To use receiver operator characteristic curve methodology to determine the test characteristics of microscopic hematuria for identifying urologic injuries in children who underwent computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis as part of a trauma evaluation.
We performed a retrospective medical record review of all children from 0 to 12 years of age who presented to our pediatric emergency department within a Level 1 trauma center, had an abdominal and pelvic CT and a microscopic urinalysis as part of an initial evaluation for trauma. Urologic injury was defined as any injury to the kidneys, ureters or bladder. We defined hematuria from the microscopic urinalysis and reported by the clinical laboratory as the exact number of red blood cells per high power field (RBC/hpf).
Of the 502 children in the study group, 17 (3%; 95% CI [2%–5.4%]) had evidence of urologic injury on the abdominal or pelvic CT. Microscopic urinalysis for those children with urologic injury ranged from 0 to15,544 RBC/hpf. The remaining 485 children without urologic injury had a range of hematuria from 0 to 20,596 RBC/hpf. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated and the area under the curve is 0.796 (95% CI [0.666–0.925]).
If the abdominal and pelvic CT is used as the criterion standard for identifying urologic trauma, the microscopic urinalysis has moderate discriminatory power to predict urologic injury.
Hematuria is one of the most common findings on urinalysis in patients encountered by primary care physicians. In many instances it can also be the first presentation of a serious urological problem. As such, we sought to evaluate current practices adopted by primary care physicians in the workup and screening of hematuria.
Questionnaires were mailed to all registered primary care physicians across Quebec. Questions covered each physician’s personal approach to men and postmenopausal women with painless gross hematuria or with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, as well as screening techniques, general knowledge with regards to urine collection and sampling, and referral patterns.
Of the surveys mailed, 599 were returned. Annual routine screening urinalysis on all adult male and female patients was performed by 47% of respondents, regardless of age or risk factors. Of all the respondents, 95% stated microscopic hematuria was associated with bladder cancer. However, in an older male with painless gross hematuria, only 64% of respondents recommended further evaluation by urology. On the other hand, in a postmenopausal woman with 2 consecutive events of significant microscopic hematuria, only 48.6% recommended referral to urology. Findings were not associated with the gender of the respondent, experience or geographic location of practice (urban vs. rural).
There seems to be reluctance amongst primary care physicians to refer patients with gross or significant microscopic hematuria to urology for further investigation. A higher level of suspicion and further education should be implemented to detect serious conditions and to offer earlier intervention when possible.
Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory lesion of the bladder, characterized by massive eosinophilic infiltration of the bladder wall. Its cause is not known definitely. A 49-year-old man consulted our department with a miction pain, gross hematuria, and frequent micturition. Urinalysis showed combined hematuria and pyuria, but urine culture was sterile. Abnormal findings of laboratory examination included an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count (15,700/μL) and the proportion of eosinophils in the peripheral blood was 12% of the WBCs (normal 0–5%). Cystoscopy revealed a solid mass with severe edematous mucosa. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also indicated marked bladder wall thickening, which was suspected for invasive bladder cancer. Transurethral biopsy of the bladder mass was performed with pathological examination revealing features of eosinophilic cystitis. After administration of a combination of prednisolone and suplatast tosilate, followed by monotherapy with suplatast tosilate, regression of the bladder mass, and normalization of the count of peripheral eosinophils were achieved. Fourteen months after steroid therapy, under treatment with suplatast tosilate, there was no relapse of urinary symptoms and the bladder mass.
Aim. In this study we report our experience with microhematuria and its relation with bladder tumors in Iranian women.
Materials and Methods. Overall 249 women were evaluated. Microscopic hematuria was defined as three or more red blood cells per high-power field on at least two different occasions. Patients with a history of gross hematuria or coagulation disorders, having organic diseases, urinary stones, urinary tract infections, nephrological diseases, and local lesions such as urethral caruncle were excluded from the study population. Final diagnosis of malignant tumors was done with cystoscopy and biopsy specimen pathological assessment in all cases. Results. Age for the study population was 49.7 ± 11.8 years. 95 (38%) of patients were identified during routine check up and presenting symptoms in other patients were frequency, dysuria, stress urge incontinence, urge incontinence, feeling of incomplete urine emptying, and flunk pain, respectively. Finally, 7 (2.8%) of study subjects were confirmed as having bladder tumors. One of tumor cases was diagnosed 24 months after initial assessments. Patients with bladder tumor were significantly older; more frequently had diverticulum in their bladder wall (P < .05). Conclusion. Female microscopic hematuria is relevant and deserves evaluations, especially in elderly patients. Patients whose reason for microhematuria would not be diagnosed at the initial evaluations should be followed.
Bladder cancer kills more women than cervical cancer and is also a significant cause of mortality in men. Little progress has been made in improving survival in patients with advanced bladder cancer. Two pilot studies using microhematuria screening have shown that screening for bladder cancer results in close to 80% downstaging, with high-grade cancers being detected before they have invaded the bladder wall. Results of long-term follow-up even suggest a striking reduction in bladder cancer mortality. The main obstacles to screening for bladder cancer may be overcome if a higher-risk population is identified by designing a risk scale for exposure to cigarette smoke and occupational carcinogens, and through genetic testing for susceptibility to cancer and home hematuria screening, which in itself identifies a population with approximately 3% to 4% risk of bladder cancer. The feasibility and cost effectiveness of screening for bladder cancer can be significantly improved by incorporating a secondary screening strategy using a more sensitive and specific bladder cancer marker that is currently available, and by limiting urological evaluations to patients who show positive results on one or more of these tests. Bladder cancer is the most costly cancer to treat in the United States and pharmacoeconomic studies suggest that screening for bladder cancer could not only save lives but also reduce costs per year-life saved. A pilot study is underway and the urology community should be very supportive of studies to validate this opportunity.
The World Health Organization classifies lupus nephritis as class I to V or VI. However, a few cases of minimal change glomerulopathy have been reported in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mycophenolate mofetil has been shown to be effective for treatment of minimal change disease and lupus nephritis. A 24-year-old woman diagnosed with SLE five years prior to presentation complained of a mild generalized edema. The urinalysis showed microscopic hematuria and proteinuria. The assessed amount of total proteinuria was 1,618 mg/24 hours. A renal biopsy demonstrated diffuse fusion of the foot processes of podocytes on electron microscopy. Mycophenolate mofetil was started in addition to the maintenance medications of prednisolone 10 mg/day and hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/day. After six months of treatment, the microscopic hematuria and proteinuria resolved, and the total urine protein decreased to 100 mg/24 hours.
Nephrosis, lipoid; Lupus erythematosus, systemic; Mycophenolate mofetil
Introduction. Several point-of-care tests (POCT) are available for the diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). We evaluate the impact of HU (hematuria) on performance of POCTs. Materials and Methods. Urine from 10 donors was diluted with blood from 0.5 to 0.00625%. BladderCheckR, BTAstatR, BCMR, and BTAR tests were applied. Tests were additionally conducted in 54 patients with HU. HU was stratified according to the amount of erythrocytes (RBC)/μL using two systems: (1) no HU; mild microscopic HU; severe microscopic HU; gross HU; (2) I <25 RBCs; <250
III. Results were compared to HU status and histopathology.
Results. Gross HU became evident between 2090 RBCs/μL and 1065/μL. Addition of blood led to default tests in all 4: BladderCheckR 0.25%; BCM 0.025%, BioNexia 0.00625%, and BTAstat <0.00625%. Rates of false positives for BladderCheck, BTAstat, BCM, and BioNexia were 5.9, 11.8, 0, and 1.8% without HU and 0, 66.7, 44.4, and 66.7% with HU. BTAstat, BCM, and BioNexia were independently influenced by HU (P < 0.0002).
Conclusions. NMP22-BladderCheck was most resistant to blood. The diagnostic yield of all others was significantly influenced by HU. A well-defined HU grading helps to define limits of HU for a reliable interpretation of BC-POCTs.
To determine the point prevalence of urine bilirubin, urine hemoglobin and urobilinogen in blunt trauma patients, and to evaluate its utility as a screening tool for intra-abdominal injury.
Data analysis of 986 consecutive trauma patients of which 698 were adult blunt trauma patients. Five-hundred sixteen subjects had a urinalysis and a CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis or exploratory laparotomy. We reviewed initial urinalysis results from trauma patients in the emergency department (ED) for the presence of urine hemoglobin, uroblinogen and urine bilirubin. Computed tomography (CT) scan results and operative reports were reviewed from the trauma registry for evidence of liver laceration, spleen laceration, bowel or mesenteric injuries.
There were 73 injuries and 57/516 patients (11%) with intra-abdominal injury. Urinalysis was positive for urobilinogen in 28/516 (5.4%) patients, urine bilirubin in 15/516 (2.9%) patients and urine hemoglobin in 313/516 (61%) patients. Nineteen/forty-seven (4%) subjects had liver lacerations, 28/56 (5%) splenic lacerations, and 15/5 (3%) bowel or mesenteric injury. Comparing the proportion of patients that had urobilinogen detected in the group with and without intra-abdominal injury, 8/28 (29%) subjects with urobilinogen, 5/15 (33%) subjects with bilirubin and 47/313 (15%) subjects with urine hemoglobin were found to have liver lacerations, spleen lacerations, or bowel/mesenteric injuries. Preexisting liver or biliary conditions were not statistically associated with elevation of urine bilirubin, urine hemoglobin or urobilinogen on initial urinalysis after blunt abdominal trauma. Point prevalence for urobilinogen, urine bilirubin and urine hemoglobin are 5.43% (28/516), 2.91% (15/516) and 60.7% (313/516) respectively.
The utility of the initial routine urinalysis in the ED for adult blunt abdominal trauma patients should not be used as a screening tool for the evaluation of intra-abdominal injury.
When urine infections are missed in febrile young infants with normal urinalysis, clinicians may worry about the risk – hitherto unverified – of concomitant invasion of blood and cerebrospinal fluid by uropathogens. In this study, we determine the extent of this risk.
In a retrospective cohort study of febrile 0–89 day old infants evaluated for sepsis in an urban academic pediatric emergency department (1993–1999), we estimated rates of bacteriuric sepsis (urinary tract infections complicated by sepsis) after stratifying infants by urine leukocyte counts higher, or lower than 10 cells/hpf. We compared the global accuracy of leukocytes in urine, leukocytes in peripheral blood, body temperature, and age for predicting bacteruric sepsis. The global accuracy of each test was estimated by calculating the area under its receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Chi-square and Fisher exact tests compared count data. Medians for data not normally distributed were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test.
Two thousand two hundred forty-nine young infants had a normal screening dipstick. None of these developed bacteremia or meningitis despite positive urine culture in 41 (1.8%). Of 1516 additional urine specimens sent for formal urinalysis, 1279 had 0–9 leukocytes/hpf. Urine pathogens were isolated less commonly (6% vs. 76%) and at lower concentrations in infants with few, compared to many urine leukocytes. Urine leukocytes (AUC: 0.94) were the most accurate predictors of bacteruric sepsis. Infants with urinary leukocytes < 10 cells/hpf were significantly less likely (0%; CI:0–0.3%) than those with higher leukocyte counts (5%; CI:2.6–8.7%) to have urinary tract infections complicated by bacteremia (N = 11) or bacterial meningitis (N = 1) – relative risk, 0 (CI:0–0.06) [RR, 0 (CI: 0–0.02), when including infants with negative dipstick]. Bands in peripheral blood had modest value for detecting bacteriuric sepsis (AUC: 0.78). Cases of sepsis without concomitant bacteriuria were comparatively rare (0.8%) and equally common in febrile young infants with low and high concentrations of urine leukocytes.
In young infants evaluated for fever, leukocytes in urine reflect the likelihood of bacteriuric sepsis. Infants with urinary tract infections missed because of few leukocytes in urine are at relatively low risk of invasive bacterial sepsis by pathogens isolated from urine.
Dysuria is a common presenting complaint of women and urinalysis is a valuable tool in the initial evaluation of this
presentation. Clinicians need to be aware that pyuria is the best determinate of bacteriuria requiring therapy and
that values significant for infection differ depending on the method of analysis. A hemocytometer yields a value of
≥ 10 WBC/ mm3
significant for bacteriuria, while manual microscopy studies show ≥ 8 WBC/high-power field
reliably predicts a positive urine culture. In cases of uncomplicated symptomatic urinary tract infection, a positive
value for nitrites and leukocyte esterase by urine dipstick can be treated without the need for a urine culture. Automated
urinalysis used widely in large volume laboratories provides more sensitive detection of leukocytes and
bacteria in the urine.With automated microscopy, a value of > 2 WBC/hpf is significant pyuria indicative of inflammation
of the urinary tract. In complicated cases such as pregnancy, recurrent infection or renal involvement,
further evaluation is necessary including manual microscopy and urine culture with sensitivities.
To test whether a noninvasive urine-based multianalyte diagnostic readout assay that uses protein and DNA biomarkers can risk stratify patients with hematuria into those who are or are not likely to have bladder cancer and those who should receive standard care.
Patients and Methods
This prospective, observational, multicenter, single-assessment study was conducted between June 12, 2009, and April 15, 2011. Eligible patients presented with hematuria and as part of their evaluation underwent cystoscopy. Urine samples were analyzed for the presence of mutant FGFR3 and quantified matrix metalloproteinase 2 and the hypermethylation of TWIST1 and NID2. A patient's chance of having (positive predictive value [PPV]) or not having (negative predictive value [NPV]) cancer was determined by FGFR3 alone or by all 4 biomarkers, respectively.
Cystoscopy/biopsy diagnosed 690 of 748 patients as negative and 58 as positive for bladder cancer. Of 21 patients identified by FGFR3 as highly likely to have cancer, 20 were also positive by cystoscopy/biopsy, resulting in a PPV of 95.2% (20 of 21), with specificity of 99.9% (689 of 690). The 4-marker combination identified 395 patients as having a low likelihood of cancer. Of these, 56.2% (388 of 690) also had negative biopsy/cystoscopy findings, resulting in an NPV of 98.2% (388 of 395). In total, 416 of the 748 patients with hematuria (55.6%) were identified with extremely high NPV and PPV to have or not have bladder cancer.
This multianalyte assay accurately stratified patients with high confidence into those who likely do or do not have bladder cancer. This test was developed to enhance and not to eliminate referrals for urologic evaluation.
AUA, American Urological Association; CIDD, Clinical Intervention Determining Diagnostic; MADR, multianalyte diagnostic readout; MMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase 2; NPV, negative predictive value; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PPV, positive predictive value
Current urine-based assays for bladder cancer (BCa) diagnosis lack accuracy, so the search for improved biomarkers continues. Through genomic and proteomic profiling of urine, we have identified a panel of biomarkers associated with the presence of BCa. In this study, we evaluated the utility of three of these biomarkers, interleukin 8 (IL-8), Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and Syndecan in the diagnosis of BCa through urinalysis.
Voided urines from 127 subjects, cancer subjects (n = 64), non-cancer subjects (n = 63) were analyzed. The protein concentrations of IL-8, MMP-9, and Syndecan were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were also compared to a commercial ELISA-based BCa detection assay (BTA-Trak©) and urinary cytology. We used the area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) to compare the performance of each biomarker.
Urinary protein concentrations of IL-8, MMP-9 and BTA were significantly elevated in BCa subjects. Of the experimental markers compared to BTA-Trak©, IL-8 was the most prominent marker (AUC; 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.86). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only IL-8 (OR; 1.51; 95% CI, 1.16-1.97, p = 0.002) was an independent factor for the detection of BCa.
These results suggest that the measurement of IL-8 in voided urinary samples may have utility for urine-based detection of BCa. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger, prospective cohort.
IL-8; Biomarkers; Diagnosis; Bladder cancer
Regardless of the availability of newer and more sophisticated modalities of investigation, urinary tract cytology still remains the most commonly used non-invasive test for the diagnosis of bladder cancer.
As hematuria is the commonest presenting symptom in patients with malignancy of urinary tract, we undertook this study to know the usefulness of urine cytology in evaluation of the hematuric patients for malignancy.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 21,557 fresh voided urine samples received at our tertiary care referral centre over a period of three years were included in the study. Of these, 1428 cases had hematuria, criteria of either gross or microscopic.
Among these hematuric cases included in the study, 32.5% (464 cases) were found to have positive finding of atypical cells. In these cases with atypia, 9.5% (136 cases) were proved to have malignancy both with the histopathological biopsy and cystoscopic findings. Other cases of atypia were found to be of reactive origin, either due to instrumentation or foreign body. A large number of hematuric cases, that is, 964 cases (67.5%) were negative for atypical cells.
The limited ability of urine cytology to detect low grade bladder tumors, its subjectivity and lack of uniformity in reporting, all render urine cytology a less than perfect tool. With added collaboration between clinician and cytopathologist, urine cytology can be used an adjunct tool in evaluation of patients with hematuria.
Atypical cells; hematuria; urine cytology
Hematuria is one of the most common conditions confronting clinical urologists and is present in many genitourinary pathology conditions. Although researchers have studied hematuria symptoms in an effort to determine the best diagnostic pathway, the existing lack of scientific evidence has created variations in clinical practice. The literature does not provide enough evidence to significantly alter the need to assess these patients. Consequently, many patients with microscopic or gross hematuria undergo low-yield workups that include invasive testing and imaging with radiation. In 2007, a national group of Kaiser Permanente (KP) urology chiefs agreed that national practice recommendations were needed to address existing variations in the management and workup of hematuria. Using a KP guideline methodology, the group reached a consensus agreement on the following recommendations: 1) referral to urology is recommended for all people with gross hematuria or high-grade hematuria (>50 red blood cells per high-power field [RBCs/HPF]) on a single urinalysis (UA); 2) referral to urology and urologic evaluation is recommended for men or women with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria or symptomatic hematuria that produces >3 RBCs/HPF on two of three properly performed and collected urinalyses; and 3) voided urinary cytology should be eliminated from asymptomatic hematuria screening protocol. The test is not sensitive enough to obviate further workup if findings are negative, and elimination of this screening test is estimated to save millions of dollars across the US. Hematuria on a UA should be reported as 0 to 3 RBC/HPF, 4 to 10 RBC/HPF, 11 to 25 RBC/HPF, 26 to 50 RBC/HPF, >50 RBC/HPF, or gross hematuria. This approach will also reduce radiation exposure.
To compare the urine protein–creatinine ratio with urinalysis to predict significant proteinuria (≥300 mg per day).
A total of 116 paired spot urine samples and 24-h urine collections were obtained prospectively from women at risk for preeclampsia. Urine protein–creatinine ratio and urinalysis were compared to the 24-h urine collection.
The urine protein–creatinine ratio had better discriminatory power than urinalysis: the receiver operating characteristic curve had a greater area under the curve, 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83 to 0.95) vs 0.71 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.77, P<0.001). When matched for clinically relevant specificity, urine protein–creatinine ratio (cutoff ≥0.28) is more sensitive than urinalysis (cutoff ≥1+): 66 vs 41%, P = 0.001 (with 95 and 100% specificity, respectively). Furthermore, the urine protein–creatinine ratio predicted the absence or presence of proteinuria in 64% of patients; urinalysis predicted this in only 19%.
The urine protein–creatinine ratio is a better screening test. It provides early information for more patients.
pregnancy; urinalysis; urine protein; creatinine ratio; proteinuria; preeclampsia; sensitivity and specificity
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical classification of childhood diurnal enuresis, to describe the evaluation process, and to discuss principles of management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: An extensive literature review was performed with a MEDLINE search. Articles were selected according to date of publication, clinical relevance, and availability. Recent articles, cohort studies of at least 50 patients, and randomized clinical trials were preferred. Recent editions of classic textbooks were consulted. Evaluation and management activities discussed in this article are supported by original and relevant literature. MAIN MESSAGE: Most causes of childhood diurnal enuresis can be determined by a thorough history coupled with a complete physical examination and urinalysis and culture. Supplementary investigations include ultrasonography of the kidneys and bladder to screen for neurogenic bladder and urethral obstruction. When obstruction, ectopic ureter, or bladder dysfunction is suspected, voiding cystourethrography and urodynamic studies are needed. Evaluation of neurogenic bladder includes magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Treatment is aimed at correcting poor toilet habits, preventing or treating urinary tract infections, and using appropriate medication. CONCLUSIONS: In most instances, diurnal enuresis in childhood is a benign condition with an easily identifiable cause and an excellent prognosis with time and appropriate treatment.
The relationship between obesity and ketonuria is not well-established. We conducted a retrospective observational study to evaluate whether their body weight reduction response differed by the presence of ketonuria after fasting in the healthy obese. We used the data of 42 subjects, who had medical records of initial urinalysis at routine health check-up and follow-up urinalysis in the out-patient clinic, one week later. All subjects in the initial urinalysis showed no ketonuria. However, according to the follow-up urinalysis after three subsequent meals fasts, the patients were divided into a non-ketonuria group and ketonuria group. We compared the data of conventional low-calorie diet programs for 3 months for both groups. Significantly greater reduction of body weight (-8.6 ± 3.6 kg vs -1.1 ± 2.2 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (-3.16 ± 1.25 kg/m2 vs -0.43 ± 0.86 kg/m2, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (-6.92 ± 1.22 vs -2.32 ± 1.01, P < 0.001) was observed in the ketonuria group compared to the non-ketonuria group. Fat mass and lean body mass were also more reduced in the ketonuria group. In addition, serum free fatty acid concentration after intervention in the ketonuria group showed significant more increment than in the non-ketonuria group. The presence of ketonuria after fasting may be a predicting factor of further body weight reduction.
Ketonuria; Body Weight; Fasting
Few studies have evaluated dipstick urinalysis for elderly and practically none present confidence intervals. Furthermore, most previous studies combine all bacteria species in a "positive culture". Thus, their evaluation may be inappropriate due to Yule-Simpson's paradox. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of dipstick urinalysis for the elderly in nursing homes.
In this cross-sectional study voided urine specimens were collected from 651 elderly individuals in nursing homes. Dipstick urinalysis for nitrite, leukocyte esterase and urine culture were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Visual readings were compared to readings with a urine chemistry analyzer.
207/651 (32%) of urine cultures showed growth of a potentially pathogenic bacterium. Combining the two dipsticks improved test characteristics slightly compared to using only one of the dipsticks. When both dipsticks are negative, presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria can be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 88 (84–92)%. Visual and analyzer readings had acceptable agreement.
When investigating for bacteriuria in elderly people at nursing homes we suggest nitrite and leukocyte esterase dipstick be combined. There are no clinically relevant differences between visual and analyzer dipstick readings. When dipstick urinalysis for nitrite and leukocyte esterase are both negative it is unlikely that the urine culture will show growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and in a patient with an uncomplicated illness further testing is unnecessary.
Wellness and pre-anesthetic screening of blood and urine of geriatric companion animals are routinely recommended. In addition, there are occasional references to the use of imaging in clinically normal geriatric patients. However, the utility of wellness testing is not known, and there is limited information regarding the value of pre-anesthetic testing. Wellness testing, including complete blood cell count, biochemical profile, urinalysis, and abdominal ultrasound, was performed on 53 clinically normal, mature golden retriever dogs. Laboratory analysis revealed abnormalities in 54.7% (29/53) of the dogs. Abdominal ultrasound screening demonstrated abnormalities in 64.2% (34/53) of the dogs. As only a small number of dogs had follow-up diagnostic testing available, the significance of these abnormalities is unknown. Further study involving a larger cohort of animals and analysis of follow-up data is necessary to determine the utility of laboratory and imaging studies in clinically normal geriatric patients.
Microscopic hematuria is a common finding in patients presenting to both primary care doctors as well as urologists. Sources of microscopic hematuria include infection, stones, inflammatory disorders as well as cancer of the genitourinary tract, particularly urothelial cancer. A primary focus in the urologic workup of hematuria is to rule out cancer. This is done using radiographic studies as well as procedures such as cystoscopy and bladder biopsy. As the authors state in their article titled "The utility of serial urinary cytology in the initial evaluation of the patient with microscopic hematuria", cytologic analysis of voided urine, though attractive due to its noninvasive nature, has been found to have the neither the sensitivity, cost-effectiveness, nor the ease of administration necessary to replace more invasive diagnostics in the evaluation of microscopic hematuria.
For the patients who visit outpatient clinics due to asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, cystoscopy has been looked upon as rather invasive compared to other diagnostic methods. We tried to elucidate the actual diagnostic value of cystoscopy in the initial evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. We reviewed the results of cystoscopic examinations in 213 patients who visited our hospital due to asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. No definite lesion that could explain the microscopic hematuria was detected by means of IVP, urine cytology, and other nephrologic evaluations for all the patients. Among the abnormal cystoscopic findings in 55 patients, the lesions suspected to be directly related to microscopic hematuria were classified as 'significant lesions' (31 patients, 17.6%) which include entities such as bladder cancer (1.31%). 27 of 31 patients with significant lesions (85.2%) were over 50 yr old, and furthermore, 3 patients who were diagnosed as bladder tumor by cystoscopy were over 60 yr. Cystoscopy should be utilized as initial diagnostic modality in older patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria to rule out any possibility of bladder cancer occurrence. Further studies are needed to justify implementation of cystoscopy as an initial diagnostic modality in younger patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria.
The pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin were investigated in six studies after oral administration of 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg. Eight healthy male volunteers were included in each study. With doses of up to 200 mg the study was performed as a double-blind, randomized group comparison (n = 6 verum and n = 2 matched placebo); with the higher doses the study was conducted with a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Safety and tolerability were assessed by evaluation of vital signs, electrocardiograms, electroencephalograms, clinical chemistry parameters, results of urinalysis, and adverse events. The drug was well tolerated. The concentrations of moxifloxacin in plasma, urine, and saliva were determined by a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography assay with fluorescence detection. In addition, plasma and urine samples were analyzed by a bioassay. A good correlation between both methods was seen, indicating an absence of major active metabolites. The mean maximum concentrations of moxifloxacin in plasma (Cmax) ranged from 0.29 mg/liter (50-mg dose) to 4.73 mg/liter (800-mg dose) and were reached 0.5 to 4 h following drug administration. After reaching the Cmax, plasma moxifloxacin concentrations declined in a biphasic manner. Within 4 to 5 h they fell to about 30 to 55% of the Cmax, and thereafter a terminal half-life of 11 to 14 h accounted for the major part of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). During the absorption phase concentrations in saliva were even higher than those in plasma, whereas in the terminal phase a constant ratio of the concentration in saliva/concentration in plasma of between 0.5 and 1 was observed, indicating a correlation between unbound concentrations in plasma and levels in saliva (protein binding level, approximately 48%). AUC and Cmax increased proportionally to the dose over the whole range of doses investigated. Urinary excretion amounted to approximately 20% of the dose. Data on renal clearance (40 to 51 ml/min/1.73 m2) indicated partial tubular reabsorption of the drug. The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from compartmental and noncompartmental analyses were in good agreement. The kinetics could be described best by fitting the data to a two-compartment body model.
More than 100 firefighters lose their lives in the line of duty each year; many of these deaths are caused by cardiovascular events and underlying coronary heart disease. In addition, firefighters are at higher-than-normal risk of developing certain types of cancer. To improve health and fitness among its firefighters, the Dallas Fire-Rescue Department developed and implemented an annual wellness-fitness program in 2008. The program detected and addressed medical issues including coronary disease, hypertension, high triglyceride levels, high cholesterol, high blood glucose levels, and hematuria. Prostate, thyroid, breast, kidney, and bladder cancers were also detected. By identifying these issues, engaging the firefighters' personal physicians, and recommending individualized treatment plans, this program may have extended lives and improved the quality of life for the firefighters.
Emphysematous cystitis is characterized by gas collection within the bladder wall and lumen. We report two cases of emphysematous cystitis of the urinary bladder in a 67-year-old and a 63-year-old women. They presented with bladder irritation symptoms such as dysuria, hematuria and frequency. Urinalysis showed pyuria. Cystoscopic examination revealed that bladder mucosa was studded with vesicles varying in size and arranged in clumps. CT scans of the pelvis showed mottled gas bubbles within the bladder. They were treated with antibiotics. Four days after the treatment, the symptoms subsided and plain abdominal film showed no evidence of gas shadows in the pelvic cavity.
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare entity and constitutes less than 1% of chronic pyelonephritis. A 71-year-old male was introduced to our department with general malaise and abnormal findings of computed tomography (CT). Abnormal findings of complete blood count and laboratory examination included an elevated WBC count and C-reactive protein. Urinalysis showed combined hematuria and pyuria, and Escherichia coli was detected in urine culture. Abdominal CT revealed left hydronephrosis with staghorn renal calculi and thin cortex of the left kidney. Because of poor condition, the patient underwent construction of the left nephrostomy. After that, the remission of the inflammation was achieved. Several months after the construction, frequent obstructions of nephrostomy catheter because of turbid urine and intermittent fever elevation were observed. The patient and his family desired left nephrectomy despite his poor condition in general. Surgical dissection was very difficult due to fixed mass. Not long after that the patient died due to sepsis and cardiovascular failure. Microscopic findings of the left kidney revealed infiltration of lymphocytes and lipid-laden macrophages (xanthoma cells) corresponding to XGP.