Chloroplast photorelocation movement towards weak light and away from strong light is essential for plants to adapt to the fluctuation of ambient light conditions. In the previous study, we showed that blue light receptor phototropins mediated blue light-induced chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis by regulating short actin filaments localized at the chloroplast periphery (cp-actin filaments) rather than actin cables in the cytoplasm. However, the signaling pathway for the chloroplast photorelocation movement is still unclear. We also identified JAC1 (J-domain protein required for chloroplast accumulation response 1) as an essential component for the accumulation response and dark positioning in Arabidopsis. We recently determined the crystal structure of the J-domain of JAC1. The JAC1 J-domain has a positively charged surface, which forms a putative interface with the Hsc70 chaperone by analogy to that of bovine auxilin. Furthermore, the mutation of the highly conserved HPD motif in the JAC1 J-domain impaired the in vivo activity of JAC1. These data suggest that JAC1 cochaperone activity with HSC70 is essential for chloroplast photorelocation movement.
Arabidopsis; auxilin; blue light; clathrin; endocytosis; J-domain; organelle movement; phototropin
The plant organelles, chloroplast and nucleus, change their position in response to light. In Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells, chloroplasts and nuclei are distributed along the inner periclinal wall in darkness. In strong blue light, they become positioned along the anticlinal wall, while in weak blue light, only chloroplasts are accumulated along the inner and outer periclinal walls. Blue-light dependent positioning of both organelles is mediated by the blue-light receptor phototropin and controlled by the actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, however, it seems that chloroplast movement requires short, fine actin filaments organized at the chloroplast edge, whereas nuclear movement does cytoplasmic, thick actin bundles intimately associated with the nucleus. Although there are many similarities between photo-relocation movements of chloroplasts and nuclei, plant cells appear to have evolved distinct mechanisms to regulate actin organization required for driving the movements of these organelles.
actin; Arabidopsis; blue light; chloroplast positioning; phototropin; nuclear positioning
In a recent publication using an actin-visualized line of Arabidopsis (Ichikawa et al. 2011, ref. 11), we reported a detailed analysis with higher time resolution on the dynamics of chloroplast actin filaments (cp-actin filaments) during chloroplast avoidance movement and demonstrated a good correlation between the biased configuration of cp-actin filaments and chloroplast movement. However, we could not conclusively determine whether the reorganization of cp-actin filaments into a biased configuration preceded actual chloroplast movement (and, thus, whether it could be a cause of the movement). In this report, we present clear evidence that the reorganization of cp-actin filaments into a biased distribution is induced even in the absence of the actual movement of chloroplasts. When the cells were treated with 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), a potent inhibitor of myosin ATPase, chloroplast motility was completely suppressed. Nevertheless, the disappearance and biased relocalization of cp-actin filaments toward the side of the prospective movement direction were induced by irradiation with a strong blue light microbeam. The results definitively indicate that the reorganization of cp-actin filaments is not an effect of chloroplast movement; however, it is feasible that the biased localization of cp-actin filaments is an event leading to chloroplast movement.
Actin filament; Arabidopsis; Chloroplast movement; Organelle movement; Photomovement; Phototropin
Sheetz and Spudich (1983, Nature (Lond.), 303:31-35) showed that ATP- dependent movement of myosin along actin filaments can be measured in vitro using myosin-coated beads and oriented actin cables from Nitella. To establish this in vitro movement as a quantitative assay and to understand better the basis for the movement, we have defined the factors that affect the myosin-bead velocity. Beads coated with skeletal muscle myosin move at a rate of 2-6 micron/s, depending on the myosin preparation. This velocity is independent of myosin concentration on the bead surface for concentrations above a critical value (approximately 20 micrograms myosin/2.5 X 10(9) beads of 1 micron in diameter). Movement is optimal between pH 6.8 and 7.5, at KCl concentrations less than 70 mM, at ATP concentrations greater than 0.1 mM, and at Mg2+ concentrations between 2 and 6 mM. From the temperature dependence of bead velocity, we calculate activation energies of 90 kJ/mol below 22 degrees C and 40 kJ/mol above 22 degrees C. Different myosin species move at their own characteristic velocities, and these velocities are proportional to their actin-activated ATPase activities. Further, the velocities of beads coated with smooth or skeletal muscle myosin correlate well with the known in vivo rates of myosin movement along actin filaments in these muscles. This in vitro assay, therefore, provides a rapid, reproducible method for quantitating the ATP- dependent movement of myosin molecules on actin.
Chloroplast movement as a response of plants to light variations is presented as an example in each classical textbook, showing that these organelles accumulate in response to low light and avoid high light irradiation. In sharp contrast to the morphological discovery of the phenomenon, which dates back more than a century, the molecular understanding of this effect is just at its beginning and only recently first components of the signal cascade initiating this process were described. Among these, a protein termed CHUP1 was identified. This protein is present in the outer membrane of chloroplasts and thereby discussed as the first component of a possible ‘moving ensemble’ assembling at the ‘moved cargo’. The protein is able to interact with actin and profilin—and even more, is able to regulate this interaction in vitro. Thereby, today it can be stated that actin filament reformation and chloroplast repositioning are coordinated if not dependent on each other.
chloroplast movement; profilin binding; actin binding; avoidance response of chloroplasts
The mechanism of the light-dependent movements of chloroplasts is based on actin and myosin but its details are largely unknown. The movements are activated by blue light in terrestrial angiosperms. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of myosin associated with the chloroplast surface in the light-induced chloroplast responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. The localization of myosins was investigated under blue light intensities generating avoidance and accumulation responses of chloroplasts. The localization was compared in wild type plants and in phot2 mutant lacking the avoidance response.
Wild type and phot2 mutant plants were irradiated with strong (36 µEm−2s−1) and/or weak (0.8 µEm−2s−1) blue light. The leaf tissue was immunolabeled with antimyosin antibodies. Different arrangements of myosins were observed in the mesophyll depending on the fluence rate in wild type plants. In tissue irradiated with weak blue light myosins were associated with chloroplast envelopes. In contrast, in tissue irradiated with strong blue light chloroplasts were almost myosin-free. The effect did not occur in red light and in the phot2 mutant.
Myosin displacement is blue light specific, i.e., it is associated with the activation of a specific blue-light photoreceptor. We suggest that the reorganization of myosins is essential for chloroplast movement. Myosins appear to be the final step of the signal transduction pathway starting with phototropin2 and leading to chloroplast movements.
Arabidopsis; blue light; chloroplast movements; myosins; phototropins
Actin filaments that serve as ‘rails’ for the myosin-based transport of membrane organelles [1-4] continuously turn over by concurrent growth and shortening at the opposite ends . While it is known that dynamics of actin filaments is essential for many of the actin cytoskeleton functions, the role of such dynamics in the myosin-mediated organelle transport was never studied before. Here we addressed the role of turnover of actin filaments in the myosin-based transport of membrane organelles by treating cells with the drugs that suppress actin filament dynamics and found that such a suppression significantly inhibited organelle transport along the actin filaments without inhibiting their intracellular distribution or the activity of the myosin motors. We conclude that dynamics of actin filaments is essential for myosin-based transport of membrane organelles and suggest a previously unknown role of actin filament dynamics in providing the ‘rails’ for continuous organelle movement resulting in the increased distances traveled by membrane organelles along the actin filaments.
Although organelle movement in higher plants is predominantly actin-based, potential roles for the 17 predicted Arabidopsis myosins in motility are only just emerging. It is shown here that two Arabidopsis myosins from class XI, XIE, and XIK, are involved in Golgi, peroxisome, and mitochondrial movement. Expression of dominant negative forms of the myosin lacking the actin binding domain at the amino terminus perturb organelle motility, but do not completely inhibit movement. Latrunculin B, an actin destabilizing drug, inhibits organelle movement to a greater extent compared to the effects of AtXIE-T/XIK-T expression. Amino terminal YFP fusions to XIE-T and XIK-T are dispersed throughout the cytosol and do not completely decorate the organelles whose motility they affect. XIE-T and XIK-T do not affect the global actin architecture, but their movement and location is actin-dependent. The potential role of these truncated myosins as genetically encoded inhibitors of organelle movement is discussed.
Golgi; mitochondria; motility; myosin; peroxisome
The dynamic remodeling of actin filaments in guard cells functions in stomatal movement regulation. In our previous study, we found that the stochastic dynamics of guard cell actin filaments play a role in chloroplast movement during stomatal movement. In our present study, we further found that tubular actin filaments were present in tobacco guard cells that express GFP-mouse talin; approximately 2.3 tubular structures per cell with a diameter and height in the range of 1–3 µm and 3–5 µm, respectively. Most of the tubular structures were found to be localized in the cytoplasm near the inner walls of the guard cells. Moreover, the tubular actin filaments altered their localization slowly in the guard cells of static stoma, but showed obvious remodeling, such as breakdown and re-formation, in moving guard cells. Tubular actin filaments were further found to be colocalized with the chloroplasts in guard cells, but their roles in stomatal movement regulation requires further investigation.
actin dynamics; tubular actin filaments; chloroplast; guard cell; stomatal movement
An earlier report suggested that actin and myosin I alpha (MMIα), a myosin associated with endosomes and lysosomes, were involved in the delivery of internalized molecules to lysosomes. To determine whether actin and MMIα were involved in the movement of lysosomes, we analyzed by time-lapse video microscopy the dynamic of lysosomes in living mouse hepatoma cells (BWTG3 cells), producing green fluorescent protein actin or a nonfunctional domain of MMIα. In GFP-actin cells, lysosomes displayed a combination of rapid long-range directional movements dependent on microtubules, short random movements, and pauses, sometimes on actin filaments. We showed that the inhibition of the dynamics of actin filaments by cytochalasin D increased pauses of lysosomes on actin structures, while depolymerization of actin filaments using latrunculin A increased the mobility of lysosomes but impaired the directionality of their long-range movements. The production of a nonfunctional domain of MMIα impaired the intracellular distribution of lysosomes and the directionality of their long-range movements. Altogether, our observations indicate for the first time that both actin filaments and MMIα contribute to the movement of lysosomes in cooperation with microtubules and their associated molecular motors.
Three yeast actin-binding proteins were identified using yeast actin filaments as an affinity matrix. One protein appears to be a yeast myosin heavy chain; it is dissociated from actin filaments by ATP, it is similar in size (200 kD) to other myosins, and antibodies directed against Dictyostelium myosin heavy chain bind to it. Immunofluorescence experiments show that a second actin-binding protein (67 kD) colocalizes in vivo with both cytoplasmic actin cables and cortical actin patches, the only identifiable actin structures in yeast. The cortical actin patches are concentrated at growing surfaces of the yeast cell where they might play a role in membrane and cell wall insertion, and the third actin-binding protein (85 kD) is only detected in association with these structures. This 85-kD protein is therefore a candidate for a determinant of growth sites. The in vivo role of this protein was tested by overproduction; this overproduction causes a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton which in turn dramatically affects the budding pattern and spatial growth organization of the yeast cell.
Subcortical fibrils composed of bundles of F-actin filaments and endoplasmic filaments are responsible for endoplasmic streaming. It is reported here that these fibrils and filaments move actively in an artificial medium containing Mg-ATP and sucrose at neutral pH, when the medium was added to the cytoplasm squeezed out of the cell. The movement was observed by phase-contrast microscopy or dark-field microscopy and recorded on 16-mm film. Chains of chloroplasts linked by subcortical fibrils showed translational movement in the medium. Even after all chloroplasts and the endoplasm were washed away by perfusion with fresh medium, free fibrils and/or filaments (henceforth, referred to as fibers) not attached to chloroplasts continued travelling in the direction of the fiber orientation. Sometimes the fibers formed rings and rotated. Chloroplast chains and free fibers or rings continued moving for 5-30 min at about half the rate of the endoplasmic streaming in vivo. Calcium ion concentrations < 10(-7) M permitted movement to take place. Electron microscopy revealed that both fibers and rings were bundles of F-actin filaments that showed the same polarity after decoration with heavy meromyosin.
Previous studies have shown that plant mitochondrial movements are myosin-based along actin filaments, which undergo continuous turnover by the exchange of actin subunits from existing filaments. Although earlier studies revealed that actin filament dynamics are essential for many functions of the actin cytoskeleton, there are little data connecting actin dynamics and mitochondrial movements.
We addressed the role of actin filament dynamics in the control of mitochondrial movements by treating cells with various pharmaceuticals that affect actin filament assembly and disassembly. Confocal microscopy of Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs expressing GFP-FABD2 as an actin filament reporter showed that mitochondrial distribution was in agreement with the arrangement of actin filaments in root hairs at different developmental stages. Analyses of mitochondrial trajectories and instantaneous velocities immediately following pharmacological perturbation of the cytoskeleton using variable-angle evanescent wave microscopy and/or spinning disk confocal microscopy revealed that mitochondrial velocities were regulated by myosin activity and actin filament dynamics. Furthermore, simultaneous visualization of mitochondria and actin filaments suggested that mitochondrial positioning might involve depolymerization of actin filaments on the surface of mitochondria.
Base on these results we propose a mechanism for the regulation of mitochondrial speed of movements, positioning, and direction of movements that combines the coordinated activity of myosin and the rate of actin turnover, together with microtubule dynamics, which directs the positioning of actin polymerization events.
The actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in cell polarization and cell morphogenesis of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells utilize formin-generated actin cables as tracks for polarized transport, which forms the basis for a positive feedback loop driving Cdc42-dependent cell polarization. Previous studies on cable organization mostly focused on polarized actin cables in budded cells and their role as relatively static tracks for myosin-dependent organelle transport. Using quantitative live cell imaging, we have recently characterized the dynamics of cortical actin cables throughout the yeast cell cycle. Surprisingly, randomly oriented actin cables in G1 cells exhibited the highest level of dynamics, while cable dynamics was markedly slowed down upon cell polarization. We further demonstrated that the rapid dynamics of randomly oriented cables were driven by the formin Bni1 and Myosin V. Our data suggested a precise spatio-temporal regulation of the two yeast formins, as well as an unexpected mechanism of actin cable rearrangement through myosins. Here we discuss the immediate significance of these findings, which illustrates the importance of generating randomness for cellular organization.
actin; formin; myosin; polarity; self organization
In vivo time-lapse microscopy reveals that the number of peroxisomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells is fairly constant and that a subset of the organelles are targeted and segregated to the bud in a highly ordered, vectorial process. The dynamin-like protein Vps1p controls the number of peroxisomes, since in a vps1Δ mutant only one or two giant peroxisomes remain. Analogous to the function of other dynamin-related proteins, Vps1p may be involved in a membrane fission event that is required for the regulation of peroxisome abundance. We found that efficient segregation of peroxisomes from mother to bud is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton, and active movement of peroxisomes along actin filaments is driven by the class V myosin motor protein, Myo2p: (a) peroxisomal dynamics always paralleled the polarity of the actin cytoskeleton, (b) double labeling of peroxisomes and actin cables revealed a close association between both, (c) depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton abolished all peroxisomal movements, and (d) in cells containing thermosensitive alleles of MYO2, all peroxisome movement immediately stopped at the nonpermissive temperature. In addition, time-lapse videos showing peroxisome movement in wild-type and vps1Δ cells suggest the existence of various levels of control involved in the partitioning of peroxisomes.
peroxisome inheritance; Vps1; fission; actin cytoskeleton; Myo2p
Retrograde flow of cortical actin networks and bundles is essential for cell motility and retrograde intracellular movement, and for the formation and maintenance of microvilli, stereocilia, and filopodia. Actin cables, which are F-actin bundles that serve as tracks for anterograde and retrograde cargo movement in budding yeast, undergo retrograde flow that is driven, in part, by actin polymerization and assembly. We find that the actin cable retrograde flow rate is reduced by deletion or delocalization of the type II myosin Myo1p, and by deletion or conditional mutation of the Myo1p motor domain. Deletion of the tropomyosin isoform Tpm2p, but not the Tpm1p isoform, increases the rate of actin cable retrograde flow. Pretreatment of F-actin with Tpm2p, but not Tpm1p, inhibits Myo1p binding to F-actin and Myo1p-dependent F-actin gliding. These data support novel, opposing roles of Myo1p and Tpm2 in regulating retrograde actin flow in budding yeast and an isoform-specific function of Tpm1p in promoting actin cable function in myosin-driven anterograde cargo transport.
Formins are a conserved family of proteins with robust effects in promoting actin nucleation and elongation. However, the mechanisms restraining formin activities in cells to generate actin networks with particular dynamics and architectures are not well understood. In S. cerevisiae, formins assemble actin cables, which serve as tracks for myosin-dependent intracellular transport. Here, we show that the kinesin-like myosin passenger-protein Smy1 interacts with the FH2 domain of the formin Bnr1 to decrease rates of actin filament elongation, which is distinct from the formin displacement activity of Bud14. In vivo analysis of smy1Δ mutants demonstrates that this ‘damper’ mechanism is critical for maintaining proper actin cable architecture, dynamics, and function. We directly observe Smy1–3GFP being transported by myosin V and transiently pausing at the neck in a manner dependent on Bnr1. These observations suggest that Smy1 is part of a negative feedback mechanism that detects cable length and prevents overgrowth.
actin; formin; Smy1; myosin; Bnr1; yeast; kinesin; Bud14
Subtilisin cleaved actin was shown to retain several properties of intact actin including the binding of heavy meromyosin (HMM), the dissociation from HMM by ATP, and the activation of HMM ATPase activity. Similar Vmax but different Km values were obtained for acto- HMM ATPase with the cleaved and intact actins. The ATPase activity of HMM stimulated by copolymers of intact and cleaved actin showed a linear dependence on the fraction of intact actin in the copolymer. The most important difference between the intact and cleaved actin was observed in an in vitro motility assay for actin sliding movement over an HMM coated surface. Only 30% of the cleaved actin filaments appeared mobile in this assay and moreover, the velocity of the mobile filaments was approximately 30% that of intact actin filaments. These results suggest that the motility of actin filaments can be uncoupled from the activation of myosin ATPase activity and is dependent on the structural integrity of actin and perhaps, dynamic changes in the actin molecule.
The actin cytoskeleton is involved in the responses of plants to environmental signals. Actin bundles play the role of tracks in chloroplast movements activated by light. Chloroplasts redistribute in response to blue light in the mesophyll cells of Nicotiana tabacum. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between chloroplast responses and the organization of actin cytoskeleton in living tobacco cells. Chloroplast movements were measured photometrically as changes in light transmission through the leaves. The actin cytoskeleton, labeled with plastin-GFP, was visualised by confocal microscopy.
The actin cytoskeleton was affected by strong blue and red light. No blue light specific actin reorganization was detected. EGTA and trifluoperazine strongly inhibited chloroplast responses and disrupted the integrity of the cytoskeleton. This disruption was reversible by Ca2+ or Mg2+. Additionally, the effect of trifluoperazine was reversible by light. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide kinases, potently inhibited chloroplast responses but did not influence the actin cytoskeleton at the same concentration. Also this inhibition was reversed by Ca2+ and Mg2+. Magnesium ions were equally or more effective than Ca2+ in restoring chloroplast motility after treatment with EGTA, trifluoperazine or wortmannin.
The architecture of the actin cytoskeleton in the mesophyll of tobacco is significantly modulated by strong light. This modulation does not affect the direction of chloroplast redistribution in the cell. Calcium ions have multiple functions in the mechanism of the movements. Our results suggest also that Mg2+ is a regulatory molecule cooperating with Ca2+ in the signaling pathway of blue light-induced tobacco chloroplast movements.
In smooth muscles there is no organized sarcomere structure wherein the relative movement of myosin filaments and actin filaments has been documented during contraction. Using the recently developed in vitro assay for myosin-coated bead movement (Sheetz, M.P., and J.A. Spudich, 1983, Nature (Lond.)., 303:31-35), we were able to quantitate the rate of movement of both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated smooth muscle myosin on ordered actin filaments derived from the giant alga, Nitella. We found that movement of turkey gizzard smooth muscle myosin on actin filaments depended upon the phosphorylation of the 20-kD myosin light chains. About 95% of the beads coated with phosphorylated myosin moved at velocities between 0.15 and 0.4 micron/s, depending upon the preparation. With unphosphorylated myosin, only 3% of the beads moved and then at a velocity of only approximately 0.01-0.04 micron/s. The effects of phosphorylation were fully reversible after dephosphorylation with a phosphatase prepared from smooth muscle. Analysis of the velocity of movement as a function of phosphorylation level indicated that phosphorylation of both heads of a myosin molecule was required for movement and that unphosphorylated myosin appears to decrease the rate of movement of phosphorylated myosin. Mixing of phosphorylated smooth muscle myosin with skeletal muscle myosin which moves at 2 microns/s resulted in a decreased rate of bead movement, suggesting that the more slowly cycling smooth muscle myosin is primarily determining the velocity of movement in such mixtures.
Growth cone motility and guidance depend on the dynamic reorganization of filamentous actin (F-actin). In the growth cone, F-actin undergoes turnover, which is the exchange of actin subunits from existing filaments. However, the function of F-actin turnover is not clear. We used jasplakinolide (jasp), a cell-permeable macrocyclic peptide that inhibits F-actin turnover, to study the role of F-actin turnover in axon extension. Treatment with jasp caused axon retraction, demonstrating that axon extension requires F-actin turnover. The retraction of axons in response to the inhibition of F-actin turnover was dependent on myosin activity and regulated by RhoA and myosin light chain kinase. Significantly, the endogenous myosin-based contractility was sufficient to cause axon retraction, because jasp did not alter myosin activity. Based on these observations, we asked whether guidance cues that cause axon retraction (ephrin-A2) inhibit F-actin turnover. Axon retraction in response to ephrin-A2 correlated with decreased F-actin turnover and required RhoA activity. These observations demonstrate that axon extension depends on an interaction between endogenous myosin-driven contractility and F-actin turnover, and that guidance cues that cause axon retraction inhibit F-actin turnover.
jasplakinolide; RhoA; ephrin; cytoskeleton; myosin
Three types of molecular motors play an important role in the organization, dynamics and transport processes associated with the cytoskeleton. The myosin family of molecular motors move cargo on actin filaments, whereas kinesin and dynein motors move cargo along microtubules. These motors have been highly characterized in non-plant systems and information is becoming available about plant motors. The actin cytoskeleton in plants has been shown to be involved in processes such as transportation, signaling, cell division, cytoplasmic streaming and morphogenesis. The role of myosin in these processes has been established in a few cases but many questions remain to be answered about the number, types and roles of myosins in plants.
Using the motor domain of an Arabidopsis myosin we identified 17 myosin sequences in the Arabidopsis genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the Arabidopsis myosins with non-plant and plant myosins revealed that all the Arabidopsis myosins and other plant myosins fall into two groups - class VIII and class XI. These groups contain exclusively plant or algal myosins with no animal or fungal myosins. Exon/intron data suggest that the myosins are highly conserved and that some may be a result of gene duplication.
Plant myosins are unlike myosins from any other organisms except algae. As a percentage of the total gene number, the number of myosins is small overall in Arabidopsis compared with the other sequenced eukaryotic genomes. There are, however, a large number of class XI myosins. The function of each myosin has yet to be determined.
Myosin VI (Myo6) is unique among myosins in that it moves toward the minus (pointed) end of the actin filament. Thus to exert tension on, or move cargo along an actin filament, Myo6 is working against potentially multiple plus (barbed)-end myosins. To test the effect of plus-end motors on Myo6, the gliding actin filament assay was used to assess the motility of single-headed Myo6 in the absence and presence of cardiac myosin II (Myo2) and myosin Va (Myo5a). Myo6 alone exhibited a filament gliding velocities of 60.34 +/− 13.68 nm/s. Addition of either Myo2 or Myo5a, at densities below that required to promote plus-end movement resulted in an increase in Myo6 velocity (~100-150% increase). Movement in the presence of these plus-end myosins was minus-end directed as determined using polarity tagged filaments. High densities of Myo2 or Myo5a were required to convert to plus-end directed motility indicating that Myo6 is a potent inhibitor of Myo2 and Myo5a. Previous studies have shown that two-headed Myo6 slows and then stalls in an anchored state under load. Consistent with these studies, velocity of a two headed heavy mero myosin form of Myo6 was unaffected by Myo5a at low densities, and was inhibited at high Myo5a densities.
In striated muscle, regulation of actin-myosin interactions depends on a series of conformational changes within the thin filament that result in a shifting of the tropomyosin-troponin complex between distinct locations on actin. The major factors activating the filament are Ca2+ and strongly bound myosin heads. Many lines of evidence also point to an active role of actin in the regulation. Involvement of the actin C-terminus in binding of tropomyosin-troponin in different activation states and the regulation of actin-myosin interactions were examined using actin modified by proteolytic removal of three C-terminal amino acids. Actin C-terminal modification has no effect on the binding of tropomyosin or tropomyosin-troponin + Ca2+, but it reduces tropomyosin-troponin affinity in the absence of Ca2+. In contrast, myosin S1 induces binding of tropomyosin to truncated actin more readily than to native actin. The rate of actin-activated myosin S1 ATPase activity is reduced by actin truncation both in the absence and presence of tropomyosin. The Ca2+-dependent regulation of the ATPase activity is preserved. Without Ca2+ the ATPase activity is fully inhibited, but in the presence of Ca2+ the activation does not reach the level observed for native actin. The results suggest that through long-range allosteric interactions the actin C-terminus participates in the thin filament regulation.
The actin cytoskeleton is essential for polarized, bud-directed movement of cellular membranes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and thus ensures accurate inheritance of organelles during cell division. Also, mitochondrial distribution and inheritance depend on the actin cytoskeleton, though the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we establish the class V myosin motor protein, Myo2, as an important mediator of mitochondrial motility in budding yeast. We found that mutants with abnormal expression levels of Myo2 or its associated light chain, Mlc1, exhibit aberrant mitochondrial morphology and loss of mitochondrial DNA. Specific mutations in the globular tail of Myo2 lead to aggregation of mitochondria in the mother cell. Isolated mitochondria lacking functional Myo2 are severely impaired in their capacity to bind to actin filaments in vitro. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy revealed a block of bud-directed anterograde mitochondrial movement in cargo binding–defective myo2 mutant cells. We conclude that Myo2 plays an important and direct role for mitochondrial motility and inheritance in budding yeast.