced the field of pharmacogenetics in general. Although major findings have emerged, pharmacotherapy remains hindered by issues such as adverse events, time lag to drug efficacy, and heterogeneity of the disorders being treated. The sequencing of the human genome and high-throughput technologies are enabling pharmacogenetics to have greater influence on treatment approaches. This review highlights key studies and identifies important genes in drug abuse pharmacogenetics that provide a basis for better diagnosis and treatment of drug abuse disorders.
Pharmacogenomics; addiction; treatment; psychiatric disease; SNP
There is a growing body of literature supporting the contribution of genetic variability to the mechanisms responsible for the adverse effects of antipsychotic medications particularly movement disorders and weight gain. Despite the current gap between research studies and the practical tools available to the clinician to identify such risks, it is hoped that in the foreseeable future, pharmacogenetics will become a critical aid to guide the development of personalized therapeutic regimes with fewer adverse effects. We provide a summary of two cases that are examples of using cytochrome P450 pharmacogenetics in an attempt to guide treatment in the context of recent literature concerning the role of pharmacogenetics in the manifestation of adverse effects of antipsychotic therapies. These examples and the review of recent literature on pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic adverse effects illustrate the potential for applying the principles of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine to the therapy of psychotic disorders.
pharmacogenetics; adverse effects; antipsychotic drugs
Importance of the field
Antipsychotic drug is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, and there are large inter-individual differences is clinical response and side effects. Pharmacogenetics provides a valuable tool to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine by tailoring treatment based on one's genetic markers.
Areas covered in this review
This article reviews the pharmacogenetic literature from early 1990s to 2010, focusing on two aspects of drug action: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Genetic variants in the neurotransmitter receptors including dopamine and serotonin, and metabolic pathways of drugs including CYP2D6 and COMT, were discussed in association with clinical drug response and side effects.
What the reader will gain
Readers are expected to learn the up-to-date evidence in pharmacogenetic research, and to gain familiarity to the issues and challenges facing the field.
Take home message
Pharmacogenetic research of antipsychotic drugs is both promising and challenging. There is consistent evidence that some genetic variants can affect clinical response and side effects. However, more studies that are designed specifically to test pharmacogenetic hypotheses are clearly needed to advance the field.
The approval of new medicines has slowed significantly over the past years. In order to accelerate the development of new compounds, novel approaches in drug development are required. Translational medicine or research, an emerging discipline on the frontier of basic science and medical practice, has the potential to enhance the speed and efficiency of the drug development process through the utilization of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenetics is the study of genetic causes of individual variations in drug response whereas pharmacogenomics deals with the simultaneous impact of multiple mutations in the genome that may determine the patient’s response to drug therapy. The utilization of these methods in the drug development process may therefore identify patient sub-populations that exhibit more effective responses and/or an improved benefit/risk profile upon treatment. The authors provide examples of the use of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics in the fields of cardiovascular, pulmonary, oncological, and bone diseases and also highlight the potential economic value of their development.
benefit/risk profile, metabolism, pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, translational medicine
This first part of a four-part series on pharmacogenetics describes the functional impact of genetic polymorphism and provides a general background to and insight into possible clinical consequences of pharmacogenetic variability.
After completing this course, the reader will be able to:
Differentiate the candidate gene and genome-wide approaches to pharmacogenetic research and the impact of each on clinical study results.Describe the clinical implications of pharmacogenetic variability and its potential role in individualized treatment of patients with cancer.
This article is available for continuing medical education credit at CME.TheOncologist.com
Equivalent drug doses may lead to wide interpatient variability with regard to drug response, reflected by differences in drug activity and normal tissue toxicity. A major factor responsible for this variability is variation among patients in their genetic constitution. Genetic polymorphism may affect the activity of proteins encoded, which in turn may lead to changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior of a drug, observed as differences in drug transport, drug metabolism, and pharmacodynamic drug effects. Recent insights into the functional effect of polymorphism in genes that are involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anticancer drugs have provided opportunities for patient-tailored therapy in oncology. Individualized pharmacotherapy based on genotype will help to increase treatment efficacy while reducing unnecessary toxicity, especially of drugs characterized by a narrow therapeutic window, such as anticancer drugs.
We provide a series of four reviews aimed at implementing pharmacogenetic-based drug and dose prescription in the daily clinical setting for the practicing oncologist. This first part in the series describes the functional impact of genetic polymorphism and provides a general background to and insight into possible clinical consequences of pharmacogenetic variability. It also discusses different methodologies for clinical pharmacogenetic studies and provides a concise overview about the different laboratory technologies for genetic mutation analysis that are currently widely applied. Subsequently, pharmacogenetic association studies in anticancer drug transport, phase I and II drug metabolism, and pharmacodynamic drug effects are discussed in the rest of the series. Opportunities for patient-tailored pharmacotherapy are highlighted.
Pharmacogenetics; Oncology; Anticancer drugs; Genotyping technologies
Pharmacogenetic research aims to study how genetic variation may influence drug efficacy and/or toxicity; pharmacogenomics expands this quest to the entire genome. Pharmacogenetic findings may help to uncover new drug targets, illuminate pathophysiology, clarify disease heterogeneity, aid in the fine-mapping of genetic associations, and contribute to personalized treatment. In diabetes, there is precedent for the successful application of pharmacogenetic concepts to monogenic forms of the disease, such as maturity onset diabetes of the young or neonatal diabetes. Whether similar insights will be produced for the common form of type 2 diabetes remains to be seen. With recent advances in genetic approaches, the successive application of candidate gene studies, large-scale genotyping studies and genome-wide association studies has begun to generate suggestive results that may lead to changes in clinical practice. However, many potential barriers to the translation of pharmacogenetic discoveries to the clinical management of diabetes still remain. Here, we offer a contemporary overview of the field in its current state, identify potential obstacles, and highlight future directions.
Type 2 diabetes; pharmacogenetics; genome-wide association studies; single nucleotide polymorphisms; sulfonylureas; metformin; thiazolidinediones
Pharmacogenetics is considered as a prime example of how personalized medicine nowadays can be put into practice. However, genotyping to guide pharmacological treatment is relatively uncommon in the routine clinical practice. Several reasons can be found why the application of pharmacogenetics is less than initially anticipated, which include the contradictory results obtained for certain variants and the lack of guidelines for clinical implementation. However, more reproducible results are being generated, and efforts have been made to establish working groups focussing on evidence-based clinical guidelines. For another pharmacogenetic hurdle, the speed by which a pharmacogenetic profile for a certain drug can be obtained in an individual patient, there has been a revolution in molecular genetics through the introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS), making it possible to sequence a large number of genes up to the complete genome in a single reaction. Besides the enthusiasm due to the tremendous increase of our sequencing capacities, several considerations need to be made regarding quality and interpretation of the sequence data as well as ethical aspects of this technology. This paper will focus on the different NGS applications that may be useful for pharmacogenomics in children and the challenges that they bring on.
Importance of the field
Antipsychotic drug is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, and there are large inter-individual differences in clinical response and side effects. Pharmacogenetics provides a valuable tool to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine by tailoring treatment based on one’s genetic markers.
Areas covered in this review
This article reviews the recent progress in pharmacogenetic research of antipsychotic drugs since 2010, focusing on two areas: antipsychotic-induced weight gain and clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Important methodological issues in this area of research are discussed.
What the reader will gain
Readers are expected to learn the up-to-date evidence in pharmacogenetic research, and to gain familiarity to the issues and challenges facing the field.
Take home message
Pharmacogenetic studies of antipsychotic drugs are promising despite of many challenges. Recent advances as reviewed in this article push the field closer to routine clinical utilization of pharmacogenetic testing. Progress in genomic technology and bioinformatics, larger sample sizes, better phenotype characterization, and careful consideration of study design issues will help to elevate antipsychotic pharmacogenetics to its next level.
Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics have been widely recognized as fundamental steps toward personalized medicine. They deal with genetically determined variants in how individuals respond to drugs, and hold the promise to revolutionize drug therapy by tailoring it according to individual genotypes.
The clinical need for novel approaches to improve drug therapy derives from the high rate of adverse reactions to drugs and their lack of efficacy in many individuals that may be predicted by pharmacogenetic testing.
Significant advances in pharmacogenetic research have been made since inherited differences in response to drugs such as isoniazid and succinylcholine were explored in the 1950s. The clinical utility and applications of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are at present particularly evident in some therapeutic areas (anticancer, psycotrophic, and anticoagulant drugs).
Recent evidence derived from several studies includes screening for thiopurine methyl transferase or uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyl-transferase 1A1 gene polymorphisms to prevent mercaptopurine and azathioprine or irinotecan induced myelosuppression, respectively. Also there is a large body of information concerning cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms and their relationship to drug toxicity and response. Further examples include screening the presence of the HLA-B*5701 allele to prevent the hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir and the assessment of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2) expression for trastuzumab therapy of breast cancer or that of KRAS mutation status for cetuximab or panitumumab therapy in colorectal cancer.
Moreover, the application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to therapies used in the treatment of osteoarticular diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis) holds great promise for tailoring therapy with clinically relevant drugs (e.g. disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, vitamin D, and estrogens).
Although the classical candidate gene approach has helped unravel genetic variants that influence clinical drug responsiveness, gene-wide association studies have recently gained attention as they enable to associate specific genetic variants or quantitative differences in gene expression with drug response.
Although research findings are accumulating, most of the potential of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics remains to be explored and must be validated in prospective randomized clinical trials.
The genetic and molecular foundations of personalized medicine appear solid and evidence indicates its growing importance in healthcare.
pharmacogenetics, drug effects, drug metabolism, drug therapy, antineoplastic agents.
The development and implementation of a pharmacist-managed Clinical Pharmacogenetics service is described.
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a well-accepted role of the pharmacist. Pharmacogenetics, the study of genetic factors that influence the variability in drug response among patients, is a rapidly evolving discipline that integrates knowledge of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics with modern advances in genetic testing. There is growing evidence for the clinical utility of pharmacogenetics, and pharmacists can play an essential role in the thoughtful application of pharmacogenetics to patient care.
A pharmacist-managed Clinical Pharmacogenetics service was designed and implemented. The goal of the service is to provide clinical pharmacogenetic testing for gene products important to the pharmacodynamics of medications used in our patients. The service is modeled after and integrated with an already established Clinical Pharmacokinetics service. All clinical pharmacogenetic test results are first reported to one of the pharmacists, who reviews the result and provides a written consult. The consult includes an interpretation of the result and recommendations for any indicated changes to therapy. In 2009, 136 clinical pharmacogenetic tests were performed, consisting of 66 TPMT tests, 65 CYP2D6 tests, and 5 UGT1A1 tests. Our service has been met with positive clinician feedback.
Our experience demonstrates the feasibility of the design and function of a pharmacist-managed Clinical Pharmacogenetics service at an academic specialty hospital. The successful implementation of this service highlights the leadership role that pharmacists can take in moving pharmacogenetics from research to patient care, thereby potentially improving patient outcomes.
Large interindividual variation is observed in both the response and toxicity associated with anticancer therapy. The etiology of this variation is multifactorial, but is due in part to host genetic variations. Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies have successfully identified genetic variants that contribute to this variation in susceptibility to chemotherapy. This review provides an overview of the progress made in the field of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics using a five-stage architecture, which includes 1) determining the role of genetics in drug response; 2) screening and identifying genetic markers; 3) validating genetic markers; 4) clinical utility assessment; and 5) pharmacoeconomic impact. Examples are provided to illustrate the identification, validation, utility, and challenges of these pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic markers, with the focus on the current application of this knowledge in cancer therapy. With the advance of technology, it becomes feasible to evaluate the human genome in a relatively inexpensive and efficient manner; however, extensive pharmacogenetic research and education are urgently needed to improve the translation of pharmacogenetic concepts from bench to bedside.
There is currently much interest in pharmacogenetics: determining variation in genes that regulate drug effects, with a particular emphasis on improving drug safety and efficacy. The ability to determine such variation motivates the application of personalized drug therapies that utilize a patient's genetic makeup to determine a safe and effective drug at the correct dose. To ascertain whether a genotype-guided drug therapy improves patient care, a personalized medicine intervention may be evaluated within the framework of a randomized controlled trial. The statistical design of this type of personalized medicine intervention requires special considerations: the distribution of relevant allelic variants in the study population; and whether the pharmacogenetic intervention is equally effective across subpopulations defined by allelic variants.
The statistical design of the Clarification of Optimal Anticoagulation through Genetics (COAG) trial serves as an illustrative example of a personalized medicine intervention that uses each subject's genotype information. The COAG trial is a multicenter, double blind, randomized clinical trial that will compare two approaches to initiation of warfarin therapy: genotype-guided dosing, the initiation of warfarin therapy based on algorithms using clinical information and genotypes for polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1; and clinical-guided dosing, the initiation of warfarin therapy based on algorithms using only clinical information.
We determine an absolute minimum detectable difference of 5.49% based on an assumed 60% population prevalence of zero or multiple genetic variants in either CYP2C9 or VKORC1 and an assumed 15% relative effectiveness of genotype-guided warfarin initiation for those with zero or multiple genetic variants. Thus we calculate a sample size of 1238 to achieve a power level of 80% for the primary outcome. We show that reasonable departures from these assumptions may decrease statistical power to 65%.
In a personalized medicine intervention, the minimum detectable difference used in sample size calculations is not a known quantity, but rather an unknown quantity that depends on the genetic makeup of the subjects enrolled. Given the possible sensitivity of sample size and power calculations to these key assumptions, we recommend that they be monitored during the conduct of a personalized medicine intervention.
Pharmacogenetics provides great opportunity for improving both the chance of therapeutic benefit and the ability to avoid adverse drug events. To date, the majority of pharmacogenetic studies have been performed using germline DNA. DNA collection in most clinical trials provides a wealth of samples from which pharmacogenetic studies can be launched. However, there is concern that the data from germline DNA pharmacogenetics might be of limited value for diseases, such as cancer, where germline variants may not adequately represent the genetic data obtained from the somatic DNA. In this perspective, we evaluate the literature that compares pharmacogenetic variants between germline DNA and matched somatic DNA. The analysis of these studies indicates that there is almost complete concordance between germline and somatic DNA in variants of pharmacogenetic genes. Although somatic variants are clinically significant and independently provide genetic information that cannot be gained from the germline, the use of germline DNA for pharmacogenetic studies is achievable and valuable. This use of germline DNA offers great opportunities for the implementation of individualized therapy.
germline; pharmacogenetics; somatic
There is great interest in characterizing the genetic architecture underlying drug response. For many drugs, gene-based dosing models explain a considerable amount of the overall variation in treatment outcome. As such, prescription drug labels are increasingly being modified to contain pharmacogenetic information. Genetic data must, however, be interpreted within the context of relevant clinical covariates. Even the most predictive models improve with the addition of data related to biogeographical ancestry. The current review explores analytical strategies that leverage population structure to more fully characterize genetic determinants of outcome in large clinical practice-based cohorts. The success of this approach will depend upon several key factors: (1) the availability of outcome data from groups of admixed individuals (i.e., populations recombined over multiple generations), (2) a measurable difference in treatment outcome (i.e., efficacy and toxicity endpoints), and (3) a measurable difference in allele frequency between the ancestral populations.
Admixture; admixture mapping; ancestry; biobank; database; pharmacogenetics
Hemorrhagic events are frequent in patients on treatment with antivitamin-K oral anticoagulants due to their narrow therapeutic margin. Studies performed with acenocoumarol have shown the relationship between demographic, clinical and genotypic variants and the response to these drugs. Once the influence of these genetic and clinical factors on the dose of acenocoumarol needed to maintain a stable international normalized ratio (INR) has been demonstrated, new strategies need to be developed to predict the appropriate doses of this drug. Several pharmacogenetic algorithms have been developed for warfarin, but only three have been developed for acenocoumarol. After the development of a pharmacogenetic algorithm, the obvious next step is to demonstrate its effectiveness and utility by means of a randomized controlled trial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of an acenocoumarol dosing algorithm developed by our group which includes demographic, clinical and pharmacogenetic variables (VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and ApoE) in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE).
Methods and design
This is a multicenter, single blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. The protocol has been approved by La Paz University Hospital Research Ethics Committee and by the Spanish Drug Agency. Two hundred and forty patients with VTE in which oral anticoagulant therapy is indicated will be included. Randomization (case/control 1:1) will be stratified by center. Acenocoumarol dose in the control group will be scheduled and adjusted following common clinical practice; in the experimental arm dosing will be following an individualized algorithm developed and validated by our group. Patients will be followed for three months. The main endpoints are: 1) Percentage of patients with INR within the therapeutic range on day seven after initiation of oral anticoagulant therapy; 2) Time from the start of oral anticoagulant treatment to achievement of a stable INR within the therapeutic range; 3) Number of INR determinations within the therapeutic range in the first six weeks of treatment.
To date, there are no clinical trials comparing pharmacogenetic acenocoumarol dosing algorithm versus routine clinical practice in VTE. Implementation of this pharmacogenetic algorithm in the clinical practice routine could reduce side effects and improve patient safety.
Eudra CT. Identifier: 2009-016643-18.
Pharmacogenetic; Acenocoumarol; Hematology
Purpose of review
The deciphering of the human genome sequence has enabled the identification of genetic polymorphisms that are responsible for inter-individual variation in the response to drug therapy. This field is referred to as pharmacogenetics. We review the impact of pharmacogenetics on therapy in diseases of the colon using three common variant enzyme systems as examples.
Many enzyme systems impact the treatment of diseases of the colon. Examples include thiopurine S-methyltransferase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and flavin monooxygenase 3. They affect the management of inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and the chemoprevention of colorectal adenoma by influencing the metabolism of their respective substrates, azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine, 5-fluorouracil and sulindac. Recent studies have implicated the significance of genetic polymorphisms in each of the three drug-metabolizing enzymes, which impacts on the therapeutic outcome of the stated diseases. These studies highlight the potential role of pharmacogenetics in the design of a therapeutic plan which would increase efficacy and limit toxicity.
Pharmacogenetics of drug-metabolizing systems continues to gain significance in the drug therapy of a variety of disease states including those of the gastrointestinal tract.
colorectal cancer; dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase; flavin monooxygenase 3; inflammatory bowel disease; pharmacogenetics; thiopurine S-methyltransferase
Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics deal with the role of genetic factors in drug effectiveness and adverse drug reactions. The promise of a personalized medicine is beginning to be explored but requires much more clinical and translational research. Specific DNA abnormalities in some cancers already have led to effective targeted treatments. Racially determined frequency differences in pharmacogenetic traits may affect choice of treatment requiring specific testing rather than basing treatments according to racial designation.
The role of genes in variable responses to foreign chemicals (xenobiotics) has been termed ecogenetics or toxicogenetics raising problems in public health and occupational medicine. Nutrigenetics refers to genetic variation in response to nutrients and may affect nutritional requirements and predisposition to chronic disease.
Pharmacogenetics; Pharmacogenomics; Ecogenetics; Nutrigenetics; Adverse drug reactions
Pharmacogenetics uses genetic variation to predict individual differences in response to medications and holds much promise to improve treatment of addictive disorders.
To review how genetic variation affects responses to cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine and how this information may guide pharmacotherapy.
We performed a cross-referenced literature search on pharmacogenetics, cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine.
We describe functional genetic variants for enzymes dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DβH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine D4 receptor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; C-1021T) in the DβH gene is relevant to paranoia associated with disulfiram pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. Individuals with variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) of the SLC6A3 gene 3′-untranslated region polymorphism of DAT1 have altered responses to drugs. The 10/10 repeat respond poorly to methylphenidate pharmacotherapy and the 9/9 DAT1 variant show blunted euphoria and physiological response to amphetamine. COMT, D4 receptor, and BDNF polymorphisms are linked to methamphetamine abuse and psychosis.
Disulfiram and methylphenidate pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction are optimized by considering polymorphisms affecting DβH and DAT1 respectively. Altered subjective effects for amphetamine in DAT1 VNTR variants suggest a ‘protected’ phenotype.
Pharmacogenetic-based treatments for psychostimulant addiction are critical for successful treatment.
Gene variants; pharmacotherapies; drug therapy; stimulants; individualized therapy; gene-based therapeutics; polymorphisms; genetic variation; subjective effects; drug dependence; addiction psychiatry
Pharmacogenetics aims to elucidate how genetic variation affects the efficacy and side effects of drugs, with the ultimate goal of personalizing medicine. Clinical studies of the genetic variation in the uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase gene have demonstrated how reduced-function allele variants can predict the risk of severe toxicity and help identify cancer patients who could benefit from reduced-dose schedules or alternative chemotherapy. Candidate polymorphisms have also been identified in vitro, although the functional consequences of these variants still need to be tested in the clinical setting. Future approaches in uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase pharmacogenetics include genetic testing prior to drug treatment, genotype-directed dose-escalation studies, study of genetic variation at the haplotype level and genome-wide studies.
epirubicin; flavopiridol; glucuronidation; irinotecan; neutropenia; raloxifene; tamoxifen; TAS-103; uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase; vorinostat
This second part of a four-part series deals with pharmacogenetic variability in drug transport and anticancer phase I drug metabolism, and emphasizes opportunities for patient-tailored pharmacotherapy based on the current knowledge in the field of pharmacogenetics in oncology.
After completing this course, the reader will be able to:
List currently identified candidate genes involved in phase I metabolism that are potential pharmacogenetic markers in anticancer therapy.Describe the general effect on standard treatment of allelic variants of the candidate genes and the implications for individualized treatment.
This article is available for continuing medical education credit at CME.TheOncologist.com
Equivalent drug doses in anticancer chemotherapy may lead to wide interpatient variability in drug response reflected by differences in treatment response or in severity of adverse drug reactions. Differences in the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) behavior of a drug contribute to variation in treatment outcome among patients. An important factor responsible for this variability is genetic polymorphism in genes that are involved in PK/PD processes, including drug transporters, phase I and II metabolizing enzymes, and drug targets, and other genes that interfere with drug response. In order to achieve personalized pharmacotherapy, drug dosing and treatment selection based on genotype might help to increase treatment efficacy while reducing unnecessary toxicity.
We present a series of four reviews about pharmacogenetic variability in anticancer drug treatment. This is the second review in the series and is focused on genetic variability in genes encoding drug transporters (ABCB1 and ABCG2) and phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes (CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, DPYD, CDA and BLMH) and their associations with anticancer drug treatment outcome. Based on the literature reviewed, opportunities for patient-tailored anticancer therapy are presented.
Pharmacogenetics; Drug transport; Phase I metabolism; Personalized medicine; Oncology; Anticancer drugs
Human genetic variation is likely to be responsible for a substantial fraction of the variability in complex traits including drug response. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been implicated in drug response using genome-wide association studies as well as candidate-gene approaches. A more comprehensive catalogue of human genetic variation should complement the current large-scale genotypic dataset from the International HapMap Project, which focuses on common genetic variants. The 1000 Genomes Project (KGP) is an international research effort that aims to provide the most comprehensive map of human genetic variation using next-generation sequencing platforms. Due to the lack of convenient tools, however, it is a challenge for the pharmacogenetic research community to take advantage of these data. We present here a new database of some pharmacogenes of particular interest to pharmacogenetic researchers. Our database provides a convenient portal for immediate utilization of the newly released KGP data in pharmacogenetic studies.
pharmacogenetics; pharmacogene; single nucleotide polymorphism; next generation sequencing; database
In epilepsy, in spite of the best possible medications and treatment protocols, approximately one-third of the patients do not respond adequately to anti-epileptic drugs. Such interindividual variations in drug response are believed to result from genetic variations in candidate genes belonging to multiple pathways.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In the present pharmacogenetic analysis, a total of 402 epilepsy patients were enrolled. Of them, 128 were diagnosed as multiple drug-resistant epilepsy and 274 patients were diagnosed as having drug-responsive epilepsy. We selected a total of 10 candidate gene polymorphisms belonging to three major classes, namely drug transporters, drug metabolizers and drug targets. These genetic polymorphism included CYP2C9 c.430C>T (*2 variant), CYP2C9 c.1075 A>C (*3 variant), ABCB1 c.3435C>T, ABCB1c.1236C>T, ABCB1c.2677G>T/A, SCN1A c.3184 A> G, SCN2A c.56G>A (p.R19K), GABRA1c.IVS11 + 15 A>G and GABRG2 c.588C>T. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods, and each genotype was confirmed via direct DNA sequencing. The relationship between various genetic polymorphisms and responsiveness was examined using binary logistic regression by SPSS statistical analysis software.
CYP2C9 c.1075 A>C polymorphism showed a marginal significant difference between drug resistance and drug-responsive patients for the AC genotype (Odds ratio [OR] = 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.32–1.00; P = 0.05). In drug transporter, ABCB1c.2677G>T/A polymorphism, allele A was associated with drug-resistant phenotype in epilepsy patients (P = 0.03, OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.10-0.93). Similarly, the variant allele frequency of SCN2A c.56 G>A single nucleotide polymorphism was significantly higher in drug-resistant patients (P = 0.03; OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.03, 2.56). We also observed a significant difference at the genotype as well as allele frequencies of GABRA1c.IVS11 + 15 A > G polymorphism in drug-resistant patients for homozygous GG genotype (P = 0.03, OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.05–3.23) and G allele (P = 0.02, OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.05–1.95).
Our results showed that pharmacogenetic variants have important roles in epilepsy at different levels. It may be noted that multi-factorial diseases like epilepsy are also regulated by various other factors that may also be considered in the future.
Drug resistance; epilepsy; pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenetics affects both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, thereby influencing an individual's response to drugs, both in terms of response and adverse reactions. Within the area of pharmacogenetics, findings of genetic variation influencing drug levels have been more prevalent, and variation in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is one of the most common causes. Much of the work concerning sequence variations in CYPs aims at finding biomarkers of use for individualised treatment, thereby increasing the treatment response, lowering the number of side effects and decreasing the overall cost of treatment regimens. For over ten years, the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature (CYP-allele) website (http://www.cypalleles.ki.se/) has offered a database of genetic information on CYP variants, along with effects at the molecular as well as clinical level. Thus, this database serves as an assembly of past, current and soon-to-be published information on CYP alleles and their outcome effects. The website is used by academic researchers and companies (eg as a tool in drug development and for outlining new research projects). By providing peer-reviewed genetic information on CYP enzymes, the CYP-allele website has become increasingly popular and widely used. Recently, NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), the electron donor for CYP enzymes, was included on the website, which already contains 29 CYP genes, hence POR alleles are now also designated using the star allele (POR*) nomenclature. Although most CYPs on the CYP-allele website are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, polymorphic enzymes with endogenous functions are also included. Each gene on the CYP-allele website has its own webpage that lists the different alleles with their nucleotide changes, their functional consequences and links to publications in which the allele has been identified and/or characterised. Thus, the CYP-allele website offers a rapid online publication of new alleles, as well as providing an overview of peer-reviewed data.
pharmacogenetics; adverse drug reactions; drug response; haplotypes; drug metabolism; cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)
While pharmacogenetics - the correlation of genotype and response to medicines - currently has a small but measurable impact on the prescribing practice of clinicians, the advent of the `personal genome' is likely to change this significantly. Advances in high-throughput technologies aimed at characterizing human genetic variation, including chip-based genotyping and next-generation sequencing, are poised to provide a flood of information that will affect both pharmacogenetic discovery and pharmacogenetic application in clinical practice. In order for this flood of information to not overwhelm both researchers and clinicians alike, a variety of new and expanded information management tools will be needed, including electronic medical records, bioinformatic algorithms for analyzing sequence data, information management systems for storing, retrieving and interpreting whole-genome sequence data, and pharmacogenetic decision tools for prescribers.
genome sequence; genome-wide association study; next-generation sequencing; personalized medicine; pharmacogenetics; rare variant; SNP