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1.  Tuberculosis risk factors among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda: implications for tuberculosis control 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:13.
Slow decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been observed in most high TB burden countries. Knowledge of the prevalence of different TB risk factors can help expand TB control strategies. However with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the prevalence of the other TB risk factors are poorly studied in Uganda. We aimed to determine the prevalence of different TB risk factors and TB disease presentation among TB patients in Kampala Uganda.
We assessed 365 adult TB patients and used descriptive statistics to summarize their socio-demographic, clinical, radiological, sputum mycobacteriology and TB risk factors (HIV, diabetes, TB contact, alcohol use, tobacco smoking, poverty and overcrowding) data.
A total of 158 (43.3%) patients were male and the median age was 29 (IQR 28–30). Majority of the patients (89.2%) had pulmonary TB, 86.9% were new and 13.2% were retreatment. Wasting (i.e. body mass index of <18.5 kg/m2) was found in 38.5% of the patients and 63% presented with cough. Constitutional symptoms (fever, anorexia, night sweats and weight loss) were reported by 32.1%. Most patients (78.6%) presented with non-cavity lung parenchyma disease (infiltrates, nodules, masses) but 35.2% had cavity disease. Pleural disease was detected in 19.3% of patients. Positive smear microscopy and culture (irrespective of month of treatment) was found in 52.7% and 36.5% of patients respectively. Any drug resistance was detected in 21.1% of patients while multidrug resistance (MDR) TB defined as resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid was detected in 6.3% of patients. All MDR patients were new patients.
The prevalence of TB risk factors were as follows: HIV 41.4%, diabetes 5.4%, close contact 11.5%, family history 17.5%, smoking 26.37%, poverty 39.5%, overcrowding 57.3% and alcohol use 50.7%. Overcrowding increased smear positive rate, prevalence ratio 1.22, p = 0.09 but all the other studied risk factors did not affect clinical, radiological and mycobacteriological study patient characteristics.
Among TB patients in Kampala, Uganda, there is high prevalence of the known TB risk factors. Targeting reducing their prevalence may lead to better TB control in the country. Tuberculosis, risk factors, Uganda.
PMCID: PMC4311451  PMID: 25604986
2.  Effect of age on presentation with diabetes: Comparison of nondiabetic patients with new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients 
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported to modify the presenting features of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), but data regarding the effect of diabetes on the presentation of PTB are highly variable.
To determine whether DM alters the demographic, clinical, and radiological manifestations of tuberculosis and whether the effect of diabetes varies with the age group of PTB patients.
Materials and Methods :
This prospective observational study was conducted on new smear-positive PTB patients with DM (PTB-DM group) and non-diabetic PTB patients (PTB group). Patients of both groups were again divided into six age groups (15–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, and >70 rears) to analyze and compare the impact of age on clinicoradiological presentations of PTB.
Patients in the PTB-DM group were significantly older (53.34 ± 14.06 year) in comparison to their nondiabetic counterparts (PTB group) (44.35 ± 18.14 year) (P < 0.001). The former group also had a lower male:female ratio, although the difference was not statistically significant (1.16:1 vs. 2.05:1, P = 0.101). Tuberculin positivity was significantly higher in the PTB group, compared with patients in the PTB-DM group (P < 0.004). The proportion of patients with lower lung field involvement (P = 0.003) and cavitations (P = 0.005) was also higher in the former group compared with the latter.
Diabetic patients with tuberculosis were relatively older, had lower tuberculin positivity, and higher proportion of lower lung field involvement and cavitation in comparison to nondiabetic patients.
PMCID: PMC3162756  PMID: 21886953
Comparative study; diabetes mellitus; pulmonary tuberculosis; radiology
3.  Comparison of Epidemiological, Clinical, Laboratory and Radiological Features of Hospitalized Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis at Razi Hospital in Ahvaz 
Diabetes mellitus (DM) due to suppressive effect on cellular immunity can impact on progression of tuberculosis (TB).
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of DM on the epidemiological, clinical and para clinical aspects of pulmonary TB.
Patients and Methods:
The information of 148 admitted pulmonary TB patients in infectious ward of Razi hospital in Ahvaz from 2009 to 2010 was extracted from their medical files. The patients were divided into two groups as TB with DM (n = 36) and TB without DM (n = 112). The related data on epidemiology, signs, symptoms, radiology and sputum smear examination in both groups were compared in SPSS 16 by using chi squared test.
The mean age of TB with DM patients was higher TB without DM patients (56.6 ± 12.7 vs. 44.8 ± 18.3; respectively, P = 0.006). Whereas cough, night sweating, fever and weigh loss was not statistically different, sputum, hemoptysis and dyspnea was more prominent in TB with DM (69.4%, 33.4%, 44.5% vs. 36.6%, 9.8%, 20.5%; P = 0.005, P = 0.001, P = 0.005, respectively). In chest x-ray, cavitation and reticulonodular pattern was more frequent in TB with DM (55.5%, 22.2% vs. 31.2%, 8% - P = 0.008, P = 0.02, respectively). The rate of sputum smear positivity in TB with DM and TB without DM was 66.6% and 47.3%, respectively (P = 0.03).
According to the results of this study, in approach to every DM cases suffering of respiratory symptoms such as productive cough, hemoptysis and dyspnea in association with cavitation or miliary mottling in chest x-ray, pulmonary TB should be considered at the top of the differential diagnosis list.
PMCID: PMC4255379  PMID: 25485064
Pulmonary tuberculosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Epidemiology; Clinical Features; Radiology
4.  Vitamin D status of patients with type 2 diabetes and sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis 
Vitamin D deficiency is expected to be higher in patients with diabetes and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Studies estimating prevalence in the subset of patients with both diabetes and pulmonary TB are scarce.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 155 subjects were recruited; 46 patients with type 2 diabetes, 39 non-diabetic healthy controls, 30 patients of pulmonary TB and 40 patients with both pulmonary TB and type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D level (25 OH vitamin D) levels were done for all the 4 groups.
Mean vitamin D levels were not different between groups with TB, diabetes mellitus or combination of both, but the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency was higher in the group with both diabetes and TB (45%) as compared with the group with only TB (26.66%) and diabetes (17.39%) and healthy controls (7.69%).
The prevalence of patients with severe vitamin D deficiency is higher in patients with dual affection of TB and diabetes mellitus as compared with either disorder alone implying that patients with type 2 diabetes with the most severe vitamin D deficiency are the one of the most predisposed to pulmonary TB.
PMCID: PMC4046604  PMID: 24910835
Diabetes; pulmonary tuberculosis; vitamin D deficiency
5.  Are pulmonary opacities a marker of pulmonary tuberculosis? 
On most occasions treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis is started by physicians based predominantly on radiological opacities. Since these opacities may not be suggestive of active pulmonary tuberculosis and most of these opacities may even remain unchanged after complete treatment, starting treatment solely on the basis of these opacities may lead to ambiguous end points of cure. In view of this, study of misdiagnosis of radiological opacities as active pulmonary tuberculosis by physicians was undertaken in one of the respiratory centers of Armed Forces hospitals.
This was a prospective study of patients referred to our center for confirmation of active disease and institutional therapy. All patients who were diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis predominantly on radiological basis by physicians were evaluated for active pulmonary tuberculosis clinically, radiologically and microbiologically. Patients found to have inactive disease were followed for one year. At three monthly review, history, clinical examination, sputum AFB and chest radiographs were done.
There were 36 patients [all males, mean age: 36.9 years (range: 22–46 years)]. The most common initial presentation was of asymptomatic persons (33.3%) reporting for routine medical examination. The commonest radiological pattern was localized reticular opacities (52.8%)On follow up, only one patient was diagnosed to have pulmonary tuberculosis. The final diagnosis was consolidation in 6, bronchiectasis in 8, pulmonary tuberculosis in 1 and localized pulmonary fibrosis in 21 patients.
Diagnosing and treating tuberculosis predominantly on radiological basis is not appropriate and sputum microscopy and culture remains the cornerstone of diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis.
PMCID: PMC3946516  PMID: 24623942
Pulmonary opacities; Radiological misdiagnosis; Pulmonary tuberculosis
6.  Tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus – an underappreciated association 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2014;10(5):1019-1027.
The current review presents up-to-date knowledge on tuberculosis (TB) in diabetic patients. On the basis of available literature, there is little doubt about the close relationship between these two conditions. Diabetes mellitus in this association may still contribute substantially to the burden of TB and negatively affect control of the latter. Chronic hyperglycemia at least to some extent may alter the clinical manifestation, radiological appearance, treatment outcome and prognosis of TB. Although the pathogenesis is not clear, diabetes may impair both innate and adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eventually, effective screening and dual management of the diseases have to be addressed both in low- and high-income countries in order to limit the negative effects of the forthcoming global diabetes epidemic.
PMCID: PMC4223145  PMID: 25395955
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; hyperglycemia; epidemic; screening
7.  Bidirectional Screening of Tuberculosis Patients for Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Patients for Tuberculosis 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2013;37(4):291-295.
To assess the feasibility and results of screening diabetes mellitus (DM) patients for tuberculosis (TB) and TB patients for DM within the routine health care setting. Prospective observational study carried out within the Diabetes Centre and Pulmonary Medicine Department from February 2012 to September 2012. The screening for active TB in DM and DM in TB patients is followed as per the guidelines of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme and national programmes in India. Total of 307 patients diagnosed with TB during the study period. Among the TB patients 9.77% were smokers, 19.54% were known cases diabetes, and 15.96% were newly diagnosed cases of diabetes. Total of 4,118 diabetes patients were screened for TB in which 111 patients found to have TB. The strengths of this study are that we implemented screening within the routine health system. It is feasible to screen DM patients for TB resulting in high rates of TB detection.
PMCID: PMC3753495  PMID: 23991408
Diabetes mellitus; India; Prevalence; Tuberculosis
8.  Mycobacterium vaccae as Adjuvant Therapy to Anti-Tuberculosis Chemotherapy in Never-Treated Tuberculosis Patients: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e23826.
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of heat-killed M.vaccae added to chemotherapy of never-treated tuberculosis (TB) patients.
The databases of Medline, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SCI, CBM, VIP and CNKI were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and Controlled clinical trials (CCT) comparing M.vaccae with or without a placebo-control injection as adjuvant therapy in the chemotherapy of never-treated TB patients were included. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction and quality assessment. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.0 software by The Cochrane Collaboration.
Fifty four studies were included. At the end of the follow-up period, Pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI of sputum smear conversion rate were 1.07 (1.04, 1.10) in TB patients without complications, 1.17 (0.92, 1.49) in TB patients with diabetes mellitus, 1.02 (0.94, 1.10) in TB patients with hepatitis B, and 1.46 (0.21, 10.06) in TB patients with pneumosilicosis. In elderly TB patients the RR was 1.22 (1.13, 1.32). Analysis of each time point during the follow-up period showed that M.vaccae could help to improve the removal of acid-fast bacilli from the sputum, and promote improvement of radiological focal lesions and cavity closure. Compared with the control group, the differences in levels of immunological indicators of Th1 such as IL-2 and TNF-α were not statistical significant (P = 0.65 and 0.31 respectively), and neither was that of IL-6 produced by Th2 (P = 0.52). An effect of M.vaccae of prevention of liver damage was found in TB patients with hepatitis B (RR 0.20 and 95% CI (0.12, 0.33). No systemic adverse events were reported.
Added to chemotherapy, M.vaccae is helpful in the treatment of never-treated TB patients in terms of improving both sputum conversion and X-ray appearances.
PMCID: PMC3167806  PMID: 21909406
9.  Clinical Epidemiology and Paraclinical Findings in Tuberculosis Patients in North of Iran 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:381572.
Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.TB) causes a wide spectrum of clinical diseases. The prevalence of TB is different in various parts of Iran and throughout the world. The present study aimed to determine the clinical epidemiology and paraclinical findings of TB. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2008 to 2013. Patient demographic, clinical, and radiologic characteristics, picked up from the TB patient's files, were collected using a standard questionnaire format. Data was entered and analyzed using the SPSS version 16 statistical software and P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Out of 212 patients enrolled in this study 62% were male and the mean age was about 50 years old. 98.6% were Iranian, and 46.2% were rural. Prevalence of smear-positive TB was 66.4%. Prevalence of positive PPD was 50.7% with no significant difference between HIV-positive and -negative patients (P = 0.8). Prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 17%. 36% of the patients had history of smoking and about 29.3% were addicted to narcotics. Cough was the most common symptom (94.5%) and 84% had sputum. 15 cases (7%) had extrapulmonary TB. The mean time between the onset of symptoms and admission was 46.5 days. The delay for admission between urban and rural populations was not significantly different (P = 0.68); but for those who were in prison, the delay was significant (P = 0.02). About 46% of the patients had cavitary lesions in CXRs. Conclusion. Timely diagnosis of TB especially in prisoners by understanding its most important epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features can help to make an early treatment and prevent spread of mycobacteria and their complications.
PMCID: PMC4324112
10.  Directly observed treatment short course in immunocompetent patients of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy treated in revised national tuberculosis control programme 
Prospective observation analysis to evaluate the cure in tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy with directly observed treatment short course category III (DOTS CAT III) treatment as per revised national tuberculosis control program (RNTCP) at a tertiary care hospital in AP, India, from October 2007 to September 2009. These cases were followed up for period of 22 months.
Materials and Methods:
Total 1521 tuberculous cases were screened in KIMS both pulmonary and extra pulmonary cases out of which 146 cases were tuberculous lymphadenitis. Fifty cases of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy were included after diagnostic and treatment algorithm and fine needle biopsy or excision biopsy. Patients below 5 yrs, immunocompromised, having diabetes mellitus, pulmonary tuberculosis and with other co-morbid conditions were excluded from the study. All patients were put on DOTS CAT III as per RNTCP guidelines. Follow-up was done every 2 months till 6 months for 1) Constitution symptoms 2) Weight gain or loss 3) Appetite gain or loss 4) Regression of lymph nodes or increase 5) Compliance 6) Side effects 7) Failures by demonstration of organism by direct smear, culture or histopathological examination.
In this study, lymph node regression was found in 78% at the end of 2 months, 94% at the end of 4 months and 96% at the end of 6 months, 9 patients had regression in size though the nodes were palpable, 2 had no regression but fresh lymph nodes appeared on the same side and sinus discharge was present, culture was negative in these cases. Two cases had immune reconstitution syndrome, constitutional symptoms disappeared and showed clinical improvement. Four cases were subjected for surgical intervention.
DOTS CAT III is effective in the treatment of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy. Compliance was good with minimal, minor side effects, only two had immune reconstitution syndrome and two had sinus formation; they were referred for surgical intervention, and follow-up of 22 months did not show any relapses.
PMCID: PMC3354481  PMID: 22628922
Biopsy; cervical lymphadenopathy; DOTS; immune reconstitution syndrome; tuberculosis
11.  Report of the Committee on the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Diabetes Mellitus 
Concept of Diabetes Mellitus:
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases associated with various metabolic disorders, the main feature of which is chronic hyperglycemia due to insufficient insulin action. Its pathogenesis involves both genetic and environmental factors. The long‐term persistence of metabolic disorders can cause susceptibility to specific complications and also foster arteriosclerosis. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a broad range of clinical presentations, from being asymptomatic to ketoacidosis or coma, depending on the degree of metabolic disorder.
Classification (Tables 1 and 2, and Figure 1):
 Etiological classification of diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism disorders
Note: Those that cannot at present be classified as any of the above are called unclassifiable.
The occurrence of diabetes‐specific complications has not been confirmed in some of these conditions.
 Diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism disorders due to other specific mechanisms and diseases
The occurrence of diabetes‐specific complications has not been confirmed in some of these conditions.
 A scheme of the relationship between etiology (mechanism) and patho‐physiological stages (states) of diabetes mellitus. Arrows pointing right represent worsening of glucose metabolism disorders (including onset of diabetes mellitus). Among the arrow lines, indicates the condition classified as ‘diabetes mellitus’. Arrows pointing left represent improvement in the glucose metabolism disorder. The broken lines indicate events of low frequency. For example, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, infection can lead to ketoacidosis and require temporary insulin treatment for survival. Also, once diabetes mellitus has developed, it is treated as diabetes mellitus regardless of improvement in glucose metabolism, therefore, the arrow lines pointing left are filled in black. In such cases, a broken line is used, because complete normalization of glucose metabolism is rare.
The classification of glucose metabolism disorders is principally derived from etiology, and includes staging of pathophysiology based on the degree of deficiency of insulin action. These disorders are classified into four groups: (i) type 1 diabetes mellitus; (ii) type 2 diabetes mellitus; (iii) diabetes mellitus due to other specific mechanisms or diseases; and (iv) gestational diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by destruction of pancreatic β‐cells. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by combinations of decreased insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance). Glucose metabolism disorders in category (iii) are divided into two subgroups; subgroup A is diabetes in which a genetic abnormality has been identified, and subgroup B is diabetes associated with other pathologic disorders or clinical conditions. The staging of glucose metabolism includes normal, borderline and diabetic stages depending on the degree of hyperglycemia occurring as a result of the lack of insulin action or clinical condition. The diabetic stage is then subdivided into three substages: non‐insulin‐ requiring, insulin‐requiring for glycemic control, and insulin‐dependent for survival. The two former conditions are called non‐insulin‐dependent diabetes and the latter is known as insulin‐dependent diabetes. In each individual, these stages may vary according to the deterioration or the improvement of the metabolic state, either spontaneously or by treatment.
Diagnosis (Tables 3–7 and Figure 2):
 Criteria of fasting plasma glucose levels and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test 2‐h value
*Casual plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L) and HbA1c≥6.5% are also regarded as to indicate diabetic type.
Even for normal type, if 1‐h value is 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L), the risk of progression to diabetes mellitus is greater than for <180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L) and should be treated as with borderline type (follow‐up observation, etc.). Fasting plasma glucose level of 100–109 mg/dL (5.5–6.0 mmol/L) is called ‘high‐normal’: within the range of normal fasting plasma glucose.
Plasma glucose level after glucose load in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is not included in casual plasma glucose levels. The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
 Procedures for diagnosing diabetes mellitus
*The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%). **Hyperglycemia must be confirmed in a non‐stressful condition. OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.
 Disorders and conditions associated with low HbA1c values
 Situations where a 75‐g oral glucose tolerance test is recommended
*The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
 Definition and diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus
(IADPSG Consensus Panel, Reference 42, partly modified with permission of Diabetes Care).
 Flow chart outlining steps in the clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. *The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
Categories of the State of Glycemia:  Confirmation of chronic hyperglycemia is essential for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. When plasma glucose levels are used to determine the categories of glycemia, patients are classified as having a diabetic type if they meet one of the following criteria: (i) fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL (≥7.0 mmol/L); (ii) 2‐h value of ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L) in 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); or (iii) casual plasma glucose level of ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L). Normal type is defined as fasting plasma glucose level of <110 mg/dL (<6.1 mmol/L) and 2‐h value of <140 mg/dL (<7.8 mmol/L) in OGTT. Borderline type (neither diabetic nor normal type) is defined as falling between the diabetic and normal values. According to the current revision, in addition to the earlier listed plasma glucose values, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been given a more prominent position as one of the diagnostic criteria. That is, (iv) HbA1c≥6.5% is now also considered to indicate diabetic type. The value of HbA1c, which is equivalent to the internationally used HbA1c (%) (HbA1c [NGSP]) defined by the NGSP (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program), is expressed by adding 0.4% to the HbA1c (JDS) (%) defined by the Japan Diabetes Society (JDS).
Subjects with borderline type have a high rate of developing diabetes mellitus, and correspond to the combination of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) noted by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and WHO. Although borderline cases show few of the specific complications of diabetes mellitus, the risk of arteriosclerosis is higher than those of normal type. When HbA1c is 6.0–6.4%, suspected diabetes mellitus cannot be excluded, and when HbA1c of 5.6–5.9% is included, it forms a group with a high risk for developing diabetes mellitus in the future, even if they do not have it currently.
Clinical Diagnosis:  1 If any of the criteria for diabetic type (i) through to (iv) is observed at the initial examination, the patient is judged to be ‘diabetic type’. Re‐examination is conducted on another day, and if ‘diabetic type’ is reconfirmed, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed. However, a diagnosis cannot be made only by the re‐examination of HbA1c alone. Moreover, if the plasma glucose values (any of criteria [i], [ii], or [iii]) and the HbA1c (criterion [iv]) in the same blood sample both indicate diabetic type, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed based on the initial examination alone. If HbA1c is used, it is essential that the plasma glucose level (criteria [i], [ii] or [iii]) also indicates diabetic type for a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. When diabetes mellitus is suspected, HbA1c should be measured at the same time as examination for plasma glucose.2 If the plasma glucose level indicates diabetic type (any of [i], [ii], or [iii]) and either of the following conditions exists, diabetes mellitus can be diagnosed immediately at the initial examination.• The presence of typical symptoms of diabetes mellitus (thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss)• The presence of definite diabetic retinopathy3 If it can be confirmed that the above conditions 1 or 2 existed in the past, diabetes mellitus can be diagnosed or suspected regardless of the current test results.4 If the diagnosis of diabetes cannot be established by these procedures, the patient is followed up and re‐examined after an appropriate interval.5 The physician should assess not only the presence or absence of diabetes, but also its etiology and glycemic stage, and the presence and absence of diabetic complications or associated conditions.
Epidemiological Study:  For the purpose of estimating the frequency of diabetes mellitus, ‘diabetes mellitus’ can be substituted for the determination of ‘diabetic type’ from a single examination. In this case, HbA1c≥6.5% alone can be defined as ‘diabetes mellitus’.
Health Screening:  It is important not to misdiagnose diabetes mellitus, and thus clinical information such as family history and obesity should be referred to at the time of screening in addition to an index for plasma glucose level.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:  There are two hyperglycemic disorders in pregnancy: (i) gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); and (ii) diabetes mellitus. GDM is diagnosed if one or more of the following criteria is met in a 75 g OGTT during pregnancy:
1 Fasting plasma glucose level of ≥92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L)2 1‐h value of ≥180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L)3 2‐h value of ≥153 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L)
However, diabetes mellitus that is diagnosed by the clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus defined earlier is excluded from GDM. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2010.00074.x, 2010)
PMCID: PMC4020724  PMID: 24843435
Diabetes mellitus; Clinical diagnosis; HbA1c
12.  Prevalence of multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from HIV seropositive and seronegative patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in north India 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:137.
Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are a serious threat to the national TB control programs of developing countries, and the situation is further worsened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. The literature regarding MDR/XDR-TB is, however, scanty from most parts of India. We carried out this study to assess the prevalence of MDR/XDR-TB in new and previously treated cases of pulmonary TB and in HIV seropositive and seronegative patients.
Sputum and blood specimens were obtained from 2100 patients suspected of pulmonary tuberculosis and subjected to sputum microscopy and culture for TB, and HIV serology at our tertiary care centre in north India. The culture positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were subjected to drug susceptibility testing (DST) for first line anti-tuberculosis drugs, and the MDR isolates were further subjected to second line DST. Various parameters of the patients’ were analyzed viz. clinical presentation, radiology, previous treatment history, demographic and socioeconomic data and microbiology results.
Of the 2100 patients, sputum specimens of 256 were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), 271 (12.9%) grew Mycobacterium spp., and M. tuberculosis was isolated in 219 (10.42%). Of the 219 patients infected with M. tuberculosis, 20.1% (44/219) were found to be seropositive for HIV. Overall, MDR-TB was observed in 17.4% (39/219) isolates. There were 121 newly diagnosed and 98 previously treated patients, of which MDR-TB was found to be associated with 9.9% (12/121) and 27.6% (27/98) cases respectively. There was significantly higher association of MDR-TB (12/44, 27.3%) with HIV seropositive patients as compared to HIV seronegative patients (27/175, 15.4%) after controlling previous treatment status, age, and sex (odd’s ratio, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.000-5.350]; p-value, 0.05). No XDR-TB was found among the MDR-TB isolates.
The present study demonstrated a high prevalence of drug resistance amongst pulmonary TB isolates of M. tuberculosis from north India as compared to the WHO estimates for India in 2010, though this could possibly be attributed to the clustering of more serious or referred cases at our tertiary care centre. The prevalence of MDR-TB in HIV seropositive patients was significantly higher than seronegative individuals. The study emphasizes the need to monitor the trends of drug resistance in TB in various populations in order to timely implement appropriate interventions to curb the menace of MDR-TB.
PMCID: PMC3610146  PMID: 23497169
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Multidrug resistant; Extensively-drug resistant; HIV; Socioeconomic status
13.  Role of Diabetes in the Prognosis and Therapeutic Outcome of Tuberculosis 
Background. Increased susceptibility of diabetic mellitus (DM) patients to infection, including tuberculosis (TB), is well documented. The prevalence of DM in Malaysia is reaching epidemic proportions. In this study, we sought to assess risk factors for TB and the impact of DM on the outcome of TB treatment. Methods. TB patients, diabetic patients, and diabetic patients with TB were divided into three groups of 200 subjects each. Data were obtained from patients' medical files at the beginning and end of the study period. Prevalence rates of DM and HIV among TB patients were assessed. Prognosis, TB-related complications, anatomical site of infection, and duration of infection and diabetes were also examined. Results. The prevalence rates of HIV and DM amongst TB patients were 7.7 and 30%, respectively. The diabetic TB patient group contained more males (72%) and smokers (45.5%) compared to the nondiabetic group (58.3% and 33.5%, resp.). Approximately 74% of diabetic patients were Mycobacterium sputum positive compared to only 51% of nondiabetic patients. Diabetic patients were also more likely to develop pulmonary TB (87%) compared to nondiabetic TB patients (59%). Diabetic TB patients had a higher mortality rate (7.5%) compared to the TB only and DM only groups (1 and 2%, resp.). The duration of TB symptoms was longer in nondiabetic TB patients compared to diabetic TB patients (4.5 versus 2.6 months, resp.). Diabetes antedated TB by a mean time of 4 years. Conclusions. We found a higher number of sputum-smear-positive cases and pulmonary TB cases as well as a greater number of males and higher mortality rate in diabetic patients compared to nondiabetic patients.
PMCID: PMC3337603  PMID: 22570649
14.  The timing of death in patients with tuberculosis who die during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Andhra Pradesh, South India 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:921.
India has 2.0 million estimated tuberculosis (TB) cases per annum with an estimated 280,000 TB-related deaths per year. Understanding when in the course of TB treatment patients die is important for determining the type of intervention to be offered and crucially when this intervention should be given. The objectives of the current study were to determine in a large cohort of TB patients in India:- i) treatment outcomes including the number who died while on treatment, ii) the month of death and iii) characteristics associated with "early" death, occurring in the initial 8 weeks of treatment.
This was a retrospective study in 16 selected Designated Microscopy Centres (DMCs) in Hyderabad, Krishna and Adilabad districts of Andhra Pradesh, South India. A review was performed of treatment cards and medical records of all TB patients (adults and children) registered and placed on standardized anti-tuberculosis treatment from January 2005 to September 2009.
There were 8,240 TB patients (5183 males) of whom 492 (6%) were known to have died during treatment. Case-fatality was higher in those previously treated (12%) and lower in those with extra-pulmonary TB (2%). There was an even distribution of deaths during anti-tuberculosis treatment, with 28% of all patients dying in the first 8 weeks of treatment. Increasing age and new as compared to recurrent TB disease were significantly associated with "early death".
In this large cohort of TB patients, deaths occurred with an even frequency throughout anti-TB treatment. Reasons may relate to i) the treatment of the disease itself, raising concerns about drug adherence, quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs or the presence of undetected drug resistance and ii) co-morbidities, such as HIV/AIDS and diabetes mellitus, which are known to influence mortality. More research in this area from prospective and retrospective studies is needed.
PMCID: PMC3254139  PMID: 22166132
Tuberculosis; India; Death; Timing of death
15.  Impact of diabetes mellitus on clinical parameters and treatment outcomes of newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Thailand 
To assess the clinical and laboratory parameters, response to therapy and development of antituberculosis (TB) drug resistance in pulmonary TB (PTB) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and without DM.
Using a prospective design, 227 of 310 new cases of culture-positive PTB diagnosed at the Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital and the Chonburi Hospital between April 2010 and July 2012 that met the study criteria were selected. Data regarding clinical and laboratory parameters, drug susceptibility and treatment outcomes were compared between PTB patients with DM and those without DM. To control for age, the patients were stratified into two age groups (< 50 and ≥ 50 years) and their data were analysed.
Of the 227 patients, 37 (16.3%) had DM, of which 26 (70.3%) had been diagnosed with DM prior to PTB diagnosis and 11 (29.7%) had developed DM at PTB diagnosis. After controlling for age, no significant differences were found between the two groups regarding mycobacterium burden, sputum-culture conversion rate, evidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, frequency of adverse drug events from anti-TB medications, treatment outcomes and relapse rate. The presenting symptoms of anorexia (p = 0.050) and haemoptysis (p = 0.036) were observed significantly more frequently in PTB patients with DM, while the presenting symptom of cough was observed significantly more frequently in PTB patients without DM (p = 0.047).
Plasma glucose levels should be monitored in all newly diagnosed PTB patients and a similar treatment regimen should be prescribed to PTB patients with DM and those without DM in high TB-burden countries.
PMCID: PMC4232236  PMID: 23750554
16.  Risk Factors Influencing Rebleeding after Bronchial Artery Embolization on the Management of Hemoptysis Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis 
Hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) frequently develops in Korea where the prevalence of TB is intermediate. The effect of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) on the control of massive hemoptysis has been well known. This study is designed to identify the risk factors contributing to rebleeding after BAE in patients with TB.
We retrospectively evaluated risk factors and the time for rebleeding after BAE in 72 patients presenting with hemoptysis.
The overall immediate success rate of BAE was 93.1% (67 of 72 patients). Of the 29 patients (40.3%) who showed rebleeding after BAE, 13 patients experienced rebleeding within 1 month, and 14 patients between 1 month to 1 year. The existence of a shunt in angiographic finding, aspergilloma, and diabetes mellitus were risk factors of rebleeding after BAE in multivariate analysis.
BAE was very effective for obtaining immediate bleeding control in hemoptysis associated with active TB or post-TB sequelae. It is important to observe whether or not rebleeding occurs up to 1 year of BAE especially in TB patients with aspergilloma, DM, or a shunt. Even rebleeding can be managed well by second BAE.
PMCID: PMC3617130  PMID: 23579345
Aspergillosis; Bronchial Arteries; Embolization, Therapeutic; Hemoptysis; Tuberculosis
17.  Status of vitamin D, antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and T helper-associated cytokines in patients with diabetes mellitus and pulmonary tuberculosis 
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a high burden infectious disease in China. The immune function is damaged in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who are easy to infect with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The growth of Mtb has been shown to be restrained following the administration of vitamin D and antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (LL-37); however, the effect in patients with DM and PTB remains unclear. Vitamin D can regulate the immune system through Vitamin D receptors expressed in T helper (Th) cells. The aim of the present study was to analyze the status and correlations of vitamin D, LL-37 and Th-associated cytokines in patients with PTB or PTB with DM (DMPTB). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while plasma LL-37 levels were analyzed using a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the levels of Th cytokines, including Th1-associated IFN-γ, Th2-associated IL-4 and Th17-associated IL-17. The results revealed that patients with PTB and DMPTB were vitamin D deficient or had insufficient vitamin D levels. Furthermore, the levels of LL-37, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17 were higher in the PTB and DMPTB groups when compared with the normal controls. These results indicated that vitamin D supplementation is necessary for PTB and DMPTB patients. In addition, LL-37, IFN-γ and IL-17 may be diagnostic indexes that become elevated in the compensatory response caused by Mtb infection. Vitamin D can regulate the immune status in patients suffering from PTB.
PMCID: PMC4247300  PMID: 25452769
vitamin D; antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin; T helper 17; cytokine; diabetes mellitus; pulmonary tuberculosis
18.  Overt diabetes mellitus among newly diagnosed Ugandan tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:122.
There is a documented increase of diabetes mellitus in Sub Saharan Africa, a region where tuberculosis is highly endemic. Currently, diabetes mellitus is one of the recognised risk factors of tuberculosis. No study has reported the magnitude of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Uganda, one of the countries with a high burden of tuberculosis.
This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 260 consenting adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis admitted on the pulmonology wards of Mulago national referral and teaching hospital in Kampala, Uganda to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated clinical factors. Laboratory findings as well as the socio-demographic and clinical data collected using a validated questionnaire was obtained. Point of care random blood sugar (RBS) testing was performed on all the patients prior to initiation of anti tuberculosis treatment. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed if the RBS level was ≥ 200mg/dl in the presence of the classical symptoms of diabetes mellitus.
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the admitted patients with tuberculosis was 8.5%. Only 5 (1.9%) patients with TB had a known diagnosis of diabetes mellitus at enrolment. Majority of the study participants with TB-DM co-infection had type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=20, 90.9%).
At bivariate analysis, raised mean ALT concentrations of ≥80 U/L were associated with DM (OR-6.1, 95% CI 1.4-26.36, p=0.032) and paradoxically, HIV co-infection was protective of DM (OR-0.32, 95% CI 0.13-0.79, P=0.016). The relationship between DM and HIV as well as that with ALT remained statistically significant at multivariate analysis (HIV: OR- 0.17 95%CI 0.06-0.51, p=0.002 and ALT: OR-11.42 95%CI 2.15-60.59, p=0.004).
This study demonstrates that diabetes mellitus is common among hospitalized tuberculosis patients in Uganda. The significant clinical predictors associated with diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients were HIV co-infection and raised mean serum alanine transaminase concentrations.
PMCID: PMC3599954  PMID: 23497232
19.  Clinical differences between pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a 5-year retrospective study. 
This article describes the clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and treatment characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in Eastern North Carolina, a primarily rural area. The database was obtained for 1988-1992 from the University Medical Center of Eastern North Carolina-Pitt County and East Carolina University School of Medicine (the tertiary care referral center for this region). One hundred thirty-eight culture-positive patients were enrolled in the study; 56% were PTB and 44% were EPTB. African-American males constituted 59% of the population. Sixty-nine percent of the patient base were uninsured. There was a bimodal age distribution of < 40 and > 60 years of age. Factors associated with PTB (reported as odds ratios) were white males (2.5), diabetes mellitus (5.4), and cancer (5.1). Factors associated with EPTB (reported as odds ratios) were African-American females, positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology (8.7), low hematocrit (32.6), and elevated alkaline phosphatase (199). This study emphasizes that in the latest resurgence of tuberculosis, impoverished rural areas, which have been ignored in earlier and present control efforts, are important reservoirs of disease.
PMCID: PMC2607831  PMID: 7731067
20.  Factors associated with mortality in tuberculosis patients 
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in different societies. Understanding factors leading to death following diagnosis of TB is important to predict prognosis in TB patients. The aim of this study was to identify common risk factors associated with death in patients with an in-hospital diagnosis of TB, in a city in Iran with the highest prevalence and incidence of TB in the country.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective study was conducted at a university-affiliated hospital, Zahedan, in the south-east of Iran, which is a referral center for TB. To identify factors leading to death, medical records of 715 patients ≥15 years old with pulmonary TB from February 2002 to February 2011 have been evaluated. Registered factors included smoking, human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection, using drugs, lung cancer, drug hepatitis following anti-TB medications, diabetes mellitus, previous TB treatment, anemia; and results of sputum smears. Univariate comparison and multiple logistic regression were performed to identify factors associated with mortality in TB patients.
Among 715 registered TB patients, 375 (52.5%) patients were male; among those, 334 (53%) were in the alive group and 41 (54%) in the death group. Seventy-five (10.5%) of the total number of TB patients died during TB treatment. The multivariate model showed that anemia (AOR: 19.8, 95% CI: 5.6-35.5), positive sputum smear (AOR: 13.4, 95% CI: 6.8-33.6), smoking (AOR: 12.9, 95% CI: 3.9-27.3), drug hepatitis (AOR: 12.3, 95% CI: 6.7-24.7), diabetes mellitus (AOR: 9.7, 95% CI: 2.9-32.0), drug use (AOR: 7.8, 95% CI: 2.4-25.5), and history of previous TB (AOR: 6.8, 95% CI: 2.2-21.3) were major risk factors for death in TB patients.
Monitoring co-morbid conditions like diabetes mellitus and anemia are important to reduce death rate in TB patients. Preventive measures for smoking and drug addiction also play an important role to decrease mortality. Follow-up of patients with previous TB treatment is recommended.
PMCID: PMC3719227  PMID: 23901338
Tuberculosis; mortality; risk factors
21.  A case of emphysematous cystitis complicated with miliary tuberculosis 
Emphysematous cystitis occurs mostly in diabetics with poor glycemic control or in immunocompromised patients. In most cases, diabetes mellitus correlates with the occurrence of emphysematous cystitis. The risk of relapse after tuberculosis cure or treatment completion is high among patients with diabetes mellitus.
Case Report:
A 64-year-old diabetic man suffering from high fever and lower abdominal pain was admitted to the emergency ward. Due to the results of radiographic examinations, he was diagnosed with an emphysematous cystitis. Although the emphysematous cystitis improved with urinary drainage and antibiotic therapy, the high fever recurred and respiratory symptoms appeared. This patient was diagnosed with a crisis of the pulmonary tuberculosis. He was started on the antituberculosis therapy, and he recovered.
This is the first report of a case of emphysematous cystitis that was complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis.
PMCID: PMC3616067  PMID: 23569536
emphysematous cystitis; pulmonary tuberculosis
22.  Prevalence of Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes and Associated Risk Factors among Tuberculosis Patients in India 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e41367.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognised as an important risk factor to tuberculosis (TB). India has high TB burden, along with rising DM prevalence. There are inadequate data on prevalence of DM and pre-diabetes among TB cases in India. Aim was to determine diabetes prevalence among a cohort of TB cases registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in selected TB units in Tamil Nadu, India, and assess pattern of diabetes management amongst known cases.
827 among the eligible patients (n = 904) underwent HbA1c and anthropometric measurements. OGTT was done for patients without previous history of DM and diagnosis was based on WHO criteria. Details of current treatment regimen of TB and DM and DM complications, if any, were recorded. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographics, habitual risk factors, and type of TB.
DM prevalence was 25.3% (95% CI 22.6–28.5) and that of pre-diabetes 24.5% (95% CI 20.4–27.6). Risk factors associated with DM among TB patients were age (31–35, 36–40, 41–45, 46–50, >50 years vs <30 years) [OR (95% CI) 6.75 (2.36–19.3); 10.46 (3.95–27.7); 18.63 (6.58–52.7); 11.05 (4.31–28.4); 24.7 (9.73–62.7) (p<0.001)], positive family history of DM [3.08 (1.73–5.5) (p<0.001)], sedentary occupation [1.69 (1.10–2.59) (p = 0.016)], and BMI (18.5–22.9, 23–24.9 and ≥25 kg/m2 vs <18.5 kg/m2) [2.03 (1.32–3.12) (p = 0.001); 0.87 (0.31–2.43) (p = 0.78); 1.44 (0.54–3.8) (p = 0.47)]; for pre-diabetes, risk factors were age (36–40, 41–45, 46–50, >50 years vs <30 years) [2.24 (1.1–4.55) (p = 0.026); 6.96 (3.3–14.7); 3.44 (1.83–6.48); 4.3 (2.25–8.2) (p<0.001)], waist circumference [<90 vs. ≥90 cm (men), <80 vs. ≥80 cm (women)] [3.05 (1.35–6.9) (p = 0.007)], smoking [1.92 (1.12–3.28) (p = 0.017)] and monthly income (5000–10,000 INR vs <5000 INR) [0.59 (0.37–0.94) (p = 0.026)]. DM risk was higher among pulmonary TB [3.06 (1.69–5.52) (p<0.001)], especially sputum positive, than non-pulmonary TB.
Nearly 50% of TB patients had either diabetes or pre-diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3406054  PMID: 22848473
23.  Detection of multiple strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using MIRU-VNTR in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2010;10:349.
Many studies using DNA fingerprinting to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains reveal single strains in cultures, suggesting that most disease is caused by infection with a single strain. However, recent studies using molecular epidemiological tools that amplify multiple targets have demonstrated simultaneous infection with multiple strains of MTB. We aimed to determine the prevalence of MTB multiple strain infections in Kampala, and the impact of these infections on clinical presentation of tuberculosis (TB) and response to treatment.
A total of 113 consecutive smear and culture positive patients who previously enrolled in a house-hold contact study were included in this study. To determine whether infection with multiple MTB strains has a clinical impact on the initial presentation of patients, retrospective patient data (baseline clinical, radiological and drug susceptibility profiles) was obtained. To determine presence of infections with multiple MTB strains, MIRU-VNTR (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeats) -PCR was performed on genomic DNA extracted from MTB cultures of smear positive sputum samples at baseline, second and fifth months.
Of 113 patients, eight (7.1%) had infection with multiple MTB strains, coupled with a high rate of HIV infection (37.5% versus 12.6%, p = 0.049). The remaining patients (105) were infected with single MTB strains. The proportions of patients with MTB smear positive cultures after two and five months of treatment were similar. There was no difference between the two groups for other variables.
Infection with multiple MTB strains occurs among patients with first episode of pulmonary tuberculosis in Kampala, in a setting with high TB incidence. Infection with multiple MTB strains had little impact on the clinical course for individual patients. This is the first MIRU-VNTR-based study from in an East African country.
PMCID: PMC3004912  PMID: 21143966
24.  Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Active Tuberculosis 
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an emerging chronic health condition of developed and developing countries. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with active, culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) in Maryland to determine the impact of DM on TB treatment outcomes. Of 297 TB patients, 42 (14%) had DM. Patients with diabetes had 2.0 times higher odds of death than patients without diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74–5.2, P = 0.18). Adjusting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), age, weight, and foreign birth, the odds of death were 6.5 times higher in patients with diabetes than patients without diabetes (95% CI 1.1–38.0, P = 0.039). In pulmonary TB patients, time to sputum culture conversion was longer in patients with diabetes than patients without diabetes (median 49 versus 39 days, P = 0.09). Two-month culture conversion proportions were similar (70% and 69%). Treatment failure occurred in 4.1% of patients without diabetes and 6.7% of patients with diabetes (P = 0.51). In conclusion, DM was a risk factor for death in Maryland TB patients. There was a trend toward increased time to culture conversion; two-month culture conversion proportions, however, were similar.
PMCID: PMC2750857  PMID: 19346391
25.  Glycemic Control and Radiographic Manifestations of Tuberculosis in Diabetic Patients 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93397.
Radiographic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have previously been reported, with inconsistent results. We conducted a study to investigate whether glycemic control has an impact on radiographic manifestations of pulmonary TB.
Consecutive patients with culture-positive pulmonary TB who had DM in three tertiary care hospitals from 2005–2010 were selected for review and compared with a similar number without DM. Glycemic control was assessed by glycated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C). A pre-treatment chest radiograph was read independently by two qualified pulmonologists blinded to patients’ diabetic status. Films with any discordant reading were read by a third reader.
1209 culture positive pulmonary TB patients (581 with DM and 628 without DM) were enrolled. Compared with those without DM, TB patients with DM were significantly more likely to have opacity over lower lung fields, extensive parenchymal lesions, any cavity, multiple cavities and large cavities (>3 cm). The relative risk of lower lung field opacities was 0.80 (95% CI 0.46–1.42) for those with DM with A1C<7%, 2.32 (95% CI 1.36 - 3.98) for A1C 7%–9%, and 1.62 (95% CI 1.12–2.36) for A1C>9%; and that of any cavity over no cavity was 0.87 (95% CI 0.46–1.62) for patients with DM with A1C<7%, 1.84 (95% CI 1.20–2.84) for A1C 7%–9%, and 3.71 (95% CI 2.64–5.22) for A1C>9%, relative to patients without DM.
Glycemic control significantly influenced radiographic manifestations of pulmonary TB in patients with DM.
PMCID: PMC3974751  PMID: 24699457

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