Many species of marine shrimp in the Family Penaeidae, viz. Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) chinensis, and Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus, are animals of economic importance in the aquaculture industry. Yet information about their DNA and protein sequences is lacking. In order to predict their collective proteome, we combined over 270,000 available EST and cDNA sequences from the 4 shrimp species with all protein sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. EST data from 4 other crustaceans, the crab Carcinus maenas, the lobster Homarus americanus (Decapoda), the water flea Daphnia pulex, and the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were also used.
Similarity searches from EST collections of the 4 shrimp species matched 64% of the protein sequences of the fruit fly, but only 45% of nematode proteins, indicating that the shrimp proteome content is more similar to that of an insect than a nematode. Combined results with 4 additional non-shrimp crustaceans increased matching to 78% of fruit fly and 56% of nematode proteins, suggesting that present shrimp EST collections still lack sequences for many conserved crustacean proteins. Analysis of matching data revealed the presence of 4 EST groups from shrimp, namely sequences for proteins that are both fruit fly-like and nematode-like, fruit fly-like only, nematode-like only, and non-matching. Gene ontology profiles of proteins for the 3 matching EST groups were analyzed. For non-matching ESTs, a small fraction matched protein sequences from other species in the UniProt database, including other crustacean-specific proteins.
Shrimp ESTs indicated that the shrimp proteome is comprised of sub-populations of proteins similar to those common to both insect and nematode models, those present specifically in either model, or neither. Combining small EST collections from related species to compensate for their small size allowed prediction of conserved expressed protein components encoded by their uncharacterized genomes. The organized data should be useful for transferring annotation data from model species into shrimp data and for further studies on shrimp proteins with particular functions or groups.
Nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial control region and genotypes from 5 nuclear microsatellite loci were used to examine genetic structure and infer recent (within approximately the last 3,000 years) evolutionary history of a population (549 individuals) of the southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus). Observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.61 to 0.89 across microsatellite loci and systematically were lower than expected heterozygosity values (0.66–0.95). Probability of unique identity using microsatellite data was high (1 individual in 66,005,424). Fifty-three mitochondrial haplotypes were obtained from 150 individuals. FST values estimated from sequence and microsatellite data were 0.061 and 0.011, respectively, and the RST for microsatellite data was 0.007. Within-group genetic variation ranged from 93.90% to 99.99% depending on whether sequence or microsatellite data were examined. Analyses of microsatellite data suggested that all sampled individuals belonged to a single population, albeit genetically diverse. However, combined data analyses suggested the presence of low levels of substructure attributable to maternal lineages within the population. Low nucleotide-diversity values (0.007–0.010) in addition to high haplotype-diversity values (0.915–0.933) indicate a high number of closely related haplotypes, and suggest that this population may have undergone a recent expansion. However, Fu's FS statistic did not fully support this finding, because it did not reveal a significant excess of recent mutations. A phylogenetic approach using the haplotype sequence data and a combined set including both haplotype and genotype data was used to test for evolutionary patterns and history.
control region; D-loop; evolutionary history; genetic structure; microsatellites; Neotoma micropus; population genetics
Phlebotomus chinensis is a primary vector of visceral leishmaniasis; it occurs in various biotopes with a large geographical distribution, ranging from Yangtze River to northeast China. Phlebotomus sichuanensis, a species closely related to P. chinensis in high altitude regions, has a long term disputation on its taxonomic status. Both species occur in the current epidemic regions and are responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis. Population genetic analysis will help to understand the population structure and infer the relationship for morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species. In this study, microsatellite markers were used for studying the genetic differentiation between P. chinensis and P. sichuanensis.
Sandflies were collected in 6 representative localities in China in 2005-2009. Ten microsatellite loci were used to estimate population genetic diversity. The intra-population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and effective population size were estimated.
All 10 microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic across populations, with high allelic richness and heterozygosity. Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium was found in 23 out of 60 (38.33%) comparisons associated with heterozygote deficits, which was likely caused by the presence of null allele and the Wahlund effect. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed three clusters. The cluster I included almost all specimens in the sample SCD collected at high altitude habitats in Sichuan. The other two clusters were shared by the remaining 5 populations, SCJ in Sichuan, GSZ in Gansu, SXL and SXX in Shaanxi and HNS in Henan. The diversity among these 5 populations was low (FST = -0.003-0.090) and no isolation by distance was detected. AMOVA analysis suggested that the variations were largely derived from individuals within populations and among individuals. Consistently, the analysis of ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequence uncovered three types of variants, which corresponded with the three gene pools revealed by microsatellites.
The data suggested that the SCD population carried a distinct gene pool, which was differentiated from the other populations. The high altitude ecological habitats, distinctive ITS2 and herein divergence inferred by microsatellite loci support the species status of P. sichuanensis. The P. chinensis populations did not have a significant divergence from each another.
Phlebotomus chinensis; Phlebotomus sichuanensis; Genetic differentiation; Microsatellites; China
Plants and invertebrates can suppress viral infection through RNA silencing, mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Trans-activation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP), consisting of three double-stranded RNA-binding domains, is a component of the RISC. In our previous paper, a TRBP homologue in Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Fc-TRBP) was reported to directly bind to eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (Fc-eIF6). In this study, we further characterized the function of TRBP and the involvement of TRBP and eIF6 in antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway of shrimp. The double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs) B and C of the TRBP from Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-TRBP) were found to mediate the interaction of TRBP and eIF6. Gel-shift assays revealed that the N-terminal of Mj-TRBP dsRBD strongly binds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and that the homodimer of the TRBP mediated by the C-terminal dsRBD increases the affinity to dsRNA. RNAi against either Mj-TRBP or Mj-eIF6 impairs the dsRNA-induced sequence-specific RNAi pathway and facilitates the proliferation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). These results further proved the important roles of TRBP and eIF6 in the antiviral response of shrimp.
The subterranean termite Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder is an important pest of trees and buildings in China. Here, we characterized genetic structure and reproductive modes of R. chinensis from China for the first time. A total of 1,875 workers from 75 collection sites in Huanggang, Changsha and Chongqing cities were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Analysis of genetic clusters showed two subpopulations in Chongqing city. The Huanggang population showed a uniform genetic pattern and was separated from the other populations by the largest genetic distances (FST: 0.17–0.20). In contrast, smaller genetic distances (FST: 0.05–0.12) separated Changsha, Chongqing-1 and Chongqing-2 populations. Chongqing-1 was the only population showing a genetic bottleneck. Isolation by distance among colonies in the Huanggang population indicated limited alate dispersal or colony budding. Lack of isolation by distance among colonies within the populations of Changsha, Chongqing-1 and Chongqing-2, suggested long-range dispersal by alates and/or human-mediated transport. Overall, extended family colonies (73.91%) were predominant in all four populations, followed by simple (20.29%), and mixed family colonies (5.80%). Most simple families were headed by inbred related reproductive pairs in the Changsha population, while most simple families in the Chongqing-1 population were headed by outbred unrelated pairs. Simple families in the Huanggang population were a mixture of colonies headed by outbred or inbred reproductive pairs. The sample size of simple families in the Chongqing-2 population was too small to yield significant results. Extended families in all four populations were headed on the average by ≤10 neotenics. Mixed families likely originated from pleometrosis. Presence of heterozygote genotypes showed that all neotenic reproductives collected in addition from five field colonies in Wuhan city were sexually produced, suggesting that these colonies did not undergo parthenogenesis. This study contributes to better understanding of the variance of genetic structure and reproductive mode in the genus Reticulitermes.
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) works as a multi-functional chaperone and is involved in the regulation of many essential cellular pathways. In this study, we have identified a full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of HSP90 (FcHSP90) from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. FcHSP90 full-length cDNA comprised 2,552 bp, including a 2,181-bp open reading frame encoding 726 amino acids. Both homology analyses using alignment with previously identified HSP90 and a phylogeny tree indicated that FcHSP90 was a cytoplasmic HSP90. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that FcHSP90 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues but with highest levels in ovary of F. chinensis. FcHSP90 mRNA levels were sensitively induced by heat shock (from 25°C to 35°C) and reached the maximum at 6 h during heat shock treatment. Under hypoxia conditions, FcHSP90 mRNA levels, in both hemocytes and gill, were induced at 2 h and depressed at 8 h during hypoxia stress. The assessment of FcHSP90 mRNA levels under heat shock and hypoxia stresses indicated that the transcription of FcHSP90 was very sensitive to heat shock and hypoxia, so we deduced that FcHSP90 might play very important roles for shrimp to cope with environmental stress.
Heat shock protein 90; Fenneropenaeus chinensis; Heat shock; Hypoxia
Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead 1910 (Diptera: Glossinidae) is the primary vector of human sleeping sickness in Kenya and Uganda. This is the first report on its population structure. A total of 688 nucleotides of mitochondrial ribosomal 16S2 and cytochrome oxidase I genes were sequenced. Twenty-one variants were scored in 79 flies from three geographically diverse natural populations. Four haplotypes were shared among populations, eight were private and nine were singletons. The mean haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0.84 and 0.009, respectively. All populations were genetically differentiated and were at demographic equilibrium. In addition, a longstanding laboratory culture originating from the Central African Republic (CAR-lab) in 1986 (or before) was examined. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in this culture were 0.95 and 0.012, respectively. None of its 27 haplotypes were shared with the East African populations. A first approximation of relative effective population sizes was Uganda > CAR-lab > Kenya. It was concluded that the structure of G. f. fuscipes populations in East Africa is localized.
Glossina; breeding structure; genetic differentiation; tsetse
Quantifying genetic diversity and metapopulation structure provides insights into the evolutionary history of a species and helps develop appropriate management strategies. We provide the first assessment of genetic structure in spinner sharks (Carcharhinus brevipinna), a large cosmopolitan carcharhinid, sampled from eastern and northern Australia and South Africa.
Methods and Findings
Sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene for 430 individuals revealed 37 haplotypes and moderately high haplotype diversity (h = 0.6770 ±0.025). While two metrics of genetic divergence (ΦST and FST) revealed somewhat different results, subdivision was detected between South Africa and all Australian locations (pairwise ΦST, range 0.02717–0.03508, p values ≤ 0.0013; pairwise FST South Africa vs New South Wales = 0.04056, p = 0.0008). Evidence for fine-scale genetic structuring was also detected along Australia’s east coast (pairwise ΦST = 0.01328, p < 0.015), and between south-eastern and northern locations (pairwise ΦST = 0.00669, p < 0.04).
The Indian Ocean represents a robust barrier to contemporary gene flow in C. brevipinna between Australia and South Africa. Gene flow also appears restricted along a continuous continental margin in this species, with data tentatively suggesting the delineation of two management units within Australian waters. Further sampling, however, is required for a more robust evaluation of the latter finding. Evidence indicates that all sampled populations were shaped by a substantial demographic expansion event, with the resultant high genetic diversity being cause for optimism when considering conservation of this commercially-targeted species in the southern Indo-Pacific.
The heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family is widely expressed in eukaryotic cells as the major chaperone protein. In this study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of a novel inducible cytosolic Hsp70 family member (FcHsp70) was cloned from Fenneropenaeus chinensis. FcHsp70 full-length cDNA consists of 2,511 bp with a 1,890-bp open reading frame encoding 629 amino acids. Three Hsp70 protein family signatures, IDLGTTYS, IIDLGGGTFDVSIL, and IVLVGGSTRIPKVQK, were found in the predicted FcHsp70 amino acid sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that FcHsp70 was categorized together with the inducible HSP70s reported in other crustaceans. Compared to the previously identified cognate Hsp70 (FcHsc70) in F. chinensis, the expression of FcHsp70 showed quite different expression profiles when the shrimp were subjected to different stresses including heat shock and heavy metal treatments. Under heat shock treatment, the expression of FcHsp70 showed much higher up-regulation than FcHsc70. Copper treatment also induced higher up-regulation of FcHsp70 than FcHsc70. Cadmium treatment did not induce the expression of FcHsp70, but caused down-regulation of FcHsc70. The different expression profiles of FcHsp70 and FcHsc70 in shrimp may indicate their different reactions to different stresses. Therefore, Hsp70 or Hsc70 could be developed as a biomarker to indicate different stresses in shrimp.
Heat shock proteins; Hsp70; Heat shock; Heavy metal; Stress; Fenneropenaeus chinensis
Genetic data were used to measure the phylogeographic distribution of the limpet, Cellana toreuma along the China coast in order to acsertain impacts of historic events, ocean currents and especially freshwater discharge from the Yangtze River on the connectivity of intertidal species with limited larval dispersal capability.
Genetic variation in 15 populations of C. toreuma (n = 418), ranging from the Yellow Sea (YS), East China Sea (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS), were determined from partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Genetic diversity and divergence based on haplotype frequencies were analyzed using CONTRIB, and AMOVA was used to examine genetic population structure. Historic demographic expansions were evaluated from both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution tests. Among the 30 haplotypes identified, a dominant haplotype No. 1 (H1) existed in all the populations, and a relatively abundant private haplotype (H2) in YS. Pairwise FST values between YS and the other two groups were relatively high and the percentage of variation among groups was 10.9%.
The high nucleotide and gene diversity in the YS, with large pairwise genetic distances and relatively high percentages of variation among groups, suggests that this group was relatively isolated from ECS and SCS. This is likely driven by historic events, ocean currents, and demographic expansion. We propose that freshwater discharge from the Yangtze River, which may act as physical barrier limiting the southward dispersal of larvae from northern populations, is especially important in determining the separation of the YS group from the rest of the Chinese populations of C. toreuma.
Understanding a wider range of genotype–phenotype associations can be achieved through ecological and evolutionary studies of traditional laboratory models. Here, we conducted the first large-scale geographic analysis of genetic variation within and among wild zebrafish (Danio rerio) populations occurring in Nepal, India, and Bangladesh, and we genetically compared wild populations to several commonly used lab strains. We examined genetic variation at 1832 polymorphic EST-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the cytb mitochondrial gene in 13 wild populations and three lab strains. Natural populations were subdivided into three major mitochondrial DNA clades with an average among-clade sequence divergence of 5.8%. SNPs revealed five major evolutionarily and genetically distinct groups with an overall FST of 0.170 (95% CI 0.105–0.254). These genetic groups corresponded to discrete geographic regions and appear to reflect isolation in refugia during past climate cycles. We detected 71 significantly divergent outlier loci (3.4%) and nine loci (0.5%) with significantly low FST values. Valleys of reduced heterozygosity, consistent with selective sweeps, surrounded six of the 71 outliers (8.5%). The lab strains formed two additional groups that were genetically distinct from all wild populations. An additional subset of outlier loci was consistent with domestication selection within lab strains. Substantial genetic variation that exists in zebrafish as a whole is missing from lab strains that we analysed. A combination of laboratory and field studies that incorporates genetic variation from divergent wild populations along with the wealth of molecular information available for this model organism provides an opportunity to advance our understanding of genetic influences on phenotypic variation for a vertebrate species.
genetic subdivision; genomics; outlier analysis; single nucleotide polymorphisms; zebrafish
We examined the genetic variation and phylogeographic relationships among 10 populations of Lunella granulata from mainland China, Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan Island, and Japan using mitochondrial COI and 16S markers. A total of 45 haplotypes were obtained in 112 specimens, and relatively high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.903) and low levels of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0046) were detected. Four major phylogenetic lineage clusters were revealed and were concordant with their geographic distribution, agreeing with the haplotype network. These results suggested that geographic barrier isolating effects were occurring among the populations. This hypothesis was also supported by a significant genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.709) and by a spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) analysis. A mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots found a single significant population expansion. This expansion occurred on the coast of mainland China before 20–17 ka. Consequently, although the dispersal ability of the planktonic stage and the circulation of ocean currents generally promote genetic exchanges among populations, L. granulata has tended to maintain distinct genetic groups that reflect the respective geographic origins of the constituent lineages. Although the circulation of ocean currents, in principle, may still play a role in determining the genetic composition of populations, long-distance migration between regions is difficult even at the planktonic stage.
Lunella granulata; mainland China; MtDNA; phylogeography; Taiwan
Bonobos (Pan paniscus) inhabit regions south of the Congo River including all areas between its southerly tributaries. To investigate the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship among bonobo populations, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 376 fecal samples collected in seven study populations located within the eastern and western limits of the species’ range. In 136 effective samples from different individuals (range: 7–37 per population), we distinguished 54 haplotypes in six clades (A1, A2, B1, B2, C, D), which included a newly identified clade (D). MtDNA haplotypes were regionally clustered; 83 percent of haplotypes were locality-specific. The distribution of haplotypes across populations and the genetic diversity within populations thus showed highly geographical patterns. Using population distance measures, seven populations were categorized in three clusters: the east, central, and west cohorts. Although further elucidation of historical changes in the geological setting is required, the geographical patterns of genetic diversity seem to be shaped by paleoenvironmental changes during the Pleistocene. The present day riverine barriers appeared to have a weak effect on gene flow among populations, except for the Lomami River, which separates the TL2 population from the others. The central cohort preserves a high genetic diversity, and two unique clades of haplotypes were found in the Wamba/Iyondji populations in the central cohort and in the TL2 population in the eastern cohort respectively. This knowledge may contribute to the planning of bonobo conservation.
Background and Aims
The perianths of the Lardizabalaceae are diverse. The second-whorl floral organs of Sinofranchetia chinensis (Lardizabalaceae) are nectar leaves. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of this type of floral organ, and to determine its relationship to nectar leaves in other Ranunculales species, and to other floral organs in Sinofranchetia chinensis.
Approaches of evolutionary developmental biology were used, including 3′ RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) for isolating floral MADS-box genes, phylogenetic analysis for reconstructing gene evolutionary history, in situ hybridization and tissue-specific RT-PCR for identifying gene expression patterns and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) for observing the epidermal cell morphology of floral organs.
Fourteen new floral MADS-box genes were isolated from Sinofranchetia chinensis and from two other species of Lardizabalaceae, Holboellia grandiflora and Decaisnea insignis. The phylogenetic analysis of AP3-like genes in Ranunculales showed that three AP3 paralogues from Sinofranchetia chinensis belong to the AP3-I, -II and -III lineages. In situ hybridization results showed that SIchAP3-3 is significantly expressed only in nectar leaves at the late stages of floral development, and SIchAG, a C-class MADS-box gene, is expressed not only in stamens and carpels, but also in nectar leaves. SEM observation revealed that the adaxial surface of nectar leaves is covered with conical epidermal cells, a hallmark of petaloidy.
The gene expression data imply that the nectar leaves in S. chinensis might share a similar genetic regulatory code with other nectar leaves in Ranunculales species. Based on gene expression and morphological evidence, it is considered that the nectar leaves in S. chinensis could be referred to as petals. Furthermore, the study supports the hypothesis that the nectar leaves in some Ranunculales species might be derived from stamens.
Nectar leaves; perianth; petals; Ranunculales; Lardizabalaceae; Sinofranchetia chinensis; MADS-box; expression pattern; evolutionary developmental biology
During the Cenozoic, Southeast Asia was profoundly affected by plate tectonic events, dynamic river systems, fluctuating sea levels, shifting coastlines, and climatic variation, which have influenced the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of the Southeast Asian flora and fauna. We examined the role of these paleogeographic factors on shaping phylogeographic patterns focusing on a species of semiaquatic snake, Enhydris subtaeniata (Serpentes: Homalopsidae) using sequence data from three mitochondrial fragments (cytochrome b, ND4, and ATPase—2785 bp). We sampled E. subtaeniata from seven locations in three river drainage basins that encompassed most of this species’ range. Genetic diversities were typically low within locations but high across locations. Moreover, each location had a unique suite of haplotypes not shared among locations, and pairwise φST values (0.713–0.998) were highly significant between all location pairs. Relationships among phylogroups were well resolved and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed strong geographical partitioning of genetic variance among the three river drainage basins surveyed. The genetic differences observed among the populations of E. subtaeniata were likely shaped by the Quaternary landscapes of Indochina and the Sunda Shelf. Historically, the middle and lower Mekong consisted of strongly dissected river valleys separated by low mountain ranges and much of the Sunda Shelf consisted of lowland river valleys that served to connect faunas associated with major regional rivers. It is thus likely that the contemporary genetic patterns observed among populations of E. subtaeniata are the result of their histories in a complex terrain that created abundant opportunities for genetic isolation and divergence yet also provided lowland connections across now drowned river valleys.
Freshwater snake; Homalopsidae; Khorat basin; Mekong River; Pleistocene; Sea levels; Sundaland
A recent re-emerging bacterial canker disease incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is causing severe economic losses to Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa cultivations in southern Europe, New Zealand, Chile and South Korea. Little is known about the genetic features of this pathovar. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from two Psa strains causing outbreaks of bacterial canker on the A. deliciosa cv. Hayward in Japan (J-Psa, type-strain of the pathovar) and in Italy (I-Psa) in 1984 and 1992, respectively as well as from a Psa strain (I2-Psa) isolated at the beginning of the recent epidemic on A. chinensis cv. Hort16A in Italy. All strains were isolated from typical leaf spot symptoms. The phylogenetic relationships revealed that Psa is more closely related to P. s. pv. theae than to P. avellanae within genomospecies 8. Comparative genomic analyses revealed both relevant intrapathovar variations and putative pathovar-specific genomic regions in Psa. The genomic sequences of J-Psa and I-Psa were very similar. Conversely, the I2-Psa genome encodes four additional effector protein genes, lacks a 50 kb plasmid and the phaseolotoxin gene cluster, argK-tox but has acquired a 160 kb plasmid and putative prophage sequences. Several lines of evidence from the analysis of the genome sequences support the hypothesis that this strain did not evolve from the Psa population that caused the epidemics in 1984–1992 in Japan and Italy but rather is the product of a recent independent evolution of the pathovar actinidiae for infecting Actinidia spp. All Psa strains share the genetic potential for copper resistance, antibiotic detoxification, high affinity iron acquisition and detoxification of nitric oxide of plant origin. Similar to other sequenced phytopathogenic pseudomonads associated with woody plant species, the Psa strains isolated from leaves also display a set of genes involved in the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds.
To assess the role of historical process and contemporary factors in shaping population structures in Northwestern Pacific, mitochondrial control region sequences were analyzed to characterize the phylogeography and population structure of the Japanese sand lance Ammodytes personatus. A total of 429 individuals sampled from 17 populations through the species' range are sequenced. Two distinct lineages are detected, which might have been divergent in the Sea of Japan and Pacific costal waters of Japanese Island, during the low sea level. Significant genetic structure is revealed between the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. However, significant genetic structure is also detected in the Sea of Japan, contracting expected homogenization hypothesis in Tsushima Current. The haplotype frequency of lineages in both sides of Japanese Island and significant genetic structure between north and south groups revealed that the distribution of lineage B and north group were highly limited by the annual sea temperature. The lack of lineage B in Qingdao population with low sea temperature reflects the sea temperature barrier. Lack of genetic structure in the south group and north group populations indicated that ocean currents within groups facilitated the dispersal of A. personatus.
Sinocalycanthus chinensis, an endangered species endemic to China, is cultivated as an ornamental landscape tree in China. However, S. chinensis, Chimonanthus species and Calycanthus floridus are difficult to be distinguished in seedling market because of their similar morphological characters. In this study, ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeats) were applied to detect S. chinensis from its closely related species. A unique 748-bp band was found in all accessions of S. chinensis. SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) markers were created by cloning and sequencing the specific band, and designing a pair of primers to amplify the band of 748 bp. Diagnostic PCRs were performed using the primer pair with the total DNAs of S. chinensis, Chimonanthus species and C. floridus as templates, with only S. chinensis being able to be amplified. This amplification is not only rapid (results can be obtained in less than 3 h), but is also easy to perform. Hence it is a feasible method for identifying S. chinensis in seedling market.
Authentication; Diagnostic PCRs; ISSR; SCAR; Sinocalycanthus chinensis; Specie-specific
DNA sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and eight chloroplast DNA regions were used to investigate haplotypic variation and population genetic structure of the Afroalpine giant lobelia, Lobelia rhynchopetalum. The study was based on eight populations sampled from two mountain systems in Ethiopia. A total of 20 variable sites were obtained, which resulted in 13 unique haplotypes and an overall nucleotide diversity (ND) of 0.281 ± 0.15 and gene diversity (GD) of 0.85 ± 0.04. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a highly significant variation (P < 0.001) among populations (FST), and phylogenetic analysis revealed that populations from the two mountain systems formed their own distinct clade with >90% bootstrap support. Each population should be regarded as a significant unit for conservation of this species. The primers designed for this study can be applied to any Lobelia and other closely related species for population genetics and phylogenetic studies.
Biological invasions represent a serious threat for the conservation of biodiversity in many ecosystems. While many social insect species and in particular ant species have been introduced outside their native ranges, few species have been successful at invading temperate forests. In this study, we document for the first time the relationship between the abundance of the introduced ant, Pachycondyla chinensis, in mature forests of North Carolina and the composition, abundance and diversity of native ant species using both a matched pair approach and generalized linear models. Where present, P. chinensis was more abundant than all native species combined. The diversity and abundance of native ants in general and many individual species were negatively associated with the presence and abundance of P. chinensis. These patterns held regardless of our statistical approach and across spatial scales. Interestingly, while the majority of ant species was strongly and negatively correlated with the abundance and presence of P. chinensis, a small subset of ant species larger than P. chinensis was either as abundant or even more abundant in invaded than in uninvaded sites. The large geographic range of this ant species combined with its apparent impact on native species make it likely to have cascading consequences on eastern forests in years to come, effects mediated by the specifics of its life history which is very different from those of other invasive ants. The apparent ecological impacts of P. chinensis are in addition to public health concerns associated with this species due to its sometimes, deadly sting.
Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies.
Taenia pisiformis; cytochrome b; genetic variation; China
In order to describe the influence of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic structure and demography of a highly mobile, but specialized, passerine, the Savi’s Warbler (Locustella luscinioides), mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2) and microsatellites were analysed in c.330 individuals of 17 breeding and two wintering populations. Phylogenetic, population genetics and coalescent methods were used to describe the genetic structure, determine the timing of the major splits and model the demography of populations. Savi’s Warblers split from its sister species c.8 million years ago and have two major haplotype groups that diverged in the early/middle Pleistocene. One of these clades originated in the Balkans and is currently widespread, showing strong evidence for population expansion; whereas the other is restricted to Iberia and remained stable. Microsatellites agreed with a genetic break around the Pyrenees, but showed considerable introgression and a weaker genetic structure. Both genetic markers showed an isolation-by-distance pattern associated with the population expansion of the eastern clade. Breeding populations seem to be segregated at the wintering sites, but results on migratory connectivity are preliminary. Savi’s Warbler is the only known migratory bird species in which Iberian birds did not expand beyond the Pyrenees after the last glaciation. Despite the long period of independent evolution of western and eastern populations, complete introgression occurred when these groups met in Iberia. Mitochondrial sequences indicated the existence of refugia-within-refugia in the Iberian Peninsula during the last glacial period, which is surprising given the high dispersal capacity of this species. Plumage differences of eastern subspecies seemed to have evolved recently through natural selection, in agreement with the glacial expansion hypothesis. This study supports the great importance of the Iberian Peninsula and its role for the conservation of genetic variation.
There is an ongoing discussion in the literature on whether human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolves neutrally. There have been previous claims for natural selection on human mtDNA based on an excess of non-synonymous mutations and higher evolutionary persistence of specific mitochondrial mutations in Arctic populations. However, these findings were not supported by the reanalysis of larger datasets. Using a geographical framework, we perform the first direct test of the relative extent to which climate and past demography have shaped the current spatial distribution of mtDNA sequences worldwide. We show that populations living in colder environments have lower mitochondrial diversity and that the genetic differentiation between pairs of populations correlates with difference in temperature. These associations were unique to mtDNA; we could not find a similar pattern in any other genetic marker. We were able to identify two correlated non-synonymous point mutations in the ND3 and ATP6 genes characterized by a clear association with temperature, which appear to be plausible targets of natural selection producing the association with climate. The same mutations have been previously shown to be associated with variation in mitochondrial pH and calcium dynamics. Our results indicate that natural selection mediated by climate has contributed to shape the current distribution of mtDNA sequences in humans.
mtDNA; selection; climate; temperature; human evolution; single nucleotide polymorphisms
Environmental preferences and past climatic changes may determine the length of time during which a species range has contracted or expanded from refugia, thereby influencing levels of genetic diversification. Connectivity among populations of steppe-associated taxa might have been maximal during the long glacial periods, and interrupted only during the shorter interglacial phases, potentially resulting in low levels of genetic differentiation among populations. We investigated this hypothesis by exploring patterns of genetic diversity, past demography and gene flow in a raptor species characteristic of steppes, the Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), using mitochondrial DNA data from 13 breeding populations and two wintering populations.
Consistent with our hypothesis, Montagu's harrier has relatively low genetic variation at the mitochondrial DNA. The highest levels of genetic diversity were found in coastal Spain, France and central Asia. These areas, which were open landscapes during the Holocene, may have acted as refugia when most of the European continent was covered by forests. We found significant genetic differentiation between two population groups, at the SW and NE parts of the species' range. Two events of past population growth were detected, and occurred ca. 7500-5500 and ca. 3500-1000 years BP in the SW and NE part of the range respectively. These events were likely associated with vegetation shifts caused by climate and human-induced changes during the Holocene.
The relative genetic homogeneity observed across populations of this steppe raptor may be explained by a short isolation time, relatively recent population expansions and a relaxed philopatry. We highlight the importance of considering the consequence of isolation and colonization processes in order to better understand the evolutionary history of steppe species.
Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.