Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been an essential treatment option for treating prostate cancer (PCa). The role for hormonal treatment initially was restricted to men with metastatic and inoperable, locally advanced disease. Now it has been extended to neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for surgery and radiotherapy, for biochemical relapse after surgery or radiation, and even as primary therapy for non-metastatic disease. Fifty percent of PCa patients treated will receive ADT at some point. There is growing concern about the adverse effects and costs associated with more widespread ADT use. The adverse effects on quality of life (QoL), including physical, social and psychological well-being when men are androgen-deprived, may be considerable. This review examines the QoL issues in the following areas: body feminisation, sexual changes, relationship changes, cognitive and affective symptoms, fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression and physical effects. Further suggestions for therapeutic approaches to reduce these alterations are suggested.
androgen deprivation therapy; men; prostate cancer; quality of life
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a standard treatment for metastatic, recurrent and locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study is to investigate the timing and extent of testosterone recovery in clinically localized PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) and subsequent short-term adjuvant ADT. A total of 95 localized PCa patients underwent RP and 9-month adjuvant ADT were included in this prospective study. Serum testosterone level was measured before adjuvant ADT, at ADT cessation, and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after cessation of ADT. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess variables associated with the time of testosterone normalization. The results showed that median patient age was 67 years and median testosterone level before adjuvant ADT was 361 (230–905) ng dl−1. All patients finished 9-month adjuvant ADT and achieved castrate testosterone level. At 3 months after ADT cessation, testosterone recovered to supracastrate level in 97.9% patients and to normal level in 36.9% patients. The percentage of patients who recovered to normal testosterone level increased to 66.3%, 86.3% and 92.6% at 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Cox regression model found that higher baseline testosterone level (≥300 ng dl−1) was the only variable associated with a shorter time to testosterone normalization (hazard ratio: 1.98; P = 0.012). In conclusion, in most patients, testosterone recovered to supracastrate level at 3 months and to normal level at 12 months after 9-month adjuvant ADT cessation. Patients with higher baseline testosterone level need shorter time of testosterone normalization.
androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone; prostatic neoplasms; recovery of function; testosterone
Men with PSA-only relapse of prostate cancer after primary therapy are generally fully functional and asymptomatic with a life expectancy of up to ten or more years. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common treatment option. This study examined mood and cognitive changes in otherwise healthy men with prostate cancer prior to, during and after ADT.
Twenty hormone naïve, eugonadal prostate cancer patients without evidence of metastases and with a rising PSA were treated with intermittent ADT consisting of nine months of complete androgen blockade achieved with combined leuprolide and flutamide followed by an “off treatment” period. Cognitive function tests and mood measures were administered at baseline, after three and nine months of ADT and after three months of no treatment. Twenty healthy control patients without prostate cancer range matched for age and education were tested at the same time intervals.
ADT patients evidenced a significant decline in spatial reasoning, spatial abilities and working memory during treatment compared to baseline. No changes were noted for measures of verbal or spatial memory, selective attention or language. Significant changes in self-rated mood such as increased depression, tension, anxiety, fatigue and irritability were evident during treatment compared to baseline for ADT patients. No significant changes in either cognitive tests or mood measures were noted for the healthy control group.
These findings, suggest that nine months of combined androgen blockade may result in some adverse changes in cognition and mood. However, many but not all of these changes can return to baseline after cessation of ADT.
Cancer; Oncology; Complete Androgen Blockade (CAB); Mood; Cognition; Memory; Prostate Cancer; Testosterone; Flutamide; Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy (ADT)
The optimal management for clinical stage T3 and T4 (N0, M0) prostate cancer is uncertain. Herein we update the results with ten-year data of a phase II prospective trial of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate and flutamide followed by radical prostatectomy for locally-advanced prostate cancer (SWOG 9109).
Materials and Methods
62 patients with clinical stage T3 and T4 (N0, M0) prostate cancer were enrolled. Cases were classified by stage T3 versus T4 and by volume of disease (bulky > 4 cm and non-bulky ≤ 4 cm).
A total of 55 of 61 eligible patients completed the trial with radical prostatectomy after neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The median pre-operative PSA value was 19.8 ng/ml, and 67% of patients had a Gleason score of 7 or higher. Among 41 patients last known to be alive, median follow-up is 10.6 years (range 5.1–12.6 years). In all, 38 patients have had disease progression (30/55, 55%) or died without progression (8/55, 15%) for a ten-year PFS estimate of 40% (95% CI, 27–53%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.5 years, and median survival has not been reached. The ten-year overall survival (OS) estimate is 68% (95% CI, 56–80%).
In this small, prospective phase II study, neoadjuvant hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate and flutamide followed by radical prostatectomy achieves long-term PFS and OS comparable to alternative treatments. This approach is feasible and may be an alternative to a strategy of combined radiation and ADT.
prostate cancer; PSA; radical prostatectomy; survival; locally-advanced
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is increasingly used for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa), even in clinical settings in which there is no evidence-based proof of prolonged overall survival (OS). ADT, however, may be associated with numerous side effects, including an increased therapy-related cardiovascular mortality.
To discuss different clinical settings in which ADT is currently used and to critically weigh the benefits of ADT against its possible side effects.
A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify original articles and review articles addressing the efficacy and side effects of ADT for the treatment of PCa. Keywords consisted of prostate cancer, hormonal therapy, adverse effects, radical prostatectomy, and radiotherapy. The articles with the highest level of evidence for the various examined end points were identified with the consensus of all authors and were reviewed.
Even short-term use of ADT may lead to numerous side effects, such as osteoporosis, obesity, sarcopenia, lipid alterations, insulin resistance, and increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular morbidity. Despite these side effects, ADT is commonly used in various clinical settings in which a clear effect on improved OS has not been shown.
ADT is associated with an increased risk of multiple side effects that may reduce quality of life and/or OS. Consequently, these issues should be discussed in detail with patients and their families before initiation of ADT. ADT should be used with knowledge of its potential long-term side effects and with possible lifestyle interventions, especially in settings with the highest risk–benefit ratio, to alleviate comorbidities.
Prostate cancer; Hormonal therapy; Adverse effects; Radical prostatectomy; Radiotherapy
To determine the impact of adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for patients who have node-positive prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era.
Patients and Methods
We used linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data to construct a cohort of men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1991 and 1999 and who had positive regional lymph nodes. We classified men as receiving adjuvant ADT if they received ADT within 120 days of RP, and we compared them to the men who had not received adjuvant ADT. We used propensity scores to balance potential confounders of receiving adjuvant ADT (ie, tumor characteristics, extent of nodal disease, demographics, receipt of radiation therapy) and Cox proportional hazard methods to measure the impact of adjuvant ADT on overall survival (OS), stratified by propensity score quintile. We conducted a sensitivity analysis that used 90, 150, 180, and 365 days as the definition for adjuvant ADT.
A total of 731 men were identified, 209 of whom received ADT within 120 days of RP. There was no statistically significant difference in OS between the adjuvant ADT and non-ADT group (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.27). There was no statistically significant survival difference with 90, 150, 180, and 365 days as the adjuvant ADT definition.
Deferring immediate ADT in men with positive lymph nodes after RP may not significantly compromise survival. Because observational studies should be considered hypothesis-generating studies, these results should be validated in a prospective fashion in a similar patient population.
There are notable differences in the incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer between Asia and Western countries. It is also recognized that there are differences in thinking with regard to treatment options. Recently it is also the case that opinions have been reported concerning the differences between Asian and Western patients with regard to their reaction to androgen depletion therapy (ADT). Given that ADT is a method of treatment that focuses on the elimination of testosterone, an inevitable symptom of its administration is testosterone losing syndrome. It is for this reason that in Western countries ADT has only been recommended in cases of advanced or metastatic cancer. On the other hand, in Asia, ADT is used in relatively many cases, including non-metastatic localized cancer and invasive localized cancer. To date, however, there has been little substantive discussion concerning this difference in utilization of ADT. ADT-related drugs for prostate cancer and the development of new drugs for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have been actively tested in recent years. It could be the case that analyzing the differences in concepts about ADT between Asia and the West could contribute to the effective use of ADT-related drugs and also help to build new treatment strategies for prostate cancer.
Androgen depletion therapy; prostate cancer; Asia
The optimal protocol for 125I-transperineal prostatic brachytherapy (TPPB) in intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients remains controversial. Data on the efficacy of combining androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with 125I-TPPB in this group remain limited and consequently the guidelines of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) provide no firm recommendations.
Seed and Hormone for Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer (SHIP) 0804 is a phase III, multicenter, randomized, controlled study that will investigate the impact of adjuvant ADT following neoadjuvant ADT and 125I-TPPB. Prior to the end of March, 2011, a total of 420 patients with intermediate-risk, localized PCa will be enrolled and randomized to one of two treatment arms. These patients will be recruited from 20 institutions, all of which have broad experience of 125I-TPPB. Pathological slides will be centrally reviewed to confirm patient eligibility. The patients will initially undergo 3-month ADT prior to 125I-TPPB. Those randomly assigned to adjuvant therapy will subsequently undergo 9 months of adjuvant ADT. All participants will be assessed at baseline and at the following intervals: every 3 months for the first 24 months following 125I-TPPB, every 6 months during the 24- to 60-month post-125I-TPPB interval, annually between 60 and 84 months post-125I-TPPB, and on the 10th anniversary of treatment.
The primary endpoint is biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS). Secondary endpoints are overall survival (OS), clinical progression-free survival, disease-specific survival, salvage therapy non-adaptive interval, acceptability (assessed using the international prostate symptom score [IPSS]), quality of life (QOL) evaluation, and adverse events. In the correlative study (SHIP36B), we also evaluate biopsy results at 36 months following treatment to examine the relationship between the results and the eventual recurrence after completion of radiotherapy.
These two multicenter trials (SHIP0804 & SHIP36B) are expected to provide crucial data regarding the efficacy, acceptability and safety of adjuvant ADT. SHIP36B will also provide important information about the prognostic implications of PSA levels in intermediate-risk PCa patients treated with 125I-TPPB.
NCT00664456, NCT00898326, JUSMH-BRI-GU05-01, JUSMH-TRIGU0709
To investigate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in men who received intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) for nonmetastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.
Patients and Methods
Men with prostate cancer who lacked radiographically detectable metastases were treated in a prospective trial of IAD. After 9 months of treatment with leuprolide and flutamide, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was stopped until prostate-specific antigen reached a threshold (1 ng/mL for radical prostatectomy; 4 ng/mL for radiation or primary ADT) for a new cycle. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed before starting ADT and subsequently with each change in therapy. At least two consecutive DXA scans were required for this analysis. Computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, and lumbar spine x-rays were performed at the beginning and end of each treatment period.
Fifty-six of 100 patients met criteria for this analysis. The median age at study entry was 64.5 years (range, 49.8 to 80.9 years). The average percentage change in BMD during the first on-treatment period was −3.4% (P < .001) for the spine and −1.2% (P = .001) for the left hip. During the first off-treatment period (median, 37.4 weeks; range, 13.4 weeks to 8.7+ years), BMD recovery at the spine was significant, with an average percentage change of +1.4% (P = .002). Subsequent periods had heterogeneous changes of BMD without significant average changes. After a median of 5.5 years (range, 1.1 to 13.8+) years on trial, one patient (1.8%) had a compression fracture associated with trauma.
Patients experienced the greatest average change in BMD during early treatment periods of IAD with a smaller average change thereafter. Fractures were rare.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) represents one of the most effective systemic palliative treatments known for solid tumors. Although clinical trials have assessed the role of ADT in patients with metastatic and advanced locoregional disease, the risk–benefit ratio, especially in earlier stages, remains poorly defined. Given the mounting evidence for potentially life-threatening adverse effects with short- and long-term ADT, it is important to redefine the role of ADT for this disease.
Review the published experience with currently available ADT approaches in various contemporary clinical settings of PCa and reported serious treatment-related adverse events. This review addresses the level of evidence associated with the use of ADT in PCa, focusing upon survival outcome measures. Furthermore, this paper discusses evolving approaches targeting androgen receptor signaling pathways and emerging evidence from clinical trials with newer compounds.
A comprehensive review of the literature was performed, focusing on data from the last 10 yr (January 2000 to July 2011) and using the terms androgen deprivation, hormone treatment, prostate cancer and adverse effects. Abstracts from trials reported at international conferences held in 2010 and 2011 were also evaluated.
Data from randomized controlled trials and population-based studies were analyzed in different clinical paradigms. Specifically, the role of ADT was evaluated in patients with nonmetastatic disease as the primary and sole treatment, in combination with radiation therapy (RT) or after surgery, and in patients with metastatic disease. The data suggest that in men with nonmetastatic disease, the use of primary ADT as monotherapy has not shown a benefit and is not recommended, while ADT combined with conventional-dose RT (<72 Gy) for patients with high-risk disease may delay progression and prolong survival. The postoperative use of ADT remains poorly evaluated in prospective studies. Likewise, there are no trials evaluating the role of ADT in patients with biochemical relapses after surgery or RT. In patients with metastatic disease, there is a clear benefit in terms of quality of life, reduction of disease-associated morbidity, and possibly survival. Treatment with bilateral orchiectomy, luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone agonist therapy, with and without antiandrogens has been associated with various serious adverse events, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and skeletal complications that may also affect mortality.
Although ADT is an effective treatment of PCa, consistent long-term benefits in terms of quality and quantity of life are predominantly evident in patients with advanced/metastatic disease or when ADT is used in combination with RT (<72 Gy) in patients with high-risk tumors. Implementation of ADT should be evidence based, with special consideration to adverse events and the risk–benefit ratio.
Prostate cancer; Androgen deprivation; Hormone treatment; Adverse effects
Despite advances in treatment for metastatic prostate cancer, patients eventually progress to castrate-resistant disease and ultimately succumb to their cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer and has been shown to improve median time to progression and median survival time. Research suggests that castrate-resistant clones may be present early in the disease process prior to the initiation of ADT. These clones are not susceptible to ADT and may even flourish when androgen-responsive clones are depleted. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a safe and efficacious method of treating clinically localized prostate cancer and metastases. In patients with a limited number of metastatic sites, SBRT may have a role in eliminating castrate-resistant clones and possibly delaying progression to castrate-resistant disease.
prostate cancer; SBRT; IGRT; cyberknife; oligometastases; hormone-naïve
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in older men. With the aging of the population, the number of older men with prostate cancer will grow rapidly. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay of treatment for men with systemic disease and is increasingly utilized as primary therapy or in combination with other therapies for localized disease. Side effects of therapy are multifold and include hot flashes, osteoporosis, and adverse psychological and metabolic effects. Recent research has illustrated that ADT can negatively impact the functional, cognitive, and physical performance of older men. Patients with prostate cancer, despite recurrence of the disease, have a long life expectancy and may be subjected to the side effects of ADT for many years. This review highlights the complications of ADT and approaches to management. We also provide recommendations for assessment and management of ADT complications among the most vulnerable and frail older male patients.
Disability; Geriatric assessment; Prostate cancer; Vulnerable elders; Functional impairment; Androgen deprivation; Quality of life; Complications
Interest has been increasing in the use of androgen deprivation therapy (adt) combined with radiation therapy (rt) in the management of localized prostate cancer. Preclinical studies have provided some rationale for the use of this combination. In patients with high-risk disease, the benefit of a combined approach, with the addition of adjuvant hormonal therapy, is supported by results of randomized trials. In contrast, for patients with low-risk disease, there is no obvious therapeutic advantage except for cytoreduction. The usefulness of short-term hormonal therapy in association with rt for intermediate-risk patients is still debatable, particularly in the context of dose-escalated rt. The optimal timing and duration of adt, in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings alike, are still under investigation. In view of the potential side effects with adt, further studies are being performed to better identify subsets of patients who will definitely benefit from this therapy in combination with rt.
Prostate cancer; radiotherapy; hormonal therapy; androgen deprivation therapy; combined treatment
To gain beneficial effects in the management of high-risk prostate cancer, an integrated approach that combines local therapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was used. We compared biochemical responses between primary cryosurgical ablation of the prostate (CSAP) combined with prolonged ADT and radiation combined with ADT, which is the established modality in high-risk disease. A total of 33 high-risk patients received CSAP combined with ADT for 3 months before and up to 24 months after treatment. This patient group was matched with another 33 patients who had undergone three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with the same protocol for ADT. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was assessed by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) definition, the Phoenix definition and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) cutoff of 0.5 ng mL−1. Median follow-up was 61.0 ± 11.9 months for the CSAP + ADT group and 86.0 ± 15.8 months for the 3D-CRT + ADT group. In the CSAP group, major complications including rectourethral fistula and incontinence were not noted. In the CSAP + ADT group, 57.0% had BCR using the ASTRO definition, 21.2% using the Phoenix definition and 54.5% using a PSA cutoff of 0.5 ng mL−1. In the 3D-CRT + ADT group, 54.5%, 21.2% and 54.5% had BCR using the ASTRO, Phoenix and PSA definition, respectively. In the CSAP + ADT group, the BCR-free survival (BRFS) was 54 ± 10 months using the ASTRO definition, 65 ± 5 months using the Phoenix definition and 51 ± 4 months using a PSA cutoff of 0.5 ng mL−1. In the 3D-CRT + ADT group, the BRFS was 68 ± 12, 93 ± 19 and 70 ± 18 months using the ASTRO, Phoenix and PSA definition, respectively. By the log-rank test, the BRFS values for each group were not statistically different. This intermediate-term result indicated that primary CSAP combined with prolonged ADT offers a parallel biochemical response compared with radiotherapy in high-risk prostate cancer.
androgen ablation therapy; cryoablation for the prostate; radiotherapy
This was an exploratory analysis of a trial of intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) in men with biochemical relapse (BR) to establish first cycle characteristics prognostic for progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and death.
Patients and Methods
Men with BR of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation (RT) were treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) comprised of leuprolide and flutamide. After 9 months on treatment, ADT was stopped, and monthly prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were observed during the off-treatment interval. When the PSA reached a threshold value (1 ng/mL for RP, 4 ng/mL for RT), ADT was resumed in a new cycle. Patients were treated intermittently in this manner until CRPC, which was defined as ≥ two consecutive increasing PSA values while on ADT with castrate testosterone levels.
Seventy-two of 100 patients enrolled onto the study met criteria for this analysis. The duration of the first off-treatment interval (≤ v > 40 weeks) was associated with shorter time to CRPC (hazard ratio = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 7.7; P = .03) and death (hazard ratio = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 13.6; P = .04) after adjusting for age, stage, grade, and PSA at diagnosis.
In patients who completed the first cycle of IAD, a duration of the first off-treatment interval of ≤ 40 weeks defines a subset of patients at higher risk of CRPC and death. Conversely, patients with an off-treatment interval of more than 40 weeks have a significantly better long-term prognosis.
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is used routinely in combination with definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with high-risk clinically localized or locally advanced disease. The combined treatment (ADT–EBRT) also seems to play a significant role in improving treatment results in the intermediate-risk group of prostate cancer patients. On the other hand, there is a growing body of evidence that treatment with ADT can be associated with serious and lifelong adverse events including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and many others. Almost all ADT adverse events are time dependant and tend to increase in severity with prolongation of hormonal manipulation. Therefore, it is crucial to clearly state the optimal schedule for ADT in combination with EBRT, that maintaining the positive effect on treatment efficacy would keep the adverse events risk at reasonable level. To achieve this goal, treatment schedule may have to be highly individualized on the basis of the patient-specific potential vulnerability to adverse events. In this study, the concise and evidence-based review of current literature concerning the general rationales for combining radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, its mechanism, treatment results, and toxicity profile is presented.
prostate cancer; radiotherapy; androgen deprivation; combined treatment
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common visceral malignancy and a leading cause of cancer death in men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an established treatment for locally advanced and metastatic CaP, and often used as primary therapy in select patients. As ADT has continued to assume an important role in the treatment of CaP, a greater appreciation of potential adverse effects has been acknowledged in men receiving this therapy. Given that all treatments for CaP are frequently associated with some degree of morbidity and can have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), the potential benefits of any treatment, including ADT, must outweigh the risks, particularly in patients with asymptomatic disease. Once the choice to proceed with ADT is complete, it is imperative for the urologist to possess comprehensive knowledge of the potential adverse effects of ADT. This permits the urologist to properly monitor for, perhaps diminish, and to treat any linked morbidities. Patient complaints related to ADT such as a decrease in HRQOL, cognitive and sexual dysfunction, hot flashes, endocrine abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, and alterations in skeletal and body composition are commonly reported throughout the literature. Herein, we review the principal adverse effects linked with ADT in CaP patients and suggest various universal strategies that may diminish these potential adverse consequences associated with this therapy.
Androgen deprivation therapy; complications; prostate cancer
Erectile dysfunction (ED) may be the most commonly observed adverse event (AE) associated with the combination of radiation therapy (RT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). A significant number of men are trying phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5s) such as sildenafil to treat ED, yet sildenafil studies to date shed little light on the response to ED after ADT.
The purpose of this trial was to evaluate sildenafil in the treatment of ED in prostate cancer patients previously treated with external beam RT and neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT.
In this randomized, double-blinded crossover trial, eligible patients received RT/ADT for intermediate risk prostate cancer and currently had ED as defined by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Patients were randomized to 12 weeks of sildenafil or placebo followed by 1 week of no treatment then 12 weeks of the alternative. Treatment differences were evaluated using a marginal model for binary crossover data.
Main Outcome Measures
The primary end point was improved erectile function, as measured by the IIEF.
The study accrued 115 patients and 61 (55%) completed all three IIEF assessments. Sildenafil effect was significant (P = 0.009) with a difference in probabilities of erectile response of 0.17 (95% confidence interval: 0.06, 0.29), and 0.21 (0.06, 0.38) for patients receiving ≤120 days of ADT. However, as few as 21% of patients had a treatment-specific response, only improving during sildenafil but not during the placebo phase.
This is the first controlled trial to suggest a positive sildenafil response for ED treatment in patients previously treated with RT/ADT, however, only a minority of patients responded to treatment. ADT duration may be associated with response and requires further study. The overall low response rate suggests the need for study of additional or preventative strategies for ED after RT/ADT for prostate cancer.
Erectile Dysfunction; Sildenafil; Prostate Cancer; Patient Reported Outcomes; Radiation Therapy; Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors Following Prostate Cancer Treatment
Aim. To study
whether use of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation
therapy (N-ADT) combined with whole pelvic
radiotherapy (WPRT) for high-risk prostate
cancer patients was associated with survival
benefit over prostate radiotherapy (PORT) only.
Material and Methods. Between 1999 and 2004, 162
high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with radiotherapy
combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (L-ADT).
Patients were prospectively assigned into two groups: A (N-ADT +
WPRT + L-ADT) n = 70 pts, B (PORT + L-ADT) n = 92 pts.
Results. The 5-year actuarial overall survival
(OS) rates were 89% for A and 78% for B (P = .13). The 5-year actuarial cause specific survival (CSS) rates were A = 90% and B = 79% (P = .01). Biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) rates were 52% versus 40% (P = .07), for groups A and B, respectively.
Conclusions. The WPRT combined with N-ADT
compared to PORT for high-risk patients resulted in improvement in
CSS and bPFS; however no OS benefit was observed.
To characterize changes in lean body mass (LBM) in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).
Patients and Methods
We prospectively evaluated LBM in a prespecified substudy of a randomized controlled trial of denosumab to prevent fractures in men receiving ADT for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. LBM was measured by total-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at study baseline and at 12, 24, and 36 months. The analyses included 252 patients (132, denosumab; 120, placebo) with a baseline and at least one on-study LBM assessment. Patients were stratified by age (< 70 v ≥ 70 years) and by ADT duration (≤ 6 v > 6 months).
Median ADT duration was 20.4 months at study baseline. Mean LBM decreased significantly from baseline, by 1.0% at month 12 (95% CI, 0.4% to 1.5%; P < .001; n = 248), by 2.1% at month 24 (95% CI, 1.5% to 2.7%; P < .001; n = 205), and by 2.4% at month 36 (95% CI, 1.6% to 3.2%; P < .001; n = 168). Men age ≥ 70 years (n = 127) had significantly greater changes in LBM at all measured time points than younger men. At 36 months, LBM decreased by 2.8% in men age ≥ 70 years and by 0.9% in younger men (P = .035). Men with ≤ 6 months of ADT at study entry (n = 36) had a greater rate of decrease in LBM compared with men who had received more than 6 months of ADT at study entry (3.7% v 2.0%; P = .0645).
In men receiving ADT, LBM decreased significantly after 12, 24, and 36 months.
In this study, we hypothesized that androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer, although initially efficient, induces changes in the tumor kinome, which subsequently promote development of castration-resistant (CR) disease. Recognizing the correlation between tumor hypoxia and poor prognosis in prostate cancer, we further hypothesized that such changes might be influenced by hypoxia. Microarrays with 144 kinase peptide substrates were applied to analyze CWR22 prostate carcinoma xenograft samples from ADT-naïve, androgen-deprived (AD), long-term AD (ADL), and CR disease stages. The impact of hypoxia was assessed by matching the xenograft kinase activity profiles with those acquired from hypoxic and normoxic prostate carcinoma cell cultures, whereas the clinical relevance was evaluated by analyzing prostatectomy tumor samples from patients with locally advanced disease, either in ADT-naïve or early CR disease stages. By using this novel peptide substrate microarray method we revealed high kinase activity mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) in CR prostate cancer. Additionally, we uncovered high STAT5A kinase activity already in regressing ADL xenografts, before renewed CR growth was evidenced. Finally, since increased STAT5A kinase activity also was detected after exposing prostate carcinoma cells to hypoxia, we propose long-term ADT to induce tumor hypoxia and stimulate STAT5A kinase activity, subsequently leading to renewed CR tumor growth. Hence, the study detected STAT5A as a candidate to be further investigated for its potential as marker of advanced prostate cancer and as possible therapeutic target protein.
Many patients with prostate cancer for whom androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is indicated are young and desire to remain sexually active. In such patients, the side effects of androgen therapy on sexual function can be a source of serious reduction in overall quality of life. Providing the appropriate treatment options in this patient population is therefore essential. Nevertheless, treating such patients is challenging and an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of sexual physiology and pathophysiology is crucial to optimal patient care. In this paper, we reviewed what was known regarding the effects of ADT on sexual function in animal models and we also provided a detailed review on the effects of ADT on sexual health in humans and its treatment.
androgen deprivation therapy; castration; ejaculation; erectile dysfunction; orgasm
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the cornerstone treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Despite frequent responses, the majority of metastatic tumors will progress to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Numerous molecular and genetic perturbations have been described in CRPC, which are attributable for gain-of-function changes in the androgen receptor (AR), allowing for cell survival and proliferation with castrate levels of testosterone. The utility of these somatic perturbations, which are selected for in the tumor after ADT, for prognostication of response and response duration in metastatic prostate cancer, is problematic. Here, we discuss recent studies which describe germline polymorphisms that determine the response to ADT. Coding and noncoding germline polymorphisms in genes involved in the androgen pathway affect the response to ADT. These polymorphisms require further study and validation. However, they have the potential to be useful for prognosticating the response to ADT, designing clinical trials for patients who have poor germline prognostic features and designing novel therapies targeted against genes that influence the response to ADT.
Men with high-risk features (extraprostatic extension or high Gleason grade) face a high risk of prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Clinical trials of adjuvant systemic therapy for such patients have been limited.
Patients and Methods
The SWOG (Southwest Oncology Group) S9921 study randomly assigned 983 men with high-risk features at prostatectomy to receive adjuvant therapy with androgen deprivation (ADT) alone or in combination with mitoxantrone chemotherapy. ADT consisted of goserelin and bicalutamide for 2 years.
Although the final primary treatment comparison results are not ready for publication, this article reports results in the ADT-alone control arm with a median follow-up of 4.4 years. For these 481 men, the estimated 5-year biochemical failure-free survival is 92.5% (95% CI, 90 to 95), and 5-year overall survival is 95.9% (95% CI, 93.9 to 97.9).
The results of this trial, taken in context, make a compelling argument for counseling all high-risk patients with prostate cancer about adjuvant ADT. This article discusses the challenges in the design and implementation of clinical trials to take the next step forward in adjuvant therapy for prostate cancer because of the excellent survival achieved with currently available therapies and highlights the need for better molecular markers to personalize care.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is first-line therapy for patients with prostate cancer (PCA) who experience biochemical recurrence (BCR). However, the optimal timing of ADT initiation is uncertain, and earlier ADT initiation can cause toxicities that lower quality of life (QOL). We tested the hypothesis that elevated cancer anxiety leads to earlier ADT initiation for BCR in older men.
Patients and Methods
We conducted a prospective cohort study of older patients with BCR of PCA (n = 67). Patients completed questionnaires at presentation and each follow-up visit until initiation of ADT. PCA-specific anxiety was measured with the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). Other collected data included demographics, clinical information, and general anxiety information. Treating oncologists were surveyed about their recommendations for ADT initiation. The primary outcome was the time to ADT initiation. Univariate, multivariate logistic regression, and time-to-event analyses were conducted to evaluate whether cancer anxiety was a predictor of earlier initiation of ADT.
Thirty-three percent of patients initiated ADT at the first or second clinic visit. Elevated PCA anxiety (MAX-PC > 16) was the most robust predictor in multivariate analyses of early initiation (odds ratio [OR], 9.19; P = .01). PSA also independently correlated with early initiation (OR, 1.31; P = .01). PSA did not correlate with MAX-PC.
Cancer anxiety independently and robustly predicts earlier ADT initiation in older men with BCR. For older patients with PCA, earlier ADT initiation may not change life expectancy and can negatively impact QOL. PCA-specific anxiety is a potential target for a decision-making intervention in this setting.