ORP5 works together with Niemann Pick C-1 to facilitate exit of cholesterol from endosomes and lysosomes.
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and its related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large and evolutionarily conserved family of lipid-binding proteins that target organelle membranes to mediate sterol signaling and/or transport. Here we characterize ORP5, a tail-anchored ORP protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Knocking down ORP5 causes cholesterol accumulation in late endosomes and lysosomes, which is reminiscent of the cholesterol trafficking defect in Niemann Pick C (NPC) fibroblasts. Cholesterol appears to accumulate in the limiting membranes of endosomal compartments in ORP5-depleted cells, whereas depletion of NPC1 or both ORP5 and NPC1 results in luminal accumulation of cholesterol. Moreover, trans-Golgi resident proteins mislocalize to endosomal compartments upon ORP5 depletion, which depends on a functional NPC1. Our results establish the first link between NPC1 and a cytoplasmic sterol carrier, and suggest that ORP5 may cooperate with NPC1 to mediate the exit of cholesterol from endosomes/lysosomes.
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large gene family that differentially localize to organellar membranes, reflecting a functional role in sterol signaling and/or transport. OSBP partitions between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus where it imparts sterol-dependent regulation of ceramide transport and sphingomyelin synthesis. ORP9L also is localized to the ER–Golgi, but its role in secretion and lipid transport is unknown. Here we demonstrate that ORP9L partitioning between the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN), and the ER is mediated by a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P)-specific PH domain and VAMP-associated protein (VAP), respectively. In vitro, both OSBP and ORP9L mediated PI-4P–dependent cholesterol transport between liposomes, suggesting their primary in vivo function is sterol transfer between the Golgi and ER. Depletion of ORP9L by RNAi caused Golgi fragmentation, inhibition of vesicular somatitus virus glycoprotein transport from the ER and accumulation of cholesterol in endosomes/lysosomes. Complete cessation of protein transport and cell growth inhibition was achieved by inducible overexpression of ORP9S, a dominant negative variant lacking the PH domain. We conclude that ORP9 maintains the integrity of the early secretory pathway by mediating transport of sterols between the ER and trans-Golgi/TGN.
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) homologues, ORPs, are implicated in lipid homeostatic control, vesicle transport, and cell signaling. We analyzed here the quantity of ORP mRNAs in human subcutaneous (s.c.) and visceral adipose depots, as well as in the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte cell model. All of the ORP mRNAs were present in the s.c and visceral adipose tissues, and the two depots shared an almost identical ORP mRNA expression pattern. SGBS adipocytes displayed a similar pattern, suggesting that the adipose tissue ORP expression pattern mainly derives from adipocytes. During SGBS cell adipogenic differentiation, ORP2, ORP3, ORP4, ORP7, and ORP8 mRNAs were down-regulated, while ORP11 was induced. To assess the impacts of ORPs on adipocyte differentiation, ORP3 and ORP8, proteins down-regulated during adipogenesis, were overexpressed in differentiating SGBS adipocytes, while ORP11, a protein induced during adipogenesis, was silenced. ORP8 overexpression resulted in reduced expression of the aP2 mRNA, while down-regulation of adiponectin and aP2 was observed in ORP11 silenced cells. Furthermore, ORP8 overexpression or silencing of ORP11 markedly decreased cellular triglyceride storage. These data identify the patterns of ORP expression in human adipose depots and SGBS adipocytes, and provide the first evidence for a functional impact of ORPs on the adipocyte phenotype.
Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) homologs comprise a family of 12 proteins in humans (Jaworski et al., 2001; Lehto et al., 2001). Two variants of OSBP-related protein (ORP) 1 have been identified: a short one that consists of the carboxy-terminal ligand binding domain only (ORP1S, 437 aa) and a longer N-terminally extended form (ORP1L, 950 aa) encompassing three ankyrin repeats and a pleckstrin homology domain (PHD). We now report that the two mRNAs show marked differences in tissue expression. ORP1S predominates in skeletal muscle and heart, whereas ORP1L is the most abundant form in brain and lung. On differentiation of primary human monocytes into macrophages, both ORP1S and ORP1L mRNAs were induced, the up-regulation of ORP1L being >100-fold. The intracellular localization of the two ORP1 variants was found to be different. Whereas ORP1S is largely cytosolic, the ORP1L variant localizes to late endosomes. A significant amount of ORP1S but only little ORP1L was found in the nucleus. The ORP1L ankyrin repeat region (aa 1–237) was found to localize to late endosomes such as the full-length protein. This localization was even more pronounced for a fragment that additionally includes the PHD (aa 1–408). The amino-terminal region of ORP1L consisting of the ankyrin repeat and PHDs is therefore likely to be responsible for the targeting of ORP1L to late endosomes. Interestingly, overexpression of ORP1L was found to enhance the LXRα-mediated transactivation of a reporter gene, whereas ORP1S failed to influence this process. The results suggest that the two forms of ORP1 are functionally distinct and that ORP1L is involved in control of cellular lipid metabolism.
The oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and related proteins (ORPs) are sterol-binding proteins that may be involved in cellular sterol transportation, sterol metabolism and signal transduction pathways. Four ORP genes were cloned from Aedes aegypti. Based on amino acid sequence homology to human proteins, they are AeOSBP, AeORP1, AeORP8 and AeORP9. Splicing variants of AeOSBP and AeORP8 were identified. The temporal and spatial transcription patterns of members of the AeOSBP gene family through developmental stages and the gonotrophic cycle were profiled. AeORP1 transcription seemed to be head tissue-specific, whereas AeOSBP and AeORP9 expressions were induced by a blood meal. Furthermore, over-expression of AeORPs facilitated [3H]-cholesterol uptake in Aedes aegypti cultured Aag-2 cells.
Oxysterol-binding protein; cholesterol; gene expression; sterol transport
Sterols are moved between cellular membranes by nonvesicular pathways whose functions are poorly understood. In yeast, one such pathway transfers sterols from the plasma membrane (PM) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that this transport requires oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)–related proteins (ORPs), which are a large family of conserved lipid-binding proteins. We demonstrate that a representative member of this family, Osh4p/Kes1p, specifically facilitates the nonvesicular transfer of cholesterol and ergosterol between membranes in vitro. In addition, Osh4p transfers sterols more rapidly between membranes containing phosphoinositides (PIPs), suggesting that PIPs regulate sterol transport by ORPs. We confirmed this by showing that PM to ER sterol transport slows dramatically in mutants with conditional defects in PIP biosynthesis. Our findings argue that ORPs move sterols among cellular compartments and that sterol transport and intracellular distribution are regulated by PIPs.
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs) are lipid-binding proteins that are conserved from yeast to humans. They are implicated in many cellular processes including signaling, vesicular trafficking, lipid metabolism, and nonvesicular sterol transport. All ORPs contain an OSBP-related domain (ORD) that has a hydrophobic pocket that binds a single sterol. ORDs also contain additional membrane binding surfaces, some of which bind phosphoinositides and may regulate sterol binding. Studies in yeast suggest that ORPs function as sterol transporters, perhaps in regions where organelle membranes are closely apposed. Yeast ORPs also participate in vesicular trafficking, although their role is unclear. In mammalian cells, some ORPs function as sterol sensors that regulate the assembly of protein complexes in response to changes in cholesterol levels. This review will summarize recent advances in our understanding of how ORPs bind lipids and membranes and how they function in diverse cellular processes.
cholesterol; sterol; phosphoinositides; signaling; lipid transport; membranes; membrane contact sites; lipid transport proteins
Cephalostatin 1, OSW-1, ritterazine B and schweinfurthin A are natural products that potently, and in some cases selectively, inhibit the growth of cultured human cancer cell lines. The cellular targets of these small molecules have yet to be identified. We have discovered that these molecules target oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and its closest paralog, OSBP-related protein 4L (ORP4L)—proteins not known to be involved in cancer cell survival. OSBP and the ORPs constitute an evolutionarily conserved protein superfamily, members of which have been implicated in signal transduction, lipid transport and lipid metabolism. The functions of OSBP and the ORPs, however, remain largely enigmatic. Based on our findings, we have named the aforementioned natural products ORPphilins. Here we used ORPphilins to reveal new cellular activities of OSBP. The ORPphilins are powerful probes of OSBP and ORP4L that will be useful in uncovering their cellular functions and their roles in human diseases.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication involves complex interactions among the 3’x RNA element within the HCV 3’ untranslated region, viral and host proteins. However, many of the host proteins remain unknown. In this study, we devised an RNA affinity chromatography /2D/MASS proteomics strategy and identified nine putative 3’ X-associated host proteins; among them is oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 4 (ORP4), a cytoplasmic receptor for oxysterols. We determined the relationship between ORP4 expression and HCV replication. A very low level of constitutive ORP4 expression was detected in hepatocytes. Ectopically expressed ORP4 was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and inhibited luciferase reporter gene expression in HCV subgenomic replicon cells and HCV core expression in JFH-1-infected cells. Expression of ORP4S, an ORP4 variant that lacked the N-terminal pleckstrin-homology domain but contained the C-terminal oxysterol-binding domain also inhibited HCV replication, pointing to an important role of the oxysterol-binding domain in ORP4-mediated inhibition of HCV replication. ORP4 was found to associate with HCV NS5B and its expression led to inhibition of the NS5B activity. ORP4 expression had little effect on intracellular lipid synthesis and secretion, but it induced lipid droplet formation in the context of HCV replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ORP4 is a negative regulator of HCV replication, likely via interaction with HCV NS5B in the replication complex and regulation of intracellular lipid homeostasis. This work supports the important role of lipids and their metabolism in HCV replication and pathogenesis.
Expression of angiogenic factors such as VEGF under conditions of hypoxia or other kinds of cell stress contributes to neovascularization during wound healing. The inducible endoplasmic reticulum chaperone oxygen-regulated protein 150 (ORP150) is expressed in human wounds along with VEGF. Colocalization of these two molecules was observed in macrophages in the neovasculature, suggesting a role of ORP150 in the promotion of angiogenesis. Local administration of ORP150 sense adenovirus to wounds of diabetic mice, a treatment that efficiently targeted this gene product to the macrophages of wound beds, increased VEGF antigen in wounds and accelerated repair and neovascularization. In cultured human macrophages, inhibition of ORP150 expression caused retention of VEGF antigen within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while overexpression of ORP150 promoted the secretion of VEGF into hypoxic culture supernatants. Taken together, these data suggest an important role for ORP150 in the setting of impaired wound repair and identify a key, inducible chaperone-like molecule in the ER. This novel facet of the angiogenic response may be amenable to therapeutic manipulation.
OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) encoded by Osbpl8 is an endoplasmic reticulum sterol sensor implicated in cellular lipid metabolism. We generated an Osbpl8−/− (KO) C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Wild-type and Osbpl8KO animals at the age of 13-weeks were fed for 5 weeks either chow or high-fat diet, and their plasma lipids/lipoproteins and hepatic lipids were analyzed. The chow-fed Osbpl8KO male mice showed a marked elevation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (+79%) and phospholipids (+35%), while only minor increase of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) was detected. In chow-fed female KO mice a less prominent increase of HDL cholesterol (+27%) was observed, while on western diet the HDL increment was prominent in both genders. The HDL increase was accompanied by an elevated level of HDL-associated apolipoprotein E in male, but not female KO animals. No differences between genotypes were observed in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) or hepatic lipase (HL) activity, or in the fractional catabolic rate of fluorescently labeled mouse HDL injected in chow-diet fed animals. The Osbpl8KO mice of both genders displayed reduced phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity, but only on chow diet. These findings are consistent with a model in which Osbpl8 deficiency results in altered biosynthesis of HDL. Consistent with this hypothesis, ORP8 depleted mouse hepatocytes secreted an increased amount of nascent HDL into the culture medium. In addition to the HDL phenotype, distinct gender-specific alterations in lipid metabolism were detected: Female KO animals on chow diet showed reduced lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and increased plasma triglycerides, while the male KO mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol biosynthetic markers cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol. Moreover, modest gender-specific alterations in the hepatic expression of lipid homeostatic genes were observed. In conclusion, we report the first viable OsbplKO mouse model, demonstrating a HDL elevating effect of Osbpl8 knock-out and additional gender- and/or diet-dependent impacts on lipid metabolism.
The oxysterol binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs) are conserved from yeast to man 1,2 and are implicated in regulation of sterol pathways 3,4 and in signal transduction 5. The structure of the full-length yeast ORP Osh4 was determined at 1.5–1.9 Å resolution in complexes with ergosterol, cholesterol, and 7-, 20-, and 25-hydroxycholesterol. A single sterol molecule binds in a hydrophobic tunnel in a manner consistent with a transport function for ORPs. The entrance is blocked by a flexible N-terminal lid and surrounded by functionally critical basic residues. The structure of the open state of a lid-truncated form of Osh4 was determined at 2.5 Å resolution. Structural analysis and limited proteolysis show that sterol binding closes the lid and stabilizes a conformation favoring transport across aqueous barriers and transmitting signals. The unliganded structure exposes potential phospholipid-binding sites that are positioned for membrane docking and sterol exchange. Based on these observations we propose a model in which sterol and membrane binding promote reciprocal conformational changes that facilitate a sterol transfer and signaling cycle.
The ORP lipid-binding domain can contact two membranes simultaneously to facilitate sterol extraction or delivery at one membrane in response to the lipid composition of the other.
Sterols are transferred between cellular membranes by vesicular and poorly understood nonvesicular pathways. Oxysterol-binding protein–related proteins (ORPs) have been implicated in sterol sensing and nonvesicular transport. In this study, we show that yeast ORPs use a novel mechanism that allows regulated sterol transfer between closely apposed membranes, such as organelle contact sites. We find that the core lipid-binding domain found in all ORPs can simultaneously bind two membranes. Using Osh4p/Kes1p as a representative ORP, we show that ORPs have at least two membrane-binding surfaces; one near the mouth of the sterol-binding pocket and a distal site that can bind a second membrane. The distal site is required for the protein to function in cells and, remarkably, regulates the rate at which Osh4p extracts and delivers sterols in a phosphoinositide-dependent manner. Together, these findings suggest a new model of how ORPs could sense and regulate the lipid composition of adjacent membranes.
In the current studies we generated transgenic mice that overexpress human Insig-1 in the liver under a constitutive promoter. In cultured cells Insig-1 and Insig-2 have been shown to block lipid synthesis in a cholesterol-dependent fashion by inhibiting proteolytic processing of sterol regulatory element–binding proteins (SREBPs), membrane-bound transcription factors that activate lipid synthesis. Insig’s exert this action in the ER by binding SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and preventing it from escorting SREBPs to the Golgi apparatus where the SREBPs are processed to their active forms. In the livers of Insig-1 transgenic mice, the content of all nuclear SREBPs (nSREBPs) was reduced and declined further upon feeding of dietary cholesterol. The nuclear content of the insulin-induced SREBP isoform, SREBP-1c, failed to increase to a normal extent upon refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet. The nSREBP deficiency produced a marked reduction in the levels of mRNAs encoding enzymes required for synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides. Plasma cholesterol levels were strongly reduced, and plasma triglycerides did not exhibit their normal rise after refeeding. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that nSREBPs are essential for high levels of lipid synthesis in the liver and indicate that Insig’s modulate nSREBP levels by binding and retaining SCAP in the ER.
ORP1L is a member of the human oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) family. ORP1L localizes to late endosomes (LEs)/lysosomes, colocalizing with the GTPases Rab7 and Rab9 and lysosome-associated membrane protein-1. We demonstrate that ORP1L interacts physically with Rab7, preferentially with its GTP-bound form, and provide evidence that ORP1L stabilizes GTP-bound Rab7 on LEs/lysosomes. The Rab7-binding determinant is mapped to the ankyrin repeat (ANK) region of ORP1L. The pleckstrin homology domain (PHD) of ORP1L binds phosphoinositides with low affinity and specificity. ORP1L ANK- and ANK+PHD fragments induce perinuclear clustering of LE/lysosomes. This is dependent on an intact microtubule network and a functional dynein/dynactin motor complex. The dominant inhibitory Rab7 mutant T22N reverses the LE clustering, suggesting that the effect is dependent on active Rab7. Transport of fluorescent dextran to LEs is inhibited by overexpression of ORP1L. Overexpression of ORP1L, and in particular the N-terminal fragments of ORP1L, inhibits vacuolation of LE caused by Helicobacter pylori toxin VacA, a process also involving Rab7. The present study demonstrates that ORP1L binds to Rab7, modifies its functional cycle, and can interfere with LE/lysosome organization and endocytic membrane trafficking. This is the first report of a direct connection between the OSBP-related protein family and the Rab GTPases.
The oxysterol binding protein (OSBP)-related protein (ORP) family is essential to sterol transfer and sterol-dependent signal transduction in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of one ORP family member, yeast Osh4, is known in apo and sterol-bound states. In the bound state, a 29-residue N-terminal lid region covers the opening of the cholesterol binding tunnel, preventing cholesterol exchange. To characterize the mechanism of cholesterol exchange, equilibrium and steered molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Osh4 were carried out. While most of the structural core was stable during the simulations, the lid partially opened in the apo equilibrium MD simulation. Helix α7, which undergoes the largest conformational change in the crystallized bound and apo states, is conformationally coupled to the opening of the lid. The movement of α7 helps create a docking site for donor or acceptor membranes in the open state. In the steered MD simulations of cholesterol dissociation, we observed complete opening of the lid covering the cholesterol binding tunnel. Cholesterol was found to exit the binding pocket in a step-wise process involving i) the breaking of water-mediated hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts within the binding pocket, ii) opening of the lid covering the binding pocket, and iii) breakage of transient cholesterol contacts with the rim of the pocket and hydrophobic residues on the interior face of the lid.
cholesterol transfer protein; lipid transfer protein; molecular dynamics simulation; protein conformational change
Late endosomes (LEs) have characteristic intracellular distributions determined by their interactions with various motor proteins. Motor proteins associated to the dynactin subunit p150Glued bind to LEs via the Rab7 effector Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) in association with the oxysterol-binding protein ORP1L. We found that cholesterol levels in LEs are sensed by ORP1L and are lower in peripheral vesicles. Under low cholesterol conditions, ORP1L conformation induces the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–LE membrane contact sites. At these sites, the ER protein VAP (VAMP [vesicle-associated membrane protein]-associated ER protein) can interact in trans with the Rab7–RILP complex to remove p150Glued and associated motors. LEs then move to the microtubule plus end. Under high cholesterol conditions, as in Niemann-Pick type C disease, this process is prevented, and LEs accumulate at the microtubule minus end as the result of dynein motor activity. These data explain how the ER and cholesterol control the association of LEs with motor proteins and their positioning in cells.
Hepatic steatosis is present in insulin-resistant obese rodents and is concomitant with active lipogenesis. Hepatic lipogenesis depends on the insulin-induced activation of the transcription factor SREBP-1c. Despite prevailing insulin resistance, SREBP-1c is activated in the livers of genetically and diet-induced obese rodents. Recent studies have reported the presence of an ER stress response in the livers of obese ob/ob mice. To assess whether ER stress promotes SREBP-1c activation and thus contributes to lipogenesis, we overexpressed the chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in the livers of ob/ob mice using an adenoviral vector. GRP78 overexpression reduced ER stress markers and inhibited SREBP-1c cleavage and the expression of SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 target genes. Furthermore, hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents were reduced, and insulin sensitivity improved, in GRP78-injected mice. These metabolic improvements were likely mediated by restoration of IRS-2 expression and tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, GRP78 overexpression also inhibited insulin-induced SREBP-1c cleavage in cultured primary hepatocytes. These findings demonstrate that GRP78 inhibits both insulin-dependent and ER stress–dependent SREBP-1c proteolytic cleavage and explain the role of ER stress in hepatic steatosis in obese rodents.
A series of events initiated by glutamate-receptor interaction perturbs cellular homeostasis resulting in elevation of intracellular free calcium and cell death. Cells subject to such environmental change express stress proteins, which contribute importantly to maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and viability. We show that an inducible chaperone present in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the 150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150), is expressed both in the human brain after seizure attack and in mouse hippocampus after kainate administration. Using mice heterozygous for ORP150 deficiency, exposure to excitatory stimuli caused hippocampal neurons to display exaggerated elevation of cytosolic calcium accompanied by activation of μ-calpain and cathepsin B, as well as increased vulnerability to glutamate-induced cell death in vitro and decreased survival to kainate in vivo. In contrast, targeted neuronal overexpression of ORP150 suppressed each of these events and enhanced neuronal and animal survival in parallel with diminished seizure intensity. Studies using cultured hippocampal neurons showed that ORP150 regulates cytosolic free calcium and activation of proteolytic pathways causing cell death in neurons subject to excitatory stress. Our data underscore a possible role for ER stress in glutamate toxicity and pinpoint a key ER chaperone, ORP150, which contributes to the stress response critical for neuronal survival.
In eukaryotes, different subcellular organelles have distinct cholesterol concentrations, which is thought to be critical for biological functions. Oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) have been assumed to mediate nonvesicular cholesterol trafficking in cells; however, their in vivo functions and therefore the biological significance of cholesterol in each organelle are not fully understood. Here, by generating deletion mutants of ORPs in Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that ORPs are required for the formation and function of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). In an RNAi enhancer screen using obr quadruple mutants (obr-1; -2; -3; -4), we found that MVB–related genes show strong genetic interactions with the obr genes. In obr quadruple mutants, late endosomes/lysosomes are enlarged and membrane protein degradation is retarded, although endocytosed soluble proteins are normally delivered to lysosomes and degraded. We also found that the cholesterol content of late endosomes/lysosomes is reduced in the mutants. In wild-type worms, cholesterol restriction induces the formation of enlarged late endosomes/lysosomes, as observed in obr quadruple mutants, and increases embryonic lethality upon knockdown of MVB–related genes. Finally, we show that knockdown of ORP1L, a mammalian ORP family member, induces the formation of enlarged MVBs in HeLa cells. Our in vivo findings suggest that the proper cholesterol level of late endosomes/lysosomes generated by ORPs is required for normal MVB formation and MVB–mediated membrane protein degradation.
The multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway provides a mechanism for the lysosomal degradation of membrane proteins, such as growth factor receptors. The formation of MVBs is unique in that the curvature is directed toward the lumen of the compartment rather than the cytosol. During MVB formation, the curvature-inducing proteins, such as clathrins, could not be involved in the inward invagination of the endosomal membrane. Under these circumstances, lipids have been assumed to play a role in the membrane invagination step by creating local membrane environments; however, the lipids involved in this step have not been fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that cholesterol, an essential membrane component in animals, is critical for MVB formation and function. We found that disruption of OSBP–related proteins (ORPs), which have been proposed to function in cellular cholesterol distribution and metabolism, reduces the cholesterol content in late endosomes/lysosomes, leading to impaired MVB function. MVB sorting pathway is known to be involved in many processes, including growth factor receptor down-regulation, exosome secretion, antigen presentation, the budding of enveloped viruses, and cytokinesis. Our findings provide a novel link between cholesterol and these biologically important functions.
Oas1b was previously identified as the product of the Flvr allele that confers flavivirus-specific resistance to virus-induced disease in mice by an uncharacterized, RNase L-independent mechanism. To gain insights about the mechanism by which Oas1b specifically reduces the efficiency of flavivirus replication, cellular protein interaction partners were identified and their involvement in the Oas1b-mediated flavivirus resistance mechanism was analyzed. Initial difficulties in getting the two-hybrid assay to work with full-length Oas1b led to the discovery that this Oas protein uniquely has a C-terminal transmembrane domain that targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Two peptides matching to oxysterol binding protein-related protein 1L (ORP1L) and ATP binding cassette protein 3, subfamily F (ABCF3), were identified as Oas1b interaction partners in yeast two-hybrid assays, and both in vitro-transcribed/translated peptides and full-length proteins in mammalian cell lysates coimmunoprecipitated with Oas1b. Knockdown of a partner involved in Oas1b-mediated antiflavivirus activity would be expected to increase flavivirus replication but not that of other types of viruses. However, RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of ORP1L decreased the replication of the flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV) as well as that of other types of RNA viruses. This virus-nonspecific effect may be due to the recently reported dysregulation of late endosome movement by ORP1L knockdown. Knockdown of ABCF3 protein levels increased the replication of WNV but not that of other types of RNA viruses, and this effect on WNV replication was observed only in Oas1b-expressing cells. The results suggest that Oas1b is part of a complex located in the ER and that ABCF3 is a component of the Flvr-mediated resistance mechanism.
In this study, we examined whether adiponectin suppresses endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) using male transgenic mice expressing nSREBP-1c in adipose tissue, nSREBP-1c/adiponectin double-transgenic mice expressing human adiponectin in the liver, and wild-type male mice as the control. Histological findings similar to those observed in liver specimens from patients with NASH were observed in the livers from the nSREBP-1c transgenic mice at 30 weeks of age. By contrast, the NASH-like liver histology was markedly attenuated in age-matched nSREBP-1c/adiponectin double-transgenic mice. The nSREBP-1c/adiponectin double-transgenic mice showed human adiponectin production in the liver and a restored circulating human adiponectin level. Human adiponectin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression in the liver was identified in the nSREBP-1c/adiponectin double-transgenic mice, but adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA expression in the liver was normal. TNFα mRNA was decreased in the liver of the nSREBP-1c/adiponectin double-transgenic mice compared with the nSREBP-1c transgenic mice. The protein expressions of X-box-binding protein-1, activating transcription factor 4, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, TNFα and NFκB were down-regulated in liver tissues from the nSREBP-1c/adiponectin double-transgenic mice. Mouse adiponectin and activating transcription factor 6 expressions were almost the same in the three groups. Post-load plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in the nSREBP-1c/adiponectin double-transgenic mice compared with the nSREBP-1c transgenic mice. These results indicate that adiponectin expressed in the liver suppresses ER stress and attenuates hepatic steatosis, inflammation and insulin resistance in NASH. Adiponectin may open the way to novel therapies for human NASH.
nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; adiponectin; endoplasmic reticulum stress
The sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) play an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis. Translated as inactive precursors that are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, SREBPs are activated through a proteolytic process in response to intracellular demands for lipids. The cleaved amino-terminal fragments of SREBPs then translocate into the nucleus as homodimers and stimulate the transcription of target genes by binding to the sterol response elements (SREs) in their promoters. Numerous studies using cell culture or genetically modified mouse models have demonstrated that the major target genes of SREBPs include rate-limiting enzymes in the pathways of fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis as well as the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. The proteolytic maturation of SREBPs has been well studied in the past. However, recent studies have also improved our understanding on the regulation of nuclear SREBPs. In the nucleus, SREBPs interact with specific transcriptional cofactors, such as CBP/p300 and the Mediator complex, resulting in stimulation or inhibition of their transcriptional activities. In addition, nuclear SREBP protein stability is dynamically regulated by phosphorylation and acetylation. Such protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications elegantly link the extracellular signals, such as insulin, or intracellular signals, such as oxidative stress, to lipid biosynthesis by modulating the transcriptional activity of SREBPs. Under normal physiological states, lipid homeostasis is strictly maintained. However, the SREBP pathways are often dysregulated in pathophysiological conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver diseases. Thus, the novel regulatory mechanisms of SREBPs may provide new opportunities for fighting these metabolic diseases.
SREBP; Transcription; Cofactor; Lipid metabolism; Mediator complex; Acetylation; Phosphorylation; Oxidative stress
End-product feedback inhibition of cholesterol synthesis was first demonstrated in living animals by Schoenheimer 72 years ago. Current studies define Insig proteins as essential elements of this feedback system in mouse liver. In cultured cells, Insig proteins are required for sterol-mediated inhibition of the processing of sterol regulatory element–binding proteins (SREBPs) to their nuclear forms. We produced mice with germline disruption of the Insig2 gene and Cre-mediated disruption of the Insig1 gene in liver. On a chow diet, these double-knockout mice overaccumulated cholesterol and triglycerides in liver. Despite this accumulation, levels of nuclear SREBPs and mRNAs for SREBP target genes in lipogenic pathways were not reduced. Whereas cholesterol feeding reduced nuclear SREBPs and lipogenic mRNAs in wild-type mice, this feedback response was severely blunted in the double-knockout mice, and synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids was not repressed. The amount of HMG-CoA reductase protein was elevated out of proportion to the mRNA in the double-knockout mice, apparently owing to the failure of cholesterol to accelerate degradation of the enzyme. These studies indicate that the essential elements of the regulatory pathway for lipid synthesis function in liver as they do in cultured cells.
The molecular mechanism of how cells maintain cholesterol homeostasis has become clearer for the understanding of complicated association between sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) and Insuin induced-genes (Insigs). The pioneering researches suggested that SREBP activated the transcription of genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase and all of the other enzymes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol and lipids. However, SREBPs can not exert their activities alone, they must form a complex with another protein, SCAP in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and translocate to Golgi. Insigs are sensors and mediators that regulate cholesterol homeostasis through binding to SCAP and HMG-CoA reductase in diverse tissues such as adipose tissue and liver, as well as the cultured cells. In this article, we aim to review on the dual functions of Insig protein family in cholesterol homeostasis.
Cholesterol homeostasis; HMG-CoA reductase; Insigs; Mechanism; SCAP; SREBP