To obtain distinct dietary patterns in the third trimester of pregnancy using principal components analysis (PCA); to determine associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.
Design and methods
A total of 12 053 pregnant women partaking in a population-based cohort study recorded current frequency of food consumption via questionnaire in 1991-1992. Dietary patterns identified using PCA were related to social and demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors.
Five dietary patterns were established and labelled to best describe the types of diet being consumed in pregnancy. The ‘health conscious’ component described a diet based on salad, fruit, rice, pasta, breakfast cereals, fish, eggs, pulses, fruit juices, white meat and non-white bread. The ‘traditional’ component loaded highly on all types of vegetables, red meat and poultry. The ‘processed’ component was associated with high-fat processed foods. The ‘confectionery’ component was characterized by snack foods with high sugar content and the final ‘vegetarian’ component loaded highly on meat substitutes, pulses, nuts and herbal tea and high negative loadings were seen with red meat and poultry. There were strong associations between various socio-demographic variables and all dietary components; in particular, a ‘health conscious’ diet was positively associated with increasing education and age and non-white women. There was a negative association with increased parity, single, non-working women, those who smoked and who were overweight pre-pregnancy. Opposite associations were seen with the ‘processed’ component.
Distinct dietary patterns in pregnancy have been identified. There is clear evidence of social patterning associated with the dietary patterns, these social factors need to be accounted for in future studies using dietary patterns. This study will form the basis for further work investigating pregnancy outcome.
dietary patterns; pregnancy; principal components analysis; ALSPAC
To develop a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that can be used amongst young women in Southampton to assess compliance with a prudent dietary pattern characterised by high consumption of wholemeal bread, fruit and vegetables, and low consumption of sugar, white bread, and red and processed meat.
Diet was assessed using a 100-item interviewer-administered FFQ in 6,129 non-pregnant women aged 20-34 years. 94 of these women were re-interviewed two years later using the same FFQ. Subsequently diet was assessed in 378 women attending SureStart Children’s Centres in the Nutrition and Well-being Study using a 20-item FFQ. The 20 foods included were those that characterised the prudent dietary pattern.
The 20-item prudent diet score was highly correlated with the full 100-item score (r=0.94) in the Southampton Women’s Survey. Both scores were correlated with red blood cell folate (r=0.28 for the 100-item score and r=0.25 for the 20-item score). Amongst the women re-interviewed after two years, the change in prudent diet score was correlated with change in red cell folate for both the 20-item (rS=0.31) and 100-item scores (rS=0.32). In the Nutrition and Well-being Study a strong association between the 20-item prudent diet score and educational attainment (r=0.41) was observed, similar to that seen in the Southampton Women’s Survey (r=0.47).
The prudent diet pattern describes a robust axis of variation in diet. A 20-item FFQ based on the foods that characterise the prudent diet pattern has clear advantages in terms of time and resources, and is a helpful tool to characterise the diets of young women in Southampton.
Food frequency questionnaire; Principal component analysis
The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet) was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits), no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children consume no more than 30% but no less than 20% of energy as dietary fat intake, and tills recommendation, is accompanied by suggestions that fat calories should be replaced by eating more grain products, fruits, vegetables, low fat datiy products, beans, lean meat, poultry, fish, and other protein rich foods. In comparing diets of girls meeting this AAP recommendation with girls who consumed diets higher in fat, we noted that girls meeting recommendations had diets that came closer to meeting other dietary recommendations for several food groups and had higher Intake of several key micronutrfents. Dietary fat was also associated with body fat and weight status. Children’s fat Intake was also related to mothers’ dietary fat intake, and nutrient Intake patterns were similar for mothers and daughters. Finally, mothers of girls consuming higher fat diets reported using more restriction and pressure to eat in feeding their daughters. These findings provide additional support for the AAP recommendation to limit total dietary fat Findings reveal that mothers’ use of controlling feeding practices are not effective in fostering healthier diets among cluldren, and that mothers’ own eating may be more influential than their attempts to control children’s intake.
Dietary fats; Nutrition assessment; Obesity; Child; Feeding behavior
This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged.
Knowledge is lacking about dietary habits among people with intellectual disability (ID) living in community residences under new living conditions.
To describe the dietary habits of individuals with ID living in community residences, focusing on intake of food, energy and nutrients as well as meal patterns.
Assisted food records and physical activity records over a 3-day observation period for 32 subjects.
Great variation was observed in daily energy intake (4.9–14 MJ) dispersed across several meals, with on average 26% of the energy coming from in-between-meal consumption. Main energy sources were milk products, bread, meat products, buns and cakes. The daily intake of fruit and vegetables (320±221 g) as well as dietary fiber (21±9.6 g) was generally low. For four vitamins and two minerals, 19–34% of subjects showed an intake below average requirement (AR). The physical activity level (PAL) was low for all individuals (1.4±0.1).
A regular meal pattern with a relatively high proportion of energy from in-between-meal eating occasions and a low intake of especially fruits were typical of this group of people with ID. However, the total intake of energy and other food items varied a great deal between individuals. Thus, every adult with ID has to be treated as an individual with specific needs. A need for more knowledge about food in general and particularly how fruit and vegetables could be included in cooking as well as encouraged to be eaten as in-between-meals seems imperative in the new living conditions for adults with ID.
observed food record; community residence; intellectual disability; fruit and vegetables; micronutrients
OBJECTIVE—The aim of this study was to identify a dietary pattern associated with insulin resistance and investigate whether this pattern was prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Analysis was based on 7,339 participants of the Whitehall II study. Dietary intake was measured using a 127-item food frequency questionnaire. We used the reduced rank regression method to determine dietary patterns using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance as the intermediate or response variable. The association between the dietary pattern identified and incidence of type 2 diabetes was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression models.
RESULTS—We identified a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of low-calorie/diet soft drinks, onions, sugar-sweetened beverages, burgers and sausages, crisps and other snacks, and white bread and low consumption of medium-/high-fiber breakfast cereals, jam, French dressing/vinaigrette, and wholemeal bread. Higher dietary pattern scores were associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio for top quartile 2.95 [95% CI 2.19–3.97]; adjusted for age, sex, and energy misreporting). This relationship was attenuated after adjustment for ethnicity, employment grade, health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity) but remained significant after further adjustment for blood pressure and BMI (1.51 [1.10–2.09]).
CONCLUSIONS—A dietary pattern associated with insulin resistance predicts type 2 diabetes risk after adjustment for a range of confounders. This study adds to the evidence that dietary patterns are an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
Differences in food intake, smoking and drinking habits in the North and the South of Belgium have been studied with the aid of household data gathered by the National Institute of Statistics, Brussels, 1973-74. Consumption of sugar, vegetables, fruits, crude fibre and meat was almost identical between the regions. Consumption of bread, fish and salt intake were slightly higher in the North and alcohol consumption higher in the South. The major differences were located in fat consumption. Saturated fat as a percentage of dietary energy amounted to 15·8% in the North v. 18·5% in the South; polyunsaturated fat was, respectively for the North and South, 7·9% and 5·5%. Dietary cholesterol intake was 320 mg/day in the North against 400 mg/day in the South. The difference in serum cholesterol, calculated with the Keys formula, was 11·9 mg%, a value totally consistent with the observed values.
The difference in saturated fat intake between the regions was almost entirely due to the difference of butter intake, thereby explaining why butter correlated so perfectly with mortality in different parts of Belgium. Similar correlations were found in France and Western Europe.
The mortality trends in both regions were compared with the available data on fat consumption over the last 15 years. Again a decreasing intake of saturated fat (less butter and less common (hard) margarine) was associated with a decreasing coronary, cardiovascular and total mortality in both the North and the South. The time-related decrease discussed in the second part was quantitatively similar to one obtained in the first part from geographical differences, making a spurious association extremely unlikely.
Similar dietary changes with identical results in terms of mortality have also been observed in the U.S.A. and Finland.
Morbidity and mortality data highlight prostate cancer as the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in Jamaican males. This report examines the association between dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer in Jamaican men.
Materials and methods
Case-control study of 204 histologically confirmed newly diagnosed prostate cancer cases and 204 individually matched urology clinic controls in Jamaica, 2004 – 2007. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire.
Factor analysis yielded four dietary patterns: (i) a "healthy" pattern of vegetables, fruits and peas and beans, (ii) a "carbohydrate" pattern with high loadings for white bread and refined cereals, (iii) "sugary foods and sweet baked products" pattern and (iv) a "organ meat and fast food pattern" with high loadings for high fat dessert, organ meat, fast food and salty snacks.
Logistic regressions with the individual dietary patterns controlling for potential confounders showed no association between any of the food patterns and risk of prostate cancer. The healthy pattern showed an inverse non-significant association, whereas the carbohydrate pattern was positively and insignificantly related to prostate cancer. Analysis of all food patterns adjusting for each other revealed no association between food patterns and the risk of prostate cancer.
Dietary patterns identified in our sample were not associated with risk of prostate cancer. Further investigations that better define cancer-free subjects and dietary measurements are needed to examine diet and prostate cancer outcomes.
Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials.
Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint.
Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels.
These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating.
Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma.
Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN) were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007.
Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between ‘traditional’ (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable) food pattern and asthma. No association between ’macho’ (rich in meat and alcohol), ‘sweet tooth’ (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt) ‘vegetable rich’ (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable) food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample.
While a ‘Traditional’ food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma.
With the upsurge in online dietary modification programmes, online dietary assessment tools are needed to capture food intake. Although the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet is recommended by the US Department of Agriculture, there are no online instruments that capture DASH food servings. Our objective was to assess the validity of a new, short, online dietary questionnaire developed to capture intake of DASH food servings. The DASH Online Questionnaire (OLQ) was validated against the well-known Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ).
This was a cross-sectional validation of the DASH OLQ, which contained eleven food groups (breakfast cereals; dairy; drinks; fats and oils; fruits; grains and snacks; meat, fish and poultry; mixed dishes; sweets; vegetables; and nuts, seeds and legumes). Each subject completed a DASH OLQ once weekly for four weeks and one 98.2 Block FFQ (110 questions) between weeks 2 and 4. DASH OLQ were averaged and then compared with the Block FFQ for nutrient intakes as well as intakes of DASH food groups.
Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
One hundred and ninety-one faculty and staff at Boston University Medical Center aged 20–70 years.
There were significant positive correlations between the Block FFQ and the DASH OLQ for all food groups ranging from r=0·8 for the nuts/seeds/legumes category to r = 0·3 for vegetables and mixed dishes. A comparison of nutrient intakes found strong positive correlations in all nutrient categories. Of particular interest in the DASH diet and the web-based nutrition and physical activity programme were total fat (r=0·62), total carbohydrate (r=0·67), total K (r=0·68), total Ca (r =0·69), total vitamin C (r=0·60) and total energy intake (r=0·68).
The DASH OLQ captures food and nutrient intake well in relation to the more established Block FFQ.
Diet; Dietary pattern; Food frequency; Food intake; Energy intake; Dietary assessment; Questionnaire; Validation; Internet; Online; Web-based; DASH diet; Block FFQ
Social class differences in health are seen at all ages, with lower socioeconomic groups having greater incidence of premature and low birthweight babies, heart disease, stroke, and some cancers in adults. Risk factors including lack of breast feeding, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, and poor diet are clustered in the lower socioeconomic groups. The diet of the lower socioeconomic groups provides cheap energy from foods such as meat products, full cream milk, fats, sugars, preserves, potatoes, and cereals but has little intake of vegetables, fruit, and wholewheat bread. This type of diet is lower in essential nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, folate, and vitamin C than that of the higher socioeconomic groups. New nutritional knowledge on the protective role of antioxidants and other dietary factors suggests that there is scope for enormous health gain if a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, unrefined cereal, fish, and small quantities of quality vegetable oils could be more accessible to poor people.
The relationship between smoking and nutrient intake has been widely investigated in several countries. However, Korea presents a population with a smoking rate of approximately 50% and dietary consumption of unique foods. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with smoking in Korean men using a nationally representative sample. The study subjects were comprised of 4,851 Korean men over 19 yr of age who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary data were assessed by the 24-hr recall method. The smoking group comprised 2,136 men (46.6%). Five dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis: 'sugar & fat', 'vegetables & seafood', 'meat & drinks', 'grains & eggs', and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products.' Current smokers showed a more significant 'sugar & fat' pattern (P = 0.001) while significantly less of the 'vegetables & seafood' and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products' patterns (P = 0.011, P < 0.001, respectively). As found in similar results from Western studies, Korean male smokers showed less healthy dietary patterns than nonsmokers. Thus, the result of this study underlines the need for health professionals to also provide advice on dietary patterns when counseling patients on smoking cessation.
Dietary Patterns; Smoking; Korean; KNHANES
Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10.
guidelines; nutrition; cardiovascular; prevention
In preparation for an intervention study in three rural Iowa restaurants, 250 customers were surveyed regarding their interest in dietary change, perceptions of the restaurant, and interest in healthy options. Customers were ages 18 to 88, with a mean age of 52, and 53% were women. Most agreed that the restaurant offers healthy meals. Options customers stated they were most likely to order if available included meat that is baked or broiled, whole-wheat bread, fresh fruit or steamed vegetables, and regular salad dressing on the side. They were least interested in low-fat sour cream, low-fat salad dressing, low-fat milk, low-calorie dessert, and holding high-fat ingredients. Women were more likely to indicate interest in healthy options than were men. Interest in several options was also positively associated with age. Increasing the healthy options in restaurants may be especially effective in changing the dietary intake of women and older adults.
To compare the diet quality and weight status of girls consuming diets meeting the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics for dietary fat with those of girls consuming >30% of energy from fat and to examine relationships between girls’ dietary fat intake, mothers’ nutrient intakes, and mothers’ child-feeding practices.
Participants were 192 white girls and their mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: >30% of energy from fat (high fat [HF]) or ≤30% of energy from fat (low fat [LF]), based on girls’ 3-day dietary recalls. Girls’ food group and nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index, body mass index, and mothers’ nutrient intakes and child-feeding practices were compared.
Girls with HF diets consumed fewer fruits, more meat, and more fats and sweets and had lower Healthy Eating Index scores than did the girls in the LF group. Mothers of girls in the HF group had higher fat intakes than did those in the LF group. Girls and mothers in the HF group had lower intakes of fiber and vitamins A, C, B6, folate, and riboflavin. Mothers in the HF group reported using more restriction and pressure to eat in feeding their daughters. Girls in the HF group showed greater increase in body mass index and skinfold thickness from age 5 to 7 years.
These findings provide additional support for the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics to limit total dietary fat. Findings reveal that mothers’ use of controlling feeding practices are not effective in fostering healthier diets among girls and that mothers’ own eating may be more influential than their attempts to control the intake of their daughters.
Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women. Recent data suggest that lifestyle factors including dietary factors play a significant role in the development of and survival from breast cancer. In particular, there is convincing evidence that obesity is a potent risk factor for both cancer development and prognosis, increasing the risk for overall and breast cancer mortality by approximately 30%. In contrast, there is still only limited evidence that specific dietary patterns or dietary components affect breast cancer outcomes. However, current knowledge suggests that a healthy/Mediterranean-like diet characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables, fiber, fish and unsaturated oils, particularly n-3 fatty acids, has a modest protective effect on breast cancer, whereas a typical Western diet characterized by high intake of total/saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, processed and red meat and low fiber intake is associated with modestly poorer outcome. Based on this evidence, weight control is a key recommendation for primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. Adherence to a healthy/Mediterranean-like diet and avoidance of a Western diet may confer additional, although still unproven, benefit.
Breast cancer: development, survival/prognosis, mortality; Diet; Obesity
To investigate the association between dietary components and development of chronic diabetic complications, the dietary evaluation should include a long period, months or years. The present manuscript aims to develop a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a portfolio with food photos to assess the usual intake pattern of Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes to be used in future studies.
Dietary data using 3-day weighed diet records (WDR) from 188 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were used to construct the list of usually consumed foods. Foods were initially clustered into eight groups: “cereals, tubers, roots, and derivatives”; “vegetables and legumes”; “fruits”; “beans”; “meat and eggs”; “milk and dairy products”; “oils and fats”, and “sugars and sweets”. The frequency of food intake and the relative contribution of each food item to the total energy and nutrient intakes were calculated. Portion sizes were determined according to the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles of intake for each food item.
A total of 62 food items were selected based on the 3-day WDR and another 27 foods or how they are prepared and nine beverages were included after the expert examination. Also, a portfolio with food photos of each included food item and portion sizes was made to assist the patients in identifying the consumed portion.
We developed a practical quantitative FFQ and portfolio with photos of 98 food items covering those most commonly consumed in the past 12 months, to assess the usual diet pattern of patients with type 2 diabetes in Southern Brazil.
Food frequency questionnaire; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Food record; Epidemiologic methods
Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations.
One hundred and nine parents of 4–5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches.
Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods.
These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response.
Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral
density (BMD), we have investigated
whether BMD is associated with an index estimating
the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods.
BMD was measured in
distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health
Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD
measurements and answered all the questions
required for calculating a Dietary
Index = the sum of intake estimates of
colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum
of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We
did linear regression analyses to study whether
the Dietary Index and the single food items
included in the index were associated with BMD.
Results. There was a consistent
negative association between the Dietary Index
and forearm BMD. Among the single index
components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were
negatively associated with BMD. The negative
association between the Dietary Index and BMD
prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and
body mass index, length of education, smoking,
alcohol intake, and physical activity.
Conclusion. An index reflecting
frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake
of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to
distal forearm bone mineral
Limited prevalence data are available for nutrition related health behaviours during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess dietary behaviours during pregnancy among first-time mothers, and to investigate the relationships between these behaviours and demographic characteristics, so that appropriate dietary intervention strategies for pregnant women can be developed.
An analysis of cross-sectional survey was conducted using data from 409 first-time mothers at 26-36 weeks of pregnancy, who participated in the Healthy Beginnings Trial conducted in southwestern Sydney, Australia. Dietary behaviours, including consumption of vegetables, fruit, water, milk, soft drinks, processed meat products, fast foods/take away and chips, were assessed using the New South Wales Health Survey questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. Factors associated with dietary behaviours were determined by logistic regression modeling. Log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (ARR).
Only 7% of mothers reported meeting the recommended vegetable consumption and 13% reported meeting the recommended fruit consumption. Mean and median intakes per day were 2.3 (SD 1.3) and 2 serves of vegetables, and 2.1 (SD 1.4) and 2 serves of fruit respectively. About one fifth of mothers (21%) reported drinking 2 cups (500 ml) or more of soft drink per day and 12% reported consuming more than 2 meals or snacks from fast-food or takeaway outlets per week. A small percentage of mothers (5%) had experienced food insecurity over the past 12 months. There were significant inverse associations between water and soft drink consumption (Spearman's ρ -0.20, P < 0.001), and between fruit and fast food/takeaway consumption (Spearman's ρ -0.16, P = 0.001). The dietary behaviours were associated with a variety of socio-demographic characteristics, but no single factor was associated with all the dietary behaviours.
There were low reported levels of vegetable and fruit consumption and high reported levels of soft drink and takeaway/fast food consumption among pregnant women. Dietary interventions to prevent adverse health consequences need to be tailored to meet the needs of pregnant women of low socio-economic status in order to improve their own healthy eating behaviors. Increasing water and fruit consumption could lead to reduced consumption of soft drink and takeaway/fast food among pregnant women.
HBT is registered with the Australian Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRNO12607000168459)
To examine the relationship between “traditional Sami” dietary pattern and mortality in a general northern Swedish population.
Population-based cohort study.
We examined 77,319 subjects from the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) cohort. A traditional Sami diet score was constructed by adding 1 point for intake above the median level of red meat, fatty fish, total fat, berries and boiled coffee, and 1 point for intake below the median of vegetables, bread and fibre. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were calculated by Cox regression.
Increasing traditional Sami diet scores were associated with slightly elevated all-cause mortality in men [Multivariate HR per 1-point increase in score 1.04 (95% CI 1.01–1.07), p=0.018], but not for women [Multivariate HR 1.03 (95% CI 0.99–1.07), p=0.130]. This increased risk was approximately equally attributable to cardiovascular disease and cancer, though somewhat more apparent for cardiovascular disease mortality in men free from diabetes, hypertension and obesity at baseline [Multivariate HR 1.10 (95% CI 1.01–1.20), p=0.023].
A weak increased all-cause mortality was observed in men with higher traditional Sami diet scores. However, due to the complexity in defining a “traditional Sami” diet, and the limitations of our questionnaire for this purpose, the study should be considered exploratory, a first attempt to relate a “traditional Sami” dietary pattern to health endpoints. Further investigation of cohorts with more detailed information on dietary and lifestyle items relevant for traditional Sami culture is warranted.
the VIP cohort; Sami; traditional food; traditional lifestyle; mortality
Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy.
To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy.
Pregnant women enrolled from 1991–1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530). Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week) from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥9 corresponding to the 85th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables.
Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65–0.93) and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73–0.97) pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08–1.44) were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25–1.87) when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week.
The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy.
Using principal components analysis to examine dietary patterns complements the evaluation of individual food and nutrient intake in relation to health outcomes, but has not yet been applied to nonmalignant respiratory disease or symptoms.
To examine the relation between patterns of dietary intake at baseline and new-onset of persistent cough with phlegm in a population-based cohort of Singapore Chinese.
A 165-item validated food frequency questionnaire was administered in-person at baseline in 1993. We identified 623 cases of incident cough with phlegm among 52,325 subjects by telephone interview from 1999 through 2004. We identified two distinct food patterns: a “meat-dim sum” pattern characterized by pork and chicken dim sum foods and noodle dishes, and a “vegetable-fruit-soy” pattern characterized by vegetables, fruit and soyfood items.
The meat-dim sum pattern was positively associated with new-onset cough with phlegm (odds ratio=1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.89; comparing fourth to first quartile, P for trend=0.02,), after adjustment for age, gender, total energy intake, smoking, education and non-starch polysaccharide intake, a protective factor for cough with phlegm in this cohort. Weaker associations were seen for more chronic symptoms and for incident asthma. A weak inverse association for the vegetable-fruit-soy pattern disappeared after adjustment for non-starch polysaccharide intake.
A diet rich in meats, sodium plus refined carbohydrates may increase risk of developing cough with phlegm, independently of the apparent beneficial effects of a diet high in non-starch polysaccharides in this Singapore Chinese cohort.
Asthma; chronic bronchitis; COPD; diet; signs and symptoms; respiratory