Low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue is recognized as a critical event in the development of obesity-related co-morbidities. This chronic inflammation is powerfully augmented through the infiltration of macrophages, which together with adipocytes, perpetuate a vicious cycle of inflammatory cell recruitment and secretion of free fatty acids and deleterious adipokines that predispose to greater incidence of metabolic complications. In the last decade, many factors have been identified to contribute to mounting unresolved inflammation in obese adipose tissue. Among them, pro-inflammatory lipid mediators (i.e., leukotrienes) derived from the omega-6 polyunsaturated arachidonic acid have been shown to play a prominent role. Of note, the same lipid mediators that initially trigger the inflammatory response also signal its termination by stimulating the formation of anti-inflammatory signals. Resolvins and protectins derived from the omega-3 polyunsaturated docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids have emerged as a representative family of this novel class of autacoids with dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties that act as “stop-signals” of the inflammatory response. This review discusses the participation of these endogenous autacoids in the resolution of adipose tissue inflammation, with a special emphasis in the amelioration of obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, namely insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
obesity; omega-6 fatty acids; eicosanoids; omega-3 fatty acids; resolvins; stromal-vascular macrophages; Kupffer cells
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with increased circulating free fatty acids and triacylglycerols. However, very little is known about specific molecular lipid species associated with these diseases. In order to gain further insight into this, we performed plasma lipidomic analysis in a rodent model of obesity and insulin resistance as well as in lean, obese and obese individuals with T2DM.
Lipidomic analysis using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed marked changes in the plasma of 12 week high fat fed mice. Although a number of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol species were elevated along with of a number of sphingolipids, a particularly interesting finding was the high fat diet (HFD)-induced reduction in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) levels. As liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue play an important role in metabolism, we next determined whether the HFD altered LPCs in these tissues. In contrast to our findings in plasma, only very modest changes in tissue LPCs were noted. To determine when the change in plasma LPCs occurred in response to the HFD, mice were studied after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of HFD. The HFD caused rapid alterations in plasma LPCs with most changes occurring within the first week. Consistent with our rodent model, data from our small human cohort showed a reduction in a number of LPC species in obese and obese individuals with T2DM. Interestingly, no differences were found between the obese otherwise healthy individuals and the obese T2DM patients.
Irrespective of species, our lipidomic profiling revealed a generalized decrease in circulating LPC species in states of obesity. Moreover, our data indicate that diet and adiposity, rather than insulin resistance or diabetes per se, play an important role in altering the plasma LPC profile.
Obesity results from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure, which leads to an excess of adipose tissue. The excess of adipose tissue and adipocyte dysfunction associated with obesity are linked to the abnormal regulation of adipogenesis. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression profile of cell-cycle- and lipid-metabolism-related genes of adipose tissue in morbid obesity.
We used a custom-made focused cDNA microarray to determine the adipose tissue mRNA expression profile. Gene expression of subcutaneous abdominal fat samples from 15 morbidly obese women was compared with subcutaneous fat samples from 10 nonobese control patients. The findings were validated in an independent population of 31 obese women and 9 obese men and in an animal model of obesity (Lepob/ob mice) by real-time RT-PCR.
Microarray analysis revealed that transcription factors that regulate the first stages of adipocyte differentiation, such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) and JUN, were upregulated in the adipose tissues of morbidly obese patients. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a transcription factor which controls lipid metabolism and the final steps of preadipocyte conversion into mature adipocytes, was downregulated. The expression of three cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors that regulate clonal expansion and postmitotic growth arrest during adipocyte differentiation was also altered in obese subjects: p18 and p27 were downregulated, and p21 was upregulated. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), which regulates angiogenesis, lipid and glucose metabolism and it is know to increase dramatically in the early stages of adipocyte differentiation, was upregulated. The expression of C/EBPβ, p18, p21, JUN, and ANGPTL4 presented similar alterations in subcutaneous adipose tissue of Lepob/ob mice.
Our microarray gene profiling study revealed that the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis is profoundly altered in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects. This expression pattern is consistent with an immature adipocyte phenotype that could reflect the expansion of the adipose tissue during obesity.
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation is recognized as a mechanism by which obesity is associated with metabolic diseases. The communication between adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and adipocytes is important to understanding the interaction between immunity and energy metabolism and its roles in obesity-induced diseases. Yet visualizing adipocytes and macrophages in complex tissues is challenging to standard imaging methods. Here, we describe the use of a multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscope to characterize the composition of VATs of lean and obese mice including adipocytes, macrophages, and collagen fibrils in a label-free manner. We show that lipid metabolism processes such as lipid droplet formation, lipid droplet microvesiculation, and free fatty acids trafficking can be dynamically monitored in macrophages and adipocytes. With its versatility, NLO microscopy should be a powerful imaging tool to complement molecular characterization of the immunity-metabolism interface.
Obesity-associated insulin resistance is characterized by a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation that is associated with the accumulation of M1 proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue. Although different evidence explains the mechanisms linking the expansion of adipose tissue and adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization, in the current study we investigated the concept of lipid-induced toxicity as the pathogenic link that could explain the trigger of this response.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We addressed this question using isolated ATMs and adipocytes from genetic and diet-induced murine models of obesity. Through transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis, we created a model integrating transcript and lipid species networks simultaneously occurring in adipocytes and ATMs and their reversibility by thiazolidinedione treatment.
We show that polarization of ATMs is associated with lipid accumulation and the consequent formation of foam cell–like cells in adipose tissue. Our study reveals that early stages of adipose tissue expansion are characterized by M2-polarized ATMs and that progressive lipid accumulation within ATMs heralds the M1 polarization, a macrophage phenotype associated with severe obesity and insulin resistance. Furthermore, rosiglitazone treatment, which promotes redistribution of lipids toward adipocytes and extends the M2 ATM polarization state, prevents the lipid alterations associated with M1 ATM polarization.
Our data indicate that the M1 ATM polarization in obesity might be a macrophage-specific manifestation of a more general lipotoxic pathogenic mechanism. This indicates that strategies to optimize fat deposition and repartitioning toward adipocytes might improve insulin sensitivity by preventing ATM lipotoxicity and M1 polarization.
Zinc-α2 glycoprotein (ZAG) stimulates lipid loss by adipocytes and may be involved in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism. However, to date no studies have been made in the most extreme of obesity. The aims of this study are to analyze ZAG expression levels in adipose tissue from morbidly obese patients, and their relationship with lipogenic and lipolytic genes and with insulin resistance (IR).
mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, IRS-1, IRS-2, lipogenic and lipolytic genes and ZAG were quantified in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 25 nondiabetic morbidly obese patients, 11 with low IR and 14 with high IR. Plasma ZAG was also analyzed.
The morbidly obese patients with low IR had a higher VAT ZAG expression as compared with the patients with high IR (p = 0.023). In the patients with low IR, the VAT ZAG expression was greater than that in SAT (p = 0.009). ZAG expression correlated between SAT and VAT (r = 0.709, p<0.001). VAT ZAG expression was mainly predicted by insulin, HOMA-IR, plasma adiponectin and expression of adiponectin and ACSS2. SAT ZAG expression was only predicted by expression of ATGL.
ZAG could be involved in modulating lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and is associated with insulin resistance. These findings suggest that ZAG may be a useful target in obesity and related disorders, such as diabetes.
In recent years white adipose tissue inflammation has been recognized to be associated with obesity. Adipocytes and adipose tissue associated macrophages (ATMs) secrete bioactive molecules, including adipokines, chemokines/cytokines and free fatty acids that modulate the development of low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance responsible for obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Nuclear receptors, notably peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors, are sensors of dietary lipids and control transcriptional programs of key metabolic and inflammatory pathways in adipocytes and macrophages. This review focuses on mechanisms by which nuclear receptors maintain white adipose tissue homeostasis. The identification of ATMs as active players in the initiation of chronic inflammation and the links between inflammatory signaling and metabolic dysfunction will be presented, followed by discussion of recent evidence for nuclear receptors in ATM function, with an emphasis on the paracrine interaction between adipocytes and ATMs.
nuclear receptors; metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance; obesity; adipocyte; adipokines; macrophage; inflammation; PPAR
Adipose tissue lipid storage and processing capacity can be a key factor for obesity-related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and diabetes. Lipid uptake is the first step to adipose tissue lipid storage. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression of factors involved in lipid uptake and processing in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue according to body mass index (BMI) and the degree of insulin resistance (IR).
Methods and Principal Findings
VLDL receptor (VLDLR), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acylation stimulating protein (ASP), LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene expression was measured in VAT and SAT from 28 morbidly obese patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) or high IR, 10 morbidly obese patients with low IR, 10 obese patients with low IR and 12 lean healthy controls. LPL, FABP4, LRP1 and ASP expression in VAT was higher in lean controls. In SAT, LPL and FABP4 expression were also higher in lean controls. BMI, plasma insulin levels and HOMA-IR correlated negatively with LPL expression in both VAT and SAT as well as with FABP4 expression in VAT. FABP4 gene expression in SAT correlated inversely with BMI and HOMA-IR. However, multiple regression analysis showed that BMI was the main variable contributing to LPL and FABP4 gene expression in both VAT and SAT.
Morbidly obese patients have a lower gene expression of factors related with lipid uptake and processing in comparison with healthy lean persons.
This study was aimed at assessing oxidative stress in LDL from obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared with LDL from type 2 diabetic patients or control volunteers, and determining their effects on platelets.
The profiles of lipids, fatty acids and fatty acid oxidation products were determined in LDL isolated from plasma of MetS patients, type 2 diabetic patients and volunteers (n=10 per group). The effects of LDL isolated from these participants on platelet arachidonic acid signaling cascade and aggregation were investigated.
Compared with LDL from control volunteers, LDL from obese MetS and type 2 diabetic patients contained lower cholesteryl esters, higher triacylglycerols and lower ethanolamine plasmalogens levels. Proportions of linoleic acid were decreased in phosphatidylcholine and cholesteryl esters in patients’ LDL. Among the markers of lipid peroxidation, oxidation products of linoleic acid (hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids) and malondialdehyde were increased by 59% and 2-fold, respectively in LDL from MetS patients and to the same extent in LDL from type 2 diabetic patients. LDL from MetS patients were as potent as LDL from type 2 diabetic patients in activating platelet arachidonic acid signaling cascade through increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and cytosolic phospholipase A2, and increased thromboxane B2 formation. LDL from patients with MetS and type 2 diabetes potentiated 3-fold and 3.5-fold respectively platelet aggregation whereas control LDL had no activating effects on platelets.
MetS in obese patients, without or with diabetes, is associated with increased oxidative stress in LDL, which trigger platelet activation.
The protocol is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00932087.
Adult; Aged; Arachidonic Acid; metabolism; Biological Markers; blood; Blood Platelets; enzymology; metabolism; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; blood; complications; metabolism; Humans; Lipid Peroxidation; Lipids; blood; Lipoproteins, LDL; blood; chemistry; metabolism; Male; Metabolic Syndrome X; complications; Middle Aged; Obesity; blood; complications; metabolism; Oxidative Stress; Phospholipases A2, Secretory; blood; metabolism; Platelet Activation; Signal Transduction; Lipid peroxidation; Fatty acids; LDL; Oxidized LDL; Platelets; Metabolic syndrome; Type 2 diabetes; Obesity
Dysregulation of lipid metabolism in individual tissues can lead to systemic disruption of insulin action and glucose metabolism. Utilizing a comprehensive lipidomic platform and mice deficient in adipose tissue lipid chaperones aP2 and mal1, we explored how metabolic alterations in adipose tissue are linked to whole-body metabolism through lipid signals. A robust increase in de novo lipogenesis rendered the adipose tissue of these mice resistant to the deleterious systemic effects of dietary lipid exposure. Systemic lipid profiling also led to identification of C16:1n7-palmitoleate as an adipose tissue-derived lipid hormone that strongly stimulates muscle insulin action and suppresses hepatosteatosis. Our data reveal a novel, lipid-mediated endocrine network and demonstrate that adipose tissue uses lipokines such as C16:1n7-palmitoleate to communicate with distant organs and regulate systemic metabolic homeostasis.
Adipose tissue inflammation is a characteristic of obesity. However, the mechanisms that regulate this inflammatory response and link adipose inflammation to systemic metabolic consequences are not fully understood. In this study, we have taken advantage of the highly restricted coexpression of adipocyte/macrophage fatty acid–binding proteins (FABPs) aP2 (FABP4) and mal1 (FABP5) to examine the contribution of these lipid chaperones in macrophages and adipocytes to local and systemic inflammation and metabolic homeostasis in mice. Deletion of FABPs in adipocytes resulted in reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, whereas the same deletion in macrophages led to enhanced insulin signaling and glucose uptake in adipocytes. Using radiation chimerism through bone marrow transplantation, we generated mice with FABP deficiency in bone marrow and stroma-derived elements in vivo and studied the impact of each cellular target on local and systemic insulin action and glucose metabolism in dietary obesity. The results of these experiments indicated that neither macrophages nor adipocytes individually could account for the total impact of FABPs on systemic metabolism and suggest that interactions between these 2 cell types, particularly in adipose tissue, are critical for the inflammatory basis of metabolic deterioration.
Recent studies consistently support a hypoxia response in the adipose tissue in obese animals. The observations have led to formation of an exciting concept, adipose tissue hypoxia (ATH), in the understanding of major disorders associated with obesity. ATH may provide cellular mechanisms for chronic inflammation, macrophage infiltration, adiponectin reduction, leptin elevation, adipocyte death, ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue in obesity. The concept suggests that inhibition of adipogenesis and triglyceride synthesis by hypoxia may be a new mechanism for elevated free fatty acids in the circulation in obesity. ATH may represent a unified cellular mechanism for variety of metabolic disorders, and insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome. It suggests a new mechanism of pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea. Additionally, it may help us to understand the beneficial effects of caloric restriction, physical exercise, and angiotensin II inhibitors in the improvement of insulin sensitivity. In this review article, literatures are reviewed to summarize the evidence and possible cellular mechanisms of ATH. The directions and road blocks in the future studies are analyzed.
PPARγ plays a key role in adipocyte biology, and Rosiglitazone (Rosi), a thiazolidinedione (TZD)/PPARγ agonist, is a potent insulin-sensitizing agent. Recent evidences demonstrate that adipose tissue inflammation links obesity with insulin resistance and that the insulin-sensitizing effects of TZDs result, in part, from their anti-inflammatory properties. However the underlying mechanisms are unclear.
Methodology and Principal Findings
In this study, we establish a link between free fatty acids (FFAs) and PPARγ in the context of obesity-associated inflammation. We show that treatment of adipocytes with FFAs, in particular Arachidonic Acid (ARA), downregulates PPARγ protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the downregulation of PPARγ by ARA requires the activation the of Endoplamsic Reticulum (ER) stress by the TLR4 pathway. Knockdown of adipocyte PPARγ resulted in upregulation of MCP1 gene expression and secretion, leading to enhanced macrophage chemotaxis. Rosi inhibited these effects. In a high fat feeding mouse model, we show that Rosi treatment decreases recruitment of proinflammatory macrophages to epididymal fat. This correlates with decreased chemokine and decreased chemokine receptor expression in adipocytes and macrophages, respectively.
Conclusions and Significance
In summary, we describe a novel link between FAs, the TLR4/ER stress pathway and PPARγ, and adipocyte-driven recruitment of macrophages. We thus both describe an additional potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing actions of TZDs and an additional detrimental property associated with the activation of the TLR4 pathway by FA.
OBJECTIVE—We sought to evaluate the entire picture of all monocyte chemotactic factors that potentially contribute to adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in obesity.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Expression and regulation of members in the entire chemokine superfamily were evaluated in adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes of obese versus lean mice. Kinetics of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration was characterized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The effects of fatty acids on stimulation of chemokine expression in adipocytes and underlying mechanisms were investigated.
RESULTS—Six monocyte chemotactic factors were found to be predominantly upregulated in isolated adipocytes versus stromal vascular cells in obese mice for the first time, although most of them were previously reported to be upregulated in whole adipose tissue. In diet-induced obese mice, adipose tissue enlargement, increase of adipocyte number, and elevation of multiple chemokine expression precede the initiation of macrophage infiltration. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are found to be inducers for upregulating these chemokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and this effect can be partially blunted by reducing Toll-like receptor 4 expression. FFAs induce expression of monocyte chemotactic factors in adipocytes via both transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In contrast to the reported role of JNK as the exclusive mediator of FFA-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in macrophages, we show a novel role of inhibitor of κB kinase-β (IKKβ) in mediating FFA-induced upregulation of all six chemokines and a role of JNK in FFA-induced upregulation of MCP-1 and MCP-3.
CONCLUSIONS—Multiple chemokines derived from adipocytes might contribute to obesity-related WAT macrophage infiltration with FFAs as potential triggers and involvement of both IKKβ and JNK pathways.
Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be differentiated in vitro to become adipocyte-like cells with lipid vacuoles, similar to adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. Little is known regarding the composition of free fatty acids (FFAs) of the in vitro-differentiated adipocytes, or whether it resembles that of native adult adipocytes. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify FFA species in BMSC-derived adipocytes and compared them with FFAs found in adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. We found that adult adipocytes contained significant percentages of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs, including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1); some polyunsaturated FFAs, such as linoleic acid (C18:2), a small percentage of arachidonic acid (C20:4), and very little linolenic acid (C18:3). In comparison, 80%–90% confluent BMSCs contained comparable percentages of palmitic and oleic acids, significantly more arachidonic and stearic acids, very little linoleic acid, and no linolenic acid. After differentiation, compared with adult adipocytes, BMSC-derived adipocytes contained a comparable percentage of palmitic acid, more stearic and arachidonic acids, less oleic acid, almost no linoleic acid, and no detectable linolenic acid. This composition was quite similar to that of undifferentiated BMSCs. The differentiation medium contained only palmitic and stearic acids, with traces of oleic acid; it did not contain the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, the composition of FFAs in BMSC-derived adipocytes was altered compared with adult adipocytes. BMSC-derived adipocytes had an altered composition of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs and lacked essential FFAs that may directly affect signaling related to their lipolysis/lipogenesis functions.
Purpose of review
Recent studies demonstrate that adipose tissue undergoes a continuous process of remodeling that is pathologically accelerated in the obese state. Contrary to earlier dogma, adipocytes die and are replaced by newly-differentiated ones. This review will summarize recent advances of our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue remodeling and highlight the influences of obesity, depot, and sex, as well as the relevance of rodent models to humans.
A substantial literature now points to the importance of dynamic changes in adipocyte and immune cell turnover, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling in regulating the expandability and functional integrity of this tissue. In obesity, the macrophages are recruited, surrounding dead adipocytes and polarized toward an inflammatory phenotype. The number of dead adipocytes is closely associated with the pathophysiological consequences of obesity, including insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Further, there are substantial depot-, sex- and species differences in the extent of remodeling.
Adipose tissue undergoes a continuous remodeling process that normally maintains tissue health, but may spin out of control and lead to adipocyte death in association with the recruitment and activation of macrophages, and systemic insulin resistance.
Remodeling; obesity; adipose tissue; extracellular matrix; inflammation
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a ubiquitously expressed signalling system, with involvement in lipid metabolism and obesity. There are reported changes in obesity of blood concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglcyerol (2-AG), and of adipose tissue expression levels of the two key catabolic enzymes of the ECS, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). Surprisingly, however, the activities of these enzymes have not been assayed in conditions of increasing adiposity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether FAAH and MGL activities in human subcutaneous adipocytes are affected by body mass index (BMI), or other markers of adiposity and metabolism.
Subcutaneous abdominal mature adipocytes, fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained from 28 metabolically healthy subjects representing a range of BMIs. FAAH and MGL activities were assayed in mature adipocytes using radiolabelled substrates. Serum glucose, insulin and adipokines were determined using ELISAs.
MGL activity showed no relationship with BMI or other adiposity indices, metabolic markers (fasting serum insulin or glucose) or serum adipokine levels (adiponectin, leptin or resistin). In contrast, FAAH activity in subcutaneous adipocytes correlated positively with BMI and waist circumference, but not with skinfold thickness, metabolic markers or serum adipokine levels.
In this study, novel evidence is provided that FAAH activity in subcutaneous mature adipocytes increases with BMI, whereas MGL activity does not. These findings support the hypothesis that some components of the ECS are upregulated with increasing adiposity in humans, and that AEA and 2-AG may be regulated differently.
Endocannabinoid system; Fatty acid amide hydrolase; Monoacylglycerol lipase; Human; Adipocytes; BMI; Insulin; Glucose
Although well-established, the underlying mechanisms involved in obesity-related plasma adiponectin decline remain elusive. Oxidative stress is associated with obesity and insulin resistance and considered to contribute to the progression toward obesity-related metabolic disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), the most abundant lipid peroxidation end product, on adiponectin production and its potential implication in obesity-related adiponectin decrease. Long-term high-fat diet feeding led to obesity in mouse, accompanied by decreased plasma adiponectin and increased adipose tissue 4-HNE content. Exposure of adipocytes to exogenous 4-HNE resulted in decreased adiponectin secretion in a dose-dependent manner, which was consistent with significantly decreased intracellular adiponectin protein abundance. In contrast, adiponectin gene expression was significantly elevated by 4-HNE treatment, which was concomitant with increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) gene expression and transactivity. The effect was abolished by T0070907, a PPAR-γ antagonist, suggesting that PPAR-γ activation plays a critical role in this process. To gain insight into mechanisms involved in adiponectin protein decrease, we examined the effects of 4-HNE on adiponectin protein degradation. Cycloheximide (CHX)-chase assay revealed that 4-HNE exposure accelerated adiponectin protein degradation, which was prevented by MG132, a potent proteasome inhibitor. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that 4-HNE exposure increased ubiquitinated adiponectin protein levels. These data altogether indicated that 4-HNE enhanced adiponectin protein degradation via ubiquitin–proteasome system. Finally, we demonstrated that supplementation of HF diet with betaine, an antioxidant and methyl donor, alleviated high-fat-induced adipose tissue 4-HNE increase and attenuated plasma adiponectin decline. Taken together, our findings suggest that the lipid peroxidation product 4-HNE can differentially regulates adiponectin gene expression and protein abundance and may play a mechanistic role in obesity-related plasma adiponectin decline.
Oxidative stress; 4-HNE; Adiponectin; PPAR-γ; Proteasome; Betaine
OBJECTIVE—Endogenous expression of apolipoprotein E (apoE) has a significant impact on adipocyte lipid metabolism and is markedly suppressed in obesity. Adipose tissue oxidant stress is emerging as an important mediator of adipocyte dysfunction. These studies were undertaken to evaluate the role of oxidant stress for regulation of adipocyte apoE.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—ApoE gene and protein expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or mature adipocytes and adipose tissue from C57/BL6 mice was evaluated after induction of oxidant stress. The response of adipose tissue and adipocytes from obese compared with lean mice to antioxidants was also assessed.
RESULTS—Oxidant stress in 3T3-L1 cells or adipocytes and adipose tissue from lean mice significantly reduced apoE mRNA and protein level. Inclusion of an antioxidant eliminated this reduction. Oxidant stress was accompanied by activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription complex, and its effect on apoE was eliminated by an NF-κB activation inhibitor. Treatment of freshly isolated adipose tissue or mature adipocytes from obese mice with antioxidant increased apoE expression but had no effect on cells or tissue from lean mice. Incubation of freshly isolated adipocytes from lean mice with stromovascular cells from obese mice significantly suppressed adipocyte apoE compared with incubation with stromovascular cells from lean mice, but this suppression was reversed by inclusion of antioxidant or a neutralizing antibody to tumor necrosis factor-α.
CONCLUSIONS—Oxidant stress significantly modulates adipose tissue and adipocyte apoE expression. Furthermore, oxidant stress contributes to suppression of adipocyte apoE in obesity. This suppression depends on interaction between adipose tissue stromovascular cells and adipocytes.
The estrogen receptors α and β (ESR1, ESR2) have been implicated in adiposity, lipid metabolism and feeding behaviour. In this report we analyse ESR1 and ESR2 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with obesity. We also relate adipose tissue ESR1 mRNA levels and ESR1 SNPs to adipocyte lipolysis and lipogenesis phenotypes.
23 ESR1 and 11 ESR2 tag-SNPs, covering most of the common haplotype variation in each gene according to HAPMAP data, were analysed by Chi2 for association with obesity in a cohort comprising 705 adults with severe obesity and 402 lean individuals. Results were replicated in a cohort comprising 837 obese and 613 lean subjects. About 80% of both cohorts comprised women and 20% men. Adipose tissue ESR1 mRNA was quantified in 122 women and related to lipolysis and lipogenesis by multiple regression. ESR1 SNPs were analysed for association with adipocyte lipolysis and lipogenesis phenotypes in 204 obese women by simple regression.
No ESR1 SNP was associated with obesity. Five ESR2 SNPs displayed nominal significant allelic association with obesity in women and one in men. The two ESR2 SNPs associated with obesity with nominal P value < 0.01 were genotyped in a second cohort where no association with obesity was observed. There was an inverse correlation between ESR1 mRNA levels in abdominal subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue and basal lipolysis, as well as responsiveness to adrenoceptor agonists independent of age and BMI (P value 0.009–0.045). ESR1 rs532010 was associated with lipolytic sensitivity to noradrenaline (nominal P value 0.012), and ESR1 rs1884051 with responsiveness to the non-selective beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline (nominal P value 0.05). These associations became non-significant after Bonferroni correction.
ESR1 gene alleles are unlikely to be a major cause of obesity in women. A minor importance of ESR2 on severe obesity cannot be excluded. The inverse correlation between ESR1 mRNA levels and lipolytic responsiveness to adrenoceptor agonists implies that low adipose tissue ESR1 levels attenuate catecholamine resistance in sc fat cells of obese women hereby contributing to loss of sc and gain of visceral fat. There is no evidence for a genetic impact of ESR1 on lipolysis or lipogenesis.
The central role of the adipose tissue in lipid metabolism places specific demands on the cell structure of adipocytes. The protein composition and dynamics of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is of crucial importance for the functioning of those cells. Adipogenesis is a bi-phasic process in which the ECM develops from a fibrillar to a laminar structure as cells move from the commitment phase to the growth phase characterized by storage of vast amounts of triglycerides. Mature adipocytes appear to spend a lot of energy on the maintenance of the ECM. ECM remodeling is mediated by a balanced complement of constructive and destructive enzymes together with their enhancers and inhibitors. ECM remodeling is an energy costing process regulated by insulin, by the energy metabolism, and by mechanical forces. In the obese, overgrowth of adipocytes may lead to instability of the ECM, possibly mediated by hypoxia.
Adipocytes; Extracellular matrix; Proteomics; Dynamics; Lipid metabolism; Obesity; Hypoxia
Obesity has reached pandemic proportions globally and is often associated with lipotoxic heart diseases. In the obese state, caloric surplus is accommodated in the adipocytes as triglycerides. As the storage capacity of adipocytes is exceeded or malfunctioning, lipids begin to infiltrate and accumulate in non-adipose tissues, including the myocardium of the heart, leading to organ dysfunction. While the disruption of caloric homeostasis has been widely viewed as a principal mechanism in contributing to peripheral tissue steatosis and lipotoxicity, our recent studies in Drosophila have led to the novel finding that deregulation of phospholipid homeostasis may also significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. Fly mutants that bear perturbations in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) biosynthesis, such as the easily-shocked (eas) mutants defective in ethanolamine kinase, incurred aberrant activation of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) pathway, thereby causing chronic lipogenesis and cardiac steatosis that culminates in the development of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy.1 Here, we describe the potential relationship between SREBP and other eas-associated phenotypes, such as neuronal excitability defects. We will further discuss the additional implications presented by our work toward the effects of altered lipid metabolism on cellular growth and/or proliferation in response to defective phospholipid homeostasis.
obesity; phospholipid homeostasis; lipid metabolism; SREBP; lipotoxic cardiomyopathy; neuronal excitability
Obesity is a principal causative factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. Here we report that increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat is an important pathogenic mechanism of obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Fat accumulation correlated with systemic oxidative stress in humans and mice. Production of ROS increased selectively in adipose tissue of obese mice, accompanied by augmented expression of NADPH oxidase and decreased expression of antioxidative enzymes. In cultured adipocytes, elevated levels of fatty acids increased oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase activation, and oxidative stress caused dysregulated production of adipocytokines (fat-derived hormones), including adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor–1, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein–1. Finally, in obese mice, treatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitor reduced ROS production in adipose tissue, attenuated the dysregulation of adipocytokines, and improved diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Collectively, our results suggest that increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat is an early instigator of metabolic syndrome and that the redox state in adipose tissue is a potentially useful therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic syndrome.
1. Recent studies suggest that a local hypoxic response leads to chronic inflammation in adipose tissue of obese individuals. The adipose tissue hypoxia may reflect a compensatory failure in the local vasculature system in response to obesity.
2. Studies suggest that inflammation stimulates angiogenesis and inhibits adipocyte activities in a feedback manner within the obese adipose tissue. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are able to differentiate into multiple linages of progenitor cells for adipocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and pericytes. Differentiation of ASCs into those progenitors is regulated by the adipose tissue microenvironment.
3. As a major factor in the microenvironment, inflammation may favor ASC differentiation into the endothelial cells through induction of angiogenic factors. At the same time, inflammation inhibits ASC differentiation into adipocytes by suppressing PPARγ activity and insulin signaling pathway. In this context, inflammation may serve as a signal mediating the competition between adipocytes and endothelial cells for the limited source of ASC.
4. It is a new concept that inflammation mediates signals in the competition between adipocytes and endothelial cells for the limited ASC in obesity. There is a lot of evidence that inflammation promotes endothelial cell differentiation. However, this activity of inflammation remains to be established in adipose tissue. Literature is explored in this review article in support of this conclusion.
Adipose-derived stem cell; Cell differentiation; Adipose tissue; Adipocytes; Endothelial cells; Inflammation; Obesity
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) produces cellular NADPH, which is required for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. Although G6PD is required for lipogenesis, it is poorly understood whether G6PD in adipocytes is involved in energy homeostasis, such as lipid and glucose metabolism. We report here that G6PD plays a role in adipogenesis and that its increase is tightly associated with the dysregulation of lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in obesity. We observed that the enzymatic activity and expression levels of G6PD were significantly elevated in white adipose tissues of obese models, including db/db, ob/ob, and diet-induced obesity mice. In 3T3-L1 cells, G6PD overexpression stimulated the expression of most adipocyte marker genes and elevated the levels of cellular free fatty acids, triglyceride, and FFA release. Consistently, G6PD knockdown via small interfering RNA attenuated adipocyte differentiation with less lipid droplet accumulation. Surprisingly, the expression of certain adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and resistin was increased, whereas that of adiponectin was decreased in G6PD overexpressed adipocytes. In accordance with these results, overexpression of G6PD impaired insulin signaling and suppressed insulin-dependent glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that aberrant increase of G6PD in obese and/or diabetic subjects would alter lipid metabolism and adipocytokine expression, thereby resulting in failure of lipid homeostasis and insulin resistance in adipocytes.