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1.  Kitasato Symposium 2009: New Prospects for Cytokine Inhibition 
The Kitasato Symposium 2009: New Prospects for Cytokine Inhibition was held in Berlin, Germany from 7 to 9 May 2009. The key aims of this meeting were to bring together a group of front-line researchers and rheumatologists to evaluate the use of cytokine blockade and to examine the role of certain cytokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A keynote lecture delivered by Professor Jean-Michel Dayer provided an up-to-date overview of the interactions occurring between the immune system and acute phase proteins. Other speakers discussed the role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis, including their role in joint destruction, as well as their regulatory role upon T cells and B cells. The involvement of cytokines in other autoimmune diseases was also addressed.
doi:10.1186/ar2857
PMCID: PMC3003512  PMID: 20067593
2.  The Global Cancer Genomics Consortium’s Second Annual Symposium 
Genes & Cancer  2013;4(5-6):196-200.
The Second Annual Symposium of the Global Cancer Genomics Consortium (GCGC) was held at the Tata Memorial Center in Mumbai, India, from November 19 to 20, 2012. Founded in late 2010, the GCGC aims to provide a platform for highly productive, collaborative efforts on next-generation cancer research through bridging the latest scientific and technology developments with clinical oncology challenges. This year’s presenters brought together highly innovative interdisciplinary views and strategies to meet major challenges in cancer research. The symposium featured 3 major themes: OMICS approaches toward the identification of cancer molecular drivers, single-cell analysis in cancer, and clinical and translational genomics. Each theme was represented in presentations of new findings, with an obvious implication in cross-disciplinary components of OMICs and an overwhelming participation by students. In summary, the GCGC symposium provided a discussion and congregation of the latest advances in basic and translational cancer research and offered the participants with a highly cooperative network environment for future collaboration.
doi:10.1177/1947601913484582
PMCID: PMC3782003
genomics medicine; anticancer target; cancer therapy
3.  Second International Lygus Symposium 
The Second International Lygus Symposium brought together 52 entomologists from six nations and 11 states representing universities, public agencies, and private entities to discuss the latest research on Lygus species and their relatives. Symposium topics included Lygus biology, behavior and ecology, IPM, insecticides and resistance, and biological control. Papers and posters dealt with Lygus as a pest of several crops, including cotton, strawberries, seed alfalfa, canola, dry beans, cucumbers, cereals, peaches, and new crops guayule and lesquerella. Intercrop movement of Lygus2008200820082008 species was another important topic of many presentations. In the capstone session, participants identified needs and priorities for ongoing Lygus research and education (available at http://ag.arizona.edu/apmc/Arid_SWPMC_RAMP.html). The conference was sponsored in part by FMC Corporation, the University of Arizona Arizona Pest Management Center, the University of California Statewide IPM Program, and a grant to Ellsworth et al. (CRIS# 0207436) from the USDA-CSREES, Risk Avoidance and Mitigation Program (RAMP).
doi:10.1673/031.008.4901
PMCID: PMC3127420
4.  2010 Keystone Symposium Meeting Report: Alzheimer’s disease beyond Aβ 
Many of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinical trials have made it far enough down the pipeline to allow conclusions about targeting the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) as a therapeutic approach. Based on these results, it is becoming clear that a multifocal approach to AD treatment is probably necessary. However, critical discussion beyond Aβ is necessary to enable the next wave of AD therapeutic targets. For this reason, the 2010 Keystone Symposium, ‘Alzheimer’s Disease Beyond Aβ’, was organized by JoAnne McLaurin and Tony Wyss-Coray to spark topical discussion and debate. While researchers struggled to get beyond that ever-present pathognomonic feature of AD, new and exciting evidence was presented that raised our awareness of what is around the corner for next-generation AD therapeutics beyond Aβ. This report will describe some of the highlights from Copper Mountain Resort throughout the meeting period of 10–15 January 2010 in Colorado (USA). Despite illuminating scientific presentations and intense discussions, a number of important questions remain concerning the best biomarkers and targets to focus on, and when and how to therapeutically intervene.
PMCID: PMC2872183  PMID: 20429127
5.  Koch Institute Symposium on Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 
Cancer immunology research  2013;1:217-222.
The 12th annual summer symposium of The Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT was held in Cambridge, MA, on June 14th, 1023. The symposium entitled “Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy” focused on recent advances in preclinical research in basic immunology and biomedical engineering, and their clinical application in cancer therapies. The day-long gathering also provided a forum for discussion and potential collaborations between engineers and clinical investigators. The major topics presented include: (i) enhancement of adoptive cell therapy by engineering to improve the ability and functionality of T-cells against tumor cells; (ii) current therapies using protein and antibody therapeutics to modulate endogenous anti-tumor immunity; and (iii) new technologies to identify molecular targets and assess therapeutic efficacy, and devices to control and target drug delivery more effectively and efficiently.
doi:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0116
PMCID: PMC3897860  PMID: 24466562
6.  Advancing radiology through informed leadership: summary of the proceedings of the Seventh Biannual Symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology (IS3R), 23–25 August 2007 
European Radiology  2009;19(8):1827-1836.
The International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology (IS3R) brings together thought leaders from academia and industry from around the world to share ideas, points of view and new knowledge. This article summarizes the main concepts presented at the 2007 IS3R symposium, providing a window onto trends shaping the future of radiology. Topics addressed include new opportunities and challenges in the field of interventional radiology; emerging techniques for evaluating and improving quality and safety in radiology; and factors impeding progress in molecular imaging and nanotechnology and possible ways to overcome them. Regulatory hurdles to technical innovation and drug development are also discussed more broadly, along with proposals for addressing regulators’ concerns and streamlining the regulatory process.
doi:10.1007/s00330-009-1370-1
PMCID: PMC2705708  PMID: 19277668
Interventional radiology; Molecular imaging; Device approval processes; Drug approval processes; Health-care quality; Radiology; Leadership
7.  Philadelphia Chromosome Symposium: commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the Ph chromosome 
Cancer genetics  2011;204(4):171-179.
This report summarizes highlights of the ‘Philadelphia Chromosome Symposium: Past, Present and Future’, held September 28, 2010, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the Philadelphia chromosome. The symposium sessions included presentations by investigators who made seminal contributions concerning the discovery and molecular characterization of the Ph chromosome and others who developed a highly successful therapy based on the specific molecular alteration observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Additional presentations highlighted future opportunities for the design of molecularly targeted therapies for various types of cancer. Also included here are reminiscences connected with the discovery of the Ph chromosome by David Hungerford and Peter Nowell, the discovery that the abnormality arises from a chromosomal translocation, by Janet Rowley, and the cloning of the 9;22 translocation breakpoints by Nora Heisterkamp, John Groffen and colleagues.
doi:10.1016/j.cancergen.2011.03.002
PMCID: PMC3092778  PMID: 21536234
BCR; ABL; translocation; imatinib; targeted therapies
8.  Allocation of health care resources in the neonatal and perinatal area –CPS Symposium 1996 
Paediatrics & Child Health  1999;4(1):51-56.
There have been publically expressed concerns about the costs and allocation of neonatal and perinatal health care resources in Canada and elsewhere for the past 15 years. This paper reports information from a symposium held during the 1996 Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) annual meeting sponsored by the CPS Section on Perinatal Medicine. Experts in perinatal epidemiology, health care economics, public policy and finance, and consumer perspectives on the outcomes of neonatal and perinatal intensive care explored the following questions: How should the need for health care resources in the neonatal and perinatal area be objectively determined? When there are competing needs between the maternal-newborn area and other areas, how should these be rationalized? What evidence should be used (or should be available) to support the present use of resources? What evidence should be available (or is needed) to change or introduce new uses of resources? The conclusions indicated that there are no generally accepted methods to determine the allocation of health care resources but that considerations need to include population characteristics, desired outcomes, achievable results, values, ethics, legalities, cost-benefit analyses and political objectives. Information from families and adolescents who required the use of high technology and/or high cost programs will contribute individual, family and societal values that complement cost-efficacy analyses.
PMCID: PMC2828227  PMID: 20212990
Allocation of resources; Health care funding; Neonatal care
9.  Neuroblastoma Progress on Many Fronts: The Neuroblastoma Research Symposium 
Pediatric blood & cancer  2011;58(4):649-651.
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor of infancy derived from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. Clinicians and researchers in developmental biology and genetics recently met to facilitate meaningful crosstalk and to discuss considerable progress made in the clinical treatment and basic biology of neuroblastoma. For instance, discoveries in familial neuroblastoma have identified genetic aberrations in Phox2b and Alk that predispose to neuroblastoma, while advances in epigenetics and MYCN regulation have also offered insight into neuroblastoma pathogenesis and future treatment. Moreover, novel therapeutic avenues are also being explored, including targeted immunotherapies, and innovative radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic approaches. This multi-disciplinary meeting was convened to aid the transfer of new biological findings into the clinic and to use clinical advances to inform the basic biological understanding of this devastating disease.
doi:10.1002/pbc.23329
PMCID: PMC3243773  PMID: 21922652
Neuroblastoma; Neuroblastoma biology; Molecular biology of neuroblastoma
10.  Highlights from the 6th International Society for Computational Biology Student Council Symposium at the 18th Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology 
BMC Bioinformatics  2010;11(Suppl 10):I1.
This meeting report gives an overview of the keynote lectures and a selection of the student oral and poster presentations at the 6th International Society for Computational Biology Student Council Symposium that was held as a precursor event to the annual international conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB). The symposium was held in Boston, MA, USA on July 9th, 2010.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-11-S10-I1
PMCID: PMC3226177
11.  Nutrition at school: preparing for the future. The Thirteenth Annual Nutrition Symposium. 
Public Health Reports  1994;109(5):706-709.
Two of the best ways to improve the quality of childhood nutrition are (a) more collaboration at the national, State, and local levels and (b) adoption of innovative and multimedia learning methods, according to the leaders of nutrition education. These themes were discussed at the 13th Annual Nutrition Symposium, which was held March 9, 1994, in Washington, DC. In recognition of National Nutrition Month, a collaborative effort of the Public Health Service's Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the meeting was attended by more than 300 public and private sector nutrition educators and public health professionals. Their assignment was to analyze school-based nutrition education programs and the research being conducted on nutrition. Keynote speaker Surgeon General M. Joycelyn Elders, MD, issued the challenge for all Federal and State agencies to work with schools and nutrition education professionals to overcome limited resources and children's current eating habits to improve the nutritional status of children. Responding to that challenge, speakers from the Department of Health and Human Services, the agency sponsoring the meeting, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Education, as well as from the Congress, business, and public schools addressed several initiatives.
PMCID: PMC1403563  PMID: 7938395
12.  Highlights from the 2013 WIN Symposium: personalised cancer therapy from innovation to implementation 
ecancermedicalscience  2013;7:344.
The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is a global alliance of academic and industrial cancer researchers, clinicians, and cancer advocacy groups set up to promote innovations in personalised cancer therapy and to accelerate the translation of research in this discipline into the oncology clinic. One of its most important initiatives is the WIN symposia, which have been held in Paris each summer since 2009. The fifth WIN symposium, which was held 10–12 July 2013, took as its overall theme ‘Personalised Cancer Therapy: From Innovation to Implementation’.
Over 400 delegates, including a good number of representatives of patient groups as well as leading academic, industrial, and clinical scientists; students; and post-docs attended this symposium. Its scientific programme featured thirty presentations divided into four main plenary sessions, and there was also a wide-ranging poster session that encompassed all the topics covered in the plenaries.
The programme structure followed the path of drug discovery, in that the first session covered assay development for personalised cancer medicine; the second, applications of genomics in oncology; the third, clinical development; and the fourth, the impact of personalised medicine on cancer care.
doi:10.3332/ecancer.2013.344
PMCID: PMC3756641  PMID: 24009643
biomarkers; personalised medicine; targeted therapy; genomics; proteomics
13.  Proceedings of the 2010 National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium 
Toxicologic pathology  2010;39(1):240-266.
The 2010 annual National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled “Pathology Potpourri,” was held in Chicago, Illinois, in advance of the scientific symposium sponsored jointly by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP). The goal of the annual NTP Symposium is to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers' presentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, along with select images that were used for voting or discussion. Some topics covered during the symposium included a comparison of rat and mouse hepatocholangiocarcinoma, a comparison of cholangiofibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma in rats, a mixed pancreatic neoplasm with acinar and islet cell components, an unusual preputial gland tumor, renal hyaline glomerulopathy in rats and mice, eosinophilic substance in the nasal septum of mice, INHAND nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the CNS/PNS, retinal gliosis in a rat, fibroadnexal hamartoma in rats, intramural plaque in a mouse, a treatment-related chloracne-like lesion in mice, and an overview of mouse ovarian tumors.
doi:10.1177/0192623310391680
PMCID: PMC3096448  PMID: 21177527
NTP Satellite Symposium; INHAND nomenclature; hepatocholangiocarcinoma; acinar-islet cell; preputial gland; hyaline glomerulopathy; eosinophilic substance; ependymoma; axonal degeneration; retinal gliosis; fibroadnexal hamartoma; intramural plaque; chloracne; ovary; cholangiocarcinoma
14.  Conference Report: International Research Symposium on Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal Defects-Cleft Lip and/or Palate (AEC) Syndrome 
Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal Defects-Cleft Lip/Palate (AEC) Syndrome (Hay-Wells syndrome, MIM #106220) is a rare autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia syndrome. It is due to mutations in the p63 gene, known to be a regulatory gene with many downstream gene targets. TP63 is important in the differentiation and proliferation of the epidermis, as well as many other processes including limb and facial development. It is also known that mutations in p63 lead to skin erosions. These erosions, especially on the scalp, are defining features of AEC syndrome and cause significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. It was this fact that led to the 2003 AEC Skin Erosion Workshop. That conference laid the groundwork for the International Research Symposium for AEC Syndrome held at Texas Children's Hospital in 2006. The conference brought together the largest cohort of individuals with AEC syndrome, along with a multitude of physicians and scientists. The overarching goals were to define the clinical and pathologic findings for improved diagnostic criteria, to obtain tissue samples for further study and to define future research directions. The symposium was successful in accomplishing these aims as detailed in this conference report. Following our report, we also present eleven manuscripts within this special section that outline the collective clinical, pathologic and mutational data from eighteen individuals enrolled in the concurrent Baylor College of Medicine IRB-approved protocol: Characterization of AEC syndrome. These collaborative findings will hopefully provide a stepping stone to future translational projects of p63 and p63-related syndromes.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32761
PMCID: PMC2736474  PMID: 19353643
ectodermal dysplasia; congenital ectodermal defect; skin; wound healing; p63; TP63; tumor protein p63; bone morphogenetic protein; BMP; fibroblast growth factor; FGF, ectodysplasin A receptor; EDAR; beta-catenin; NOTCH1; p53 apoptosis effector protein; Perp; activated protein kinase C; RACK1; stratifin; SFN; apobec-1-binding protein-1; ABBP1
15.  Report of an international symposium on narrowing the Gap in the treatment and study of SLE worldwide: minimum best practices in the management and monitoring of moderate to severe SLE and improving outcomes in constrained environments 
Disparities in health outcomes occur in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) especially in economically disadvantaged populations. At the 9th International Congress on SLE, June 24–27, 2010, held in Vancouver, British Columbia, a symposium “Narrowing the Gap in the Treatment and Study of SLE worldwide” was held. Participating physicians from the Caribbean, Central and South America, Asia, Portugal, Africa and impoverished areas of the United States detailed their constraints and desires. These were remarkably consistent. Out of these discussions, a statement on minimum best practice was put forth aimed at the cost-effective management of SLE focusing on the critical factors that make a difference and are feasible even in the most challenging environments. Approaches to designing studies and establishing research and mentoring collaborations was also discussed. The ultimate aim was to provide an avenue for the improvement of care and outcomes for patients with SLE worldwide.
doi:10.1007/s12178-011-9080-0
PMCID: PMC3261257  PMID: 21505771
SLE; Best practice; Health disparities; Rheumatology
16.  Review of "The Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" and "The Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS" 
Two recent meetings held on the west coast of the USA highlighted current work being done in the field of retrovirology and AIDS. The meetings, "The Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" (Palm Springs CA; October 6–8, 2005), and the "Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS" (Portland OR; September 21–24) covered a broad range of topics. The highlights covered here are not meant to be inclusive but reflect presentations of interest in the identification and development of new HIV therapies and the role played by animal models in their development.
doi:10.1186/1742-6405-3-1
PMCID: PMC1363726  PMID: 16405737
17.  Stress symposium in Johannesburg: plants versus humans 
Cell Stress & Chaperones  1998;3(3):143-146.
On 18 February 1998, a ‘Stress symposium’ was held at the Rand Afrikaans University (RAU) in Johannesburg, South Africa. The meeting brought together people from both the plant and the human oxidative stress field, which was exemplified by a talk entitled ‘Heat shock proteins in host-pathogen interactions: plants versus humans’. There were moments when it appeared as if the main difference between plants and humans was, as sung by Julos Beaucarne, that ‘the human plant is the only one to be able to water itself…’
PMCID: PMC312957  PMID: 9764753
18.  ESF-EMBO Symposium “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” Sept 29–Oct 4, Polonia Castle Pultusk, Poland 
Frontiers in Oncology  2013;3:142.
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and Ewing sarcoma (ES) are among the most common pediatric sarcomas (Arndt et al., 2012). Despite sarcomas representing a highly heterogeneous group of tumors, ES and alveolar RMS (ARMS) typically share one common genetic characteristic, namely a specific chromosomal translocation (Helman and Meltzer, 2003; Lessnick and Ladanyi, 2012). These translocations generate fusion proteins, which are composed of two transcription factors (TF). Typically, one TF is a developmentally regulated factor that is essential for proper specification of a given lineage and provides the DNA-binding domain, while the partner TF contributes a transactivation domain that drives aberrant expression of target genes. Based on these common genetic characteristics, the first ESF-EMBO research conference entitled “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” with special focus on RMS and ES was held at the Polonia Castle in Pultusk, Poland. The conference gathered 70 participants from more than 15 countries and several continents representing most research groups that are active in this field.
doi:10.3389/fonc.2013.00142
PMCID: PMC3671287  PMID: 23761860
Rhabdomyosarcoma; Ewing sarcoma; therapeutics; PAX3/FOXO1; EWS/Fli1
19.  Keystone Symposium on Antibodies as Drugs 
mAbs  2009;1(4):318-325.
The symposium on Antibodies as Drugs, organized by Keystone Symposia and chaired by J. Marks, (University of California Los Angeles, USA), E.S. Ward (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, USA) and L. Weiner (Georgetown University Medical Center, USA), was held in Whistler, British Columbia. This Canadian Rockies village, which will host the 2010 Olympic Games, served as an enchanting backdrop to the meeting. The more than 350 speakers and attendees included scientists from major pharmaceutical firms, e.g., Abbott, MedImmune/Astra Zeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck & Co., Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Schering, GlaxoSmithKline, Eli Lilly, Hoffmann LaRoche, Novartis, Wyeth, and biotechnology companies, e.g., Ablynx, Medarex, Morphosys, GenMab, Amgen, Genentech, ImmunoGen, Agensys, Domantis, Biogen Idec, Centocor, LFB, Micromet, PDL Biopharma, Borean Pharma, Dyax Corp., Symphogen and Syntonix. Academic research groups at Imperial College London, University of Oxford, ETH Zürich, Scripps, Institute Cochin, Karolinska Institute, Utrecht University, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Baylor College, Paul Ehrlich Institute, University of California San Francisco, University of California San Diego, University of Nantes, University of Tours and Ludwig Institute were also represented, as were regulatory authorities, including the US Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health and the Public Health Agency of Canada). The meeting was very interactive and included thoughtful exchanges during the different sessions and networking events.
PMCID: PMC2726610  PMID: 20068403
20.  Meeting Report: “Metagenomics, Metadata and Meta-analysis” (M3) Workshop at the Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2010 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2010;2(3):357-360.
This report summarizes the M3 Workshop held at the January 2010 Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. The workshop, organized by Genomic Standards Consortium members, included five contributed talks, a series of short presentations from stakeholders in the genomics standards community, a poster session, and, in the evening, an open discussion session to review current projects and examine future directions for the GSC and its stakeholders.
doi:10.4056/sigs.802738
PMCID: PMC3035291  PMID: 21304719
21.  Report from the Second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health: Critical Needs, Challenges and Potential Solutions 
BMC Proceedings  2011;5(Suppl 4):S1.
The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunities, and a forward look at the potential applications of animal genomics in animal health research. The aim of the roundtable discussion was to foster a dialogue between scientists working at the cutting edge of animal genomics research and animal health scientists. Importantly, stakeholders were included to provide input on priorities and the potential value of animal genomics to the animal health community. In an effort to facilitate the roundtable discussion, the organizers identified four priority areas to advance the use of genome-enabled technologies in animal health research. Contributions were obtained through open discussions and a questionnaire distributed at the start of the symposium. This report provides the outcome of the roundtable discussion for each of the four priority areas. For each priority, problems are identified, including potential solutions and recommendations. This report captures key points made by symposium participants during the roundtable discussion and serves as a roadmap to steer future research priorities in animal genomics research.
doi:10.1186/1753-6561-5-S4-S1
PMCID: PMC3108203  PMID: 21645288
22.  Conference Report: The Nour Foundation Georgetown University & Blackfriars Hall, Oxford University Symposium Series Technology, Neuroscience & the Nature of Being: Considerations of Meaning, Morality and Transcendence Part I: The Paradox of Neurotechnology 8 May 2009 
This reviews the first of a tripartite symposia series dealing with novel neuroscientific technologies, the nature of consciousness and being, and the questions that arise from such interactions. The event took place on May 8 2009, at Georgetown University, and brought together ten leading figures on fields ranging from Neuroscience and Robotics to Philosophy, that commented on their research and provided ethical, moral and practical insight and perspectives into how these technologies can shape the future of neuroscientific and human development, as well as denoting the potential abuses and the best way to proceed about them.
doi:10.1186/1747-5341-4-9
PMCID: PMC2717997  PMID: 19615065
23.  Clinical trials in developing countries: Discussions at the '9th International Symposium on Long Term Clinical Trials', London, UK, 19-20 June 2000 
This symposium provided a useful forum for the discussion of issues relating to the design and conduct of clinical trials. There is a need for greater awareness of the complexity of modern day trials, in which a host of statistical, logistical, regulatory and ethical issues are involved. Issues discussed ranged from the effect of sample size on the outcome, and subgroup analysis, to defining and maintaining discrete endpoints. Some useful debate centred on the use of meta-analysis and the current limitations of combining information from different data sets. This brought up the subjects of trial registries and raw data repositories for all clinical trials. Progress and relevance of the Cochrane collaboration were reviewed. The economics of clinical trials was another important topic. Regulatory issues such as the role of data and safety monitoring boards (DSMB) and the guidelines in place for effective data monitoring and progress analysis were discussed. Representatives of government organisations and industry gave both European and American perspectives. This report however focuses specifically on the section devoted to the subject of clinical trials in developing countries.
doi:10.1186/cvm-1-1-055
PMCID: PMC59600  PMID: 11714410
clinical trial; developing countries; ethics; publishing; symposium
24.  Integrated diagnostics: proceedings from the 9th biennial symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology 
European Radiology  2012;22(11):2283-2294.
The International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology held its 9th biennial meeting in August 2011. The focus of the programme was integrated diagnostics and massive computing. Participants discussed the opportunities, challenges, and consequences for the discipline of radiology that will likely arise from the integration of diagnostic technologies. Diagnostic technologies are increasing in scope, including advanced imaging techniques, new molecular imaging agents, and sophisticated point-of-use devices. Advanced information technology (IT), which is increasingly influencing the practice of medicine, will aid clinical communication and the development of “population images” that represent the phenotype of particular diseases, which will aid the development of diagnostic algorithms. Integrated diagnostics offer increased operational efficiency and benefits to patients through quicker and more accurate diagnoses. As physicians with the most expertise in IT, radiologists are well placed to take the lead in introducing IT solutions and cloud computing to promote integrated diagnostics. To achieve this, radiologists must adapt to include quantitative data on biomarkers in their reports. Radiologists must also increase their role as participating physicians, collaborating with other medical specialties, not only to avoid being sidelined by other specialties but also to better prepare as leaders in the selection and sequence of diagnostic procedures.
Key Points
• New diagnostic technologies are yielding unprecedented amounts of diagnostic information.
• Advanced IT/cloud computing will aid integration and analysis of diagnostic data.
• Better diagnostic algorithms will lead to faster diagnosis and more rapid treatment.
doi:10.1007/s00330-012-2510-6
PMCID: PMC3472054  PMID: 22699871
Radiology; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Informatics; Algorithms; Efficiency; Organizational
25.  International symposium on peripheral nerve repair and regeneration and 2nd club Brunelli meeting 
The International Symposium "Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration and 2nd Club Brunelli Meeting" was held on December 4-5, 2009 in Turin, Italy (Organizers: Bruno Battiston, Stefano Geuna, Isabelle Perroteau, Pierluigi Tos). Interest in the study of peripheral nerve regeneration is very much alive because complete recovery of nerve function almost never occurs after nerve reconstruction and, often, the clinical outcome is rather poor. Therefore, there is a need for defining innovative strategies for improving the success of recovery after nerve lesion and repair and this meeting was intended to discuss, from a multidisciplinary point of view, some of today's most important issues in this scientific field, arising from both basic and clinical neurosciences.
doi:10.1186/1749-7221-5-5
PMCID: PMC2848046  PMID: 20214775

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