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1.  DURATION-1: Exenatide Once Weekly Produces Sustained Glycemic Control and Weight Loss Over 52 Weeks 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(6):1255-1261.
OBJECTIVE
In the Diabetes Therapy Utilization: Researching Changes in A1C, Weight and Other Factors Through Intervention with Exenatide Once Weekly (DURATION-1) study, the safety and efficacy of 30 weeks of treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide once weekly (exenatide QW; 2 mg) was compared with exenatide BID in 295 patients with type 2 diabetes. We now report the safety and efficacy of exenatide QW in 1) patients who continued treatment for an additional 22 weeks (52 weeks total) and 2) patients who switched from exenatide BID to exenatide QW after 30 weeks.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In this randomized, multicenter, comparator-controlled, open-label trial, 258 patients entered the 22-week open-ended assessment phase (n = 128 QW-only; n = 130 BID→QW). A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids, safety, and tolerability were assessed.
RESULTS
Patients continuing exenatide QW maintained A1C improvements through 52 weeks (least squares mean −2.0% [95% CI −2.1 to −1.8%]). Patients switching from exenatide BID to exenatide QW achieved further A1C improvements; both groups exhibited the same A1C reduction and mean A1C (6.6%) at week 52. At week 52, 71 and 54% of all patients achieved A1C <7.0% and ≤6.5%, respectively. In both treatment arms, FPG was reduced by >40 mg/dl, and body weight was reduced by >4 kg after 52 weeks. Nausea occurred less frequently in this assessment period and was predominantly mild. No major hypoglycemia was observed.
CONCLUSION
Exenatide QW elicited sustained improvements in glycemic control and body weight through 52 weeks of treatment. Patients switching to exenatide QW experienced further improvements in A1C and FPG, with sustained weight loss.
doi:10.2337/dc09-1914
PMCID: PMC2875434  PMID: 20215461
2.  Exenatide once weekly: sustained improvement in glycemic control and cardiometabolic measures through 3 years 
Background
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive metabolic disease necessitating therapies with sustained efficacy and safety over time. Exenatide once weekly (ExQW), an extended-release formulation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide, has demonstrated improvements in glycemic and cardiometabolic measures from 30 weeks to 2 years of treatment. Here, the efficacy and safety of treatment with ExQW for 3 years are described.
Methods
Patients were initially randomized to receive either ExQW (2 mg) or exenatide twice daily for 30 weeks. Following the initial 30 weeks, all patients were treated with ExQW in an open-label extension. Analyses of primary glycemic endpoints, beta-cell function, and cardiometabolic measures were assessed for patients who completed 3 years of ExQW treatment and for the intention-to-treat population. Safety and tolerability analyses were provided for the intention-to-treat population.
Results
Sixty-six percent of the intention-to-treat population (n = 295) completed 3 years of treatment (n = 194). At 3 years, a significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c (least squares mean ± standard error) of −1.6% ± 0.08% was observed, with 55% and 33% of patients achieving hemoglobin A1c targets of <7% and ≤6.5%, respectively. Consistent with a sustained reduction in hemoglobin A1c, improvements in beta-cell function were also observed. Body weight was significantly reduced by −2.3 ± 0.6 kg. Reductions in blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were also observed. Adverse events reported most frequently during both controlled and uncontrolled periods included diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting of mostly mild intensity. The incidence of these adverse events decreased over time. Incidence of minor hypoglycemia was low and no major hypoglycemia was observed.
Conclusion
ExQW produced clinically meaningful improvements in glycemic control that were durable through 3 years of treatment. Significant improvements in cardiometabolic measurements were also observed. ExQW was well-tolerated during long-term treatment and no new adverse events were noted.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00308139.
doi:10.2147/DMSO.S35801
PMCID: PMC3555554  PMID: 23358123
diabetes; exenatide; GLP-1 receptor agonist; hyperglycemia; DURATION-1
3.  DURATION-2: efficacy and safety of switching from maximum daily sitagliptin or pioglitazone to once-weekly exenatide 
Diabetic Medicine  2011;28(6):705-714.
Aims
In the initial 26-week, double-blind, double-dummy assessment period of the DURATION-2 trial in patients with Type 2 diabetes on metformin, the once-weekly glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist exenatide once-weekly resulted in greater HbA1c improvement and weight reduction compared with maximum approved daily doses of sitagliptin or pioglitazone. This subsequent, 26-week, open-label, uncontrolled assessment period evaluated the safety and efficacy of (i) continued exenatide once-weekly treatment and (ii) switching from sitagliptin or pioglitazone to exenatide once-weekly.
Methods
Randomised oral medications were discontinued and all patients received exenatide once-weekly. Of the 364 patients [original baseline HbA1c 8.5 ± 1.1% (70 mmol/mol), fasting plasma glucose 9.0 ± 2.5 mmol/l, weight 88 ± 20 kg) who continued into the open-label period, 319 patients (88%) completed 52 weeks.
Results
Evaluable patients who received only exenatide once-weekly demonstrated significant 52-week improvements (least square mean ± se) in HbA1c (−1.6 ± 0.1%), fasting plasma glucose (−1.8 ± 0.3 mmol/l) and weight (−1.8 ± 0.5 kg). Evaluable patients who switched from sitagliptin to exenatide once-weekly demonstrated significant incremental improvements in HbA1c (−0.3 ± 0.1%), fasting plasma glucose (−0.7 ± 0.2 mmol/l) and weight (−1.1 ± 0.3 kg). Patients who switched from pioglitazone to exenatide once-weekly maintained HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose improvements (week 52: −1.6 ± 0.1%, −1.7 ± 0.3 mmol/l), with significant weight reduction (−3.0 ± 0.3 kg). Exenatide once-weekly was generally well tolerated and adverse events were predominantly mild or moderate in intensity. Nausea was the most frequent adverse event in this assessment period (intent-to-treat: exenatide once-weekly-only 5%; sitagliptin → exenatide once-weekly 11%; pioglitazone → exenatide once-weekly 10%). No major hypoglycaemia was observed.
Conclusions
Patients who switched to once-weekly exenatide from daily sitagliptin or pioglitazone had improved or sustained glycaemic control, with weight loss.
doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03301.x
PMCID: PMC3123706  PMID: 21434995
exenatide; glucagon-like peptide 1; pioglitazone; sitagliptin; Type 2 diabetes
4.  Critical appraisal of once-weekly formulation of exenatide in the control of type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Exenatide (also known as exendin-4) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetic, which is indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The currently available formulation of this drug is a twice-daily exenatide (exenatide BID) injection that should be administered within 60 minutes of food. Once-weekly exenatide (exenatide QW) formulation is now being assessed in a clinical trial program. Exenatide QW has been shown to be the only noninsulin monotherapy to achieve glycosylated hemoglobin levels of <7% in >75% of treated patients. It has also demonstrated potential cardiovascular benefits by lowering total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, triglyceride levels, and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In addition, patients treated with exenatide QW achieved significant weight loss, which may also lead to significant cardiovascular risk reduction. Exenatide QW is associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects compared with exenatide BID, and no patients treated with exenatide QW monotherapy experienced a confirmed hypoglycemic event. Exenatide QW results in 24-hour coverage with exenatide concentrations that are known to improve glycemic control and remain well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review defines the state of play with exenatide QW by critically appraising its role in clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC3047969  PMID: 21437086
GLP-1 mimetic; HbA1c; weight loss
5.  Improved treatment satisfaction and weight-related quality of life with exenatide once weekly or twice daily1 
Diabetic Medicine  2009;26(7):722-728.
Aims
To assess treatment satisfaction and weight-related quality of life (QOL) in subjects with Type 2 diabetes treated with exenatide once weekly (QW) or twice daily (BID).
Methods
In this 52-week randomized, multi-centre, open-label study, 295 subjects managed with diet and exercise and/or oral glucose-lowering medications received either exenatide QW or BID during weeks 1–30; thereafter, subjects receiving exenatide BID were switched to exenatide QW, with 258 total subjects receiving exenatide QW during weeks 30–52. Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire—status (DTSQ-s) and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life—Lite (IWQOL-Lite) were assessed at baseline and weeks 30 and 52. Mean group changes from baseline to week 30 were estimated by ancova; changes from week 30 to week 52 were assessed by Student’s t-test.
Results
Statistically significant improvements from baseline to week 30 were observed in both treatment groups for DTSQ-s and IWQOL-Lite measures, with significantly greater reduction in perceived frequency of hyperglycaemia and greater satisfaction with continuing treatment in the QW group compared with the BID group. Effect sizes for change in DTSQ-s total scores were 0.84 QW, 0.64 BID; for IWQOL-Lite: 0.96 QW, 0.82 BID. Treatment satisfaction and QOL improved significantly between weeks 30 and 52 for those switching from BID to QW. Occurrence of adverse events did not affect patients’ improvements in treatment satisfaction and QOL.
Conclusions
Patients treated with exenatide QW or BID experienced significant and clinically meaningful improvements in treatment satisfaction and QOL. Patients who switched from exenatide BID to exenatide QW administration reported further significant improvements.
doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02752.x
PMCID: PMC2776933  PMID: 19573122
exenatide; treatment satisfaction; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
6.  Recent results of exenatide use as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes 
Exenatide is a GLP-1 receptor agonist approved for use in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In clinical trials, significant reductions in serum glucose and weight were demonstrated for exenatide with primary glycemic effects of the twice daily formulation on prandial glucose control. In this paper, we review recent research with exenatide as adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In particular, studies demonstrate ongoing benefit on glycemic control and weight reduction with continued therapy up to 82 weeks duration and efficacy as adjunctive therapy for patients taking metformin, thiazolidinediones, and/or a sulfonylurea and as compared to sitagliptin and various insulin formulations. Compared to insulin, exenatide likely has greatest benefit for those patients who are overweight or who need improved prandial glucose control. The new long-acting release formulation of exenatide has demonstrated slightly improved efficacy compared to the twice daily formulation as well as a reduction in gastrointestinal side effects. Emerging research is further exploring novel benefits of exenatide as adjunctive DM therapy, effects on prandial glycemic control, markers of hepatic inflammation, alternative dosage forms including intra-nasal administration, and effects on beta cell function.
PMCID: PMC3048016  PMID: 21437127
exenatide; diabetes; GLP-1
7.  Treatment with exenatide once weekly or twice daily for 30 weeks is associated with changes in several cardiovascular risk markers 
Background
Dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes are two of the most significant risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Measurement of lipoprotein subclasses provides important information about derangements in lipid metabolism and helps refine cardiovascular risk assessment. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, improved glycemic control, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes in clinical trials.
Methods
In the DURATION-1 trial, patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with exenatide once weekly or twice daily for 30 weeks. This post hoc analysis evaluated the impact of exenatide on lipoprotein subclasses in 211 DURATION-1 patients using vertical auto profile methodology and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences general linear model adjusted for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight.
Results
Baseline lipids and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were normal overall based on the standard lipid panel. Once-weekly exenatide reduced apolipoprotein B and the apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratio (P < 0.05), independent of glycemic improvement and weight loss. A significant shift in lipoprotein pattern away from small, dense low-density lipoprotein-4 cholesterol was also observed (P < 0.05). Exenatide once weekly increased high-density lipoprotein-2 cholesterol, even after adjustment for changes in HbA1c and weight (P < 0.05). Triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were reduced with both the once-weekly and twice-daily exenatide regimens (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
In this post hoc analysis, exenatide significantly improved a number of cardiovascular risk markers. Continuous exenatide exposure with exenatide once weekly elicited a greater response than did immediate-release exenatide twice daily, generally independent of glycemic improvement and weight loss. Thus, in addition to improving glycemic control, exenatide induced favorable changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and decreased systemic inflammation.
doi:10.2147/VHRM.S37969
PMCID: PMC3500143  PMID: 23166441
glucagon-like protein-1 receptor agonist; incretin mimetic; dyslipidemia; type 2 diabetes mellitus
8.  Comparison of safety and tolerability with continuous (exenatide once weekly) or intermittent (exenatide twice daily) GLP-1 receptor agonism in patients with type 2 diabetes 
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism  2012;14(12):1097-1103.
Aims
Exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist shown to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Intermittent exenatide exposure is achieved with the twice-daily formulation (ExBID), while the once-weekly formulation (ExQW) provides continuous exenatide exposure. This integrated, retrospective analysis compared safety and tolerability of ExQW vs. ExBID in patients with T2DM.
Methods
Data were pooled from two open-label, randomized, comparator-controlled, trials directly comparing ExQW (N = 277) to ExBID (N = 268). Between-group differences in adverse event (AE) and hypoglycaemia incidences were calculated. Incidence over time and duration of selected AEs (nausea, vomiting, and injection-site-related AEs) were also summarized.
Results
The most common AEs were nausea, diarrhoea, injection-site pruritus, and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting occurred less frequently with ExQW vs. ExBID, peaking at initiation (ExQW) or at initiation and dose escalation (ExBID), and decreasing over time. Few patients discontinued because of gastrointestinal-related AEs. Injection-site AEs were more common with ExQW but decreased over time in both groups. No major hypoglycaemia occurred; minor hypoglycaemia occurred with low incidence in patients not using concomitant sulphonylurea, with no difference between ExQW and ExBID. Serious AEs and discontinuations because of AEs were reported with similar frequency in both groups.
Conclusions
Both exenatide formulations were generally safe and well-tolerated, with ExQW associated with less nausea and vomiting but more injection-site AEs. Continuous vs. intermittent exposure did not impact the overall tolerability profile of exenatide, with no evidence of prolonged duration or worsened intensities of AEs with continuous exposure.
doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2012.01639.x
PMCID: PMC3533770  PMID: 22734440
adverse event; exenatide once weekly; exenatide twice daily; safety; tolerability
9.  The Fate of Taspoglutide, a Weekly GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Versus Twice-Daily Exenatide for Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(3):498-504.
OBJECTIVE
Taspoglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes. The efficacy and safety of once-weekly taspoglutide was compared with twice-daily exenatide.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Overweight adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes on metformin ± a thiazolidinedione were randomized to subcutaneous taspoglutide 10 mg weekly (n = 399), taspoglutide 20 mg weekly (n = 398), or exenatide 10 µg twice daily (n = 392) in an open-label, multicenter trial. The primary end point was change in HbA1c after 24 weeks.
RESULTS
Mean baseline HbA1c was 8.1%. Both doses of taspoglutide reduced HbA1c significantly more than exenatide (taspoglutide 10 mg: –1.24% [SE 0.09], difference –0.26, 95% CI –0.37 to –0.15, P < 0.0001; taspoglutide 20 mg: –1.31% [0.08], difference –0.33, –0.44 to –0.22, P < 0.0001; exenatide: –0.98% [0.08]). Both taspoglutide doses reduced fasting plasma glucose significantly more than exenatide. Taspoglutide reduced body weight (taspoglutide 10 mg, –1.6 kg; taspoglutide 20 mg, –2.3 kg) as did exenatide (–2.3 kg), which was greater than with taspoglutide 10 mg (P < 0.05). HbA1c and weight effects were maintained after 52 weeks. More adverse events with taspoglutide 10 and 20 mg than exenatide developed over time (nausea in 53, 59, and 35% and vomiting in 33, 37, and 16%, respectively). Allergic and injection-site reactions were more common with taspoglutide. Discontinuations were greater with taspoglutide. Antitaspoglutide antibodies were detected in 49% of patients.
CONCLUSIONS
Once-weekly taspoglutide demonstrated greater glycemic control than twice-daily exenatide with comparable weight loss, but with unacceptable levels of nausea/vomiting, injection-site reactions, and systemic allergic reactions.
doi:10.2337/dc12-0709
PMCID: PMC3579343  PMID: 23139373
10.  Pathophysiological and Pharmacological Rationale for the Use of Exenatide Once Weekly in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes 
Advances in Therapy  2014;31:247-263.
Introduction
A new formulation of exenatide has become available recently that is the first antidiabetic medication for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) dosed on a weekly schedule. This review summarizes the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of exenatide once weekly (exenatide QW). The results are interpreted in terms of the pathophysiology of T2DM, as well as the pharmacology of the new formulation.
Methods
Relevant literature on exenatide QW and diabetes was identified through PubMed database searches from inception until September 2013.
Discussion
In the new once-weekly formulation of exenatide, the exenatide molecule is dispersed in microspheres. Following subcutaneous injection, these microspheres degrade in situ and slowly release active agent. In clinical trials, therapy with exenatide QW as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic treatments was associated with reductions in glycated hemoglobin (−1.3% to −1.9%), fasting plasma glucose (−32 to −41 mg/dL), and body weight (−2.0 to −3.7 kg). These outcomes were achieved without an associated increase in the rate of hypoglycemic episodes, except when exenatide QW was used in combination with sulfonylureas. The primary tolerability issues in the trials were gastrointestinal adverse events, particularly during the first weeks of use, although the rate of nausea during startup with exenatide QW was lower than that with the related agents, exenatide twice daily and liraglutide once daily.
Conclusions
Exenatide QW may be particularly well suited to patients who desire the benefits associated with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, including significant glycemic control, low risk of hypoglycemia, and moderate weight loss, but prefer the convenience of once-weekly dosing.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12325-014-0101-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12325-014-0101-4
PMCID: PMC3961598  PMID: 24535624
Endocrinology; Exenatide once weekly; GLP-1 receptor agonists; Incretin therapy; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
11.  Exenatide at therapeutic and supratherapeutic concentrations does not prolong the QTc interval in healthy subjects 
Aims
Exenatide has been demonstrated to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, with no effect on heart rate corrected QT (QTc) at therapeutic concentrations. This randomized, placebo- and positive-controlled, crossover, thorough QT study evaluated the effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic exenatide concentrations on QTc.
Methods
Intravenous infusion was employed to achieve steady-state supratherapeutic concentrations in healthy subjects within a reasonable duration (i.e. days). Subjects received exenatide, placebo and moxifloxacin, with ECGs recorded pre-therapy and during treatment. Intravenous exenatide was expected to increase heart rate to a greater extent than subcutaneous twice daily or once weekly formulations. To assure proper heart rate correction, a wide range of baseline heart rates was assessed and prospectively defined methodology was applied to determine the optimal QT correction.
Results
Targeted steady-state plasma exenatide concentrations were exceeded (geometric mean ± SEM 253 ± 8.5 pg ml−1, 399 ± 11.9 pg ml−1 and 627 ± 21.2 pg ml−1). QTcP, a population-based method, was identified as the most appropriate heart rate correction and was prespecified for primary analysis. The upper bound of the two-sided 90% confidence interval for placebo-corrected, baseline-adjusted QTcP (ΔΔQTcP) was <10 ms at all time points and exenatide concentrations. The mean of three measures assessed at the highest steady-state plasma exenatide concentration of ∼500 pg ml−1 (ΔΔQTcPavg) was −1.13 [−2.11, −0.15). No correlation was observed between ΔΔQTcP and exenatide concentration. Assay sensitivity was confirmed with moxifloxacin.
Conclusions
These results demonstrated that exenatide, at supratherapeutic concentrations, does not prolong QTc and provide an example of methodology for QT assessment of drugs with an inherent heart rate effect.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04416.x
PMCID: PMC3612716  PMID: 22882281
cardiac repolarization; exenatide; thorough QT/QTc study
12.  Exenatide at therapeutic and supratherapeutic concentrations does not prolong the QTc interval in healthy subjects 
Aims
Exenatide has been demonstrated to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, with no effect on heart rate corrected QT (QTc) at therapeutic concentrations. This randomized, placebo- and positive-controlled, crossover, thorough QT study evaluated the effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic exenatide concentrations on QTc.
Methods
Intravenous infusion was employed to achieve steady-state supratherapeutic concentrations in healthy subjects within a reasonable duration (i.e. days). Subjects received exenatide, placebo and moxifloxacin, with ECGs recorded pre-therapy and during treatment. Intravenous exenatide was expected to increase heart rate to a greater extent than subcutaneous twice daily or once weekly formulations. To assure proper heart rate correction, a wide range of baseline heart rates was assessed and prospectively defined methodology was applied to determine the optimal QT correction.
Results
Targeted steady-state plasma exenatide concentrations were exceeded (geometric mean ± SEM 253 ± 8.5 pg ml−1, 399 ± 11.9 pg ml−1 and 627 ± 21.2 pg ml−1). QTcP, a population-based method, was identified as the most appropriate heart rate correction and was prespecified for primary analysis. The upper bound of the two-sided 90% confidence interval for placebo-corrected, baseline-adjusted QTcP (ΔΔQTcP) was <10 ms at all time points and exenatide concentrations. The mean of three measures assessed at the highest steady-state plasma exenatide concentration of ∼500 pg ml−1 (ΔΔQTcPavg) was −1.13 [−2.11, −0.15). No correlation was observed between ΔΔQTcP and exenatide concentration. Assay sensitivity was confirmed with moxifloxacin.
Conclusions
These results demonstrated that exenatide, at supratherapeutic concentrations, does not prolong QTc and provide an example of methodology for QT assessment of drugs with an inherent heart rate effect.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04416.x
PMCID: PMC3612716  PMID: 22882281
cardiac repolarization; exenatide; thorough QT/QTc study
13.  Weight-Related Quality of Life, Health Utility, Psychological Well-Being, and Satisfaction With Exenatide Once Weekly Compared With Sitagliptin or Pioglitazone After 26 Weeks of Treatment 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(2):314-319.
OBJECTIVE
To assess change in patient-reported outcomes in subjects with type 2 diabetes treated with exenatide once weekly compared with those treated with sitagliptin or pioglitazone.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In this 26-week randomized, multicenter, double-dummy study, 491 subjects received 2 mg of exenatide once weekly or maximum daily doses of sitagliptin (100 mg) or pioglitazone (45 mg) on a background of metformin. Weight-related quality of life, health utility, psychological well-being, and diabetes treatment satisfaction were assessed at baseline and week 26. Mean group changes from baseline to week 26 were estimated by ANCOVA.
RESULTS
Weight-related quality of life total scores improved significantly in the exenatide once weekly and sitagliptin arms only; the exenatide once weekly group experienced significantly greater improvement than the pioglitazone group in weight-related quality of life total scores and in several domain scores. Health utility scores improved significantly for exenatide once weekly and sitagliptin groups (P < 0.05) with no significant difference between the exenatide once weekly group and either comparison group. All groups experienced significant improvements on the psychological well-being global scale and all six domain scores, with no significant difference between the exenatide once weekly group and either comparator. All groups experienced significant improvements in total diabetes treatment satisfaction scores. The exenatide once weekly group experienced greater improvement than the sitagliptin group in treatment satisfaction total scores.
CONCLUSIONS
In combination with clinical outcomes from this study, these results indicate it is possible for patients treated with metformin to initiate exenatide therapy with potential benefits in both clinical and patient-reported outcomes.
doi:10.2337/dc10-1119
PMCID: PMC3024340  PMID: 21270189
14.  Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on weight loss: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials 
Objective To determine whether treatment with agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) result in weight loss in overweight or obese patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Design Systematic review with meta-analyses.
Data sources Electronic searches (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science) and manual searches (up to May 2011).
Review methods Randomised controlled trials of adult participants with a body mass index of 25 or higher; with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus; and who received exenatide twice daily, exenatide once weekly, or liraglutide once daily at clinically relevant doses for at least 20 weeks. Control interventions assessed were placebo, oral antidiabetic drugs, or insulin.
Data extraction Three authors independently extracted data. We used random effects models for the primary meta-analyses. We also did subgroup, sensitivity, regression, and sequential analyses to evaluate sources of intertrial heterogeneity, bias, and the robustness of results after adjusting for multiple testing and random errors.
Results 25 trials were included in the analysis. GLP-1R agonist groups achieved a greater weight loss than control groups (weighted mean difference −2.9 kg, 95% confidence interval –3.6 to –2.2; 21 trials, 6411 participants). We found evidence of intertrial heterogeneity, but no evidence of bias or small study effects in regression analyses. The results were confirmed in sequential analyses. We recorded weight loss in the GLP-1R agonist groups for patients without diabetes (–3.2 kg, –4.3 to –2.1; three trials) as well as patients with diabetes (–2.8 kg, –3.4 to –2.3; 18 trials). In the overall analysis, GLP-1R agonists had beneficial effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma concentrations of cholesterol, and glycaemic control, but did not have a significant effect on plasma concentrations of liver enzymes. GLP-1R agonists were associated with nausea, diarrhoea, and vomiting, but not with hypoglycaemia.
Conclusions The present review provides evidence that treatment with GLP-1R agonists leads to weight loss in overweight or obese patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus.
doi:10.1136/bmj.d7771
PMCID: PMC3256253  PMID: 22236411
15.  Baseline Factors Associated With Glycemic Control and Weight Loss When Exenatide Twice Daily Is Added to Optimized Insulin Glargine in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(5):955-958.
OBJECTIVE
To determine variables associated with glycemic and body weight responses when adding exenatide to basal insulin–treated type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Exploratory subgroup analyses based on baseline A1C, disease duration, and BMI of a 30-week study comparing exenatide twice daily to placebo, added to optimized insulin glargine (intent-to-treat analysis: 137 exenatide; 122 placebo).
RESULTS
Exenatide participants had greater A1C reductions compared with optimized insulin glargine alone, irrespective of baseline A1C (P < 0.001). Exenatide participants with longer diabetes duration and those with lower BMI had greater A1C reductions (P < 0.01). Exenatide participants lost more weight, regardless of baseline A1C or BMI (P < 0.05). Exenatide participants with longer diabetes duration lost the most weight (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Exenatide added to optimized basal insulin was associated with improved glycemic control and weight loss, irrespective of baseline A1C, diabetes duration, and BMI. Changes were evident in modestly obese patients and in those with longer diabetes duration.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1434
PMCID: PMC3329851  PMID: 22432107
16.  Safety and tolerability of exenatide twice daily in patients with type 2 diabetes: integrated analysis of 5594 patients from 19 placebo-controlled and comparator-controlled clinical trials 
Background
Exenatide twice daily is a first-in-class glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the safety profile of exenatide twice daily and to compare its profile with that of a pooled comparator (placebo and insulin) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
Data from 19 completed, randomized, controlled clinical trials of exenatide twice daily (5 μg and 10 μg) were pooled and analyzed; the pooled data included 5594 intent-to-treat patients who were followed for 12–52 weeks. Incidence rates, exposure-adjusted incidence rates, and 95% confidence intervals around risk differences between groups were calculated.
Results
Baseline demographics and exposure time were comparable between groups (exenatide, N = 3261; pooled comparator, N = 2333; mean exposure time 166–171 days). Transient, mild- to-moderate nausea was the most frequent adverse event with exenatide (36.9% versus 8.3% in the pooled comparator). The incidence of hypoglycemia (minor or major) with concomitant sulfonylurea (exenatide 26.5%, pooled comparator 20.7%) was higher than that without sulfonylurea (exenatide 3.1%, pooled comparator 2.7%) in all groups. Serious adverse events, discontinuations due to serious adverse events, and deaths were reported with similar frequency in the exenatide and pooled comparator groups. Composite exposure-adjusted incidence rates were not statistically different between groups for pancreatitis, renal impairment, or major adverse cardiac events; there was a difference in incidence rates for benign thyroid neoplasm (0.3% versus 0%).
Conclusion
Overall, this analysis, representing over 1500 patient-years of exposure, demonstrated that exenatide twice daily was safe and generally well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes. The incidence of most adverse events, including serious adverse events, was similar in both exenatide-treated and comparator-treated patients. The most distinct differences between groups were in gastrointestinal-related adverse events, which is consistent with other therapies within the glucagon-like peptide class.
doi:10.2147/DMSO.S28387
PMCID: PMC3287409  PMID: 22375098
exenatide; safety; adverse events; risk difference
17.  Exenatide (Byetta) as a novel treatment option for type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Exenatide is the first drug in the incretin mimetic class and is indicated for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although structurally similar to the native glucagon-like peptide, this synthetic form has a much longer duration of action. Randomized trials have shown exenatide to be efficacious in improving glycemic control when combined with either metformin or a sulfonylurea. The dose is initially 5 mcg subcutaneously twice daily and may be titrated to 10 mcg subcutaneously twice daily to achieve better diabetes management. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were the most common adverse events reported with exenatide therapy. Exenatide is not associated with hypoglycemia, which may provide advantages over adding insulin to a sulfonylurea or metformin.
PMCID: PMC1484540  PMID: 17252050
18.  Exenatide extended-release; clinical trials, patient preference, and economic considerations 
Type 2 diabetes remains an escalating problem worldwide, despite a range of treatments being available. The revelation that insulin secretion is under the control of a gut hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1, has led to a new paradigm in the management of type 2 diabetes, ie, use of medicines that directly stimulate or prolong the actions of endogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 at its receptors. Exenatide is an agonist at the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, and was initially developed as a subcutaneous medication twice daily (ExBID). Clinical trials with ExBID established a role for exenatide in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Subsequently, exenatide once weekly (ExQW) was shown to have advantages over ExBID, and there is now more emphasis on the development of ExQW. ExQW alone reduces glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight, and is well tolerated. ExQW has been compared with sitagliptin, pioglitazone, and metformin, and been shown to have a greater ability to reduce HbA1c than these other medicines. The only preparation of insulin with which ExQW has been compared is insulin glargine, and ExQW had some favorable properties in this comparison, notably causing weight loss compared with the weight gain on insulin glargine. ExQW has been compared with another glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, liraglutide, and was noninferior to liraglutide in reducing HbA1c. The small amount of evidence available shows that subjects with type 2 diabetes prefer ExQW to ExBID, and that adherence is high in the clinical trial setting. Health care and economic modeling suggests that ExQW will reduce diabetic complications and be cost-effective, compared with other medications, in long-term use. Little is known about whether subjects with type 2 diabetes prefer ExQW to other medicines, and whether adherence is good with ExQW in practice. These important topics require further study.
doi:10.2147/PPA.S30627
PMCID: PMC3546804  PMID: 23341736
exenatide; twice daily; once weekly; insulin; metformin; sitagliptin; type 2 diabetes
19.  One-Year Treatment With Exenatide Improves β-Cell Function, Compared With Insulin Glargine, in Metformin-Treated Type 2 Diabetic Patients 
Diabetes Care  2009;32(5):762-768.
OBJECTIVE
Traditional blood glucose–lowering agents do not sustain adequate glycemic control in most type 2 diabetic patients. Preclinical studies with exenatide have suggested sustained improvements in β-cell function. We investigated the effects of 52 weeks of treatment with exenatide or insulin glargine followed by an off-drug period on hyperglycemic clamp–derived measures of β-cell function, glycemic control, and body weight.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Sixty-nine metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to exenatide (n = 36) or insulin glargine (n = 33). β-Cell function was measured during an arginine-stimulated hyperglycemic clamp at week 0, at week 52, and after a 4-week off-drug period. Additional end points included effects on glycemic control, body weight, and safety.
RESULTS
Treatment-induced change in combined glucose- and arginine-stimulated C-peptide secretion was 2.46-fold (95% CI 2.09–2.90, P < 0.0001) greater after a 52-week exenatide treatment compared with insulin glargine treatment. Both exenatide and insulin glargine reduced A1C similarly: −0.8 ± 0.1 and −0.7 ± 0.2%, respectively (P = 0.55). Exenatide reduced body weight compared with insulin glargine (difference −4.6 kg, P < 0.0001). β-Cell function measures returned to pretreatment values in both groups after a 4-week off-drug period. A1C and body weight rose to pretreatment values 12 weeks after discontinuation of either exenatide or insulin glargine therapy.
CONCLUSIONS
Exenatide significantly improves β-cell function during 1 year of treatment compared with titrated insulin glargine. After cessation of both exenatide and insulin glargine therapy, β-cell function and glycemic control returned to pretreatment values, suggesting that ongoing treatment is necessary to maintain the beneficial effects of either therapy.
doi:10.2337/dc08-1797
PMCID: PMC2671094  PMID: 19196887
20.  Switching to Once-Daily Liraglutide From Twice-Daily Exenatide Further Improves Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Using Oral Agents 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(6):1300-1303.
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate efficacy and safety of switching from twice-daily exenatide to once-daily liraglutide or of 40 weeks of continuous liraglutide therapy.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
When added to oral antidiabetes drugs in a 26-week randomized trial (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes [LEAD]-6), liraglutide more effectively improved A1C, fasting plasma glucose, and the homeostasis model of β-cell function (HOMA-B) than exenatide, with less persistent nausea and hypoglycemia. In this 14-week extension of LEAD-6, patients switched from 10 μg twice-daily exenatide to 1.8 mg once-daily liraglutide or continued liraglutide.
RESULTS
Switching from exenatide to liraglutide further and significantly reduced A1C (0.32%), fasting plasma glucose (0.9 mmol/l), body weight (0.9 kg), and systolic blood pressure (3.8 mmHg) with minimal minor hypoglycemia (1.30 episodes/patient-year) or nausea (3.2%). Among patients continuing liraglutide, further significant decreases in body weight (0.4 kg) and systolic blood pressure (2.2 mmHg) occurred with 0.74 episodes/patient-year of minor hypoglycemia and 1.5% experiencing nausea.
CONCLUSIONS
Conversion from exenatide to liraglutide is well tolerated and provides additional glycemic control and cardiometabolic benefits.
doi:10.2337/dc09-2260
PMCID: PMC2875443  PMID: 20332351
21.  Encapsulation of Exenatide in Poly-(d,l-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) Microspheres Produced an Investigational Long-Acting Once-Weekly Formulation for Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics  2011;13(11):1145-1154.
Abstract
Exenatide once-weekly (EQW [2 mg s.c.]) is under development as monotherapy as an adjunct to diet and exercise or as a combination therapy with an oral antidiabetes drug(s) in adults with type 2 diabetes. This long-acting formulation contains the active ingredient of the original exenatide twice-daily (EBID) formulation encapsulated in 0.06-mm-diameter microspheres of medical-grade poly-(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG). After mechanical suspension and subcutaneous injection by the patient, EQW microspheres hydrate in situ and adhere to one another to form an amalgam. A small amount of loosely bound surface exenatide, typically less than 1%, releases in the first few hours, whereas drug located in deeper interstices diffuses out more slowly (time to maximum, ∼2 weeks). Fully encapsulated exenatide (i.e., drug initially inaccessible to diffusion) releases over a still longer period (time to maximum, ∼7 weeks) as the PLG matrix hydrolyzes into lactic acid and glycolic acid, which are subsequently eliminated as carbon dioxide and water. For EQW, plasma exenatide concentrations reach the therapeutic range by 2 weeks and steady state by 6–7 weeks. This gradual approach to steady state seems to improve tolerability, as nausea is less frequent with EQW than EBID. EQW administrations may be associated with palpable skin nodules that generally resolve without further medical intervention. In comparative trials, EQW improved hemoglobin A1c more than EBID, sitagliptin, pioglitazone, or insulin glargine and reduced fasting plasma glucose more than EBID. Weight loss due to EQW or EBID was similar. EQW is the first glucose-lowering agent that is administered once weekly.
doi:10.1089/dia.2011.0050
PMCID: PMC3202891  PMID: 21751887
22.  Evolution of Exenatide as a Diabetes Therapeutic 
Current Diabetes Reviews  2013;9(2):161-193.
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a disease of epidemic proportion associated with significant morbidity and excess mortality. Optimal glucose control reduces the risk of microvascular and possibly macrovascular complications due to diabetes. However, glycemic control is rarely optimal and several therapeutic interventions for the treatment of diabetes cause hypoglycemia and weight gain; some may exacerbate cardiovascular risk. Exenatide (synthetic exendin-4) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist developed as a first-in-class diabetes therapy. This review presents an overview of the evolution of exenatide as a T2DM treatment, beginning with the seminal preclinical discoveries and continuing through to clinical pharmacology investigations and phase 3 clinical trials. In patients with T2DM, exenatide enhanced glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppressed inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion, slowed gastric emptying, and enhanced satiety. In controlled phase 3 clinical trials ranging from 12 to 52 weeks, 10-mcg exenatide twice daily (ExBID) reduced mean HbA1c by -0.8% to -1.7% as monotherapy or in combination with metformin (MET), sulfonylureas (SFU), and/or thiazolidinediones (TZD); with mean weight losses of -1.2 kg to -8.0 kg. In controlled phase 3 trials ranging from 24 to 30 weeks, a 2-mg once-weekly exenatide formulation (ExQW) reduced mean HbA1c by -1.3% to -1.9%, with mean weight reductions of -2.3 to -3.7 kg. Exenatide was generally well-tolerated. The most common side effects were gastrointestinal in nature, mild, and transient. Nausea was the most prevalent adverse event. The incidence of hypoglycemia was generally low. By building upon early observations exenatide was successfully developed into an effective diabetes therapy.
doi:10.2174/1573399811309020007
PMCID: PMC3664512  PMID: 23256660
Diabetes mellitus; Exenatide; Exendin-4; GLP-1 receptor agonist.
23.  A Review of Exenatide: Optimizing Glycemic Control and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Therapy  2012;3(1):3.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. With an increasing prevalence of obesity, this risk has increased further. Management of T2DM in obese patients is particularly challenging as treatment with the majority of glucose-lowering agents results in weight gain. Thus, the development of a therapeutic option which could improve glycemic control without weight gain or hypoglycemia, such as the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog exenatide, is a welcome addition to the currently available therapies in the management of T2DM. With recognition and better understanding of the role of incretin hormones in T2DM, exenatide was developed and introduced into clinical practice in 2005. Both randomized controlled trials and retrospective observational studies have shown that treatment with exenatide not only improves glycemic control, with a low risk of hypoglycemia, but also results in concurrent weight loss and the additional benefit of improvement in cardiovascular risk factors. This article will provide an overview of both short- and long-acting exenatide in the management of T2DM and associated cardiovascular risk factors.
doi:10.1007/s13300-012-0003-x
PMCID: PMC3508112  PMID: 22422427
Cardiovascular risk factors; Diabetes; Exenatide; Extended-release; GLP-1 analog; Glycemic control; Hypoglycemia; Incretin mimetics; Type 2 diabetes – Obesity
24.  The Role of Adjunctive Exenatide Therapy in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(6):1294-1296.
OBJECTIVE
Exenatide improves postprandial glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetes. Exenatide could benefit type 1 diabetes as well. We aimed to determine an effective and safe glucose-lowering adjuvant exenatide dose in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Eight subjects completed a three-part double-blinded randomized controlled study of premeal exenatide. Two doses of exenatide (1.25 and 2.5 μg) were compared with insulin monotherapy. Prandial insulin dose was reduced by 20%. Gastric emptying and hormones were analyzed for 300 min postmeal.
RESULTS
Treatment with both doses of exenatide versus insulin monotherapy significantly reduced glucose excursions over 300 min (P < 0.0001). Exenatide administration failed to suppress glucagon but delayed gastric emptying (P < 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS
Adjunctive exenatide therapy reduces postprandial hyperglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. This reduction in glucose excursion occurs despite reduction in insulin dose. We suggest that exenatide has therapeutic potential as adjunctive therapy in type 1 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc09-1959
PMCID: PMC2875441  PMID: 20332358
25.  Exenatide compared with long-acting insulin to achieve glycaemic control with minimal weight gain in patients with type 2 diabetes: results of the Helping Evaluate Exenatide in patients with diabetes compared with Long-Acting insulin (HEELA) study 
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism  2009;11(12):1153-1162.
Aim: The Helping Evaluate Exenatide in overweight patients with diabetes compared with Long-Acting insulin (HEELA) study was designed to examine whether the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, exenatide, could improve HbA1c (≤7.4%) with minimal weight gain (≤1 kg) compared with insulin glargine.
Methods: Patients [body mass index (BMI) >27 kg/m2] with elevated cardiovascular risk and type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on two or three oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) were randomized to add-on exenatide 5–10 μg b.i.d. (n = 118) or insulin glargine o.d. (titrated to target fasting plasma glucose ≤5.6 mmol/l; n = 117) for 26 weeks.
Results: The study population had baseline mean (s.d.) age of 56.5 (9.1) years and BMI of 34.1 (5.3) kg/m2, and 58.5% of patients were taking two OADs. Mean baseline HbA1c was 8.65 (0.68)% in the exenatide group and 8.48 (0.66)% in the insulin glargine group. The proportions of patients achieving the composite endpoint of HbA1c ≤7.4% with weight gain ≤1 kg were 53.4% for the exenatide group and 19.8% for the insulin glargine group (p < 0.001 for exenatide vs. insulin glargine). Exenatide and insulin glargine did not demonstrate a significant difference in HbA1c improvements [least square (LS) mean [s.e.m.]: −1.25 [0.09]% and −1.26 [0.09]% respectively; p = 0.924], but had divergent effects on body weight (−2.73 [0.31] vs. +2.98 [0.31] kg respectively, p < 0.001) after 26 weeks. There were more treatment-related adverse events with exenatide but a lower incidence of nocturnal hypoglycaemia, with no differences in overall or severe hypoglycaemia.
Conclusions: Additional treatment with exenatide resulted in significantly more overweight and obese patients with an elevated cardiovascular risk and type 2 diabetes achieving better glycaemic control with minimal weight gain compared with insulin glargine.
doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2009.01154.x
PMCID: PMC2810445  PMID: 19930005
exenatide; glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist; glycaemic control; insulin glargine; randomized controlled trial; type 2 diabetes; weight gain

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