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1.  Breast cancer screening practices and correlates among American Indian and Alaska Native women in California, 2003 
Background
Breast cancer incidence and mortality have been increasing among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, and their survival rate is the lowest of all racial/ethnic groups. Nevertheless, knowledge of AI/AN women’s breast cancer screening practices and their correlates is limited.
Methods
Using the 2003 California Health Interview Survey, we 1) compared the breast cancer screening practices of AI/AN women to other groups and 2) explored the association of several factors known or thought to influence AI/AN women’s breast cancer screening practices.
Findings
Compared to other races, AI/AN women had the lowest rate of mammogram screening (ever and within the past 2 years). For clinical breast exam receipt, Asian women had the lowest rate, followed by AI/AN women. Factors associated with AI/AN women’s breast cancer screening practices included older age, having a high school diploma or some college education, receipt of a Pap test within the past 3 years, and having visited a doctor within the past year.
Conclusions
Significant differences in breast cancer screening practices were noted between races, with AI/AN women often having significantly lower rates. Integrating these epidemiological findings into effective policy and practice requires additional applied research initiatives.
doi:10.1016/j.whi.2009.12.004
PMCID: PMC2935087  PMID: 20211430
breast cancer screening; American Indian or Alaska Native; women’s health
2.  Racial and ethnic differences in personal cervical cancer screening amongst post-graduate physicians: Results from a cross-sectional survey 
BMC Public Health  2008;8:378.
Background
Racial and ethnic disparities in cervical cancer screening have been attributed to socioeconomic, insurance, and cultural differences. Our objective was to explore racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations among female post-graduate physicians.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional survey at one university hospital among a convenience sample of 204 female post-graduate physicians (52% of all potential participants), examining adherence to United States Preventive Services Task Force cervical cancer screening recommendations, perception of adherence to recommendations, and barriers to obtaining care.
Results
Overall, 83% of women were adherent to screening recommendations and 84% accurately perceived adherence or non-adherence. Women who self-identified as Asian were significantly less adherent when compared with women who self-identified as white (69% vs. 87%; Relative Risk [RR] = 0.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.64–0.97; P < 0.01). Women who self-identified as East Indian were significantly less likely to accurately perceive adherence or non-adherence when compared to women who self-identified as white (64% vs. 88%; RR = 0.73, 95% CI, 0.49–1.09, P = 0.04). Women who self-identified as Asian were significantly more likely to report any barrier to obtaining care when compared with women who self-identified as white (60% vs. 35%; RR = 1.75, 95% CI, 1.24–2.47; P = 0.001) and there was a non-significant tendency toward women who self-identified as East Indian being more likely to report any barrier to obtaining care when compared with women who self-identified as white (60% vs. 34%; RR = 1.74, 95% CI, 1.06–2.83; P = 0.06).
Conclusion
Among a small group of insured, highly-educated physicians who have access to health care, we found racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations, suggesting that culture may play a role in cervical cancer screening.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-378
PMCID: PMC2590615  PMID: 18973674
3.  Disparities in mammographic screening for Asian women in California: a cross-sectional analysis to identify meaningful groups for targeted intervention 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:201.
Background
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among the rapidly growing population of Asian Americans; it is also the most common cause of cancer mortality among Filipinas. Asian women continue to have lower rates of mammographic screening than women of most other racial/ethnic groups. While prior studies have described the effects of sociodemographic and other characteristics of women on non-adherence to screening guidelines, they have not identified the distinct segments of the population who remain at highest risk of not being screened.
Methods
To better describe characteristics of Asian women associated with not having a mammogram in the last two years, we applied recursive partitioning to population-based data (N = 1521) from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), for seven racial/ethnic groups of interest: Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Vietnamese, and all Asians combined.
Results
We identified two major subgroups of Asian women who reported not having a mammogram in the past two years and therefore, did not follow mammography screening recommendations: 1) women who have never had a pap exam to screen for cervical cancer (68% had no mammogram), and 2) women who have had a pap exam, but have no women's health issues (osteoporosis, using menopausal hormone therapies, and/or hysterectomy) nor a usual source of care (62% had no mammogram). Only 19% of Asian women who have had pap screening and have women's health issues did not have a mammogram in the past two years. In virtually all ethnic subgroups, having had pap or colorectal screening were the strongest delineators of mammography usage. Other characteristics of women least likely to have had a mammogram included: Chinese non-U.S. citizens or citizens without usual source of health care, Filipinas with no health insurance, Koreans without women's health issues and public or no health insurance, South Asians less than age 50 who were unemployed or non-citizens, and Vietnamese women who were never married.
Conclusion
We identified distinct subgroups of Asian women at highest risk of not adhering to mammography screening guidelines; these data can inform outreach efforts aimed at reducing the disparity in mammography screening among Asian women.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-7-201
PMCID: PMC2198916  PMID: 17961259
4.  Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening among Cambodian, Laotian, Thai, and Tongan Women 
Journal of Cancer Education  2010;25(4):595-601.
Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) groups have low rates of breast and cervical cancer screening. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KABs) regarding breast and cervical cancer on AAPI women. A cross-sectional survey of 1,808 AAPI women was included. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were provided and 55.3%, 68.6%, and 71.9% had received mammograms, clinical breast exam, and Pap smears, respectively. KABs on breast and cervical cancer varied between the four ethnic groups. Understanding the KABs toward cancer screening among AAPI women holds promise for identifying barriers to early detection and could aid in the creation of interventions.
doi:10.1007/s13187-010-0082-1
PMCID: PMC2992127  PMID: 20238200
Knowledge; Attitudes; Beliefs; Breast and cervical cancer
5.  Disparities in Cancer Treatment Outcomes Among Asian Americans: Implications for the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training 
Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to describe the scope of concern of Asian Americans in cancer treatment.
Methods
AANCART, the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training, is a project whose goal includes promoting the well-being of Asian Americans through educating the public, increasing data on cancer, and helping health care providers better treat their Asian American patients.
Findings
In many instances, Asian Americans have the highest cancer rate compared with other ethnic groups. Knowledge gaps exist for both the patient and the health professional, preventing proper assessment of the patient’s needs.
Conclusions
Asian Americans are difficult to reach because of bipolar population distributions, cultural barriers, and lack of patient care data. With the efforts of AANCART, this racial group should be able to reduce some of the cancer treatment disparities that currently exist.
PMCID: PMC1945050  PMID: 11567510
6.  Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Screening 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2003;18(12):1028-1035.
CONTEXT
Racial/ethnic groups comprised largely of foreign-born individuals have lower rates of cancer screening than white Americans. Little is known about whether these disparities are related primarily to their race/ethnicity or birthplace.
OBJECTIVE
To determine whether foreign birthplace explains some racial/ethnic disparities in cancer screening.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS
Cross-sectional study using 1998 data from the National Health Interview Survey.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Completion of cervical, breast, or colorectal cancer screening.
RESULTS
Of respondents, 15% were foreign born. In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and illness burden, black respondents were as or more likely to report cancer screening than white respondents; however, Hispanic and Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) respondents were significantly less likely to report screening for most cancers. When race/ethnicity and birthplace were considered together, U.S.-born Hispanic and AAPI respondents were as likely to report cancer screening as U.S.-born whites; however, foreign-born white (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.82), Hispanic (AOR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79), and AAPI respondents (AOR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.39) were less likely than U.S.-born whites to report Pap smears. Foreign-born Hispanic and AAPI respondents were also less likely to report fecal occult blood testing (FOBT); AORs, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.98; and 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.96, respectively); and sigmoidoscopy (AORs, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.97; and 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.99, respectively). Furthermore, foreign-born AAPI respondents were less likely to report mammography (AOR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.86). Adjusting for access to care partially attenuated disparities among foreign-born respondents.
CONCLUSION
Foreign birthplace may explain some disparities previously attributed to race or ethnicity, and is an important barrier to cancer screening, even after adjustment for other factors. Increasing access to health care may improve disparities among foreign-born persons to some degree, but further study is needed to understand other barriers to screening among the foreign-born.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2003.20807.x
PMCID: PMC1494963  PMID: 14687262
cervical cancer; breast cancer; colorectal cancer; cancer screening; race/ethnicity; immigrant status; health disparities
7.  A Value-Based Approach to Increase Breast Cancer Screening and Health-Directed Behaviors among American Indian Women 
Journal of Cancer Education  2010;25(4):582-587.
American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women have the lowest cancer-screening rate of any ethnic or racial group; AI/AN women in all regions are less likely than non-Hispanic white women to be diagnosed with localized breast cancer; and those AI/AN women presenting with breast cancer have the lowest 5-year survival rate compared to other ethnic groups. This study found that cultural beliefs are more of a factor in mammography screening behavior than other barriers such as access; and that a more holistic educational intervention designed by AI/AN women prompted individual intent and actions to seek mammograms among AI/AN women >40 and to change unhealthy eating and sedentary lifestyles.
doi:10.1007/s13187-010-0111-0
PMCID: PMC2992132  PMID: 20405355
American Indian; Breast cancer; Mammography; Cultural barriers to screening
8.  Perceived Medical Discrimination and Cancer Screening Behaviors of Racial and Ethnic Minority Adults 
BACKGROUND
Discrimination has been shown as a major causal factor in health disparities, yet little is known about the relationship between perceived medical discrimination (vs. general discrimination outside medical settings) and cancer screening behaviors. We examined whether perceived medical discrimination is associated with lower screening rates for colorectal and breast cancers among racial and ethnic minority adult Californians.
METHODS
Pooled cross-sectional data from 2003 and 2005 California Health Interview Surveys were examined for cancer screening trends among African-American, American-Indian/Alaskan-Native, Asian, and Latino adult respondents reporting perceived medical discrimination compared to those not reporting discrimination (n=11,245). Outcome measures were dichotomous screening variables for colorectal cancer among respondents, ages 50 -75; and breast cancer among women, ages 40 - 75.
RESULTS
Women perceiving medical discrimination were less likely to be screened for colorectal (OR = 0.66; CI = 0.64 - 0.69) or breast cancer (OR = 0.52; CI = 0.51 - 0.54) compared to women not perceiving discrimination. Although men who perceived medical discrimination were no less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer than those who did not (OR = 1.02; CI = 0.97 - 1.07), significantly lower screening rates were found among men who perceived discrimination and reported having a usual source of health care (OR = 0.30; CI = 0.28 - 0.32).
CONCLUSIONS
These findings of a significant association between perceived racial or ethnic-based medical discrimination and cancer screening behaviors have serious implications for cancer health disparities. Gender differences in patterns for screening and perceived medical discrimination warrant further investigation.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0005
PMCID: PMC2526181  PMID: 18687583
Cancer screening; Racial/ethnic disparities; Perceived discrimination; Colorectal cancer; Breast cancer
9.  Fear, Fatalism and Breast Cancer Screening in Low-Income African-American Women: The Role of Clinicians and the Health Care System 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2008;23(11):1847-1853.
Background
African-American women have the highest breast cancer death rates of all racial/ethnic groups in the US. Reasons for these disparities are multi-factorial, but include lower mammogram utilization among this population. Cultural attitudes and beliefs, such as fear and fatalism, have not been fully explored as potential barriers to mammography among African-American women.
Objective
To explore the reasons for fear associated with breast cancer screening among low-income African-American women.
Methods
We conducted four focus groups ( = 29) among a sample of African-American women at an urban academic medical center. We used trained race-concordant interviewers with experience discussing preventive health behaviors. Each interview/focus group was audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and imported into Atlas.ti software. Coding was conducted using an iterative process, and each transcription was independently coded by members of the research team.
Main Results
Several major themes arose in our exploration of fear and other psychosocial barriers to mammogram utilization, including negative health care experiences, fear of the health care system, denial and repression, psychosocial issues, delays in seeking health care, poor health outcomes and fatalism. We constructed a conceptual model for understanding these themes.
Conclusions
Fear of breast cancer screening among low-income African-American women is multi-faceted, and reflects shared experiences within the health care system as well as the psychosocial context in which women live. This study identifies a prominent role for clinicians, particularly primary care physicians, and the health care system to address these barriers to mammogram utilization within this population.
doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0756-0
PMCID: PMC2585682  PMID: 18751758
breast cancer; mammography; African-Americans; barriers to healthcare
10.  Primary Care Physicians’ Cancer Screening Recommendation Practices and Perceptions of Cancer Risk of Asian Americans 
Asian Americans experience disproportionate incidence and mortality rates of certain cancers, compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Primary care physicians are a critical source for cancer screening recommendations and play a significant role in increasing cancer screening of their patients. This study assessed primary care physicians’ perceptions of cancer risk in Asians and screening recommendation practices. Primary care physicians practicing in New Jersey and New York City (n=100) completed a 30-question survey on medical practice characteristics, Asian patient communication, cancer screening guidelines, and Asian cancer risk. Liver cancer and stomach cancer were perceived as higher cancer risks among Asian Americans than among the general population, and breast and prostate cancer were perceived as lower risks. Physicians are integral public health liaisons who can be both influential and resourceful toward educating Asian Americans about specific cancer awareness and screening information.
PMCID: PMC3800694  PMID: 23679307
Asian Americans; cancer; primary care physician; health disparities
11.  Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors 
BMC Public Health  2003;3:27.
Background
Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes.
Methods
As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups.
Results
Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 to 49 years old was 43%, and annual mammography use among women 50 and over was 56%. The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program and complementary focus group study identified multiple barriers that hindered women from attending education programs, with time as the most frequently reported barrier.
Conclusion
The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program was reported to be a culturally acceptable and effective way of disseminating breast cancer information and one that addressed the women's most frequently reported barrier, lack of time.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-3-27
PMCID: PMC194635  PMID: 12921541
12.  Trends in Colorectal Cancer Screening Utilization among Ethnic Groups in California: Are We Closing the Gap? 
Background
Given the low prevalence of and racial/ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, it is important to monitor whether prevalence and disparities are increasing or decreasing over time.
Methods
We estimated the prevalence of CRC screening by year (2001, 2003 and 2005), modality (endoscopy, fecal occult blood test, either) and recency (ever had, up-to-date) for the California population as a whole, major racial/ethnic groups (White, Black, Latino, Asian), and selected Asian subgroups (Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Survey. All prevalence estimates were age- and gender-standardized.
Results
Between 2001 and 2005, prevalence of up-to-date screening increased significantly among Whites and Latinos but not among Blacks and Asian Americans. Screening prevalence varied substantially among Asian subgroups, with Korean, Filipino and Vietnamese Americans having the lowest prevalence. Korean Americans were the only group in the analysis with a significant decline in screening prevalence between 2001 and 2005. The gap between the highest and lowest up-to-date screening prevalence using any screening modality, exhibited by Japanese and Korean Americans, increased from 18% in 2001 to 30% in 2005.
Conclusions
Findings suggest that we need to intensify efforts to increase colorectal cancer screening, especially among Korean Americans but also among Filipinos, Vietnamese and Latinos.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0608
PMCID: PMC2745842  PMID: 19273482
colorectal cancer screening; ethnic disparities; Asian subgroups; California Health Interview Survey
13.  Engaging diverse underserved communities to bridge the mammography divide 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:47.
Background
Breast cancer screening continues to be underutilized by the population in general, but is particularly underutilized by traditionally underserved minority populations. Two of the most at risk female minority groups are American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) and Latinas. American Indian women have the poorest recorded 5-year cancer survival rates of any ethnic group while breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer mortality among Latina women. Breast cancer screening rates for both minority groups are near or at the lowest among all racial/ethnic groups. As with other health screening behaviors, women may intend to get a mammogram but their intentions may not result in initiation or follow through of the examination process. An accumulating body of research, however, demonstrates the efficacy of developing 'implementation intentions' that define when, where, and how a specific behavior will be performed. The formulation of intended steps in addition to addressing potential barriers to test completion can increase a person's self-efficacy, operationalize and strengthen their intention to act, and close gaps between behavioral intention and completion. To date, an evaluation of the formulation of implementation intentions for breast cancer screening has not been conducted with minority populations.
Methods/Design
In the proposed program, community health workers will meet with rural-dwelling Latina and American Indian women one-on-one to educate them about breast cancer and screening and guide them through a computerized and culturally tailored "implementation intentions" program, called Healthy Living Kansas - Breast Health, to promote breast cancer screening utilization. We will target Latina and AI/AN women from two distinct rural Kansas communities. Women attending community events will be invited by CHWs to participate and be randomized to either a mammography "implementation intentions" (MI2) intervention or a comparison general breast cancer prevention informational intervention (C). CHWs will be armed with notebook computers loaded with our Healthy Living Kansas - Breast Health program and guide their peers through the program. Women in the MI2 condition will receive assistance with operationalizing their screening intentions and identifying and addressing their stated screening barriers with the goal of guiding them toward accessing screening services near their community. Outcomes will be evaluated at 120-days post randomization via self-report and will include mammography utilization status, barriers, and movement along a behavioral stages of readiness to screen model.
Discussion
This highly innovative project will be guided and initiated by AI/AN and Latina community members and will test the practical application of emerging behavioral theory among minority persons living in rural communities.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT01267110
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-47
PMCID: PMC3036625  PMID: 21255424
14.  “Shielded from the Real World”: Perspectives on Internet Cancer Support Groups by Asian Americans 
Cancer nursing  2010;33(3):E10-E20.
Background
Despite positive reports about Internet cancer support groups (ICSGs), ethnic minorities, including Asian Americans, have been reported to be less likely to use ICSGs. Unique cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes have been considered reasons for the low usage rate of ICSGs among Asian Americans. However, studies have rarely looked at this issue.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to explore (a) how Asian Americans living with cancer who participated in ICSGs viewed ICSGs, (b) what facilitated or inhibited their participation in ICSGs, and (c) what cultural values and beliefs influenced their participation in ICSGs.
Methods
The study was a one-month qualitative online forum among 18 Asian American cancer patients recruited through a convenience sampling method. Nine topics on the use of ICSGs organized the forum discussion, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis.
Results
Four themes emerged from the data analysis process: (a) “more than just my family,” (b) “part of my family,” (c) “anonymous me,” and (d) “shielded from the real world.”
Conclusions
The overarching theme was Asian Americans’ marginalized experience in the use of Internet cancer support groups.
Implications for Practice
Offering the most current information on cancer and cancer treatment is essential for nursing practice in developing a culturally competent ICSG for Asian Americans. Also, emotional familiarity should be incorporated into the design of the ICSG, and the ICSG needs to be based on non-judgmental and non-discriminative interactions.
doi:10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181c8e5d5
PMCID: PMC2885150  PMID: 20357657
15.  Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations 
This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans.
doi:10.1155/2011/320902
PMCID: PMC3180820  PMID: 21961060
16.  Risky Sex: Interactions among Ethnicity, Sexual Sensation Seeking, Sexual Inhibition, and Sexual Excitation 
Archives of sexual behavior  2012;41(5):1231-1239.
Rates of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, vary across ethnic minority groups, yet few studies have evaluated sexual risk behaviors and their psychological correlates to determine if risk and protective factors vary by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess sexual sensation seeking (SSS), sexual inhibition (SIS1 and SIS2), and sexual excitation (SES) as correlates of risky sexual behaviors in 106 (55 male and 51 female) Asian Americans, African Americans, and Caucasian Americans. Results revealed that higher SSS was associated with more vaginal and anal sex partners. Further, the association between SSS and the number of anal sex partners was positive among Asian Americans and Caucasians, but non-significant among African Americans. SIS1 was positively associated with unprotected sex on the first date among Asian Americans and African Americans. However, the association was not significant for Caucasians. SIS2 was negatively associated with general unprotected sex, and SES was positively associated with the number of vaginal sex partners. Findings suggest that ethnicity plays an important moderating role in the relationship between sexual traits and risky sexual behaviors.
doi:10.1007/s10508-012-9904-z
PMCID: PMC3657292  PMID: 22350123
risky sex; ethnic differences; sexual sensation seeking; sexual excitation; sexual inhibition
17.  Age-Related Differences in Health Beliefs Regarding Cervical Cancer Screening Among Korean American Women 
Journal of Transcultural Nursing  2012;23(3):237-245.
Cervical cancer screening rates among older Korean American (KA) women are much lower than the rates for younger KA women, even though the overall cancer screening rates in the population continue to have one of the lowest Papanicolaou (Pap) test adherence rates compared with non-Hispanic White women. Variables based on the Health Belief Model related to cervical cancer screening were compared by age group among KA women. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 KA women living in the midwestern United States. Perceived barriers to having a Pap test predicted the outcome variable of having had Pap tests in the preceding 3 years in older KA women who were 65 or older, but not in younger women who were between 40 and 64 years old. Having physical examinations without symptoms in the preceding 2 years predicted the outcome variable in both age groups. Intervention strategies for all KA women should focus on encouraging them to receive routine physical examinations. In addition, attempts should be made to reduce perception of barriers in older KA women to improve their cervical cancer screening behaviors.
doi:10.1177/1043659612441015
PMCID: PMC3387286  PMID: 22477716
cervical cancer; cancer beliefs; Pap tests; Korean American older women
18.  Racial and ethnic differences in students' attitudes and behavior toward organ donation. 
Donor authorizations tend to be especially low among African Americans and other minority and ethnic groups. This study assessed and compared the beliefs, attitudes, and rates of participation regarding organ donation among a sample of racially and ethnically mixed university students. A 64-item survey questionnaire regarding organ/tissue donation issues was administered to 683 undergraduate students from different racial and ethnic backgrounds at a state-assisted university in the Midwest. The findings from the study indicated that African-American students differ significantly from white students in their attitudes and beliefs toward organ donation, while Asian-American, Hispanic, and international students were similar to white students in their attitudes and beliefs regarding organ donation. However, a greater percentage of African-American students have granted permission for organ donation compared to African Americans in the general population.
PMCID: PMC2608007  PMID: 8764522
19.  Medical Care of Hepatitis B among Asian American Populations: Perspectives from Three Provider Groups 
BACKGROUND
Physicians can play a significant role in helping to decrease the hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden among Asian Americans. Few studies have described knowledge and practice patterns in the medical community among different provider types regarding HBV and liver cancer.
OBJECTIVE
Our study explores the HBV beliefs, attitudes and practice patterns of medical providers serving Asian American communities.
DESIGN
We conducted three focus groups with primary care providers, liver specialists, and other providers predominantly serving Asian American community. We asked about practices and barriers to appropriate medical care and outreach.
PARTICIPANTS
We moderated three focus groups with 23 participants, 18 of whom completed and returned demographic surveys. Twelve were of Asian ethnicity and 13 spoke English as a second language. Only eight screened at least half of their patients, most (72%) using the hepatitis B surface antigen test.
APPROACH
We used grounded theory methods to analyze focus group transcripts.
RESULTS
Participants frequently discussed cultural and financial barriers to hepatitis care. They admitted reluctance to screen for HBV because patients might be unwilling or unable to afford treatment. Cultural differences were discussed most by primary care providers; best methods of outreach were discussed most by liver specialists; and alternative medicine was discussed most by acupuncturists and other providers.
CONCLUSIONS
More resources are needed to lower financial barriers complicating HBV care and encourage providing guideline-recommended screenings. Other providers can help promote HBV screening and increase community and cultural awareness.
doi:10.1007/s11606-009-1204-5
PMCID: PMC2839343  PMID: 20049549
provider attitudes; Hepatitis B; Asian Americans; qualitative research; focus groups
20.  A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:413.
Background
The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women.
Methods
This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies.
Results
The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear). 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective in increasing screening uptake. Intervention effectiveness appears to vary with ethnic population, methods of program delivery, and study setting.
Conclusions
Despite some limitations, our review has demonstrated that the effectiveness of existing interventions to promote breast and cervical cancer screening uptake in Asian women may hinge on a variety of factors, such as type of intervention and study population characteristics. While some studies demonstrated the effectiveness of certain intervention programs, the cost effectiveness and long-term sustainability of these programs remain questionable. When adopting an intervention program, it is important to consider the impacts of social-and cultural factors specific to the Asian population on cancer screening uptake. Future research is needed to develop new interventions and tools, and adopt vigorous study design and evaluation methodologies to increase cancer screening among Asian women to promote population health and health equity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-413
PMCID: PMC3488494  PMID: 22676147
21.  Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates among Asian Americans and Non-Latino Whites 
Cancer  2005;104(12 Suppl):2940-2947.
Among Asian Americans, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer, and it is the third highest cause of cancer-related mortality. The 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2001) was used to examine 1) CRC screening rates between different Asian-American ethnic groups compared with non-Latino whites and 2) factors related to CRC screening. The CHIS 2001 was a population-based telephone survey that was conducted in California. Responses about CRC screening were analyzed from 1771 Asian Americans age 50 years and older (Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese). The authors examined two CRC screening outcomes: individuals who ever had CRC screening and individuals who were up to date for CRC screening. For CRC screening, fecal occult blood test (FOBT), sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy, and any other form of screening were examined. CRC screening of any kind was low in all populations, and Koreans had the lowest rate (49%). Multivariate analysis revealed that, compared with non-Latino whites, Koreans were less likely to undergo FOBT (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.25–0.62), and Filipinos were the least likely to undergo sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44–0.88) or to be up to date with screening (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48–0.97). Asian Americans were less likely to undergo screening if they were older, male, less educated, recent immigrants, living with ≥ 3 individuals, poor, or uninsured. Asian-American populations, especially Koreans and Filipinos, are under-screened for CRC. Outreach efforts could be more focused on helping Asian Americans to understand the importance of CRC screening, providing accurate information in different Asian languages. Other strategies for increasing CRC screening may include using a more family-centered approach and using qualified translators.
doi:10.1002/cncr.21521
PMCID: PMC1810896  PMID: 16276538
Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training; cancer; Chinese; Vietnamese; Korean; Filipino; South Asian; Japanese; fecal occult blood test; sigmoidoscopy; colonoscopy
22.  Cervical Cancer Screening: Attitudes and Behaviors of Young Asian American Women 
Compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women experience high incidence rates of cervical cancer but low rates of cervical cancer screenings. This study examines the behaviors and attitudes towards screening in young Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women (n=304) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results indicated Vietnamese American (OR=2.51) and Filipino American (OR=2.31) women had greater odds of ever having a Pap test than Korean American women. Those older (OR=1.55), born in the USA (OR=2.64), and those comfortable with the test (OR=3.41) also had greater odds of ever having a Pap test. Correct knowledge of cervical cancer and the human papillomavirus did not significantly affect the odds of having a Pap test. Interventions to increase Pap testing in these populations should focus on increasing levels of comfort and should target those younger and foreign born.
doi:10.1007/s13187-011-0230-2
PMCID: PMC3880118  PMID: 21553330
Cervical cancer screening; Pap testing; Young Asian American women; Korean; Vietnamese; Filipino; San Francisco
23.  The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC): Prognostic factors associated with racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer survival 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2013;24(10):1821-1836.
Racial/ethnic disparities in mortality among US breast cancer patients are well-documented. Our knowledge of the contribution of lifestyle factors to disease prognosis is based primarily on non-Latina Whites and is limited for Latina, African American and Asian American women. To address this knowledge gap, the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC) harmonized and pooled interview information (e.g., demographics, family history of breast cancer, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption) from six California-based breast cancer studies and assembled corresponding cancer registry data (clinical characteristics, mortality), resulting in 12,210 patients (6,501 non-Latina Whites, 2,060 African Americans, 2,032 Latinas, 1,505 Asian Americans, 112 other race/ethnicity) diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1993 and 2007. In total, 3,047 deaths (1,570 breast cancer-specific) were observed with a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.3 (3.5) years. Cox-proportional hazards regression models were fit to data to estimate hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with non-Latina Whites, the HR of breast cancer-specific mortality was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.97-1.33) for African Americans, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70-1.00) for Latinas, and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.37-0.97) for Asian Americans after adjustment for age, tumor characteristics, and select lifestyle factors. The CBCSC represents a large and racially/ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients from California. This cohort will enable analyses to jointly consider a variety of clinical, lifestyle, and contextual factors in attempting to explain the long-standing disparities in breast cancer outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s10552-013-0260-7
PMCID: PMC4046898  PMID: 23864487
race/ethnicity; survival; tumor characteristics; lifestyle factors
24.  Racial/ethnic variation in the anatomic subsite location of in situ and invasive cancers of the colon. 
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 145,000 Americans were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 56,000 died from colorectal cancer in 2006. Although colorectal screening can reduce mortality and incidence, U.S. screening rates are particularly low for racial/ethnic minorities. Racial differences in the subsite location of colon cancers could have implications for colorectal screening. This study examines the anatomic subsite distribution of tumors among African-American, Hispanic, Asian-American/Pacific-Islander and non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients with colon cancer. METHODS: Surveillance and End Results program data for 254,469 primary in situ and invasive colon cancers for patients from 1973-2002 are included in this analysis. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression are used to describe and examine variations in the proportion of colon cancers diagnosed at sites proximal to the sigmoid colon or proximal to the splenic flexure over three successive time periods. RESULTS: The proportion of colon cancers diagnosed at the sigmoid colon was 15.6-21.3% lower, while diagnoses at the descending colon were 40.5.0-45.3.0% higher for African Americans than NHWs over the three time periods. In logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age group and year of diagnosis, the odds of a diagnosis of cancer proximal to the sigmoid colon or proximal to the splenic flexure was significantly higher for African Americans but lower for Hispanics and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders compared to NHWs. DISCUSSION: The higher proportion of cancers among African Americans diagnosed at sites that are generally attempted but not always reached with a sigmoidscope suggest that African Americans may benefit from screening colonoscopy. They also highlight the need for systems that collect data that would allow a direct examination of the role that the differential use of specific colon screening tests and polypectomy play in racial/ethnic variation in colon cancer incidence and in the anatomic subsite distribution of colon cancers.
PMCID: PMC2574358  PMID: 17668639
25.  Health Beliefs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese Americans 
Journal of Women's Health  2013;22(3):276-288.
Abstract
Background
Vietnamese American women represent one of the ethnic subgroups at great risk for cervical cancer in the United States. The underutilization of cervical cancer screening and the vulnerability of Vietnamese American women to cervical cancer may be compounded by their health beliefs.
Objective
The objective of this study was to explore the associations between factors of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women.
Methods
Vietnamese American women (n=1,450) were enrolled into the randomized controlled trial (RCT) study who were recruited from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Participants completed baseline assessments of demographic and acculturation variables, health care access factors, and constructs of the HBM, as well as health behaviors in either English or Vietnamese.
Results
The rate of those who had ever undergone cervical cancer screening was 53% (769/1450) among the participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, the significant associated factors from HBM included: believing themselves at risk and more likely than average women to get cervical cancer; believing that cervical cancer changes life; believing a Pap test is important for staying healthy, not understanding what is done during a Pap test, being scared to know having cervical cancer; taking a Pap test is embarrassing; not being available by doctors at convenient times; having too much time for a test; believing no need for a Pap test when feeling well; and being confident in getting a test.
Conclusion
Understanding how health beliefs may be associated with cervical cancer screening among underserved Vietnamese American women is essential for identifying the subgroup of women who are most at risk for cervical cancer and would benefit from intervention programs to increase screening rates.
doi:10.1089/jwh.2012.3587
PMCID: PMC3601630  PMID: 23428284

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