ARL4D is a developmentally regulated member of the ADP-ribosylation factor/ARF-like protein (ARF/ARL) family of Ras-related GTPases. Although the primary structure of ARL4D is very similar to that of other ARF/ARL molecules, its function remains unclear. Cytohesin-2/ARF nucleotide-binding-site opener (ARNO) is a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) for ARF, and, at the plasma membrane, it can activate ARF6 to regulate actin reorganization and membrane ruffling. We show here that ARL4D interacts with the C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) and polybasic c domains of cytohesin-2/ARNO in a GTP-dependent manner. Localization of ARL4D at the plasma membrane is GTP- and N-terminal myristoylation-dependent. ARL4D(Q80L), a putative active form of ARL4D, induced accumulation of cytohesin-2/ARNO at the plasma membrane. Consistent with a known action of cytohesin-2/ARNO, ARL4D(Q80L) increased GTP-bound ARF6 and induced disassembly of actin stress fibers. Expression of inactive cytohesin-2/ARNO(E156K) or small interfering RNA knockdown of cytohesin-2/ARNO blocked ARL4D-mediated disassembly of actin stress fibers. Similar to the results with cytohesin-2/ARNO or ARF6, reduction of ARL4D suppressed cell migration activity. Furthermore, ARL4D-induced translocation of cytohesin-2/ARNO did not require phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. Together, these data demonstrate that ARL4D acts as a novel upstream regulator of cytohesin-2/ARNO to promote ARF6 activation and modulate actin remodeling.
ARL4D, ARL4A, and ARL4C are closely related members of the ADP-ribosylation factor/ARF-like protein (ARF/ARL) family of GTPases. All three ARL4 proteins contain nuclear localization signals (NLSs) at their C-termini and are primarily found at the plasma membrane, but they are also present in the nucleus and cytoplasm. ARF function and localization depends on their controlled binding and hydrolysis of GTP. Here we show that GTP-binding-defective ARL4D is targeted to the mitochondria, where it affects mitochondrial morphology and function. We found that a portion of endogenous ARL4D and the GTP-binding-defective ARL4D mutant ARL4D(T35N) reside in the mitochondria. The N-terminal myristoylation of ARL4D(T35N) was required for its localization to mitochondria. The localization of ARL4D(T35N) to the mitochondria reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and caused mitochondrial fragmentation. Furthermore, the C-terminal NLS region of ARL4D(T35N) was required for its effect on the mitochondria. This study is the first to demonstrate that the dysfunctional GTP-binding-defective ARL4D is targeted to mitochondria, where it subsequently alters mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential.
ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and ARF-like (ARL) proteins are members of the ARF family, which are critical components of several different vesicular trafficking pathways. ARFs have little or no detectable GTPase activity without the assistance of a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Here, we demonstrate that yeast Gcs1p exhibits GAP activity toward Arl1p and Arf1p in vitro, and Arl1p can interact with Gcs1p in a GTP-dependent manner. Arl1p was observed both on trans-Golgi and in cytosol and was recruited from cytosol to membranes in a GTP-dependent manner. In gcs1 mutant cells, the fraction of Arl1p in cytosol relative to trans-Golgi was less than it was in wild-type cells. Increasing Gcs1p levels returned the distribution toward that of wild-type cells. Both Arl1p and Gcs1p influenced the distribution of Imh1p, an Arl1p effector. Our data are consistent with the conclusion that Arl1p moves in a dynamic equilibrium between trans-Golgi and cytosol, and the release of Arl1p from membranes in cells requires the hydrolysis of bound GTP, which is accelerated by Gcs1p.
Myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), an essential protein in Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major, catalyses the covalent attachment of the fatty acid myristate to the N-terminus of a range of target proteins. In order to define the essential targets contributing to lethality in the absence of NMT activity, we have focused on the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family of GTP-binding proteins, as growth arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with reduced NMT activity correlates with a decrease in N-myristoylated Arf proteins. We have identified nine Arf/Arls in the T. brucei and T. cruzi genomes and ten in L. major. Characterization of the T. brucei ARL1 homologue has revealed that the protein is localized in the Golgi apparatus and is expressed only in the mammalian bloodstream form of the parasite and not in the insect procyclic stage. This is the only reported example to date of a differentially expressed ARL1 homologue in any species. We have used RNA interference to demonstrate that ARL1 is essential for viability in T. brucei bloodstream parasites. Prior to cell death, depletion of ARL1 protein in bloodstream parasites results in abnormal morphology, including disintegration of the Golgi structure, multiple flagella and nuclei, and the presence of large numbers of vesicles. The cells have only a minor apparent defect in endocytosis but exocytosis of variant surface glycoprotein to the parasite surface is significantly delayed. RNA interference of ARL1 in procyclic cells has no effect on parasite growth or morphology. Our results suggest that there may be different pathways regulating Golgi structure and function in the two major life cycle stages of T. brucei.
Trypanosoma; ADP-ribosylation factor; RNA interference; Golgi proteins
The ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 (ARL2) GTPase and its binding
partner binder of ARL2 (BART) are ubiquitously expressed in rodent and
human tissues and are most abundant in brain. Both ARL2 and BART are
predominantly cytosolic, but a pool of each was found associated with
mitochondria in a protease-resistant form. ARL2 was found to lack
covalent N-myristoylation, present on all other members of the ARF
family, thereby preserving the N-terminal amphipathic α-helix as a
potential mitochondrial import sequence. An overlay assay was developed
to identify binding partners for the BART·ARL2·GTP complex and
revealed a specific interaction with a protein in bovine brain
mitochondria. Purification and partial microsequencing identified the
protein as an adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT). The overlay assay
was performed on mitochondria isolated from five different tissues from
either wild-type or transgenic mice deleted for ANT1. Results confirmed
that ANT1 is the predominant binding partner for the BART·ARL2·GTP
complex and that the structurally homologous ANT2 protein does not bind
the complex. Cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria from
mice had increased levels of ARL2, relative to that seen in
mitochondria from wild-type animals. We conclude that the amount of
ARL2 in mitochondria is subject to regulation via an ANT1-sensitive
pathway in muscle tissues.
This unit describes techniques and approaches that can be used to study the functions of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTP-binding proteins in cells. There are 6 mammalian Arfs and many more Arf-like proteins (Arls) and these proteins are conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to man. Like all GTPases, Arfs cycle between GDP-bound, inactive and GTP-bound active conformations, facilitated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) that catalyze GTP binding and hydrolysis respectively. Here we describe approaches that can be taken to examine the localization and function of Arf and Arl proteins in cells (Protocol 1). We also provide a simple protocol for measuring activation (GTP-binding) of specific Arf proteins in cells using a pull-down assay (Protocol 2). We then discuss approaches that can be taken to assess function of GEFs and GAPs in cells (Protocol 3).
Arf; GTP-binding proteins; guanine nucleotide exchange factors; GTPase activating proteins
The expansive family of metazoan ADP-ribosylation factor and ADP-ribosylation factor-like small GTPases is known to play essential roles in modulating membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal functions. Here, we present the crystal structure of ARL6, mutations in which cause Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS3), and reveal its unique ring-like localization at the distal end of basal bodies, in proximity to the so-called ciliary gate where vesicles carrying ciliary cargo fuse with the membrane. Overproduction of GDP- or GTP-locked variants of ARL6/BBS3 in vivo influences primary cilium length and abundance. ARL6/BBS3 also modulates Wnt signaling, a signal transduction pathway whose association with cilia in vertebrates is just emerging. Importantly, this signaling function is lost in ARL6 variants containing BBS-associated point mutations. By determining the structure of GTP-bound ARL6/BBS3, coupled with functional assays, we provide a mechanistic explanation for such pathogenic alterations, namely altered nucleotide binding. Our findings therefore establish a previously unknown role for ARL6/BBS3 in mammalian ciliary (dis)assembly and Wnt signaling and provide the first structural information for a BBS protein.
Diseases; Protein/Structure; Centriole; Signal Transduction; Subcellular Organelles; ARL6; BBS3; Bardet-Biedl Syndrome; Cilia; Small GTPase
The yeast protein Gcs1 is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Arf and Arl1 G-proteins that regulate distinct steps of vesicular transport. Absence of a GAP-independent function of Gcs1 results in dysregulated Arl1, which in turn impairs cell growth and endosomal transport. Impairing vesicle-tethering pathways removes dysregulated Arl1 and alleviates these defects.
Small monomeric G proteins regulated in part by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are molecular switches for several aspects of vesicular transport. The yeast Gcs1 protein is a dual-specificity GAP for ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) and Arf-like (Arl)1 G proteins, and also has GAP-independent activities. The absence of Gcs1 imposes cold sensitivity for growth and endosomal transport; here we present evidence that dysregulated Arl1 may cause these impairments. We show that gene deletions affecting the Arl1 or Ypt6 vesicle-tethering pathways prevent Arl1 activation and membrane localization, and restore growth and trafficking in the absence of Gcs1. A mutant version of Gcs1 deficient for both ArfGAP and Arl1GAP activity in vitro still allows growth and endosomal transport, suggesting that the function of Gcs1 that is required for these processes is independent of GAP activity. We propose that, in the absence of this GAP-independent regulation by Gcs1, the resulting dysregulated Arl1 prevents growth and impairs endosomal transport at low temperatures. In cells with dysregulated Arl1, an increased abundance of the Arl1 effector Imh1 restores growth and trafficking, and does so through Arl1 binding. Protein sequestration at the trans-Golgi membrane by dysregulated, active Arl1 may therefore be the mechanism of inhibition.
We present here the characterisation of the Leishmania small G protein ADP-Ribosylation Factor-Like protein 1 (ARL-1). The ARL-1 gene is present in one copy per haploid genome and conserved among trypanosomatids. It encodes a protein of 20 kDa, which is equally expressed in the insect promastigote and mammalian amastigote forms of the parasite. ARL-1 localises to the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN); N-terminal myristoylation is essential for TGN localisation. In vivo expression of the LdARL-1/Q74L and LdARL-1/T51N mutants (GTP- and GDP-bound blocked forms respectively) shows that GDP/GTP cycling occurs entirely within the TGN. This is contrary to previous reports in yeast and mammals, where the mutant empty form devoid of nucleotide has been considered as the GDP-blocked form. The dominant-negative empty form mutant LdARL-1/T34N inhibits endocytosis and intracellular trafficking from the TGN to the Lysosome/Multivesicular Tubule and to the acidocalcisomes; these defects are probably related to a mislocalisation of the GRIP domain-containing vesicle tethering factors which cannot be recruited to the TGN by the cytoplasmic LdARL-1/T34N. Thus, besides the functional characterization of a new mutant and a better understanding of ARL-1 GDP/GTP cycling, this work shows that Leishmania ARL-1 is a key component of an essential pathway worth future study.
The Trypanosoma brucei orthologue of Arl2 is essential for viability in bloodstream form parasites. RNA interference causes inhibition of cleavage furrow formation and loss of acetylated α-tubulin.
The Arf-like (Arl) small GTPases have a diverse range of functions in the eukaryotic cell. Metazoan Arl2 acts as a regulator of microtubule biogenesis, binding to the tubulin-specific chaperone cofactor D. Arl2 also has a mitochondrial function through its interactions with BART and ANT-1, the only member of the Ras superfamily to be found in this organelle to date. In the present study, we describe characterization of the Arl2 orthologue in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Modulation of TbARL2 expression in bloodstream form parasites by RNA interference (RNAi) causes inhibition of cleavage furrow formation, resulting in a severe defect in cytokinesis and the accumulation of multinucleated cells. RNAi of TbARL2 also results in loss of acetylated α-tubulin but not of total α-tubulin from cellular microtubules. While overexpression of TbARL2myc also leads to a defect in cytokinesis, an excess of untagged protein has no effect on cell division, demonstrating the importance of the extreme C-terminus in correct function. TbARL2 overexpressing cells (either myc-tagged or untagged) have an increase in acetylated α-tubulin. Our data indicate that Arl2 has a fundamentally conserved role in trypanosome microtubule biogenesis that correlates with α-tubulin acetylation.
ANT-1, adenine nucleotide transporter 1; Arf, ADP-ribosylation factor; Arl, ADP-ribosylation factor-like; BART, ARF-like 2-binding protein; BSF, bloodstream form; dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; ELMO, Engulfment and Cell Motility; ELMOD, Engulfment and Cell Motility Domain; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; FAZ, flagellum attachment zone; GAP, GTPase activating protein; HRG4, human retinal gene 4; NMT, myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase; PP2A, protein phosphatase 2A; RNAi, RNA interference; RP2, retinitis pigmentosa 2; Trypanosoma brucei; Arl2; Cytokinesis; Tubulin acetylation
The ADP ribosylation factor-like proteins (Arls) are a family of small monomeric G proteins of unknown function. Here, we show that Arl2 interacts with the tubulin-specific chaperone protein known as cofactor D. Cofactors C, D, and E assemble the α/β- tubulin heterodimer and also interact with native tubulin, stimulating it to hydrolyze GTP and thus acting together as a β-tubulin GTPase activating protein (GAP). We find that Arl2 downregulates the tubulin GAP activity of C, D, and E, and inhibits the binding of D to native tubulin in vitro. We also find that overexpression of cofactors D or E in cultured cells results in the destruction of the tubulin heterodimer and of microtubules. Arl2 specifically prevents destruction of tubulin and microtubules by cofactor D, but not by cofactor E. We generated mutant forms of Arl2 based on the known properties of classical Ras-family mutations. Experiments using these altered forms of Arl2 in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that it is GDP-bound Arl2 that interacts with cofactor D, thereby averting tubulin and microtubule destruction. These data establish a role for Arl2 in modulating the interaction of tubulin-folding cofactors with native tubulin in vivo.
Arls; G proteins; chaperones; microtubules; cytoskeleton
We show Arl13b is localized to the ciliary membrane and regulates tubulin modifications and ciliary length in vitro. Significantly, we found that Smoothened is enriched in Arl13b null fibroblasts, even without Sonic hedgehog stimulation, but that Glis are not similarly enriched.
Arl13b, a ciliary protein within the ADP-ribosylation factor family and Ras superfamily of GTPases, is required for ciliary structure but has poorly defined ciliary functions. In this paper, we further characterize the role of Arl13b in cilia by examining mutant cilia in vitro and determining the localization and dynamics of Arl13b within the cilium. Previously, we showed that mice lacking Arl13b have abnormal Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling; in this study, we show the dynamics of Shh signaling component localization to the cilium are disrupted in the absence of Arl13b. Significantly, we found Smoothened (Smo) is enriched in Arl13b-null cilia regardless of Shh pathway stimulation, indicating Arl13b regulates the ciliary entry of Smo. Furthermore, our analysis defines a role for Arl13b in regulating the distribution of Smo within the cilium. These results suggest that abnormal Shh signaling in Arl13b mutant embryos may result from defects in protein localization and distribution within the cilium.
The ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 4 (ARL4) is a 22-kDa GTP-binding protein which is abundant in testes of pubertal and adult rodents but absent in testes from prepubertal animals. During testis development, ARL4 expression starts at day 16 when the spermatogenesis proceeds to the late pachytene. In the adult testis, the ARL4 protein was detected in pre- and postmeiotic cells, spermatocytes, and spermatides, but not in spermatogonia and mature spermatozoa. Mouse Arl4-null mutants generated by targeted disruption of the Arl4 gene were viable and grew normally; male as well as female Arl4−/− mice were fertile. However, inactivation of the Arl4 gene resulted in a significant reduction of testis weight and sperm count by 30 and 60%, respectively, without reduction of litter size or frequency. It is suggested that the disruption of Arl4 produces a moderate retardation of germ cell development, possibly at the stage of meiosis.
ARF-like 2 (ARL2) is a member of the ARF family and RAS superfamily of regulatory GTPases, predicted to be present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor, and essential in a number of model genetic systems. Though best studied as a regulator of tubulin folding, we previously demonstrated that ARL2 partially localizes to mitochondria. Here, we show that ARL2 is essential to a number of mitochondrial functions, including mitochondrial morphology, motility, and maintenance of ATP levels. We compare phenotypes resulting from ARL2 depletion and expression of dominant negative mutants and use these to demonstrate that the mitochondrial roles of ARL2 are distinct from its roles in tubulin folding. Testing of current models for ARL2 actions at mitochondria failed to support them. Rather, we found that knockdown of the ARL2 GTPase activating protein (GAP) ELMOD2 phenocopies two of three phenotypes of ARL2 siRNA, making it a likely effector for these actions. These results add new layers of complexity to ARL2 signaling, highlighting the need to deconvolve these different cell functions. We hypothesize that ARL2 plays essential roles inside mitochondria along with other cellular functions, at least in part to provide coupling of regulation between these essential cell processes.
The uptake and processing of dietary lipids by the small intestine is a multistep process that involves several steps including vesicular and protein transport. The GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1) controls the ARF-like 1 (ARL1)-mediated Golgi recruitment of GRIP domain proteins which in turn bind several Rab-GTPases. Here, we describe the essential role of ARFRP1 and its interaction with Rab2 in the assembly and lipidation of chylomicrons in the intestinal epithelium. Mice lacking Arfrp1 specifically in the intestine (Arfrp1vil−/−) exhibit an early post-natal growth retardation with reduced plasma triacylglycerol and free fatty acid concentrations. Arfrp1vil−/− enterocytes as well as Arfrp1 mRNA depleted Caco-2 cells absorbed fatty acids normally but secreted chylomicrons with a markedly reduced triacylglycerol content. In addition, the release of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) was dramatically decreased, and ApoA-I accumulated in the Arfrp1vil−/− epithelium, where it predominantly co-localized with Rab2. The release of chylomicrons from Caco-2 was markedly reduced after the suppression of Rab2, ARL1 and Golgin-245. Thus, the GTPase ARFRP1 and its downstream proteins are required for the lipidation of chylomicrons and the assembly of ApoA-I to these particles in the Golgi of intestinal epithelial cells.
Arl2 and Arl3 are closely related members of the Arf family of regulatory GTPases that arose from a common ancestor early in eukaryotic evolution yet retain extensive structural, biochemical, and functional features. The presence of Arl3 in centrosomes, mitotic spindles, midzones, midbodies, and cilia are all supportive of roles in microtubule-dependent processes. Knockdown of Arl3 by siRNA resulted in changes in cell morphology, increased acetylation of α-tubulin, failure of cytokinesis, and increased number of binucleated cells. We conclude that Arl3 binds microtubules in a regulated manner to alter specific aspects of cytokinesis. In contrast, an excess of Arl2 activity, achieved by expression of the [Q70L]Arl2 mutant, caused the loss of microtubules and cell cycle arrest in M phase. Initial characterization of the underlying defects suggests a defect in the ability to polymerize tubulin in the presence of excess Arl2 activity. We also show that Arl2 is present in centrosomes and propose that its action in regulating tubulin polymerization is mediated at centrosomes. Somewhat paradoxically, no phenotypes were observed Arl2 expression was knocked down or Arl3 activity was increased in HeLa cells. We conclude that Arl2 and Arl3 have related but distinct roles at centrosomes and in regulating microtubule-dependent processes.
We have previously reported that ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (Arl2), a small GTPase, content influences microtubule dynamics and cell cycle distribution in breast tumor cells, as well as the degree and distribution of phosphorylated P53. Here we show, in two different human breast adenocarcinoma models, that Arl2 content has a major impact on breast tumor cell aggressivity both in vitro and in vivo. Cells with reduced content of Arl2 displayed reduced contact inhibition, increased clonogenic or cluster formation as well as a proliferative advantage over control cells in an in vitro competition assay. These cells also caused larger tumors in SCID mice, a phenotype which was mimicked by the in vivo administration of siRNA directed against Arl2. Cells with increased Arl2 content displayed reduced aggressivity, both in vitro and in vivo, with enhanced necrosis and were also found to contain increased PP2A phosphatase activity. A rt-PCR analysis of fresh human tumor breast samples suggested that low Arl2 expression was associated with larger tumor size and greater risk of lymph node involvement at diagnosis. These data underline the role of Arl2, a small GTPase, as an important regulator of breast tumor cell aggressivity, both in vitro and in vivo.
Cilia intraflagellar transport and ciliogenesis are regulated by two small GTPases that maintain binding between IFT subcomplexes.
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery mediates the bidirectional movement of cargos that are required for the assembly and maintenance of cilia. However, little is known about how IFT is regulated in vivo. In this study, we show that the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor–like protein 13 (ARL-13) encoded by the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of the human Joubert syndrome causal gene ARL13B, localizes exclusively to the doublet segment of the cilium. arl-13 mutants have shortened cilia with various ultrastructural deformities and a disrupted association between IFT subcomplexes A and B. Intriguingly, depletion of ARL-3, another ciliary small GTPase, partially suppresses ciliogenesis defects in arl-13 mutants by indirectly restoring binding between IFT subcomplexes A and B. Rescue of arl-13 mutants by ARL-3 depletion is mediated by an HDAC6 deacetylase-dependent pathway. Thus, we propose that two conserved small GTPases, ARL-13 and ARL-3, coordinate to regulate IFT and that perturbing this balance results in cilia deformation.
The ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs) are a highly conserved subfamily of the Ras small GTPases with crucial roles in vesicle budding and membrane trafficking. Unlike in other eukaryotes, the orthologue of Arf1 in the host bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei is essential for the maintenance of endocytosis. In contrast, as shown in this study, knockdown of TbARF1 by RNA interference has no effect on fluid-phase endocytosis in the insect stage of the parasite. The protein remains essential for the viability of these procyclic cells but the major effect of TbARF1-depletion is enlargement of the lysosome. Our data indicate that protein trafficking and lysosomal function are differentially regulated by multiple factors, including TbARF1, during progression through the T. brucei lifecycle.
Arf, ADP ribosylation factor; BSF, bloodstream form; PCF, procyclic form; RNAi, RNA interference; T. brucei, Trypanosoma brucei; Trypanosoma brucei; ARF1; Endocytosis; Lysosome
Members of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family of small GTPases are implicated in vesicle traffic in the secretory pathway, although their precise function remains unclear. We generated a series of 23 clustered charge-to-alanine mutations in the Arf1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to determine the portions of this protein important for its function in cells. These mutants display a number of phenotypes, including conditional lethality at high or low temperature, defects in glycosylation of invertase, dominant lethality, fluoride sensitivity, and synthetic lethality with the arf2 null mutation. All mutations were mapped onto the available crystal structures for Arf1p: Arf1p bound to GDP, to GTP, and complexed with the regulatory proteins ArfGEF and ArfGAP. From this systematic structure-function analysis we demonstrate that all essential mutations studied map to one hemisphere of the protein and provide strong evidence in support of the proposed ArfGEF contact site on Arf1p but minimal evidence in support of the proposed ArfGAP-binding site. In addition, we describe the isolation of a spatially distant intragenic suppressor of a dominant lethal mutation in the guanine nucleotide-binding region of Arf1p.
The BBSome is a complex of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) proteins that shares common structural elements with COPI, COPII and clathrin coats. Here we show that the BBSome constitutes a coat complex that sorts membrane proteins to primary cilia. Biochemically, the BBSome is the major effector of the Arf-like GTPase Arl6/ BBS3. In vivo, the BBSome and Arl6 localize to ciliary punctae and Arl6GTP is required to target the BBSome to cilia. Congruently, GTP-bound Arl6 and acidic phospholipids are sufficient to efficiently recruit the BBSome to chemically defined liposomes. Finally, ultrastructural analyses demonstrate that BBSome binding to liposomes produces distinct patches of polymerized coat. Since we establish that the ciliary targeting signal of somatostatin receptor 3 needs to be directly recognized by the BBSome to mediate targeting to cilia, we propose that trafficking to cilia entails the coupling of BBSome coat polymerization to the recognition of sorting signals.
The crystal structure of GDP-bound ARF1 GTPase of Plasmodium falciparum has been determined at 2.5 Å resolution and compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.
Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 Å resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.
ADP-ribosylation factors; protein trafficking; Plasmodium falciparum; malaria
The GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1) is located at the trans-Golgi compartment and regulates the recruitment of Arf-like 1 (ARL1) and its effector golgin-245 to this compartment. Here, we show that liver-specific knockout of Arfrp1 in the mouse (Arfrp1liv−/−) resulted in early growth retardation, which was associated with reduced hepatic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) secretion. Accordingly, suppression of Arfrp1 in primary hepatocytes resulted in a significant reduction of IGF1 release. However, the hepatic secretion of IGF-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) was not affected in the absence of ARFRP1. In addition, Arfrp1liv−/− mice exhibited decreased glucose transport into the liver, leading to a 50% reduction of glycogen stores as well as a marked retardation of glycogen storage after fasting and refeeding. These abnormalities in glucose metabolism were attributable to reduced protein levels and intracellular retention of the glucose transporter GLUT2 in Arfrp1liv−/− livers. As a consequence of impaired glucose uptake into the liver, the expression levels of carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), a transcription factor regulated by glucose concentration, and its target genes (glucokinase and pyruvate kinase) were markedly reduced. Our data indicate that ARFRP1 in the liver is involved in the regulation of IGF1 secretion and GLUT2 sorting and is thereby essential for normal growth and glycogen storage.
By exploiting NK cell LROs (known as lytic granules) as a model, a new role is defined for Arl8b in regulating motility and exocytosis of lytic granules of NK cells. Not only lytic granules but also the MTOC is unable to polarize toward the immune synapse formed between the NK cell and its target in Arl8b-depleted NK cells.
Natural killer (NK) lymphocytes contain lysosome-related organelles (LROs), known as lytic granules, which upon formation of immune synapse with the target cell, polarize toward the immune synapse to deliver their contents to the target cell membrane. Here, we identify a small GTP-binding protein, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 8b (Arl8b), as a critical factor required for NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity. Our findings indicate that Arl8b drives the polarization of lytic granules and microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) toward the immune synapse between effector NK lymphocytes and target cells. Using a glutathione S-transferase pull-down approach, we identify kinesin family member 5B (KIF5B; the heavy chain of kinesin-1) as an interaction partner of Arl8b from NK cell lysates. Previous studies showed that interaction between kinesin-1 and Arl8b is mediated by SifA and kinesin-interacting protein (SKIP) and the tripartite complex drives the anterograde movement of lysosomes. Silencing of both KIF5B and SKIP in NK cells, similar to Arl8b, led to failure of MTOC-lytic granule polarization to the immune synapse, suggesting that Arl8b and kinesin-1 together control this critical step in NK cell cytotoxicity.
The Ras superfamily is comprised of at least four large families of regulatory guanosine triphosphate–binding proteins, including the Arfs. The Arf family includes three different groups of proteins: the Arfs, Arf-like (Arls), and SARs. Several Arf family members have been very highly conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution and have orthologues in evolutionally diverse species. The different means by which Arf family members have been identified have resulted in an inconsistent and confusing array of names. This confusion is further compounded by differences in nomenclature between different species. We propose a more consistent nomenclature for the human members of the Arf family that may also serve as a guide for nomenclature in other species.