Flavopiridol is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in phase II clinical development for treatment of various forms of cancer. When administered with a pharmacokinetically (PK)-directed dosing schedule, flavopiridol exhibited striking activity in patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate pharmacogenetic factors associated with inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics and outcomes associated with flavopiridol therapy.
Thirty-five patients who received single-agent flavopiridol via the PK-directed schedule were genotyped for 189 polymorphisms in genes encoding 56 drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Genotypes were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses as covariates in a population PK model. Transport of flavopiridol and its glucuronide metabolite was evaluated in uptake assays in HEK-293 and MDCK-II cells transiently transfected with SLCO1B1. Polymorphisms in ABCC2, ABCG2, UGT1A1, UGT1A9, and SLCO1B1 were found to significantly correlate with flavopiridol PK in univariate analysis. Transport assay results indicated both flavopiridol and flavopiridol-glucuronide are substrates of the SLCO1B1/OATP1B1 transporter. Covariates incorporated into the final population PK model included bilirubin, SLCO1B1 rs11045819 and ABCC2 rs8187710. Associations were also observed between genotype and response. To validate these findings, a second set of data with 51 patients was evaluated, and overall trends for associations between PK and PGx were found to be consistent.
Polymorphisms in transport genes were found to be associated with flavopiridol disposition and outcomes. Observed clinical associations with SLCO1B1 were functionally validated indicating for the first time its relevance as a transporter of flavopiridol and its glucuronide metabolite. A second 51-patient dataset indicated similar trends between genotype in the SLCO1B1 and other candidate genes, thus providing support for these findings. Further study in larger patient populations will be necessary to fully characterize and validate the clinical impact of polymorphisms in SLCO1B1 and other transporter and metabolizing enzyme genes on outcomes from flavopiridol therapy.
This fourth part of a four-part series on pharmacogenetics focuses on pharmacodynamic variability and encompasses genetic variation in drug target genes such as those encoding thymidylate synthase, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and ribonucleotide reductase. Potential implications and opportunities for patient and drug selection for genotype-driven anticancer therapy are outlined.
After completing this course, the reader will be able to:
Identify genetic polymorphisms within pharmacodynamic candidate genes that are potential predictive markers for treatment outcome with anticancer drugs.Describe treatment selection considerations in patients with cancer who have genetic polymorphisms that could influence pharmacodynamic aspects of anticancer therapy.
This article is available for continuing medical education credit at CME.TheOncologist.com
Response to treatment with anticancer drugs is subject to wide interindividual variability. This variability is expressed not only as differences in severity and type of toxicity, but also as differences in effectiveness. Variability in the constitution of genes involved in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways of anticancer drugs has been shown to possibly translate into differences in treatment outcome. The overall knowledge in the field of pharmacogenetics has tremendously increased over the last couple of years, and has thereby provided opportunities for patient-tailored anticancer therapy. In previous parts of this series, we described pharmacogenetic variability in anticancer phase I and phase II drug metabolism and drug transport. This fourth part of a four-part series of reviews is focused on pharmacodynamic variability and encompasses genetic variation in drug target genes such as those encoding thymidylate synthase, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and ribonucleotide reductase. Furthermore, genetic variability in other pharmacodynamic candidate genes involved in response to anticancer drugs is discussed, including genes involved in DNA repair such as those encoding excision repair crosscomplementing group 1 and group 2, x-ray crosscomplementing group 1 and group 3, and breast cancer genes 1 and 2. Finally, somatic mutations in KRAS and the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and implications for EGFR-targeted drugs are discussed. Potential implications and opportunities for patient and drug selection for genotype-driven anticancer therapy are outlined.
Pharmacogenetics; Personalized medicine; Pharmacodynamics; Oncology; Anticancer drugs
Innate immune system is the first line of research when studying immune response to diverse infections and autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. This immune response has been reported to be genetically diverse, due to polymorphisms coded by different genes. For this reason, our purpose was to develop a multiplex assay that allows the genotyping of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in innate immune genes.
We developed three multiplex PCR panels coupled with the minisequencing (SNaPshot) technique (multiplex PCR, multiplex primer extension, and capillary electrophoresis). The panels were tested in a sample set composed of 100 anonymous DNAs from healthy blood donors living in São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal). Sixteen relevant SNPs among nine genes of the innate immune system – IL1α, IL1β, IL6, IL10, IL12RB1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9 and CD14 – were genotyped and validated by direct sequencing, with the exception of one that was undetected by minisequencing. We suggest that these panels can be used in future studies for detection of risk gene variants in several populations and/or diseases.
In summary, we propose a multiplex assay that is able to identify the most frequent candidate SNPs in innate immune genes, using a medium scale genotyping platform. The assays can be used to evaluate the risk gene variants in populations of various geographic origins.
Innate immune genes; Polymorphisms; SNaPshot multiplex PCR
Associations of polymorphisms from dopaminergic neurotransmitter
pathway genes have been reported in Caucasian ancestry schizophrenia (SZ)
samples. As studies investigating single SNPs with SZ have been
inconsistent, more detailed analyses utilizing multiple SNPs with the
diagnostic phenotype as well as cognitive function may be more informative.
The analyses were conducted in a north Indian sample.
Indian SZ case-parent trios (n = 601 families); unscreened controls
(n= 468) and an independent set of 118 trio families were analyzed.
Representative SNPs in the Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3),
dopamine transporter (SLC6A3), vesicular monoamine
transporter 2 (SLC18A2), catechol-o-methyltransferase
(COMT) and dopamine beta hydroxylase
(DBH) were genotyped using SNaPshot/SNPlex assays (n=59
SNPs). The Trail Making Test (TMT) was administered to a subset of the
sample (n=260 cases and_n=302 parents).
Eight SNPs were nominally associated with SZ in either case-control
or family based analyses (p<0.05, rs7631540 and rs2046496 in
DRD3; rs363399 and rs10082463 in
SLC18A2; rs4680, rs4646315 and rs9332377 in
COMT). rs6271 at DBH was associated in
both analyses. Haplotypes of DRD3 SNPs incorporating
rs7631540-rs2134655-rs3773678-rs324030-rs6280-rs905568 showed suggestive
associations in both case-parent and trio samples. At
SLC18A2, rs10082463 was nominally associated with
psychomotor performance and rs363285 with executive functions using the TMT
but did not withstand multiple corrections.
Though suggestive associations with dopaminergic genes were detected
in this study, but convincing links between dopaminergic polymorphisms and
SZ or cognitive function were not observed.
Schizophrenia; Dopamine genes; SNPs; association; Haplotypes; cognition
B-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease (SCD) are two of the most common monogenic diseases that are found in many populations worldwide. In both disorders the clinical severity is highly variable, with the persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HbF) being one of the major ameliorating factors. HbF levels are affected by, amongst other factors, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the BCL11A gene and the HBS1L-MYB intergenic region, which are located outside the β-globin locus. For this reason, we developed two multiplex assays that allow the genotyping of SNPs at these two genomic regions which have been shown to be associated with variable HbF levels in different populations.
Two multiplex assays based on the SNaPshot minisequencing approach were developed. The two assays can be used to simultaneous genotype twelve SNPs at the BCL11A gene and sixteen SNPs at HBS1L-MYB intergenic region which were shown to modify HbF levels. The different genotypes can be determined based on the position and the fluorescent colour of the peaks in a single electropherogram. DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays were used to verify genotyping results obtained by SNaPshot minisequencing.
In summary, we propose two multiplex assays based on the SNaPshot minisequencing approach for the simultaneous identification of SNPs located at the BCL11A gene and HBS1L-MYB intergenic region which have an effect on HbF levels. The assays can be easily applied for accurate, time and cost efficient genotyping of the selected SNPs in various populations.
BCL11A; HBS1L-MYB; HbF; Thalassaemia; SCD; SNaPshot minisequencing; Multiplex PCR; Polymorphisms
Objective: Warfarin is a commonly used anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic range and large interindividual differences in dosing requirements. Previously, studies have identified that the interindividual variability was influenced by varieties of factors, including age, body size, vitamin K intake, interacting medications, as well as genetic variants. We aimed to investigate the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the interindividual variability of warfarin dose requirements in Chinese patients. Methods: The study population consisted of 300 patients with a stable maintenance dose of warfarin. We examined SNPs in eight genes involving in the biotransformation and mode of action of warfarin (i.e., CYP4F2, CYP2C19, APOE, CALU, EPHX1, PROC, CYP2C9, and GGCX) using the SNaPshot assay. Results: The mean daily warfarin dose in patients carrying CYP2C19 rs3814637CC, CYP2C9 rs1057910AA, and GGCX rs699664AA genotype was 3.39, 3.34, and 3.51 mg/day, respectively, which was higher than those carrying CYP2C19 rs3814637TT, CYP2C9 rs1057910CC, and rs699664GG genotype (2.00, 0.81, and 3.09 mg/day, respectively). Conclusion: These findings indicate that individuals carrying the CYP2C19 rs3814637CC or CYP2C9 rs1057910AA or GGCX rs699664AA genotype needed higher warfarin doses in the Chinese population.
The ABCB1 gene encodes P-glycoprotein, an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump, which is responsible for drug transport across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. The variability in the expression of ABCB1 may contribute to variable plasma efavirenz concentration which results in variability in the levels of suppression of the human immunodeficiency syndrome virus (HIV). The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of polymorphisms in ABCB1 gene on plasma efavirenz levels and treatment response in the form of change in viral load and CD-4 cell count in HIV/AIDS patients receiving efavirenz-containing highly active antiretroviral treatment regimens. Two hundred and eighty-two HIV-infected patients were recruited from Themba Lethu Clinic in Johannesburg and plasma efavirenz drug concentration levels were measured using LC-MS/MS. SNaPshot was used to genotype five known ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genotype-phenotype correlations were computed. The ABCB1 4036A/G and 4036G/G genotypes were significantly associated with low plasma efavirenz concentrations (P = 0.0236), while the ABCB1 1236C/T and 1236T/T genotypes were associated with high efavirenz concentrations (P = 0.0282). A haplotype ABCB1 T-G-T-A is reported that is associated with significantly increased plasma efavirenz levels. This is the first report on 61A>G, 2677G>T/A, and 4036A>G SNPs in the South African population. ABCB1 plays a role in determining the plasma concentrations of efavirenz and should be taken into account in future design of assays for genotype-based dosing of efavirenz-containing regimens.
ABCB1; efavirenz; HIV/AIDS; South Africa; pharmacogenetics
Breast cancer is the most frequent oncological disease among women. Estrogens are known to play an important role in breast cancer development. Recognition of the relationship between polymorphisms within estrogen metabolizing genes and conventional prognostic factors of breast cancer might improve our knowledge on individualized breast cancer prognosis. Therefore, we aimed to investigate possible associations between germline genetic polymorphisms within GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, SULT1A1 and UGT1A1 genes and breast cancer clinicopathological characteristics together with disease progression.
Our study involved 80 young (younger than 50 years of age) breast cancer patients. PCR-based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay was used to determine GSTP1 and SULT1A1 genotypes. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were detected by multiplex PCR. UGT1A1 polymorphism was investigated with microsatellite analysis. Relationships between genotypes and breast cancer clinicopathological features along with disease progression were estimated by Pearson‘s Chi-square test. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratios associating different genotypes with clinicopathological characteristics and disease progression.
The study showed individuals with GSTT1 null genotype to have approximately 3.5 times higher risk for breast cancer progression than those with wild type genotype (OR = 3.472, 95% CI 1.043-11.559, P = 0.043). Moreover, SULT1A1 G638A AA genotype significantly increased the chances of HER2 molecular subtype breast cancer when compared to GG genotype (OR = 19.971, 95% CI 1.716-232.480, P = 0.017). Heterozygotes for GSTP1 A313G genotype were more likely to have positive lymph nodes in comparison to AA genotype carriers (OR = 2.803, 95% CI 1.049-7.487, P = 0.040). No significant correlation was determined for UGT1A1 A(TA)nTAA and GSTM1 +/- polymorphism alone or combined GTTT1 null and GSTM1 null genotype.
Conclusively, our findings suggest that GSTT1 null genotype and SULT1A1 G638A AA genotype could be uselful genetic markers for breast cancer prognosis. Further analyses on larger sample size are required to highlight the effect of GSTP1 G allele on breast cancer prognosis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12881-015-0147-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
GSTM1; GSTT1; GSTP1; SULT1A1; UGT1A1; Estrogen metabolism; Polymorphism; Breast cancer
Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a fundamental technology in modern genetics. The SNPlex™ mid-throughput genotyping system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) enables the multiplexed genotyping of up to 48 SNPs simultaneously in a single DNA sample. The high level of automation and the large amount of data produced in a high-throughput laboratory require advanced software tools for quality control and workflow management.
We have developed two programs, which address two main aspects of quality control in a SNPlex™ genotyping environment: GMFilter improves the analysis of SNPlex™ plates by removing wells with a low overall signal intensity. It enables scientists to automatically process the raw data in a standardized way before analyzing a plate with the proprietary GeneMapper software from Applied Biosystems. SXTestPlate examines the genotype concordance of a SNPlex™ test plate, which was typed with a control SNP set. This program allows for regular quality control checks of a SNPlex™ genotyping platform. It is compatible to other genotyping methods as well.
GMFilter and SXTestPlate provide a valuable tool set for laboratories engaged in genotyping based on the SNPlex™ system. The programs enhance the analysis of SNPlex™ plates with the GeneMapper software and enable scientists to evaluate the performance of their genotyping platform.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of the association between inter-individual genetic differences and drug responses. Researches in pharmacogenomics have been performed in compliance with the use of several genotyping technologies. In this study, a total of 392 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 141 pharmacogenes, including 21 phase I, 13 phase II, 18 transporter and 5 modifier genes, were selected and genotyped in 150 subjects using the GoldenGate assay or the SNaPshot technique. These variants were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) (P>0.05), except for 22 SNPs. Genotyping of the 392 SNPs revealed that the minor allele frequencies of 47 SNPs were <0.05, 105 SNPs were monomorphic and 22 variants were not in HWE. Also, based on previous studies, we predicted the association between the polymorphisms of certain pharmacogenes, such as cytochrome P450 2D6, cytochrome P450 2C9, vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1, cytochrome P450 2C19, human leukocyte antigen, class I, B and thiopurine S-methyltransferase, and drug efficacy. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the allele distribution of SNPs in 141 pharmacogenes as determined by high-throughput screening. Our results may be helpful in developing personalized medicines by using pharmacogene polymorphisms.
gene screening; pharmacogene; single-nucleotide polymorphism
Interindividual variation in a drug response among patients is known to cause serious problems in medicine. Genomic information has been proposed as the basis for “personalized” health care. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful technique for examining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their relationship with drug response variation; however, when using only GWAS, it often happens that no useful SNPs are identified due to multiple testing problems. Therefore, in a previous study, we proposed a combined method consisting of a knowledge-based algorithm, 2 stages of screening, and a permutation test for identifying SNPs. In the present study, we applied this method to a pharmacogenomics study where 109,365 SNPs were genotyped using Illumina Human-1 BeadChip in 168 cancer patients treated with irinotecan chemotherapy. We identified the SNP rs9351963 in potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 5 (KCNQ5) as a candidate factor related to incidence of irinotecan-induced diarrhea. The p value for rs9351963 was 3.31×10−5 in Fisher's exact test and 0.0289 in the permutation test (when multiple testing problems were corrected). Additionally, rs9351963 was clearly superior to the clinical parameters and the model involving rs9351963 showed sensitivity of 77.8% and specificity of 57.6% in the evaluation by means of logistic regression. Recent studies showed that KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 genes encode members of the M channel expressed in gastrointestinal smooth muscle and suggested that these genes are associated with irritable bowel syndrome and similar peristalsis diseases. These results suggest that rs9351963 in KCNQ5 is a possible predictive factor of incidence of diarrhea in cancer patients treated with irinotecan chemotherapy and for selecting chemotherapy regimens, such as irinotecan alone or a combination of irinotecan with a KCNQ5 opener. Nonetheless, clinical importance of rs9351963 should be further elucidated.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is classically defined as a microvasculopathy that primarily affects the small blood vessels of the inner retina as a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM).It is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of a set of nine candidate genes with the development of diabetic retinopathy in a South Indian cohort who have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Seven candidate genes (RAGE, PEDF, AKR1B1, EPO, HTRA1, ICAM and HFE) were chosen based on reported association with DR in the literature. Two more, CFH and ARMS2, were chosen based on their roles in biological pathways previously implicated in DR. Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one dinucleotide repeat polymorphism, previously reported to show association with DR or other related diseases, were genotyped in 345 DR and 356 diabetic patients without retinopathy (DNR). The genes which showed positive association in this screening set were tested further in additional sets of 100 DR and 90 DNR additional patients from the Aravind Eye Hospital. Those which showed association in the secondary screen were subjected to a combined analysis with the 100 DR and 100 DNR subjects previously recruited and genotyped through the Sankara Nethralaya Hospital, India. Genotypes were evaluated using a combination of direct sequencing, TaqMan SNP genotyping, RFLP analysis, and SNaPshot PCR assays. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the genotype and allele frequencies.
Among the nine loci (15 polymorphisms) screened, SNP rs2070600 (G82S) in the RAGE gene, showed significant association with DR (allelic P = 0.016, dominant model P = 0.012), compared to DNR. SNP rs2070600 further showed significant association with DR in the confirmation cohort (P = 0.035, dominant model P = 0.032). Combining the two cohorts gave an allelic P < 0.003 and dominant P = 0.0013). Combined analysis with the Sankara Nethralaya cohort gave an allelic P = 0.0003 and dominant P = 0.00011 with an OR = 0.49 (0.34 - 0.70) for the minor allele. In HTRA1, rs11200638 (G>A), showed marginal significance with DR (P = 0.055) while rs10490924 in LOC387715 gave a P = 0.07. No statistical significance was observed for SNPs in the other 7 genes studied.
This study confirms significant association of one polymorphism only (rs2070600 in RAGE) with DR in an Indian population which had T2DM.
Fast and efficient high-throughput techniques are essential for the molecular diagnosis of highly heterogeneous hereditary diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We had previously approached RP genetic testing by devising a chip based on co-segregation analysis for the autosomal recessive forms. In this study, we aimed to design a diagnostic tool for all the known genes (40 up to now) responsible for the autosomal dominant and recessive RP and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). This new chip analyzes 240 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (6 per gene) on a high-throughput genotyping platform (SNPlex, Applied Biosystems), and genetic diagnosis is based on the co-segregation analysis of SNP haplotypes in independent families. In a single genotyping step, the number of RP candidates to be screened for mutations is considerably reduced, and in the most informative families, all the candidates are ruled out at once. In a panel of RP Spanish pedigrees, the disease chip became a crucial tool for selecting those suitable for genome-wide RP gene search, and saved the burdensome direct mutational screening of every known RP gene. In a large adRP family, the chip allowed ruling out of all but the causative gene, and identification of an unreported null mutation (E181X) in PRPF31. Finally, on the basis of the conservation of the SNP haplotype linked to this pathogenic variant, we propose that the E181X mutation spread through a cohort of geographically isolated families by a founder effect.
co-segregation; SNP genotyping; RP; LCA; mutation; founder effect
Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing the rejection of solid organ transplants. The efficacy of tacrolimus shows considerable variability, which might be related to genetic variation among recipients. We conducted a retrospective study of 240 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus as immunosuppressive drug. The retrospective data of all patients were collected for 40 days after transplantation. Seventeen SNPs of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR were identified by the SNaPshot assay. Tacrolimus blood concentrations were obtained on days 1–3, days 6–8 and days 12–14 after transplantation, as well as during the period of the predefined therapeutic concentration range. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to examine the effect of genetic variation on the tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C0/D) at different time points. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions of patients who achieved the target C0 range in the different genotypic groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. After correction for multiple testing, there was a significant association of C0/D with CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C at different time points after transplantation. The proportion of patients in the IL-10 rs1800871-TT group who achieved the target C0 range was greater (p = 0.004) compared to the IL-10 rs1800871-CT and IL-10 rs1800871-CC groups at week 3 after transplantation. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4 *1G, CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C and IL-10 rs1800871 C>T might be potential polymorphisms affecting the interindividual variability in tacrolimus metabolism among Chinese renal transplant recipients.
Genetic variability affects clinical outcome in pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients. Evaluating gene polymorphisms in ABC transporters could help identify relapse risk and predict outcome.
Material and methods
The SNaPshot SNP technique was used to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the multidrug transporter 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP1, MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) genes of 82 pediatric ALL patients. The association between the SNPs with risk of all events and death as well as with survival was evaluated by the univariate Cox proportional hazard model.
The BCRP G34A SNP was the only SNP significantly associated with ALL. Risk factors included pre-treatment WBC counts and post-treatment peripheral and bone marrow leukemic cell counts. We found no association between MDR1 SNPs with these factors. The BCRP C421A C/A and C/C genotypes were significantly associated with low pre-treatment WBC counts while MRP2 G1249A G/G was significantly associated with low levels of post-treatment peripheral and bone marrow leukemic cells. A combination of C1236T, G1249A and/or G34A SNPs was significantly associated with lower EFS and OS.
Polymorphisms associated with risk of ALL and clinical outcome may be potential biomarkers to predict clinical outcome and improve prognosis in childhood ALL.
acute lymphoblastic leukemia; single nucleotide polymorphism; survival; outcome
The human ABCB1 (MDR1)-encoded multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a major role in disposition and efficacy of a broad range of drugs including anticancer agents. ABCB1 polymorphisms could therefore determine interindividual variability in resistance to these drugs. To test this hypothesis we developed a Saccharomyces-based assay for evaluating the functional significance of ABCB1 polymorphisms. The P-gp reference and nine variants carrying amino-acid–altering single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested on medium containing daunorubicin, doxorubicin, valinomycin, or actinomycin D, revealing SNPs that increased (M89T, L662R, R669C, and S1141T) or decreased (W1108R) drug resistance. The R669C allele's highly elevated resistance was compromised when in combination with W1108R. Protein level or subcellular location of each variant did not account for the observed phenotypes. The relative resistance profile of the variants differed with drug substrates. This study established a robust new methodology for identification of function-altering polymorphisms in human multidrug transporter genes, identified polymorphisms affecting P-gp function, and provided a step toward genotype-determined dosing of chemotherapeutics.
Patients often show varied drug responses ranging from lack of therapeutic efficacy to life-threatening adverse drug reactions. Drug therapy would be greatly improved if it were possible to predict individual drug sensitivity and tailor drugs to patients' genetic makeup. Like all other organisms, humans have a set of transporters and enzymes to detoxify and eliminate foreign molecules including drugs. Understanding the function of genetic variants in these proteins is a key goal toward personalized medicine. To that end, we examined the functional consequences of naturally occurring genetic variants in P-glycoprotein, the most versatile human multidrug transporter. A novel method was developed and employed that can identify function-altering variants in human transporters. This methodology was robust and powerful in that the functional effect of genetic variants can be directly assessed in yeast where all confounding variables in humans are excluded. Surprisingly, the majority of single amino acid substitutions were found to cause alterations in resistance to three tested anticancer agents. This study extends the impact of yeast-based medical research to a new niche, pharmacogenomics.
Until recently, only a small number of low- and mid-throughput methods have been used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and genotyping in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). However, following completion of the sequence of the highly heterozygous genome of Pinot Noir, it has been possible to identify millions of electronic SNPs (eSNPs) thus providing a valuable source for high-throughput genotyping methods.
Herein we report the first application of the SNPlex™ genotyping system in grapevine aiming at the anchoring of an eukaryotic genome. This approach combines robust SNP detection with automated assay readout and data analysis. 813 candidate eSNPs were developed from non-repetitive contigs of the assembled genome of Pinot Noir and tested in 90 progeny of Syrah × Pinot Noir cross. 563 new SNP-based markers were obtained and mapped. The efficiency rate of 69% was enhanced to 80% when multiple displacement amplification (MDA) methods were used for preparation of genomic DNA for the SNPlex assay.
Unlike other SNP genotyping methods used to investigate thousands of SNPs in a few genotypes, or a few SNPs in around a thousand genotypes, the SNPlex genotyping system represents a good compromise to investigate several hundred SNPs in a hundred or more samples simultaneously. Therefore, the use of the SNPlex assay, coupled with whole genome amplification (WGA), is a good solution for future applications in well-equipped laboratories.
What is already known about this subjectThe UGT1A1*28 polymorphism is known to reduce UGT1A1 enzyme activities, via an extra TA repeat in the promoter.However, a gap exists with regard to a comprehensive assessment of the influence of this genotype on variability in enzyme activity.There is equivocal evidence on the functional relevance of the UGT2B7*2 polymorphism on UGT2B7 enzyme activities.What this study addsUsing comprehensive approaches to measure enzyme activities and protein expression levels, the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism is shown to contribute to only 40% of the variability in enzyme activities for UGT1A1.A novel, nonproprietary method for genotyping UGT1A1*28 is provided.Definitive evidence is provided to conclude there is no effect of the UGT2B7*2 polymorphism on zidovudine glucuronidation activity.
UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 are enzymes that commonly contribute to drug glucuronidation. Since genetic factors have been suggested to contribute to variability in activities and expression levels of these enzymes, a quantitative assessment of the influence of the major genotypes (UGT1A1*28 or UGT2B7*2) on enzyme activities was conducted.
Using a bank of microsomal samples from 59 human livers, the effect of UGT1A1*28 or UGT2B7*2 polymorphisms were investigated on rates of estradiol 3-glucuronidation (a marker of UGT1A1 enzyme activity) or zidovudine glucuronidation (a marker of UGT2B7 enzyme activity) and levels of immunoreactive protein for each enzyme. Glucuronidation rates for both enzymes were measured at Km/S50 and 10 times Km/S50 concentrations.
UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 enzyme activities varied up to 16-fold and sixfold, respectively. Rates at Km/S50 concentration closely correlated with rates at 10 times Km/S50 concentration for both enzymes (but not at 1/10th Km for UGT2B7). Enzyme activities correlated with relative levels of immunoreactive protein for UGT1A1 and UGT2B7. Furthermore, rates of zidovudine glucuronidation correlated well with rates of glucuronidation of the UGT2B7 substrate gemcabene, but did not correlate with UGT1A1 enzyme activities. For the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism, consistent with levels of UGT1A1 immunoreactive protein, mean UGT1A1 activity was 2.5- and 3.2-fold lower for TA6/TA7 (P< 0.05) and TA7/TA7 (P< 0.001) genotypes in comparison with the TA6/TA6 genotype.
Relative to the observed 16-fold variability in UGT1A1 activity, these data indicate only a partial (approximately 40%) contribution of the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism to variability of interindividual differences in UGT1A1 enzyme activity. For the UGT2B7*2 polymorphism, genotype had no influence on immunoreactive UGT2B7 protein or the rate of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine glucuronidation.
human liver microsomes; polymorphism; UDP-glucuronosyltransferases; UGT1A1*28; UGT2B7*2
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are key innate immunity receptors participating in an immune response. Growing evidence suggests that mutations of TLR2/TLR9 gene are associated with the progress of cancers. The present study aimed to investigate the temporal relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of TLR2/TLR9 and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
In this single center-based case-control study, SNaPshot method was used to genotype sequence variants of TLR2 and TLR9 in 211 patients with HCC and 232 subjects as controls.
Two synonymous SNPs in the exon of TLR2 were closely associated with risk of HCC. Compared with those carrying wild-type homozygous genotypes (T/T), risk of HCC decreased significantly in individuals carrying the heterozygous genotypes (C/T) of the rs3804099 (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.493, 95% CI 0.331 - 0.736, P < 0.01) and rs3804100 (adjusted OR, 0.509, 95% CI 0.342 - 0.759, P < 0.01). There was no significant association found in two TLR9 SNPs concerning the risk of HCC. The haplotype TT for TLR2 was associated significantly with the decreased risk of HCC (OR 0.524, 95% CI 0.394 - 0.697, P = 0.000). Inversely, the risk of HCC increased significantly in patients with the haplotype CC (OR 2.743, 95% CI 1.915 - 3.930, P = 0.000).
These results suggested that TLR2 rs3804099 C/T and rs3804100 C/T polymorphisms were closely associated with HCC. In addition, the haplotypes composed of these two TLR2 synonymous SNPs have stronger effects on the susceptibility of HCC.
The major goal of the present study was to investigate the potential use of a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping technology, called iPLEX Gold (Sequenom), for the simultaneous analysis of 16 SNPs that have been previously validated as useful for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) species and classification of MTBC isolates into distinct genetic lineages, known as principal genetic groups (PGGs) and SNP cluster groups (SCGs). In this context, we developed a 16-plex iPLEX assay based on an allele-specific-primer single-base-extension reaction using the iPLEX Gold kit (Sequenom), followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis on the commercially available Sequenom MassARRAY platform. This assay was tested on a panel of 55 well-characterized MTBC strains that were also genotyped for the same loci using the previously reported SNaPshot assay, as well as 10 non-MTBC mycobacteria and 4 bacteria not belonging to the genus Mycobacterium. All MTBC samples were successfully analyzed with the iPLEX assay, which yielded clear allelic data for 99.9% of the SNPs (879 out of 880). No false-positive results were obtained with the negative controls. Compared to the SNaPshot assay, the newly developed 16-plex iPLEX assay produced fully concordant results that allowed reliable differentiation of MTBC species and recognition of lineages, thus demonstrating its potential value in diagnostic, epidemiological, and evolutionary applications. Compared to the SNaPshot approach, the implementation of the iPLEX technology could offer a higher throughput and could be a more flexible and cost-effective option for microbiology laboratories.
AIM: To investigate the correlation between uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene polymorphisms and irinotecan-associated side effects and parameters of drug efficacy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) receiving a low-dose weekly irinotecan chemotherapeutic regimen.
METHODS: Genotypes were retrospectively evaluated by gene scan analysis on the ABI 310 sequencer of the TATAA box in the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene in blood samples from 105 patients who had received 1st line irinotecan-based chemotherapy for mCRC.
RESULTS: The distribution of the genotypes was as follows: wild type genotype (WT) (6/6) 39.0%, heterozygous genotype (6/7) 49.5%, and homozygous genotype (7/7) 9.5%. The overall response rate (OR) was similar between patients carrying the (6/7, 7/7) or the WT genotype (6/6) (44.3% vs 43.2%, P = 0.75). Neither time to progression [(TTP) 8.1 vs 8.2 mo, P = 0.97] nor overall survival [(OS) 21.2 vs 18.9 mo, P = 0.73] differed significantly in patients who carried the (6/6) when compared to the (6/7, 7/7) genotype. No significant differences in toxicity were observed: Grade 3 and 4 delayed diarrhoea [(6/7, 7/7) vs (6/6); 13.0% vs 6.2%, P = 0.08], treatment delays [(6/7, 7/7) vs (6/6); 25.1% vs 19.3%, P =0.24] or dose reductions [(6/7, 7/7) vs (6/6); 21.5% vs 27.2%, P = 0.07].
CONCLUSION: This analysis demonstrates the non-significant influence of the UGT1A1 gene polymorphism on efficacy and rate of irinotecan-associated toxicity in mCRC patients receiving low-dose irinotecan based chemotherapy.
Irinotecan; Colorectal cancer; UGT1A1; Gene polymorphism; Toxicity; Efficacy; Delayed diarrhoea; Neutropenia
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant type of DNA sequence polymorphisms. Their higher availability and stability when compared to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) provide enhanced possibilities for genetic and breeding applications such as cultivar identification, construction of genetic maps, the assessment of genetic diversity, the detection of genotype/phenotype associations, or marker-assisted breeding. In addition, the efficiency of these activities can be improved thanks to the ease with which SNP genotyping can be automated. Expressed sequence tags (EST) sequencing projects in grapevine are allowing for the in silico detection of multiple putative sequence polymorphisms within and among a reduced number of cultivars. In parallel, the sequence of the grapevine cultivar Pinot Noir is also providing thousands of polymorphisms present in this highly heterozygous genome. Still the general application of those SNPs requires further validation since their use could be restricted to those specific genotypes.
In order to develop a large SNP set of wide application in grapevine we followed a systematic re-sequencing approach in a group of 11 grape genotypes corresponding to ancient unrelated cultivars as well as wild plants. Using this approach, we have sequenced 230 gene fragments, what represents the analysis of over 1 Mb of grape DNA sequence. This analysis has allowed the discovery of 1573 SNPs with an average of one SNP every 64 bp (one SNP every 47 bp in non-coding regions and every 69 bp in coding regions). Nucleotide diversity in grape (π = 0.0051) was found to be similar to values observed in highly polymorphic plant species such as maize. The average number of haplotypes per gene sequence was estimated as six, with three haplotypes representing over 83% of the analyzed sequences. Short-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) studies within the analyzed sequences indicate the existence of a rapid decay of LD within the selected grapevine genotypes. To validate the use of the detected polymorphisms in genetic mapping, cultivar identification and genetic diversity studies we have used the SNPlex™ genotyping technology in a sample of grapevine genotypes and segregating progenies.
These results provide accurate values for nucleotide diversity in coding sequences and a first estimate of short-range LD in grapevine. Using SNPlex™ genotyping we have shown the application of a set of discovered SNPs as molecular markers for cultivar identification, linkage mapping and genetic diversity studies. Thus, the combination a highly efficient re-sequencing approach and the SNPlex™ high throughput genotyping technology provide a powerful tool for grapevine genetic analysis.
Individual genetic variations may have a significant influence on the survival of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients. We aimed to identify target genes and their variations involved in the survival of PCa patients using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel. A total of 185 PCa patients with bone metastasis at the initial diagnosis were analyzed. Germline DNA in each patient was genotyped using a cancer SNP panel that contained 1,421 SNPs in 408 cancer-related genes. SNPs associated with survival were screened by a log-rank test. Fourteen SNPs in 6 genes, XRCC4, PMS1, GATA3, IL13, CASP8, and IGF1, were identified to have a statistically significant association with cancer-specific survival. The cancer-specific survival times of patients grouped according to the number of risk genotypes of 6 SNPs selected from the 14 SNPs differed significantly (0-1 v. 2-3 v. 4-6 risk genotypes; P = 7.20 × 10−8). The high-risk group was independently associated with survival in a multivariate analysis that included conventional clinicopathological variables (P = 0.0060). We identified 14 candidate SNPs in 6 cancer-related genes, which were associated with poor survival in patients with metastatic PCa. A panel of SNPs may help predict the survival of those patients.
prostate cancer; bone metastasis; survival; single nucleotide polymorphism
AIM: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of uridine-diphosphoglucuro-nosyltransferase 1A7 (UGT1A7) gene are associated with the development of orolaryngeal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and colorectal cancer. We performed this research to establish the techniques for determining UGT1A7 gene and basic data of this gene for Taiwan Chinese.
METHODS: We collected blood samples from 112 healthy adults and 505 subjects carrying different genotypes of UGT1A1, and determined the promoter area and the entire sequence of UGT1A7 exon 1 by polymerase chain reaction. We designed appropriate primers and restriction enzymes to detect variant UGT1A7 genotypes found in the study subjects.
RESULTS: Six SNPs at nucleotides 33, 387, 391, 392, 622, and 756 within the coding region of UGT1A7 exon 1 were found. The incidence of UGT1A7 *1/*2 (N129R131W208/ K129K131W208) was predominant (35.7%) while that of UGT1A7 *3/*3 (K129K131R208/K129K131R208) was the least (2.7%). The allele frequency of UGT1A7*3, which exists in a considerable proportion of Caucasians (0.361) and Japanese (0.255), was identified only to be 0.152 in our study subjects. A novel variation at nucleotide -57 in the upstream was found, which was associated with SNPs at nucleotides 33, 387, 391, 392, and 622 in one of the variant haplotypes. The nucleotide changes at positions 387, 391, 392 and 756 were in linkage in another variant haplotype. The allele frequency of UGT1A7*3 was 0.018, 0.158, 0.242, 0.433, and 0.920 in subjects carrying wild, A(TA)6TAA/A(TA)7TAA, A(TA)7TAA/A(TA)7TAA, 211G/211A, and 211A/211A variants of UGT1A1 gene, respectively. By using natural or mutagenesis primers, we successfully detected the variations at nucleotides -57, 33, 387, and 622 with the restriction enzymes HpyCH4 IV, Taq I, Afl II, and Rsa I, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the allele frequencies of UGT1A7 gene in Taiwan Chinese are different from those in Caucasians and Japanese. Carriage of the nucleotide 211- variant UGT1A gene is highly associated with UGT1A7*3. The restriction-enzyme-digestion method for the determination of nucleotides -57 (or 33, or 622) and 387 can rapidly identify genotypes of UGT1A7 in an individual.
UGT1A7 gene; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Genotype; Taiwan Chinese
Research into the etiology of breast cancer has recently focused on the role of the immunity and inflammation. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F can mediate inflammation and cancer. To evaluate the influences of IL-17A and IL-17F gene polymorphisms on the risk of sporadic breast cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Chinese Han women.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We genotyped three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-17A (rs2275913, rs3819025 and rs3748067) and five SNPs in IL-17F (rs7771511, rs9382084, rs12203582, rs1266828 and rs763780) to determine the haplotypes in 491 women with breast cancer and 502 healthy individuals. The genotypes were determined using the SNaPshot technique. The differences in the genotypic distribution between breast cancer patients and healthy controls were analyzed with the Chi-square test for trends. For rs2275913 in IL-17A, the frequency of the AA genotype was higher in patients than controls (P = 0.0016). The clinical features analysis demonstrated significant associations between IL-17 SNPs and tumor protein 53 (P53), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2) and triple-negative (ER-/PR-/Her-2-) status. In addition, the haplotype analysis indicated that the frequency of the haplotype Ars2275913Grs3819025Grs3748067, located in the IL-17A linkage disequilibrium (LD) block, was higher in patients than in controls (P = 0.0471 after correction for multiple testing).
Conclusions and Significance
Our results suggested that SNPs in IL-17A but not IL-17F were associated with the risk of breast cancer. Both IL-17A and IL-17F gene polymorphisms may provide valuable information for predicting the prognosis of breast cancer in Chinese women.