FADD (Fas-associated protein with death domain) is a cytosolic adapter protein essential for mediating death receptor-induced apoptosis. It has also been implicated in a number of non-apoptotic activities including embryogenesis, cell-cycle progression, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Our recent studies have demonstrated that high levels of phosphorylated FADD in tumor cells correlates with increased activation of the anti-apoptotic transcription factor NF-κB and is a biomarker for aggressive disease and poor clinical outcome. These findings suggest that inhibition of FADD phosphorylation is a viable target for cancer therapy. A high throughput screen using a cell-based assay for monitoring FADD-kinase activity identified NSC 47147 as a small molecule inhibitor of FADD phosphorylation. The compound was evaluated in live cells and mouse tumors for its efficacy as an inhibitor of FADD-kinase activity through the inhibition of CK1α. NSC 47147 was shown to decrease levels of phosphorylated FADD and NF-κB activity such that combination therapy lead to greater induction of apoptosis and enhanced tumor control as compared to either agent alone. The studies described here demonstrate the utility of bioluminescent cell based assays for the identification of active compounds and the validation of drug target interaction in a living subject. In addition, the presented results provide proof of principle studies as to the validity of targeting FADD-kinase activity as a novel cancer therapy strategy.
FADD; phosphorylation; non-invasive molecular imaging; NF-κB; chemotherapy
FADD is a common adaptor shared by several death-receptors (DRs) for signaling apoptosis through recruitment and activation of caspase 81-3. DRs are essential for immune homeostasis, but dispensable during embryogenesis. Surprisingly, FADD−/− mice die in utero4-5 and conditional deletion of FADD leads to impaired lymphocyte proliferation6-7. How FADD regulates embryogenesis and lymphocyte responses has been a long standing enigma. FADD could directly bind to RIP1, a serine/threonine kinase which mediates both necrosis and NF-κB activation. Here we show that FADD−/− embryos contain elevated levels of RIP1 and exhibit massive necrosis. To investigate potential in vivo functional interaction between RIP1 and FADD, null alleles of RIP1 were crossed into FADD−/− mice. Strikingly, RIP1 deficiency allowed normal embryogenesis of FADD−/− mice. Conversely, the developmental defect of RIP1−/− lymphocytes was partially corrected by FADD deletion. Furthermore, RIP1 deficiency fully restored normal proliferation in FADD−/− T cells but not in FADD−/− B cells. FADD−/−RIP1−/− double knockout (DKO) T cells are resistant to death induced by Fas or TNFα and display reduced NF-κB activity. Therefore, our data demonstrate an unexpected cell type-specific interplay between FADD and RIP1, which is critical for the regulation of apoptosis and necrosis during embryogenesis and lymphocyte function.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) engages Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on various cells to initiate inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. FADD is an adaptor protein involved in death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Here we report a role for FADD in regulation of TLR4 signals in endothelial cells. FADD specifically attenuates LPS-induced activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase in a death domain-dependent manner. In contrast, FADD-null cells show hyperactivation of these kinases. Examining physical associations of endogenous proteins, we show that FADD interacts with interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and MyD88. LPS stimulation increases IRAK1-FADD interaction and recruitment of the IRAK1-FADD complex to activated MyD88. IRAK1 is required for FADD-MyD88 interaction, as FADD does not associate with MyD88 in IRAK1-null cells. By shuttling FADD to MyD88, IRAK1 provides a mechanism for controlled and limited activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway. Functionally, enforced FADD expression inhibited LPS- but not vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell sprouting, while FADD deficiency led to enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines induced by stimulation of TLR4 and TLR2, but not TLR3. Reconstitution of FADD reversed the enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, FADD is a physiological negative regulator of IRAK1/MyD88-dependent responses in innate immune signaling.
The Fas-associated death domain protein FADD/Mort1 is a signaling adaptor protein which mediates the activation of caspase 8 during death receptor-induced apoptosis. Disruption of FADD in germ cells results in death receptor-independent embryonic lethality in mice. Previous studies indicated that in addition to its function in apoptosis, FADD is also required in peripheral T cell homeostasis and TCR-induced proliferative responses. In this report, we generated B cell-specific FADD-deficient mice and showed that deletion of FADD at the pro-B cell stage had minor effects on B cell development in the bone marrow, and resulted in increased splenic and lymph node B cell numbers and decreased peritoneal B1 cell numbers. As in T cells, a FADD deficiency inhibited Fas-induced apoptosis in B cells. However, B cell proliferative responses induced by stimulation of the BCR and CD40 using anti-IgM or anti-CD40 antibodies were unaffected by the absence of FADD. Further analyses revealed that FADD-deficient B cells were defective in proliferative responses induced by treatments with dsRNA and LPS which stimulate TLR3 and TLR4 respectively. Therefore, in addition to its apoptotic function, FADD also plays a role in TLR3- and TLR4-induced proliferative responses in B cells.
FADD knockout mice; B cells; apoptosis; TLR; proliferation
Signal transduction mediated by FADD represents a paradigm of co-regulation of apoptosis and cellular proliferation. During apoptotic signaling induced by death receptors including Fas, FADD is required for the recruitment and activation of caspase 8. In addition, a death receptor-independent function of FADD is essential for embryogenesis. In previous studies, FADD deficiency in embryonic stem cells resulted in a complete lack of B cells and dramatically reduced T cell numbers, as shown by Rag1−/− blastocyst complementation assays. However, T-specific FADD-deficient mice contained normal numbers of thymocytes and slightly reduced peripheral T cell numbers, whereas B cell-specific deletion of FADD led to increased peripheral B cell numbers. It remains undetermined what impact a FADD deficiency has on hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. The current study analyzed the effect of simultaneous deletion of FADD in multiple cell types including bone marrow cells by using the IFN-inducible Mx1-cre transgene. The resulting FADD mutant mice did not develop lymphoproliferation diseases, unlike Fas-deficient mice. Instead, a time-dependent depletion of peripheral FADD-deficient lymphocytes was observed. In the bone marrow, a lack of FADD led to a dramatic decrease in the hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor-enriched population. Furthermore, FADD-deficient bone marrow cells were defective in their ability to generate lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid cells. Thus, the results revealed a temporal requirement for FADD. Whereas dispensable during lymphopoiesis post lineage commitment, FADD plays a critical role in early hematopoietic stages in the bone marrow.
Apoptosis; proliferation; HSC; progenitors; FADD
A caspase 8–deficient subline (JB6) of human Jurkat cells can be killed by the oligomerization of Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD). This cell death process is not accompanied by caspase activation, but by necrotic morphological changes. Here, we show that the death effector domain of FADD is responsible for the FADD-mediated necrotic pathway. This process was accompanied by a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), but not by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a metal chelator and antioxidant, efficiently inhibited the FADD-induced reduction of ΔΨm and necrotic cell death. When human Jurkat, or its transformants, expressing mouse Fas were treated with Fas ligand or anti–mouse Fas antibodies, the cells died, showing characteristics of apoptosis. A broad caspase inhibitor (z-VAD–fmk) blocked the apoptotic morphological changes and the release of cytochrome c. However, the cells still died, and this cell death process was accompanied by a strong reduction in ΔΨm, as well as necrotic morphological changes. The presence of z-VAD–fmk and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate together blocked cell death, suggesting that both apoptotic and necrotic pathways can be activated through the Fas death receptor.
apoptosis; caspase; Fas; mitochondrial membrane potential; necrosis
Fas and Fas-associated death domain (FADD) play a critical role in the homeostasis of different cell types. The regulation of Fas and FADD-mediated cell death is pivotal to many physiological functions. The activation of T lymphocytes by concanavalin A (Con A) inhibited Fas-mediated cell death. We identified that among the several activation signals downstream of Con A stimulation, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase (MKK) was the major kinase pathway that antagonized Fas-triggered cell death. MKK1 suppressed FADD- but not caspase-3– induced apoptosis, indicating that antagonism occurred early along the Fas-initiated apoptotic cascade. We further demonstrated that activation of MKK1 led to expression of FLIP, a specific inhibitor of FADD. MKK1 inhibition of FADD-induced cell death was abrogated if induction of FLIP was prevented, indicating that FLIP mediates MKK1 suppression of FADD-mediated apoptosis. Our results illustrate a general mechanism by which activation of MAP kinase attenuates apoptotic signals initiated by death receptors in normal and transformed cells.
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; Fas-associated death domain protein; Fas; FLIP; apoptosis
FADD/Mort1 is required for signaling induced by death-receptors such as Fas. In earlier studies, FADD-deficient mice died in utero and a FADD deficiency in embryonic stem cells inhibited T cell production in viable FADD-/-→RAG-1-/- chimeras. To analyze the temporal requirement of FADD in the development and function in the T lineage, it is necessary to establish viable mutant mice producing detectable FADD-deficient T cells. We generated mice that express a functional FADD:GFP fusion gene reconstituting normal embryogenesis and lymphopoiesis in the absence of the endogenous FADD. Efficient T cell-specific deletion of FADD:GFP was achieved, as indicated by the presence of a high percentage of GFP-negative thymocytes and peripheral T cells in mice expressing Lck-Cre or CD4-Cre. Sorted GFP-negative thymocytes and peripheral T cells contained undetectable levels of FADD and were resistant to apoptosis induced by Fas, TNF, and TCR restimulation. These T cell-specific FADD-deficient mice contain normal thymocyte numbers, but fewer peripheral T cells. Purified peripheral FADD-deficient T cells failed to undergo extensive homeostatic expansion after adoptive transfer into lymphocyte-deficient hosts, and responded poorly to proliferation induced by ex vivo TCR stimulation. Furthermore, deletion of FADD in pre-activated mature T cells using retrovirus-Cre resulted in no proliferation. These results demonstrate that FADD plays a dispensable role during thymocyte development, but is essential in maintaining peripheral T cell homeostasis and regulating both apoptotic and proliferation signals.
Transgenic/knockout mice; T cells; apoptosis; cell proliferation; homeostasis
High-risk strains of human papillomavirus, such as types 16 and 18, have been etiologically linked to cervical cancer. Most cervical cancer tissues are positive for both the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, since it is their cooperation that results in successful transformation and immortalization of infected cells. We have reported that E6 binds to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and to Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and, in doing so, prevents E6-expressing cells from responding to apoptotic stimuli. The binding site of E6 to FADD localizes to the first 23 amino acids of FADD and has now been further characterized by the use of deletion and site-directed mutants of FADD in pull-down and functional assays. The results from these experiments revealed that mutations of serine 16, serine 18, and leucine 20 obstruct FADD binding to E6, suggesting that these residues are part of the E6 binding domain on FADD. Because FADD does not contain the two previously identified E6 binding motifs, the LxxφLsh motif, and the PDZ motif, a novel binding domain for E6 has been identified on FADD. Furthermore, peptides that correspond to this region can block E6/FADD binding in vitro and can resensitize E6-expressing cells to apoptotic stimuli in vivo. These results demonstrate the existence of a novel E6 binding domain.
Fas-associated death domain (FADD) is a common adaptor molecule which plays an important role in transduction of death receptor mediated apoptosis. The FADD provides DED motif for binding to both procaspase-8 and cFLIP molecules which executes death receptor mediated apoptosis. Dysregulated expression of FADD and cFLIP may contribute to inhibition of apoptosis and promote cell survival in cancer. Moreover elevated intracellular level of cFLIP competitively excludes the binding of procaspase-8 to the death effector domain (DED) of FADD at the DISC to block the activation of death receptor signaling required for apoptosis. Increasing evidence shows that defects in FADD protein expression are associated with progression of malignancies and resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, improved expression and function of FADD may provide new paradigms for regulation of cell proliferation and survival in cancer. In the present study, we have examined the potential of FADD in induction of apoptosis by overexpression of FADD in HEK 293T cells and validated further its consequences on the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins besides initiation of death receptor mediated signaling. We have found deficient expression of FADD and elevated expression of cFLIPL in HEK 293T cells. Our results demonstrate that over expression of FADD attenuates the expression of anti-apoptotic protein cFLIP and activates the cascade of extrinsic caspases to execution of apoptosis in HEK 293T cells.
Apoptosis; Fas associated death domain (FADD); cFLIP; Death receptor mediated apoptosis
This study was designed to (1) assess the effects of cocaine on Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) system and its role in the activation of apoptotic vs nonapoptotic events and (2) ascertain whether animals selectively bred for their differential propensity to drug-seeking show differences in FADD levels or response to cocaine. Acute cocaine, through D2 dopamine receptors, induced a dose–response increase in FADD protein in the cortex, with opposite effects over pFADD (Ser191/194), and no induction of apoptotic cell death (poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage). FADD was increased by cocaine in cytosol (~142%), membranes (~23%) and nucleus (~54%). The modulation of the FADD system showed tolerance of the acute effect over time, as well as a compensatory response on withdrawal that mirrored the acute effect—ie a transient FADD decrease on day 3 of withdrawal, both at mRNA and protein levels. In a second experiment, possible FADD differences were investigated in rats selectively bred for differential responsiveness to novelty, propensity for drug-seeking and cocaine sensitization. High responders (HR), who were more prone to drug abuse, exhibited higher FADD and lower pFADD levels than low-responder (LR) rats. However, HR and LR rats showed similar rates of cocaine-induced apoptosis, and exhibited a parallel impact of cocaine over FADD within each phenotype. Thus, FADD is a signaling protein modulated by cocaine, regulating apoptosis/proliferative mechanisms in relation to its FADD/pFADD content. Interestingly, animals selectively bred for differential propensity to substance abuse show basal differences in the expression of this protein, suggesting FADD may also be a molecular correlate for the HR/LR phenotype.
cocaine; FADD; apoptosis; proliferation; HR/LR phenotype; rat brain
The Fas cell surface receptor induces apoptosis upon receptor oligomerization. We have identified a novel signaling protein, termed Daxx, that binds specifically to the Fas death domain. Overexpression of Daxx enhances Fas-mediated apoptosis and activates the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. A C-terminal portion of Daxx interacts with the Fas death domain, while a different region activates both JNK and apoptosis. The Fas-binding domain of Daxx is a dominant-negative inhibitor of both Fas-induced apoptosis and JNK activation, while the FADD death domain partially inhibits death but not JNK activation. The Daxx apoptotic pathway is sensitive to both Bcl-2 and dominant-negative JNK pathway components and acts cooperatively with the FADD pathway. Thus, Daxx and FADD define two distinct apoptotic pathways downstream of Fas.
Neurodegenerative illnesses such as Parkinson and Alzheimer disease are an increasingly prevalent problem in aging societies, yet no therapies exist that retard or prevent neurodegeneration. Dominant missense mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson disease (PD), but the mechanisms by which mutant forms of LRRK2 disrupt neuronal function and cause cell death remain poorly understood. We report that LRRK2 interacts with the death adaptor protein FADD, and that in primary neuronal culture LRRK2-mediated neurodegeneration is prevented by the functional inhibition of FADD or depletion of caspase-8, two key elements of the extrinsic cell death pathway. This pathway is activated by disease-triggering mutations, which enhance the LRRK2-FADD association and the consequent recruitment and activation of caspase-8. These results establish a direct molecular link between a mutant PD gene and the activation of programmed cell death signaling, and suggest that FADD/caspase-8 signaling contributes to LRRK2-induced neuronal death.
Parkinson’s disease; Apoptosis; Neuronal apoptosis; neuronal death; Neuron Death; caspase
Fas/Apo-1 signals through the FADD adaptor protein which recruits and activates the apical Caspase 8, and leads to apoptosis. cFLIP is a homologue of Caspase 8 and also capable of binding to FADD. Previous studies suggest that cFLIP could either enhance or inhibit apoptosis, and lead to NF-κB and Erk1/2 activation. Like FADD or Caspase 8 deficiency, a lack of cFLIP disrupts embryogenesis and T cell proliferation. It has been demonstrated that B cells lacking either FADD or Caspase 8 were defective in both Fas-induced apoptosis and TLR-induced proliferation, which indicates that these death-inducing proteins have an additional role in regulating innate immunity. To analyze the function of cFLIP in B cells, conditional deletion of cFLIP was induced by using CD19Cre. The resulting B cell-specific cFLIP-deficient mice were found to have reduced numbers of peripheral B cells which were hypersensitive to Fas-induced apoptosis, and impaired in proliferation induced by TLRs and the BCR. Furthermore, there was aberrant expression of co-stimulatory proteins and activation markers in cFLIP-deficient B cells. Whereas LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and Erk1/2 appears to be unaffected, p38 and Jnk were spontaneously activated and hyper-induced in cFLIP-deficient B cells. Therefore, these data revealed novel functions of cFLIP in B cells.
cFLIP; B cells; TLR; apoptosis; proliferation
Caspase-8 is a key initiator of death receptor-induced apoptosis. Here we report a novel short isoform of caspase-8 (caspase-8s), which encodes the first (Death Effector Domain) DED and part of the second DED, missing the C-terminal caspase domain. In vivo binding assays showed that transfected caspase-8s bound to (Fas-associated death domain protein) FADD, the adaptor protein in (death-induced signal complex) DISC. To investigate the potential effects of caspase-8s on cell apoptosis, Jurkat cells were stably transfected with caspase-8s. Overexpression of caspase-8s increased sensitivity to the apoptotic stimuli, Fas-agonistic antibody CH11. These results suggest that caspase-8s may act as a promoter of apoptosis through binding to FADD and is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. In addition, the results also indicate that the first DED was an important structure mediating combination between caspase-8 and FADD.
Although evasion of apoptosis is thought to be required for the development of cancer, it is unclear which cell death pathways are evaded. We previously identified a novel epithelial cell death pathway that works in normal cells but is inactivated in tumor cells, implying that it may be targeted during tumor development. The pathway can be activated by the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) of the adaptor protein but is distinct from the known mechanism of FADD-induced apoptosis through caspase-8. Here, we show that a physiological signal (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) can kill normal epithelial cells through the endogenous FADD protein by using the novel FADD death domain pathway, which activates both apoptosis and autophagy. We also show that selective resistance to this pathway occurs when primary epithelial cells are immortalized and that this occurs through a mechanism that is independent of known events (telomerase activity, and loss of function of p53, Rb, INK4a, and ARF) that are associated with immortalization. These data identify a novel cell death pathway that combines apoptosis and autophagy and that is selectively inactivated at the earliest stages of epithelial cancer development.
The need to unfold the underlying mechanisms of lung cancer aggressiveness, the deadliest cancer in the world, is of prime importance. Because Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) is the key adaptor molecule transmitting the apoptotic signal delivered by death receptors, we studied the presence and correlation of intra- and extracellular FADD protein with development and aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Fifty NSCLC patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Intracellular FADD was detected in patients' tissue by immunohistochemistry. Tumours and distant non-tumoural lung biopsies were cultured through trans-well membrane in order to analyse extracellular FADD. Correlation between different clinical/histological parameters with level/localisation of FADD protein has been investigated.
Fas-associated death domain protein could be specifically downregulated in tumoural cells and FADD loss correlated with the presence of extracellular FADD. Indeed, human NSCLC released FADD protein, and tumoural samples released significantly more FADD than non-tumoural (NT) tissue (P=0.000003). The release of FADD by both tumoural and NT tissue increased significantly with the cancer stage, and was correlated with both early and late steps of the metastasis process.
The release of FADD by human NSCLC could be a new marker of poor prognosis as it correlates positively with both tumour progression and aggressiveness.
non-small cell lung cancer; biomarker; FADD; prognosis; release
Triggering of Fas (CD95) by its ligand (FasL) rapidly induces cell death via recruitment of the adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain (FADD), resulting in activation of a caspase cascade. It was thus surprising that T lymphocytes deficient in FADD were reported recently to be not only resistant to FasL-mediated apoptosis, but also defective in their proliferative capacity. This finding suggested potentially dual roles of cell growth and death for Fas and possibly other death receptors. We report here that CD3-induced proliferation and interleukin 2 production by human T cells are blocked by inhibitors of caspase activity. This is paralleled by rapid cleavage of caspase-8 after CD3 stimulation, but no detectable processing of caspase-3 during the same interval. The caspase contribution to T cell activation may occur via TCR-mediated upregulation of FasL, as Fas-Fc blocked T cell proliferation, whereas soluble FasL augmented CD3-induced proliferation. These findings extend the role of death receptors to the promotion of T cell growth in a caspase-dependent manner.
caspase; T cell activation; Fas; costimulation; apoptosis
FADD (Fas Associated protein with Death Domain) is a key adaptor molecule transmitting the death signal mediated by death receptors. In addition, this multiple functional protein is implicated in survival/proliferation and cell cycle progression. FADD functions are regulated via cellular sublocalization, protein phosphorylation, and inhibitory molecules. In the present review, we focus on the role of the FADD adaptor in cancer. Increasing evidence shows that defects in FADD protein expression are associated with tumor progression both in mice and humans. Better knowledge of the mechanisms leading to regulation of FADD functions will improve understanding of tumor growth and the immune escape mechanisms, and could open a new field for therapeutic interventions.
The adapter protein FADD consists of two protein interaction domains: a death domain and a death effector domain. The death domain binds to activated death receptors such as Fas, whereas the death effector domain binds to procaspase 8. An FADD mutant, which consists of only the death domain (FADD-DD), inhibits death receptor–induced apoptosis. FADD-DD can also activate a mechanistically distinct, cell type–specific apoptotic pathway that kills normal but not cancerous prostate epithelial cells. Here, we show that this apoptosis occurs through activation of caspases 9, 3, 6, and 7 and a serine protease. Simultaneous inhibition of caspases and serine proteases prevents FADD-DD–induced death. Inhibition of either pathway alone does not prevent cell death but does affect the morphology of the dying cells. Normal prostate epithelial cells require both the caspase and serine protease inhibitors to efficiently prevent apoptosis in response to TRAIL. In contrast, the serine protease inhibitor does not affect TRAIL-induced death in prostate tumor cells suggesting that the FADD-DD–dependent pathway can be activated by TRAIL. This apoptosis pathway is activated in a cell type–specific manner that is defective in cancer cells, suggesting that this pathway may be targeted during cancer development.
Activation of NF-κB by bacterial LPS promotes the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines that contribute to the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septic shock. LPS activation of NF-κB is dependent upon the interaction of two death domain–containing (DD-containing) proteins, MyD88 and IL-1 receptor–associated kinase IRAK. Another DD-containing protein, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), also binds MyD88 through respective DD-DD interactions. Although FADD has been classically described as a proapoptotic signaling molecule, several reports have implicated a role for FADD in mediating NF-κB activation. In the present report, we investigated whether FADD could mediate LPS activation of NF-κB. Overexpression of FADD blocked LPS-induced NF-κB activation, whereas absence of FADD enhanced activation of NF-κB by LPS. Further, LPS-induced expression of two NF-κB–dependent gene products, IL-6 and KC, was enhanced in FADD–/– mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) compared with wild-type. This increase in NF-κB activity correlated with enhanced IκB degradation. FADD–/– MEFs were also resistant to NF-κB activation induced by IL-1β. Finally, reconstitution of full-length FADD in the FADD–/– MEFs completely reversed the enhanced activation of NF-κB elicited by either LPS or IL-1β. Together, these data indicate that FADD negatively regulates LPS- and IL-1β–induced NF-κB activation and that this regulation occurs upstream of IκB degradation.
Mice deficient in caspase-8, FADD, or cFLIP, present defects in yolk sac vascularization and embryonic lethality at E10.5. Ablation of RIPK3, a kinase that promotes a form of necrotic cell death, has recently been shown to rescue embryonic lethality in caspase-8 deficient animals. Here we show that while FADD, RIPK3 double knockouts develop normally, the lethal effects of cFLIP deletion are not rescued by RIPK3 deficiency. Remarkably, embryos lacking FADD, cFLIP, and RIPK3 develop normally. Distinct regions of apoptosis were observed in E9.5 FLIP, RIPK3 double knockout embryos, but not in caspase-8−/− or FADD−/− embryos. In vitro studies using death receptor stimulation show that the FADD-caspase-8-cFLIPL complex blocks RIPK3-dependent necrosis, while cFLIPL blocks RIPK3-independent apoptosis promoted by the FADD-caspase-8 complex. Together, these results suggest the cross-regulation of two distinct processes in development and death-receptor signaling: RIPK3-dependent signaling (including necrosis) controlled by the enzymatic activity of the FADD-caspase-8-cFLIPL complex, and cFLIPL control of RIPK3-independent apoptosis by FADD-caspase-8.
E1B 19K, the adenovirus Bcl-2 homologue, is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis induced by various stimuli including Fas and tumor necrosis factor-α. Fas and TNFR-1 belong to a family of cytokine-activated receptors that share key components in their signaling pathways, Fas-associating protein with death domain (FADD) and FADD-like interleukin-1β–converting enzyme (FLICE), to induce an apoptotic response. We demonstrate here that E1B 19K and Bcl-xL are able to inhibit apoptosis induced by FADD, but not FLICE. Surprisingly, apoptosis was abrogated by E1B 19K and Bcl-xL when FADD and FLICE were coexpressed. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that FADD expression produced large insoluble death effector filaments that may represent oligomerized FADD. E1B 19K expression disrupted FADD filament formation causing FADD and FLICE to relocalize to membrane and cytoskeletal structures where E1B 19K is normally localized. E1B 19K, however, does not detectably bind to FADD, nor does it inhibit FADD and FLICE from being recruited to the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) when Fas is stimulated. Thus, E1B 19K may inhibit Fas-mediated cell death downstream of FADD recruitment of FLICE but upstream of FLICE activation by disrupting FADD oligomerization and sequestering an essential component of the DISC.
Besides inducing apoptosis, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) activates NF-κB. The apoptosis signaling pathway of TRAIL is well characterized involving TRAIL receptors, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) and caspase-8. In contrast, the molecular mechanism of TRAIL signaling to NF-κB remains controversial. Here, we characterized the receptor–proximal mediators of NF-κB activation by TRAIL. Deletion of the DD of TRAIL receptors 1 and 2 revealed that it is essential in NF-κB signaling. Because FADD interacts with the TRAIL receptor DD, FADD was tested. RNAi-mediated knockdown of FADD or FADD deficiency in JURKAT T-cell leukemia cells decreased or disabled NF-κB signaling by TRAIL. In contrast, TRAIL-induced activation of NF-κB was maintained upon loss of receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) or knockdown of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP). Exogenous expression of FADD rescued TRAIL-induced NF-κB signaling. Loss-of-function mutations of FADD within the RHDLL motif of the death effector domain, which is required for TRAIL-induced apoptosis, abrogated FADD's ability to recruit caspase-8 and mediate NF-κB activation. Accordingly, deficiency of caspase-8 inhibited TRAIL-induced activation of NF-κB, which was rescued by wild-type caspase-8, but not by a catalytically inactive caspase-8 mutant. These data establish the mechanism of TRAIL-induced NF-κB activation involving the TRAIL receptor DD, FADD and caspase-8, but not RIP1 or FLIP. Our results show that signaling of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and NF-κB bifurcates downstream of caspase-8.
NF-κB; death receptor; signaling; DISC; p65
Trimeric tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding leads to recruitment of TRADD to TNFR1. In current models, TRADD recruits RIP, TRAF2, and FADD to activate NF-κB, Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and apoptosis. Using stable short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown (KD) cells targeting these adaptors, TNF death-inducing signaling complex immunoprecipitation demonstrates competitive binding of TRADD and RIP to TNFR1, whereas TRAF2 recruitment requires TRADD. Analysis of KD cells indicates that FADD is necessary for Fas-L- or TRAIL- but not TNF-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, TRADD is dispensable, while RIP is required for TNF-induced apoptosis in human tumor cells. TRADD is required for c-Jun phosphorylation upon TNF exposure. RIP KD abrogates formation of complex II following TNF exposure, whereas TRADD KD allows efficient RIP-caspase 8 association. Treatment with TRAIL also induces formation of a complex II containing FADD, RIP, IKKα, and caspase 8 and 10, leading to activation of caspase 8. Our data suggest that TNF triggers apoptosis in a manner distinct from that of Fas-L or TRAIL.