Many species of marine shrimp in the Family Penaeidae, viz. Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) chinensis, and Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus, are animals of economic importance in the aquaculture industry. Yet information about their DNA and protein sequences is lacking. In order to predict their collective proteome, we combined over 270,000 available EST and cDNA sequences from the 4 shrimp species with all protein sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. EST data from 4 other crustaceans, the crab Carcinus maenas, the lobster Homarus americanus (Decapoda), the water flea Daphnia pulex, and the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were also used.
Similarity searches from EST collections of the 4 shrimp species matched 64% of the protein sequences of the fruit fly, but only 45% of nematode proteins, indicating that the shrimp proteome content is more similar to that of an insect than a nematode. Combined results with 4 additional non-shrimp crustaceans increased matching to 78% of fruit fly and 56% of nematode proteins, suggesting that present shrimp EST collections still lack sequences for many conserved crustacean proteins. Analysis of matching data revealed the presence of 4 EST groups from shrimp, namely sequences for proteins that are both fruit fly-like and nematode-like, fruit fly-like only, nematode-like only, and non-matching. Gene ontology profiles of proteins for the 3 matching EST groups were analyzed. For non-matching ESTs, a small fraction matched protein sequences from other species in the UniProt database, including other crustacean-specific proteins.
Shrimp ESTs indicated that the shrimp proteome is comprised of sub-populations of proteins similar to those common to both insect and nematode models, those present specifically in either model, or neither. Combining small EST collections from related species to compensate for their small size allowed prediction of conserved expressed protein components encoded by their uncharacterized genomes. The organized data should be useful for transferring annotation data from model species into shrimp data and for further studies on shrimp proteins with particular functions or groups.
Nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial control region and genotypes from 5 nuclear microsatellite loci were used to examine genetic structure and infer recent (within approximately the last 3,000 years) evolutionary history of a population (549 individuals) of the southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus). Observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.61 to 0.89 across microsatellite loci and systematically were lower than expected heterozygosity values (0.66–0.95). Probability of unique identity using microsatellite data was high (1 individual in 66,005,424). Fifty-three mitochondrial haplotypes were obtained from 150 individuals. FST values estimated from sequence and microsatellite data were 0.061 and 0.011, respectively, and the RST for microsatellite data was 0.007. Within-group genetic variation ranged from 93.90% to 99.99% depending on whether sequence or microsatellite data were examined. Analyses of microsatellite data suggested that all sampled individuals belonged to a single population, albeit genetically diverse. However, combined data analyses suggested the presence of low levels of substructure attributable to maternal lineages within the population. Low nucleotide-diversity values (0.007–0.010) in addition to high haplotype-diversity values (0.915–0.933) indicate a high number of closely related haplotypes, and suggest that this population may have undergone a recent expansion. However, Fu's FS statistic did not fully support this finding, because it did not reveal a significant excess of recent mutations. A phylogenetic approach using the haplotype sequence data and a combined set including both haplotype and genotype data was used to test for evolutionary patterns and history.
control region; D-loop; evolutionary history; genetic structure; microsatellites; Neotoma micropus; population genetics
Genetic data were used to measure the phylogeographic distribution of the limpet, Cellana toreuma along the China coast in order to acsertain impacts of historic events, ocean currents and especially freshwater discharge from the Yangtze River on the connectivity of intertidal species with limited larval dispersal capability.
Genetic variation in 15 populations of C. toreuma (n = 418), ranging from the Yellow Sea (YS), East China Sea (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS), were determined from partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Genetic diversity and divergence based on haplotype frequencies were analyzed using CONTRIB, and AMOVA was used to examine genetic population structure. Historic demographic expansions were evaluated from both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution tests. Among the 30 haplotypes identified, a dominant haplotype No. 1 (H1) existed in all the populations, and a relatively abundant private haplotype (H2) in YS. Pairwise FST values between YS and the other two groups were relatively high and the percentage of variation among groups was 10.9%.
The high nucleotide and gene diversity in the YS, with large pairwise genetic distances and relatively high percentages of variation among groups, suggests that this group was relatively isolated from ECS and SCS. This is likely driven by historic events, ocean currents, and demographic expansion. We propose that freshwater discharge from the Yangtze River, which may act as physical barrier limiting the southward dispersal of larvae from northern populations, is especially important in determining the separation of the YS group from the rest of the Chinese populations of C. toreuma.
Plants and invertebrates can suppress viral infection through RNA silencing, mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Trans-activation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP), consisting of three double-stranded RNA-binding domains, is a component of the RISC. In our previous paper, a TRBP homologue in Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Fc-TRBP) was reported to directly bind to eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (Fc-eIF6). In this study, we further characterized the function of TRBP and the involvement of TRBP and eIF6 in antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway of shrimp. The double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs) B and C of the TRBP from Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-TRBP) were found to mediate the interaction of TRBP and eIF6. Gel-shift assays revealed that the N-terminal of Mj-TRBP dsRBD strongly binds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and that the homodimer of the TRBP mediated by the C-terminal dsRBD increases the affinity to dsRNA. RNAi against either Mj-TRBP or Mj-eIF6 impairs the dsRNA-induced sequence-specific RNAi pathway and facilitates the proliferation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). These results further proved the important roles of TRBP and eIF6 in the antiviral response of shrimp.
Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead 1910 (Diptera: Glossinidae) is the primary vector of human sleeping sickness in Kenya and Uganda. This is the first report on its population structure. A total of 688 nucleotides of mitochondrial ribosomal 16S2 and cytochrome oxidase I genes were sequenced. Twenty-one variants were scored in 79 flies from three geographically diverse natural populations. Four haplotypes were shared among populations, eight were private and nine were singletons. The mean haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0.84 and 0.009, respectively. All populations were genetically differentiated and were at demographic equilibrium. In addition, a longstanding laboratory culture originating from the Central African Republic (CAR-lab) in 1986 (or before) was examined. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in this culture were 0.95 and 0.012, respectively. None of its 27 haplotypes were shared with the East African populations. A first approximation of relative effective population sizes was Uganda > CAR-lab > Kenya. It was concluded that the structure of G. f. fuscipes populations in East Africa is localized.
Glossina; breeding structure; genetic differentiation; tsetse
The heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family is widely expressed in eukaryotic cells as the major chaperone protein. In this study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of a novel inducible cytosolic Hsp70 family member (FcHsp70) was cloned from Fenneropenaeus chinensis. FcHsp70 full-length cDNA consists of 2,511 bp with a 1,890-bp open reading frame encoding 629 amino acids. Three Hsp70 protein family signatures, IDLGTTYS, IIDLGGGTFDVSIL, and IVLVGGSTRIPKVQK, were found in the predicted FcHsp70 amino acid sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that FcHsp70 was categorized together with the inducible HSP70s reported in other crustaceans. Compared to the previously identified cognate Hsp70 (FcHsc70) in F. chinensis, the expression of FcHsp70 showed quite different expression profiles when the shrimp were subjected to different stresses including heat shock and heavy metal treatments. Under heat shock treatment, the expression of FcHsp70 showed much higher up-regulation than FcHsc70. Copper treatment also induced higher up-regulation of FcHsp70 than FcHsc70. Cadmium treatment did not induce the expression of FcHsp70, but caused down-regulation of FcHsc70. The different expression profiles of FcHsp70 and FcHsc70 in shrimp may indicate their different reactions to different stresses. Therefore, Hsp70 or Hsc70 could be developed as a biomarker to indicate different stresses in shrimp.
Heat shock proteins; Hsp70; Heat shock; Heavy metal; Stress; Fenneropenaeus chinensis
Sinocalycanthus chinensis, an endangered species endemic to China, is cultivated as an ornamental landscape tree in China. However, S. chinensis, Chimonanthus species and Calycanthus floridus are difficult to be distinguished in seedling market because of their similar morphological characters. In this study, ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeats) were applied to detect S. chinensis from its closely related species. A unique 748-bp band was found in all accessions of S. chinensis. SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) markers were created by cloning and sequencing the specific band, and designing a pair of primers to amplify the band of 748 bp. Diagnostic PCRs were performed using the primer pair with the total DNAs of S. chinensis, Chimonanthus species and C. floridus as templates, with only S. chinensis being able to be amplified. This amplification is not only rapid (results can be obtained in less than 3 h), but is also easy to perform. Hence it is a feasible method for identifying S. chinensis in seedling market.
Authentication; Diagnostic PCRs; ISSR; SCAR; Sinocalycanthus chinensis; Specie-specific
Biological invasions represent a serious threat for the conservation of biodiversity in many ecosystems. While many social insect species and in particular ant species have been introduced outside their native ranges, few species have been successful at invading temperate forests. In this study, we document for the first time the relationship between the abundance of the introduced ant, Pachycondyla chinensis, in mature forests of North Carolina and the composition, abundance and diversity of native ant species using both a matched pair approach and generalized linear models. Where present, P. chinensis was more abundant than all native species combined. The diversity and abundance of native ants in general and many individual species were negatively associated with the presence and abundance of P. chinensis. These patterns held regardless of our statistical approach and across spatial scales. Interestingly, while the majority of ant species was strongly and negatively correlated with the abundance and presence of P. chinensis, a small subset of ant species larger than P. chinensis was either as abundant or even more abundant in invaded than in uninvaded sites. The large geographic range of this ant species combined with its apparent impact on native species make it likely to have cascading consequences on eastern forests in years to come, effects mediated by the specifics of its life history which is very different from those of other invasive ants. The apparent ecological impacts of P. chinensis are in addition to public health concerns associated with this species due to its sometimes, deadly sting.
During the Cenozoic, Southeast Asia was profoundly affected by plate tectonic events, dynamic river systems, fluctuating sea levels, shifting coastlines, and climatic variation, which have influenced the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of the Southeast Asian flora and fauna. We examined the role of these paleogeographic factors on shaping phylogeographic patterns focusing on a species of semiaquatic snake, Enhydris subtaeniata (Serpentes: Homalopsidae) using sequence data from three mitochondrial fragments (cytochrome b, ND4, and ATPase—2785 bp). We sampled E. subtaeniata from seven locations in three river drainage basins that encompassed most of this species’ range. Genetic diversities were typically low within locations but high across locations. Moreover, each location had a unique suite of haplotypes not shared among locations, and pairwise φST values (0.713–0.998) were highly significant between all location pairs. Relationships among phylogroups were well resolved and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed strong geographical partitioning of genetic variance among the three river drainage basins surveyed. The genetic differences observed among the populations of E. subtaeniata were likely shaped by the Quaternary landscapes of Indochina and the Sunda Shelf. Historically, the middle and lower Mekong consisted of strongly dissected river valleys separated by low mountain ranges and much of the Sunda Shelf consisted of lowland river valleys that served to connect faunas associated with major regional rivers. It is thus likely that the contemporary genetic patterns observed among populations of E. subtaeniata are the result of their histories in a complex terrain that created abundant opportunities for genetic isolation and divergence yet also provided lowland connections across now drowned river valleys.
Freshwater snake; Homalopsidae; Khorat basin; Mekong River; Pleistocene; Sea levels; Sundaland
In order to describe the influence of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic structure and demography of a highly mobile, but specialized, passerine, the Savi’s Warbler (Locustella luscinioides), mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2) and microsatellites were analysed in c.330 individuals of 17 breeding and two wintering populations. Phylogenetic, population genetics and coalescent methods were used to describe the genetic structure, determine the timing of the major splits and model the demography of populations. Savi’s Warblers split from its sister species c.8 million years ago and have two major haplotype groups that diverged in the early/middle Pleistocene. One of these clades originated in the Balkans and is currently widespread, showing strong evidence for population expansion; whereas the other is restricted to Iberia and remained stable. Microsatellites agreed with a genetic break around the Pyrenees, but showed considerable introgression and a weaker genetic structure. Both genetic markers showed an isolation-by-distance pattern associated with the population expansion of the eastern clade. Breeding populations seem to be segregated at the wintering sites, but results on migratory connectivity are preliminary. Savi’s Warbler is the only known migratory bird species in which Iberian birds did not expand beyond the Pyrenees after the last glaciation. Despite the long period of independent evolution of western and eastern populations, complete introgression occurred when these groups met in Iberia. Mitochondrial sequences indicated the existence of refugia-within-refugia in the Iberian Peninsula during the last glacial period, which is surprising given the high dispersal capacity of this species. Plumage differences of eastern subspecies seemed to have evolved recently through natural selection, in agreement with the glacial expansion hypothesis. This study supports the great importance of the Iberian Peninsula and its role for the conservation of genetic variation.
Recent studies have shown that the ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome pathway (UPP) is closely related to immune defense. We have identified a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2, from the Chinese white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcUbc). Injection of recombinant FcUbc protein (rFcUbc) reduced the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and inhibited replication of WSSV. rFcUbc, but not a mutant FcUbc (mFcUbc), bound to WSSV RING domains (WRDs) from four potential E3 ligase proteins of WSSV in vitro. Importantly, rFcUbc could ubiquitinate the RING domains (named WRD2 and WRD3) of WSSV277 and WSSV304 proteins in vitro and the two proteins in WSSV-infected Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells. Furthermore, overexpression of FcUbc increased ubiquitination of WSSV277 and WSSV304 during WSSV infection. In summary, our study demonstrates that FcUbc from Chinese white shrimp inhibited WSSV replication and could ubiquitinate WSSV RING domain-containing proteins. This is the first report about antiviral function of Ubc E2 in shrimp.
There is an ongoing discussion in the literature on whether human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolves neutrally. There have been previous claims for natural selection on human mtDNA based on an excess of non-synonymous mutations and higher evolutionary persistence of specific mitochondrial mutations in Arctic populations. However, these findings were not supported by the reanalysis of larger datasets. Using a geographical framework, we perform the first direct test of the relative extent to which climate and past demography have shaped the current spatial distribution of mtDNA sequences worldwide. We show that populations living in colder environments have lower mitochondrial diversity and that the genetic differentiation between pairs of populations correlates with difference in temperature. These associations were unique to mtDNA; we could not find a similar pattern in any other genetic marker. We were able to identify two correlated non-synonymous point mutations in the ND3 and ATP6 genes characterized by a clear association with temperature, which appear to be plausible targets of natural selection producing the association with climate. The same mutations have been previously shown to be associated with variation in mitochondrial pH and calcium dynamics. Our results indicate that natural selection mediated by climate has contributed to shape the current distribution of mtDNA sequences in humans.
mtDNA; selection; climate; temperature; human evolution; single nucleotide polymorphisms
Environmental preferences and past climatic changes may determine the length of time during which a species range has contracted or expanded from refugia, thereby influencing levels of genetic diversification. Connectivity among populations of steppe-associated taxa might have been maximal during the long glacial periods, and interrupted only during the shorter interglacial phases, potentially resulting in low levels of genetic differentiation among populations. We investigated this hypothesis by exploring patterns of genetic diversity, past demography and gene flow in a raptor species characteristic of steppes, the Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), using mitochondrial DNA data from 13 breeding populations and two wintering populations.
Consistent with our hypothesis, Montagu's harrier has relatively low genetic variation at the mitochondrial DNA. The highest levels of genetic diversity were found in coastal Spain, France and central Asia. These areas, which were open landscapes during the Holocene, may have acted as refugia when most of the European continent was covered by forests. We found significant genetic differentiation between two population groups, at the SW and NE parts of the species' range. Two events of past population growth were detected, and occurred ca. 7500-5500 and ca. 3500-1000 years BP in the SW and NE part of the range respectively. These events were likely associated with vegetation shifts caused by climate and human-induced changes during the Holocene.
The relative genetic homogeneity observed across populations of this steppe raptor may be explained by a short isolation time, relatively recent population expansions and a relaxed philopatry. We highlight the importance of considering the consequence of isolation and colonization processes in order to better understand the evolutionary history of steppe species.
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) works as a multi-functional chaperone and is involved in the regulation of many essential cellular pathways. In this study, we have identified a full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of HSP90 (FcHSP90) from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. FcHSP90 full-length cDNA comprised 2,552 bp, including a 2,181-bp open reading frame encoding 726 amino acids. Both homology analyses using alignment with previously identified HSP90 and a phylogeny tree indicated that FcHSP90 was a cytoplasmic HSP90. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that FcHSP90 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues but with highest levels in ovary of F. chinensis. FcHSP90 mRNA levels were sensitively induced by heat shock (from 25°C to 35°C) and reached the maximum at 6 h during heat shock treatment. Under hypoxia conditions, FcHSP90 mRNA levels, in both hemocytes and gill, were induced at 2 h and depressed at 8 h during hypoxia stress. The assessment of FcHSP90 mRNA levels under heat shock and hypoxia stresses indicated that the transcription of FcHSP90 was very sensitive to heat shock and hypoxia, so we deduced that FcHSP90 might play very important roles for shrimp to cope with environmental stress.
Heat shock protein 90; Fenneropenaeus chinensis; Heat shock; Hypoxia
According to the ultrastructural characteristic observation of the developing male germ cells, spermatogenesis of the crustacean shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, is classified into spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocyte, four stages of spermatids, and mature sperm. The basic protein transition during its spermatogenesis is studied by transmission electron microscopy of ammoniacal silver reaction and immunoelectron microscopical distribution of acetylated histone H4. The results show that basic protein synthesized in cytoplasm of spermatogonia is transferred into the nucleus with deposition on new duplicated DNA. In the spermatocyte stage, some nuclear basic protein combined with RNP is transferred into the cytoplasm and is involved in forming the cytoplasmic vesicle clumps. In the early spermatid, most of the basic protein synthesized in the new spermatid cytoplasm is transferred into the nucleus, and the chromatin condensed gradually, and the rest is shifted into the pre-acrosomal vacuole. In the middle spermatid, the nuclear basic protein linked with DNA is acetylated and transferred into the proacrosomal vacuole and assembled into the acrosomal blastema. At the late spermatid, almost all of the basic protein in the nucleus has been removed into the acrosome. During the stage from late spermatid to mature sperm, some de novo basic proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm belt transfer into the nucleus without a membrane and almost all deposit in the periphery to form a supercoating. The remnant histone H4 accompanied by chromatin fibers is acetylated in the center of the nucleus, leading to relaxed DNA and activated genes making the nucleus non-condensed.
Fenneropenaeus chinensis; Spermatogenesis; Ultrastructural characteristics; Basic protein transition; Acetylated H4; Ammoniacal silver reaction; Immunolocalization
Factors that determine genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and cyt b) were determined to investigate the phylogeography and demography of Babina pleuraden, a pond frog endemic to southwestern China. A total of 262 individuals from 22 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. Our results indicate that B. pleuraden comprises five well-supported mitochondrial lineages roughly corresponding to five geographical areas. The phylogeographic structure of B. pleuraden has been shaped primarily by the unique regional responses of the Yunnan Plateau to the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau occurred c. 2.5 Mya (B phrase of Qingzang Movement) and climatic oscillation during middle Pleistocene (c. 0.64–0.36 Mya), rather than by the paleo-drainage systems. The present wide distribution of the species has resulted from recent population expansion (c. 0.053–0.025 Mya) from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, corresponding to the scenario of “refugia within refugia”.
Anadromous fishes are believed to make regular circuits of migration in the sea before homing to their natal rivers. Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus is an anadromous fish that is an exception to this life-history pattern. It also differs from other anadromous fishes in that its adult phase is parasitic, a feeding strategy that should make homing problematic for lamprey cohorts that become widely dispersed through transport by the diverse hosts they parasitize. We sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region from sea lampreys collected from 11 North American east coast rivers to test for genetic evidence of homing. There were no significant differences (Χ2=235.1, p=0.401) in haplotype frequencies among them, with almost 99 per cent of haplotypic diversity occurring within populations. These findings, together with concordant genetic results from other geographical regions and ancillary information on pheromonal communication, suggest that sea lamprey does not home but rather exhibits regional panmixia while using a novel ‘suitable river’ strategy to complete its life cycle.
anadromous; homing; mitochondrial DNA; parasitism; pheromone
Plants depend upon both genetic differences and phenotypic plasticity to cope with environmental variation over different timescales. The spatial variation in foliar δ13C levels along a moisture gradient represents an overlay of genetic and plastic responses. We hypothesized that such a spatial variation would be more obvious than the variation arising purely from a plastic response to moisture change. Leymus chinensis and Stipa spp. were sampled from Inner Mongolia along a dry-wet transect, and some of these species were transplanted to an area with a moisture gradient. For Stipa spp., the slope of foliar δ13C and mean annual precipitation along the transect was significantly steeper than that of foliar δ13C and mean annual precipitation after the watering treatment. For L. chinensis, there was a general decreasing trend in foliar δ13C under the different (increasing) watering levels; however, its populations showed an irregular relationship between foliar δ13C and moisture origin. Therefore, support for our hypothesis was obtained from Stipa spp., but not from L. chinensis.
Genetic; Leymus chinensis; plastic; Stipa grandis; WUE; δ13C
Knowledge of the genetic variability, population structure, and evolutionary history of Triatoma infestans may be useful for developing rational vector control strategies. A 661-bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was sequenced and analyzed in bugs from Argentina, Uruguay, Peru, and Bolivia, including peridomestic, domestic, Andean, and Chaco sylvatic bugs. A total of 48 polymorphic sites among 37 haplotypes were described. Nucleotide variation fluctuated among samples, with the highest nucleotide diversity observed in seven Argentinean provinces. Within this group, some populations showed patterns of variability compatible with population expansions and/or fine-scale population structure, whereas others suggested population bottlenecks and/or population admixture processes. A maximum parsimony analysis of the haplotypes showed the presence of a Bolivian/Peruvian and an Argentinean/Uruguayan clade. Bolivian sequences were further divided in Chaco sylvatic and Andean domestic and sylvatic. Two different nested clades were found within the Argentinean/Uruguayan cluster. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and KST* analysis supported a strong population structure in Argentina, where genetic differentiation was correlated with geographic distance. Departures from neutrality expectations and a nested cladistic analysis suggest a recent population expansion of T. infestans in Argentina, followed by restricted gene flow and patterns of isolation by distance. This expansion could have taken place as a two-wave process, as was shown by the phylogenetic analysis and signatures of population admixture in the southernmost Argentinean populations.
Triatoma infestans; cytochrome oxidase I; population structure; population expansion; population admixture
It is likely that evolutionary differences among species are driven by sequence changes in regulatory regions. Likewise, polymorphisms in the promoter regions may be responsible for interindividual differences at the level of populations. We present an unbiased survey of genetic variation in 2-kb segments upstream of the transcription start sites of 28 protein-coding genes, characterized in five population groups of different geographic origin. On average, we found 9.1 polymorphisms and 8.8 haplotypes per segment with corresponding nucleotide and haplotype diversities of 0.082% and 58%, respectively. We characterized these segments through different summary statistics, Hardy-Weinberg equilibria fixation index (Fst) estimates, and neutrality tests, as well as by analyzing the distributions of haplotype allelic classes, introduced here to assess the departure from neutrality and examined by coalescent simulations under a simple population model, assuming recombinations or different demography. Our results suggest that genetic diversity in some of these regions could have been shaped by purifying selection and driven by adaptive changes in the other, thus explaining the relatively large variance in the corresponding genetic diversity indices loci. However, some of these effects could be also due to linkage with surrounding sequences, and the neutralists' explanations cannot be ruled out given uncertainty in the underlying demographic histories and the possibility of random effects due to the small size of the studied segments. Hum Mutat 28(5), 441–450, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
DNA diversity; promoter regions; haplotypes; selective sweeps; human populations
Deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals occupy patchy and ephemeral habitats supported by chemosynthetic primary production. Volcanic and tectonic activities controlling the turnover of these habitats contribute to demographic instability that erodes genetic variation within and among colonies of these animals. We examined DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and three nuclear gene loci to assess genetic diversity in the siboglinid tubeworm, Riftia pachyptila, a widely distributed constituent of vents along the East Pacific Rise and Galápagos Rift.
Genetic differentiation (FST) among populations increased with geographical distances, as expected under a linear stepping-stone model of dispersal. Low levels of DNA sequence diversity occurred at all four loci, allowing us to exclude the hypothesis that an idiosyncratic selective sweep eliminated mitochondrial diversity alone. Total gene diversity declined with tectonic spreading rates. The southernmost populations, which are subjected to superfast spreading rates and high probabilities of extinction, are relatively homogenous genetically.
Compared to other vent species, DNA sequence diversity is extremely low in R. pachyptila. Though its dispersal abilities appear to be effective, the low diversity, particularly in southern hemisphere populations, is consistent with frequent local extinction and (re)colonization events.
Annelida; Polychaeta; Siboglinidae; vent; metapopulations
Carcharhinus limbatus has a cosmopolitan distribution and marked genetic structuring, mainly because of its philopatric behavior. However, analysis of this structuring has not previously included South American populations. In the present study, we analyzed a sample of adult individuals collected on the northern coast of Brazil and compared the sequences of the mitochondrial control region with those of populations already genotyped. Relatively high haplotype diversity (12 haplotypes, genetic diversity of 0.796) was observed, similar to that in other populations but with a much larger number of private alleles. In contrast to populations studied previously, which were represented by neonates, the pronounced allelic variability found in the South American individuals may have resulted from migrations from other populations in the region that have yet to be genotyped. This population was also genetically distinct from the other Atlantic populations (Fst > 0.8), probably because of female philopatry, and apparently separated from the northwestern Atlantic group 1.39 million years ago. These findings indicate that the C. limbatus population from northern Brazil is genetically distinct from all other populations and should be considered as a different management unit for the protection of stocks.
Carcharhinus limbatus; control region; fishery stocks; mitochondrial DNA; population genetics
Anopheles lesteri is a primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in central China. A complete understanding of vector population structure and the processes responsible for the differentiation is important to the vector-based malaria control programmes and for identifying heterogeneity in disease transmission as a result of discrete vector populations. There is no adequate An. lesteri population genetic data available.
Polymorphism of sequence variations in mitochondrial COII and Cytb genes were assessed to explore the level of genetic variability and differentiation among six populations of An. lesteri from China.
There were 30 (4.37%) and 21 (5.33%) polymorphic sites for mtDNA-COII and Cytb gene, respectively. Totally 31 COII and 30 Cytb haplotypes were obtained. The range of FST values was from 0.101 to 0.655 by mtDNA-COII, and 0.029 to 0.231 by Cytb gene. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the percentage of variation within populations (65.83%, 88.48%) was greater than that among populations (34.17%, 11.52%) using both genes. The Tajima's D and Fu's Fs values were all negative, except Tajima's D values of YN and HNB populations, which suggest a large number of low-frequency mutations in populations and the populations were in expansion proceeding.
Levels of genetic variation within An. lesteri populations were higher than among them. While these results may suggest considerable levels of gene flow, other explanations, such as the effect of historical population perturbations can also be hypothesized.
To assess the role of historical process and contemporary factors in shaping population structures in Northwestern Pacific, mitochondrial control region sequences were analyzed to characterize the phylogeography and population structure of the Japanese sand lance Ammodytes personatus. A total of 429 individuals sampled from 17 populations through the species' range are sequenced. Two distinct lineages are detected, which might have been divergent in the Sea of Japan and Pacific costal waters of Japanese Island, during the low sea level. Significant genetic structure is revealed between the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. However, significant genetic structure is also detected in the Sea of Japan, contracting expected homogenization hypothesis in Tsushima Current. The haplotype frequency of lineages in both sides of Japanese Island and significant genetic structure between north and south groups revealed that the distribution of lineage B and north group were highly limited by the annual sea temperature. The lack of lineage B in Qingdao population with low sea temperature reflects the sea temperature barrier. Lack of genetic structure in the south group and north group populations indicated that ocean currents within groups facilitated the dispersal of A. personatus.
A recent re-emerging bacterial canker disease incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is causing severe economic losses to Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa cultivations in southern Europe, New Zealand, Chile and South Korea. Little is known about the genetic features of this pathovar. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from two Psa strains causing outbreaks of bacterial canker on the A. deliciosa cv. Hayward in Japan (J-Psa, type-strain of the pathovar) and in Italy (I-Psa) in 1984 and 1992, respectively as well as from a Psa strain (I2-Psa) isolated at the beginning of the recent epidemic on A. chinensis cv. Hort16A in Italy. All strains were isolated from typical leaf spot symptoms. The phylogenetic relationships revealed that Psa is more closely related to P. s. pv. theae than to P. avellanae within genomospecies 8. Comparative genomic analyses revealed both relevant intrapathovar variations and putative pathovar-specific genomic regions in Psa. The genomic sequences of J-Psa and I-Psa were very similar. Conversely, the I2-Psa genome encodes four additional effector protein genes, lacks a 50 kb plasmid and the phaseolotoxin gene cluster, argK-tox but has acquired a 160 kb plasmid and putative prophage sequences. Several lines of evidence from the analysis of the genome sequences support the hypothesis that this strain did not evolve from the Psa population that caused the epidemics in 1984–1992 in Japan and Italy but rather is the product of a recent independent evolution of the pathovar actinidiae for infecting Actinidia spp. All Psa strains share the genetic potential for copper resistance, antibiotic detoxification, high affinity iron acquisition and detoxification of nitric oxide of plant origin. Similar to other sequenced phytopathogenic pseudomonads associated with woody plant species, the Psa strains isolated from leaves also display a set of genes involved in the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds.