In the current study, the effect of metal ions in combination with buffers (citrate, acetate, pH 4.5) on the stability of aqueous solutions of oxytocin was investigated. Both monovalent metal ions (Na+ and K+) and divalent metal ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+) were tested all as chloride salts. The effect of combinations of buffers and metal ions on the stability of aqueous oxytocin solutions was determined by RP-HPLC and HP-SEC after 4 weeks of storage at either 4°C or 55°C. Addition of sodium or potassium ions to acetate- or citrate-buffered solutions did not increase stability, nor did the addition of divalent metal ions to acetate buffer. However, the stability of aqueous oxytocin in aqueous formulations was improved in the presence of 5 and 10 mM citrate buffer in combination with at least 2 mM CaCl2, MgCl2, or ZnCl2 and depended on the divalent metal ion concentration. Isothermal titration calorimetric measurements were predictive for the stabilization effects observed during the stability study. Formulations in citrate buffer that had an improved stability displayed a strong interaction between oxytocin and Ca2+, Mg2+, or Zn2+, while formulations in acetate buffer did not. In conclusion, our study shows that divalent metal ions in combination with citrate buffer strongly improved the stability of oxytocin in aqueous solutions.
citrate buffer; divalent metal ions; improved stability; oxytocin
The decrease in the sensitivity of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry caused by the presence of metal salts, such as sodium chloride, in the sample matrix is well known and is particularly problematic for biological samples. We report here that addition of high levels of ammonium acetate can improve analyte signal in aqueous electrospray solutions and counteracts the signal suppression caused by sodium chloride. A ~3-fold improvement in S/N is obtained by adding 8 M ammonium acetate to aqueous solutions of cytochrome c without added sodium chloride. No organic solvents or acids are added into the electrospray solutions. The signal-to-noise ratios of cytochrome c and ubiquitin (10−5 M) ions formed from aqueous solutions containing 2.0 × 10−2 M sodium chloride are improved by factors of ~7 and 11, respectively, by adding 7 M ammonium acetate to the solution. We propose that this effect is a result of the precipitation of Na+ and Cl− from solution within the evaporating electrospray droplets prior to the formation of gas-phase protein ions. This method is potentially useful for improving the abundance of protein ions formed from solutions in which the molecules have a nativelike conformation and is particularly advantageous for such solutions that have high levels of sodium.
The effects of commonly used therapeutic doses of hydrochlorothiazide and probenecid, given singly and in combination, on the urinary excretion of monovalent and divalent ions and on acid-base equilibrium were studied in four patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria.
Probenecid had no effect on the urinary excretion of monovalent ions but resulted in a sustained increase in the urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium and citrate and a temporary increase in the urinary excretion of ammonium, in addition to its well-known effects on uric acid metabolism. A temporary fall in serum phosphorus levels was also observed.
Probenecid also modified the response to hydrochlorothiazide in that the urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium and citrate was greater during combined therapy than when hydrochlorothiazide was administered alone. Probenecid prevented or abolished the increase in serum uric acid levels associated with the use of thiazide but did not modify the effects of hydrochlorothiazide on the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, potassiu, phosphorus, ammonium, titratable acid and bicarbonate.
The use of a combination of different drugs in postoperative analgesia extends the time of analgesia, makes it more efficient and allows the use of lower drug doses, which leads to less risk of side effects and drug dependence. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an HPLC method to determine the stability of fentanyl citrate and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixtures in standard infusion solutions of 0.9% sodium chloride and 5% glucose.
After optimisation, the HPLC method parameters were as follows: LiChrospher 100 CN, 250×4 mm (10 µm) column; mobile phase: mixture of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer at pH 2.8 (3:7, V/V) with addition of 0.08 g/l potassium chloride; flow rate: 1.5 ml/min; column temperature: 30°C; spectrophotometric detection at 210 nm. Development of the method involved checking the impact of acetonitrile and KCl concentrations in the mobile phase and choosing the internal standard. Method validation included determining the specificity of the method, its accuracy, linearity, precision, repeatability, limits of detection and quantification.
The retention times of bupivacaine hydrochloride, fentanyl citrate and procaine hydrochloride, used as an internal standard, were approximately 10 min, 15 min and 5 min, respectively. Method validation confirmed its selectivity, accuracy and precision. The average values of the variation and accuracy coefficients were 0.70% and 99.02% for bupivacaine hydrochloride, and 1.76% and 104.53% for fentanyl citrate. The intermediate precision values were 1.25% for bupivacaine hydrochloride and 1.52% for fentanyl citrate.
The hydration of the alkali metal ions in aqueous solution
has been studied by large angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) and double
difference infrared spectroscopy (DDIR). The structures of the dimethyl
sulfoxide solvated alkali metal ions in solution have been determined
to support the studies in aqueous solution. The results of the LAXS
and DDIR measurements show that the sodium, potassium, rubidium and
cesium ions all are weakly hydrated with only a single shell of water
molecules. The smaller lithium ion is more strongly hydrated, most
probably with a second hydration shell present. The influence of the
rubidium and cesium ions on the water structure was found to be very
weak, and it was not possible to quantify this effect in a reliable
way due to insufficient separation of the O–D stretching bands
of partially deuterated water bound to these metal ions and the O–D
stretching bands of the bulk water. Aqueous solutions of sodium, potassium
and cesium iodide and cesium and lithium hydroxide have been studied
by LAXS and M–O bond distances have been determined fairly
accurately except for lithium. However, the number of water molecules
binding to the alkali metal ions is very difficult to determine from
the LAXS measurements as the number of distances and the temperature
factor are strongly correlated. A thorough analysis of M–O
bond distances in solid alkali metal compounds with ligands binding
through oxygen has been made from available structure databases. There
is relatively strong correlation between M–O bond distances
and coordination numbers also for the alkali metal ions even though
the M–O interactions are weak and the number of complexes of
potassium, rubidium and cesium with well-defined coordination geometry
is very small. The mean M–O bond distance in the hydrated sodium,
potassium, rubidium and cesium ions in aqueous solution have been
determined to be 2.43(2), 2.81(1), 2.98(1) and 3.07(1) Å, which
corresponds to six-, seven-, eight- and eight-coordination. These
coordination numbers are supported by the linear relationship of the
hydration enthalpies and the M–O bond distances. This correlation
indicates that the hydrated lithium ion is four-coordinate in aqueous
solution. New ionic radii are proposed for four- and six-coordinate
lithium(I), 0.60 and 0.79 Å, respectively, as well as for five-
and six-coordinate sodium(I), 1.02 and 1.07 Å, respectively.
The ionic radii for six- and seven-coordinate K+, 1.38
and 1.46 Å, respectively, and eight-coordinate Rb+ and Cs+, 1.64 and 1.73 Å, respectively, are confirmed
from previous studies. The M–O bond distances in dimethyl sulfoxide
solvated sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium ions in solution are
very similar to those observed in aqueous solution.
The hydration of alkali metal ions has been studied by large angle
X-ray scattering, LAXS, and double difference infrared spectroscopy.
The obtained M−O bond distances from LAXS have been compared
to relevant crystal structures, conclusions about hydration numbers
in aqueous solution have been made, and new ionic radii have been
proposed. Hydration numbers of six, seven, eight and eight are proposed
for the sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium ions in aqueous solution.
The divalent ion requirements of rabbit platelet injury by endotoxin have been defined by the use of various anticoagulant solutions and have been compared to the divalent ion requirements of platelet injury produced by addition of antigen to immune platelet-rich plasma. The endotoxin-platelet interaction takes place in citrated blood. Platelet damage by antigen is inhibited by citrate, but preincubation of antigen and immune platelet-poor plasma in the absence of citrate results in a substance, presumably antigen-antibody complement complex, which then does injure platelets in the presence of citrate. Neither endotoxin nor preincubated antigen injures platelets in the presence of sodium EDTA in concentrations sufficient to interact with all divalent cations present in plasma. These observations have been interpreted by viewing the platelet-endotoxin interaction as a consequence of platelet phagocytosis of endotoxin, a reaction not requiring complement but requiring definite small concentrations of divalent cations. The interaction of antigen and platelets is regarded as a two phase reaction, the first requiring the participation of complement and concentrations of divalent cation larger than those provided in citrated plasma, the second requiring smaller concentrations of divalent cation, no further participation of complement, and active in citrated plasma. This second phase is regarded as representing platelet phagocytosis of immune complexes.
When two strains of phage T5 (heat-susceptible form T5st+ and its heat-resistant mutant T5st) were placed in solutions containing various high concentrations of chelating agents (sodium citrate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) at room temperature, they could be effectively inactivated by rapid dilution in distilled water of relatively low temperatures (2 to 37 C). This phenomenon has been termed “chelating agent shock” (CAS). The susceptibility of phage T5 to CAS increased with an increase in the concentration of chelating agents and with an increase in temperature of the water used for rapid dilution. Under any given condition, T5st+ was much more sensitive to CAS than was T5st. Phage T5 was protected against inactivation by the addition of monovalent or divalent metal salts, but not by the addition of nonionic solutes, to the shocking water prior to CAS treatment. This finding is compatible with the view that cations combined with the phage protein are removed by the chelating agent, although no metal ion has been identified in the phage protein. Alternatively, since the chelating agents used are polyanions, they may bind relatively tightly to the protein subunits in the head of T5, thereby distorting the structure of the phage head. Rapid dilution of these distorted particles could lead to loss of phage DNA. No evidence for recovery of phage activity could be obtained by the addition of metal salts to the inactivated phage after CAS. The morphological properties of phage inactivated by CAS are similar to those of heat-inactivated T5 phage. Electron micrographs showed that most of the phage particles consisted of empty head membranes; some of the particles had lost their tails. Both heritable and nonheritable resistance to heat was accompanied by resistance to CAS in phage T5. The sensitive element detected by each test seemed to be the same.
The autolytic N-acetylmuramidase present in Lactobacillus acidophilus strain 63 AM Gasser has an optimal pH between 5 and 6 when lysing intact cells or isolated cell walls. Cellular lysis at pH 5 is two to four times more rapid in citrate buffer of 0.01 M and 0.5 M or higher than in 0.1 M acetate buffer. It seems that sulfhydryl groups are required for both cell and wall autolysis. Heavy metal ions and p-chloro-mercuribenzoate, at low concentrations, are powerful inhibitors. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid stimulates cellular but not wall autolysis in acetate buffer to the level obtained in citrate buffer. The possible involvement of sulfhydryl groups in a mechanism of control of cellular autolytic activity is discussed. The autolytic enzyme, although unstable in solution at 37 C, can be extracted from walls by the use of solutions of bovine serum albumin (100 μg/ml) in 0.01 N NaOH. Soluble enzyme extracted from walls rebinds on to sodium decylsulfate-treated walls, but three times as much of the wall material is required to completely re-adsorb the activity.
With electrospray ionization from aqueous solutions, trivalent metal ions readily adduct to small peptides resulting in formation of predominantly (peptide + MT – H)2+, where MT = La, Tm, Lu, Sm, Ho, Yb, Pm, Tb, or Eu, for peptides with molecular weights below ~1000 Da, and predominantly (peptide + MT)3+ for larger peptides. ECD of (peptide + MT – H)2+ results in extensive fragmentation from which nearly complete sequence information can be obtained, even for peptides for which only singly protonated ions are formed in the absence of the metal ions. ECD of these doubly charged complexes containing MT results in significantly higher electron capture efficiency and sequence coverage than peptide-divalent metal ion complexes that have the same net charge. Formation of salt-bridge structures in which the metal ion coordinates to a carboxylate group are favored even for (peptide + MT)3+. ECD of these latter complexes for large peptides results in electron capture by the protonation site located remotely from the metal ion and predominantly c/z fragments for all metals, except Eu3+, which undergoes a one electron reduction and only loss of small neutral molecules and b/y fragments are formed. These results indicate that solvation of the metal ion in these complexes is extensive, resulting in similar electrochemical properties of these metal ions both in the peptide environment and in water.
The effect of the simultaneous presence of mono- and divalent cations on the thermodynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions is not fully understood. In physiological conditions, combinations of these ions affect structure formation in biopolymer systems. It is known that divalent counterions form a tight sheath around the polymer backbone, while monovalent ions are distributed in a diffuse cloud. Dynamic light scattering measurements of the collective diffusion coefficient D and the osmotic compressibility of semi-dilute hyaluronan solutions containing different ratios of sodium and calcium ions are compared with simple polyelectrolyte models. Scaling relationships are derived in terms of polymer concentration and ionic strength J of the added salt. Differences in the effects of sodium and calcium ions are expressed only through J.
polyelectrolyte solutions; ion distribution; ionic strength; dynamic light scattering; collective diffusion; osmotic compression modulus
1. Purified citrate-extracted ichthyocol obtained from carp swim bladders has been further characterized with respect to its content of certain amino acids and carbohydrate substances. 2. The degree of solubilization or dispersion of ichthyocol by solutions of certain salts maintained in the range of neutral pH and at a temperature of 0–2°C. has been determined. 3. While a number of salts of monovalent cations had no significant solubilizing effects on ichthyocol, ammonium chloride in a concentration of 1 M did cause solution of the protein. 4. Sodium thiosulfate in a range of concentrations caused the solubilization of ichthyocol but was most effective in an intermediate concentration of 0.25 M. 5. Several salts of divalent cations, in particular the chlorides of calcium, magnesium, and barium, and magnesium thiosulfate in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 1 M caused the immediate and complete solubilization of the ichthyocol. 6. Solutions of ichthyocol in calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, and sodium thiosulfate buffered or adjusted to pH 7.0, were studied with respect to intrinsic viscosity of the protein, optical rotation, ultracentrifugal sedimentation, and reconstitution into fibers. It was found in each case that the original characteristics of the collagen, as determined previously in acid solution, were maintained when the protein was dissolved in salt solutions of neutral pH. No evidence of denaturation or gelatinization could be found when ichthyocol was solubilized under the stated conditions. 7. Collagen in neutral solution with sodium thiosulfate, calcium chloride, or magnesium chloride was not attacked by trypsin as determined viscometrically at 20.0°C., but was rapidly degraded by a purified bacterial collagenase.
Dead dried Chlorella vulgaris was studied in terms of its performance in binding divalent copper, cadmium, and lead ions from their aqueous or 50% v/v methanol, ethanol, and acetone solutions. The percentage uptake of cadmium ions exhibited a general decrease with decrease in dielectric constant values, while that of copper and lead ions showed a general decrease with increase in donor numbers. Uptake percentage becomes less sensitive to solvent properties the larger the atomic radius of the biosorbed ion, and uptake of copper was the most affected. FT-IR analyses revealed stability of the biomass in mixed solvents and a shift in vibrations of amide(I) and (II), carboxylate, glucose ring, and metal oxygen upon metal binding in all media. ΔνCOO values (59–69 cm−1) confirmed bidentate metal coordination to carboxylate ligands. The value of νasCOO increased slightly upon Cu, Cd, and Pb biosorption from aqueous solutions indicating lowering of symmetry, while a general decrease was noticed in mixed solvents pointing to the opposite. M–O stretching frequencies increased unexpectedly with increase in atomic mass as a result of solvent effect on the nature of binding sites. Lowering polarity of the solvent permits variations in metal-alga bonds strengths; the smaller the metal ion, the more affected.
The mannoprotein which is a major component of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an effective bioemulsifier. Mannoprotein emulsifier was extracted in a high yield from whole cells of fresh bakers' yeast by two methods, by autoclaving in neutral citrate buffer and by digestion with Zymolase (Miles Laboratories; Toronto, Ontario, Canada), a beta-1,3-glucanase. Heat-extracted emulsifier was purified by ultrafiltration and contained approximately 44% carbohydrate (mannose) and 17% protein. Treatment of the emulsifier with protease eliminated emulsification. Kerosene-in-water emulsions were stabilized over a broad range of conditions, from pH 2 to 11, with up to 5% sodium chloride or up to 50% ethanol in the aqueous phase. In the presence of a low concentration of various solutes, emulsions were stable to three cycles of freezing and thawing. An emulsifying agent was extracted from each species or strain of yeast tested, including 13 species of genera other than Saccharomyces. Spent yeast from the manufacture of beer and wine was demonstrated to be a possible source for the large-scale production of this bioemulsifier.
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has important glucoregulatory functions and thereby holds significance in the treatment of diabetes and obesity. However, short plasma half-life and aggregation propensity of PP in aqueous solution, limits its therapeutic application. To address these issues, we prepared and characterized a formulation of PP in sterically stabilized micelles (SSM) that protects and stabilizes PP in its active conformation.
PP-SSM was prepared by incubating PP with SSM dispersion in buffer. Peptide-micelle association and freeze-drying efficacy of the formulation was characterized in phosphate buffers with or without sodium chloride using dynamic light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The degradation kinetics of PP-SSM in presence of proteolytic enzyme was determined using HPLC and bioactivity of the formulation was evaluated by in vitro cAMP inhibition.
PP self-associated with SSM and this interaction was influenced by presence/absence of sodium chloride in the buffer. The formulation was effectively lyophilized, demonstrating feasibility for its long-term storage. The stability of peptide against proteolytic degradation was significantly improved and PP in SSM retained its bioactivity in vitro.
Self-association of PP with phospholipid micelles addressed the delivery issues of the peptide. This PP nanomedicine should be further developed for the treatment of diabetes.
Chronic Pancreatitis; Pancreatic Polypeptide; Pancreatogenic Diabetes; Peptide nanomedicine; Sterically Stabilized Micelles
Interactions between divalent metal ions and biomolecules are common both in solution and in the gas phase. Here, the intrinsic effect of divalent alkaline earth metal ions (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) on the structure of glycine in the absence of solvent is examined. Results from both density functional and Moller–Plesset theories indicate that for all metal ions except beryllium, the salt-bridge form of the ion, in which glycine is a zwitterion, is between 5 and 12 kcal/mol more stable than the charge-solvated structure in which glycine is in its neutral form. For beryllium, the charge-solvated structure is 5–8 kcal/mol more stable than the salt-bridge structure. Thus, there is a dramatic change in the structure of glycine with increased metal cation size. Using a Hartree–Fock-based partitioning method, the interaction between the metal ion and glycine is separated into electrostatic, charge transfer and deformation components. The charge transfer interactions are more important for stabilizing the charge-solvated structure of glycine with beryllium relative to magnesium. In contrast, the difference in stability between the charge-solvated and salt-bridge structure for magnesium is mostly due to electrostatic interactions that favor formation of the salt-bridge structure. These results indicate that divalent metal ions dramatically influence the structure of this simplest amino acid in the gas phase.
Citrate uptake in Bacillus subtilis is stimulated by a wide range of divalent metal ions. The metal ions were separated into two groups based on the expression pattern of the uptake system. The two groups correlated with the metal ion specificity of two homologous B. subtilis secondary citrate transporters, CitM and CitH, upon expression in Escherichia coli. CitM transported citrate in complex with Mg2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Co2+, and Zn2+ but not in complex with Ca2+, Ba2+, and Sr2+. CitH transported citrate in complex with Ca2+, Ba2+, and Sr2+ but not in complex with Mg2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Co2+, and Zn2+. Both transporters did not transport free citrate. Nevertheless, free citrate uptake could be demonstrated in B. subtilis, indicating the expression of at least a third citrate transporter, whose identity is not known. For both the CitM and CitH transporters it was demonstrated that the metal ion promoted citrate uptake and, vice versa, that citrate promoted uptake of the metal ion, indicating that the complex is the transported species. The results indicate that CitM and CitH are secondary transporters that transport complexes of divalent metal ions and citrate but with a complementary metal ion specificity. The potential physiological function of the two transporters is discussed.
RNase H1 from extreme halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 (Halo-RNH1) consists of an N-terminal domain with unknown function and a C-terminal RNase H domain. It is characterized by the high content of acidic residues on the protein surface. The far- and near-UV CD spectra of Halo-RNH1 suggested that Halo-RNH1 assumes a partially folded structure in the absence of salt and divalent metal ions. It requires either salt or divalent metal ions for folding. However, thermal denaturation of Halo-RNH1 analyzed in the presence of salt and/or divalent metal ions by CD spectroscopy suggested that salt and divalent metal ions independently stabilize the protein and thereby facilitate folding. Divalent metal ions stabilize the protein probably by binding mainly to the active site and suppressing negative charge repulsions at this site. Salt stabilizes the protein probably by increasing hydrophobic interactions at the protein core and decreasing negative charge repulsions on the protein surface. Halo-RNH1 exhibited activity in the presence of divalent metal ions regardless of the presence or absence of 3 M NaCl. However, higher concentrations of divalent metal ions are required for activity in the absence of salt to facilitate folding. Thus, divalent metal ions play a dual role in catalysis and folding of Halo-RNH1. Construction of the Halo-RNH1 derivatives lacking an N- or C-terminal domain, followed by biochemical characterizations, indicated that an N-terminal domain is dispensable for stability, activity, folding, and substrate binding of Halo-RNH1.
▸ Halophilic RNase H1 is partially folded in the absence of salt. ▸ Salt induces folding by decreasing negative charge repulsions on the protein surface. ▸ Divalent metal ions induce folding by binding to the active site. ▸ Divalent metal ions play a dual role in catalysis and folding of the enzyme.
RNase H; Halobacterium sp. NRC-1; Salt-dependent folding; Divalent metal ions; N-terminal domain; RNase H, ribonuclease H; Halo-RNH1, RNase H1 from Halobacterium sp. NRC-1; Halo-NTD, N-terminal domain (residues 1–68) of Halo-RNH1; Halo-CTD, C-terminal domain (residues 69–199) of Halo-RNH1; GdnHCl, guanidine hydrochloride
A microplate technique was developed to determine the conditions under which pure cultures of algae removed heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Variables investigated included algal species and strain, culture age (11 and 44 days), metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, and zinc), pH, effects of different buffer solutions, and time of exposure. Plastic, U-bottomed microtiter plates were used in conjunction with heavy metal radionuclides to determine concentration factors for metal-alga combinations. The technique developed was rapid, statistically reliable, and economical of materials and cells. Results (expressed as concentration factors) were in reasonably good agreement with literature values. All species of algae studied removed mercury from solution. Green algae proved better at accumulating cadmium than did blue-green algae. No alga studied removed zinc, perhaps because cells were maintained in the dark during the labeling period. Chlamydomonas sp. proved superior in ability to remove lead from solution.
Studies of taste receptor cells, chorda tympani (CT) neurons, and brainstem neurons show stimulus interactions in the form of inhibition or enhancement of the effectiveness of sucrose when mixed with acids or citrate salts, respectively. To investigate further the effects of acids and the trivalent citrate anion on sucrose responses in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), we recorded multifiber CT responses to 100 mM sucrose; a concentration series of HCl, citric acid, acetic acid, sodium citrate (with and without amiloride added), potassium citrate, and all binary combinations of acids and salts with 100 mM sucrose. Compared with response additivity, sucrose responses were increasingly suppressed in acid + sucrose mixtures with increases in titratable acidity, but HCl and citric acid were more effective suppressors than acetic acid. Citrate salts suppressed sucrose responses and baseline CT neural activity to a similar degree. Citrate salts also elicited prolonged, concentration-dependent, water-rinse responses. The specific loss in sucrose effectiveness as a CT stimulus with increasing titratable acidity was confirmed; however, no increase in sucrose effectiveness was found with the addition of citrate. Further study is needed to define the chemical basis for effects of acids and salts in taste mixtures.
acid; chorda tympani; citrate salts; sucrose; taste mixtures; water-rinse responses
The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca2+ and not as free citrate or the Mg2+-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca2+-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca2+ and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca2+-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca2+-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca2+-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca2+-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages.
Ecological risk assessment can be enhanced with predictive models for metal toxicity. Modelings of published data were done under the simplifying assumption that intermetal trends in toxicity reflect relative metal-ligand complex stabilities. This idea has been invoked successfully since 1904 but has yet to be applied widely in quantitative ecotoxicology. Intermetal trends in toxicity were successfully modeled with ion characteristics reflecting metal binding to ligands for a wide range of effects. Most models were useful for predictive purposes based on an F-ratio criterion and cross-validation, but anomalous predictions did occur if speciation was ignored. In general, models for metals with the same valence (i.e., divalent metals) were better than those combining mono-, di-, and trivalent metals. The softness parameter (sigma p) and the absolute value of the log of the first hydrolysis constant ([symbol: see text] log KOH [symbol: see text]) were especially useful in model construction. Also, delta E0 contributed substantially to several of the two-variable models. In contrast, quantitative attempts to predict metal interactions in binary mixtures based on metal-ligand complex stabilities were not successful.
The divalent transition-metal cations Fe, Co, and Ni were used to test the hypothesis that Mn ions pass through calcium channels because Mn ions have a relatively low energy of hydration. The test ions were applied to the bath and comparisons were made of their effects on Ca or Mn spikes elicited from myoepithelial cells of the proventriculus of the polychaete worm Syllis spongiphila. Control experiments showed that (a) results obtained using deoxygenated solutions (required to stabilize Fe2+ ions) could be compared with those using solutions containing oxygen, and (b) the test cations did not measurably affect the electrical coupling between cells. Ca spikes were reversibly abolished by the test cations in the order of effectiveness: Fe (16.1 mM +/- 1.0, SE; n = 15) = Co (14.6 mM +/- 0.8; n = 27) less than Ni (8.3 mM +/- 0.7; n = 16). The test cations diminished Mn spikes by decreasing maximum rates of rise (Fe = Co less than Ni) and overshoot amplitudes (Fe less than Co less than Ni). The test cations also increased the current intensity required for Ca (Fe = Co less than Ni) or Mn spike initiation (Fe less than Co less than Ni). Since the energies of hydration of Fe, Co, and Ni increase stepwise from that of Mn, and the effectiveness of these ions in diminishing Ca and Mn spikes increased in the order Fe less than or equal to Co less than Ni, these data support the hypothesis that Mn ions pass through Ca channels because they shed waters of hydration relatively easily. An additional observation was that, at below-blocking concentrations, the test cations caused decreased duration of Mn spikes and increased duration of Ca spikes.
Controlling degradation of magnesium or its alloys in physiological saline solutions is essential for their potential applications in clinically viable implants. Rapid degradation of magnesium-based materials reduces the mechanical properties of implants prematurely and severely increases alkalinity of the local environment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of three interactive factors on magnesium degradation, specifically, the addition of yttrium to form a magnesium-yttrium alloy versus pure magnesium, the metallic versus oxide surfaces, and the presence versus absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution. In the immersion solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the slowest, followed by pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface degraded the fastest. However, in deionized (DI) water, the degradation rate showed a different trend. Specifically, pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces degraded the slowest, followed by the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the fastest. Interestingly, only magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded slower in PBS than in DI water, while all the other samples degraded faster in PBS than in DI water. Clearly, the results showed that the alloy composition, presence or absence of surface oxide layer, and presence or absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution all influenced the degradation rate and mode. Moreover, these three factors showed statistically significant interactions. This study revealed the complex interrelationships among these factors and their respective contributions to degradation for the first time. The results of this study not only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in physiological environment, but also presented the key factors to consider in order to satisfy the degradation requirements for next-generation biodegradable implants and devices.
Pasteurella multocida is a pathogen of veterinary and medical importance. Here, we report the 1.85 Å resolution crystal structure of the class C acid phosphatase from this organism (denoted rPmCCAP). The structure shows that rPmCCAP exhibits the same haloacid dehalogenase fold and dimeric assembly as the class C enzyme from Haemophilus influenzae. Formation of the dimer in solution is demonstrated using analytical ultracentrifugation. The active site is devoid of a magnesium ion due to the presence of citrate in the crystallization buffer. Absence of the metal ion minimally perturbs the active site structure, which suggests that the main role of the ion is to balance the negative charge of the substrate rather than stabilize the active site structure. The crystal lattice displays unusual crystal packing involving the C-terminal polyhistidine tag mimicking the substrate. Steady-state kinetic constants are determined for the substrates NMN, 5´-AMP, 3´-AMP, 2´-AMP, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The highest catalytic efficiency is observed with NMN. The production of polyclonal anti-rPmCCAP antibodies is demonstrated, and these antibodies are shown to cross-react with the H. influenzae class C phosphatase. The antibodies are used to detect PmCCAP in clinical P. multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica strains cultured from infected animals.
X-ray crystallography; class C acid phosphatase; analytical ultracentrifugation; steady-state kinetics; polyhistidine affinity tag; haloacid dehalogenase fold
The periodic distribution of known and suspected carcinogenic metal ions is described, and the chemical behavior of various types of metal ions is explained in terms of the general theory of hard and soft acids and bases. The chelate effect is elucidated, and the relatively high stability of metal chelates in very dilute solutions is discussed. The concepts employed for the chelate effect are extended to explain the high stabilities of macrocyclic and cryptate complexes. Procedures for the use of equilibrium data to determine the speciation of metal ions and complexes under varying solution conditions are described. Methods for assessing the interferences by hydrogen ion, competing metal ions, hydrolysis, and precipitation are explained, and are applied to systems containing iron(III) chelates of fourteen chelating agents designed for effective binding of the ferric ion. The donor groups available for the building up of multidentate ligands are presented, and the ways in which they may be combined to achieve high affinity and selectivity for certain types of metal ions are explained.