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1.  Evaluation of Pharmacist Provided Medication Therapy Management Services in an Oncology Ambulatory Setting at a Comprehensive Cancer Center 
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA  2012;52(2):10.1331/JAPhA.2012.11171.
Objective
In 2005 a definition for medication therapy management services (MTM) was developed by eleven pharmacy organizations. That year the American Medical Association introduced three temporary Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for MTM. In 2008 these codes were made permanent making billing for outpatient MTM services possible. In 2010 our institution implemented a MTM program to augment services already provided. Clinical pharmacy specialists documented within the electronic medical record (EMR) upon completion of service and submitted a charge for MTM. The primary objective was to determine the effect of formal MTM services on pharmacist workload. Secondary objectives included describing the population receiving MTM, describing services provided, and determining the reimbursement rate for billed MTM services.
Data Sources
MTM CPT code claims, EMR, pharmacist MTM log
Study Selection
Not applicable
Data Synthesis
A retrospective review of all MTM charges from 1/1/2010-3/31/2010 was performed. Data collected included: location of MTM visit, age, gender, insurance, primary malignancy, comorbidities, home medications, time completing and documenting MTM visit, and rate of reimbursement.
Results
In the three month period 239 MTM visits were completed. It took pharmacists a median of 20 minutes (range: 15–127 minutes) of face-to-face time and 18 minutes (range: 5–90 minutes) for documentation per visit. To date no claims for MTM have been rejected and reimbursement rates range from 47–79% depending on the insurance provider.
Conclusions
MTM in the ambulatory clinic is feasible despite the increase in pharmacist work load from documenting and billing. Increased visibility of clinical pharmacy services justify the extra time required for formal MTM.
doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2012.11171
PMCID: PMC3868215  PMID: 22370379
Medication therapy management; clinical pharmacy; reimbursement; ambulatory clinic; CPT codes
2.  Potential Health Implications of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Meeting MTM Eligibility Criteria 
Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP  2013;10(1):10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.03.007.
Background
Previous studies have found that racial and ethnic minorities would be less likely to meet the Medicare eligibility criteria for medication therapy management (MTM) services than their non-Hispanic White counterparts.
Objectives
To examine whether racial and ethnic disparities in health status, health services utilization and costs, and medication utilization patterns among MTM-ineligible individuals differed from MTM-eligible individuals.
Methods
This study analyzed Medicare beneficiaries in 2004–2005 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Various multivariate regressions were employed depending on the nature of dependent variables. Interaction terms between the dummy variables for Blacks (and Hispanics) and MTM eligibility were included to test whether disparity patterns varied between MTM-ineligible and MTM-eligible individuals. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted for MTM eligibility thresholds for 2006 and 2010.
Results
Based on the main analysis for 2006 MTM eligibility criteria, the proportions for self-reported good health status for Whites and Blacks were 82.82% vs. 70.75%, respectively (difference=12.07%; P< .001), among MTM-ineligible population; and 56.98% vs. 52.14%, respectively (difference=4.84%; P= .31), among MTM-eligible population. The difference between these differences was 7.23% (P< .001). In the adjusted logistic regression, the interaction effect for Blacks and MTM eligibility had an OR of 1.57 (95% Confidence Interval, or CI=0.98–2.52) on multiplicative term and difference in odds of 2.38 (95% CI=1.54–3.22) on additive term. Analyses for disparities between Whites and Hispanics found similar disparity patterns. All analyses for 2006 and 2010 eligibility criteria generally reported similar patterns. Analyses of other measures did not find greater racial or ethnic disparities among the MTM-ineligible than MTM-eligible individuals.
Conclusions
Disparities in MTM eligibility may aggravate existing racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes. However, disparities in MTM eligibility may not aggravate existing disparities in health services utilization and costs and medication utilization patterns. Future studies should examine the effects of Medicare Part D on these disparities.
doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.03.007
PMCID: PMC3858402  PMID: 23759673
Health disparities; race; ethnicity; medication therapy management services; eligibility criteria
3.  Contingent Valuation and Pharmacists' Acceptable Levels of Compensation for Medication Therapy Management Services 
Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP  2012;10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.02.001.
Background
Pharmacists' acceptable level of compensation for medication therapy management (MTM) services needs to be determined using various economic evaluation techniques.
Objectives
Using contingent valuation method, determine pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for MTM services.
Methods
A mailing survey was used to elicit Tennessee (US) pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for a 30-minute MTM session for a new patient with 2 medical conditions, 8 medications, and an annual drug cost of $2,000. Three versions of a series of double-bounded, closed-ended, binary discrete choice questions were asked of pharmacists for their willingness-to-accept (WTA) for an original monetary value ($30, $60, or $90) and then follow-up higher or lower value depending on their responses to the original value. A Kaplan-Meier approach was taken to analyze pharmacists' WTA, and Cox's proportional hazards model was used to examine the effects of pharmacist characteristics on their WTA.
Results
Three hundred and forty-eight pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session had a mean of $63.31 and median of $60. The proportions of pharmacists willing to accept $30, $60, and $90 for the given MTM session were 30.61%, 85.19%, and 91.01%, respectively. Pharmacists' characteristics had statistically significant association with their WTA rates.
Conclusions
Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session is higher than current Medicare MTM programs' compensation levels of $15 to $50 and patients' willingness-to-pay of less than $40. Besides advocating for higher MTM compensation levels by third-party payers, pharmacists also may need to charge patients to reach sufficient compensation levels for MTM services.
doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.02.001
PMCID: PMC3445666  PMID: 22436583
Medication therapy management services; contingent valuation; pharmacists; compensation; willingness to accept
4.  Medication therapy management clinic: perception of healthcare professionals in a University medical center setting 
Pharmacy Practice  2013;11(3):173-177.
Objective
To determine the overall perception and utilization of the pharmacist managed medication therapy management (MTM) clinic services, by healthcare professionals in a large, urban, university medical care setting.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional, anonymous survey sent to 195 healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, and pharmacists at The University of Illinois Outpatient Care Center to determine their perception and utilization of the MTM clinic. The survey consisted of 12 questions and was delivered through a secure online application.
Results
Sixty-two healthcare professionals (32%) completed the survey. 82% were familiar with the MTM clinic, and 63% had referred patients to the clinic. Medication adherence and disease state management was the most common reason for referral. Lack of knowledge on the appropriate referral procedure was the prominent reason for not referring patients to the MTM clinic. Of the providers that were aware of MTM services, 44% rated care as ‘excellent’, 44% as ‘good’, 5% as ‘fair’, and 0% stated ‘poor’. Strengths of MTM clinic identified by healthcare providers included in-depth education to patients, close follow-up, and detailed medication reconciliation provided by MTM clinic pharmacists. Of those familiar with MTM clinic, recommendations included; increase marketing efforts to raise awareness of the MTM clinic service, create collaborative practice agreements between MTM pharmacists and physicians, and ensure that progress notes are more concise.
Conclusions
In a large, urban, academic institution MTM clinic is perceived as a valuable resource to optimize patient care by providing patients with in-depth education as it relates to their prescribed medications and disease states. These identified benefits of MTM clinic lead to frequent patient referrals specifically for aid with medication adherence and disease state management.
PMCID: PMC3809139  PMID: 24223083
Medication Therapy Management; Professional Practice; Academic Medical Centers; Personal Satisfaction; Attitude of Health Personnel; Pharmacists; United States
5.  An Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience in a Student-Staffed Medication Therapy Management Call Center 
Objective. To describe the implementation of an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in medication therapy management (MTM) designed to contribute to student pharmacists’ confidence and abilities in providing MTM.
Design. Sixty-four student pharmacists provided MTM services during an APPE in a communication and care center.
Assessment. Students conducted 1,495 comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) identifying 6,056 medication-related problems. Ninety-eight percent of the students who completed a survey instrument (52 of 53) following the APPE expressed that they had the necessary knowledge and skills to provide MTM services. Most respondents felt that pharmacist participation in providing Medicare MTM could move the profession of pharmacy forward and that pharmacists will have some role in deciding the specific provisions of the Medicare MTM program (92% and 91%, respectively).
Conclusion. Students completing the MTM APPE received patient-centered experiences that supplemented their confidence, knowledge, and skill in providing MTM services in the future.
doi:10.5688/ajpe766110
PMCID: PMC3425925  PMID: 22919086
medication therapy management; advanced pharmacy practice experience; student pharmacists; patient-centered care
6.  Development and validation of a scale to measure patients’ trust in pharmacists in Singapore 
Objective:
To develop and validate a scale to measure patients’ trust in pharmacists for use as an outcomes predictor in pharmacoeconomic and pharmaceutical care studies.
Methods:
Literature review, study team discussion and focus group discussions were conducted to generate items of a candidate version to be pilot-tested for content validity. An amended candidate version was then tested among eligible Singaporeans across different ethnic and age groups. Score distributions were assessed for discriminatory power and item analyses for finalizing items. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dimensionality and homogeneous items. Cronbach’s alpha was measured for internal consistency and Pearson’s correlation coefficients for convergent validity.
Results:
Eighteen items were generated with good variability (SD > 1.0) and symmetry (means ranged from −1 to 1) for score distribution. After minor changes to improve content clarity, the amended questionnaire was self-administered among 1196 respondents [mean (SD) age: 38.6 (14.9) years, 51.6% female, 87% >6 years of education]. Six items were dropped due to inadequate item-total correlation coefficients, leaving 12-item scale for factor analysis. Three factors (“benevolence”, “technical competence” and “global trust”) were identified, accounting for 55% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.83, indicating high internal consistency. Convergent validity was demonstrated by statistically significant positive correlations between trust and patients’ satisfaction with pharmacists’ service (r = 0.54), returning for care (r = 0.30) and preference of medical decision-making pattern (r = 0.16).
Conclusion:
The 12-item trust in pharmacists scale demonstrated high reliability and convergent validity. Further studies among other populations are suggested to confirm the robustness and even improve the current scale.
PMCID: PMC2778414  PMID: 19936139
trust; pharmacist; scale; factor analysis; patient relationship
7.  An Online Virtual-Patient Program to Teach Pharmacists and Pharmacy Students How to Provide Diabetes-Specific Medication Therapy Management 
Objective. To develop, implement, and assess the effectiveness of an online medication therapy management (MTM) program to train pharmacists and pharmacy students in providing MTM services for patients with diabetes and to increase their intent to perform these services.
Design. An online program was created using an Internet-based learning platform to simulate 4 MTM meetings between a pharmacist and a virtual patient diagnosed with diabetes.
Assessment. Eighty students and 42 pharmacists completed the program. After completing the program, scores on post-intervention assessments showed significant improvement in 2 areas: control over performing MTM, and knowledge of how to perform MTM. Students had a significantly less-positive attitude about MTM and a decline in their perception of the social expectation that MTM is part of the practice of pharmacy, while pharmacists’ attitudes did not change significantly in these areas.
Conclusion. This online program using a virtual patient improved both participants’ belief that they have control over performing MTM, and their knowledge of how to perform MTM for diabetic patients, which may increase the likelihood that pharmacists and pharmacy students will perform MTM in the future.
doi:10.5688/ajpe767131
PMCID: PMC3448469  PMID: 23049103
medication therapy management; diabetes; pharmacist; virtual patient; simulation; pharmacy student
8.  Medication Therapy Management Training Using Case Studies and the MirixaPro Platform 
Objective
To implement and assess a medication therapy management (MTM) training program for pharmacy students using the MirixaPro (Mirixa Corporation, Reston, VA) platform and case studies.
Design
Students received lectures introducing MTM and were given a demonstration of the MirixaPro platform. They were divided into teams and assigned cases and times to interview patients portrayed by faculty members. Using the MirixaPro system, students performed 2 comprehensive medication reviews during the semester, recording the patient's current medications, indications, side effects, allergies, health conditions, and laboratory test recommendations and developed a personal medication record and medication action plan.
Assessment
Based on a rubric with a rating scale of 0-10, campus and distance pathway students received mean scores ranging from 6.3-7.4 for their performance on the second MTM exercise, an increase of 47%-54% over the first MTM exercise. In qualitative assessments, the majority of students believed that their confidence in providing MTM was enhanced by the activity, while faculty members recognized the advantage of using MirixaPro, which allowed students to experience what is required in processing a pharmacist led, billable MTM encounter.
Conclusions
Use of the MirixaPro system and patient cases provides students with a “hands-on” experience that may encourage them to promote MTM during their APPEs and provide MTM services as practicing pharmacists.
PMCID: PMC3109803  PMID: 21655403
medication therapy management (MTM); Web-based technology; active learning; patient simulation; case-based learning
9.  Medication Therapy Management Services Provided by Student Pharmacists 
Objectives. To evaluate the impact of student pharmacists delivering medication therapy management (MTM) services during an elective advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE).
Methods. Student pharmacists provided MTM services at community pharmacy APPE sites, documented their recommendations, and then made follow-up telephone calls to patients to determine the impact of the MTM provided. Students were surveyed about the MTM experience.
Results. Forty-seven students provided MTM services to 509 patients over 2 years and identified 704 drug-related problems (average of 1.4 problems per patient). About 53% of patients relayed the recommendations to their physician and 205 (75%) physicians accepted the recommendations. Eighty-eight percent of patients reported feeling better about their medications after receiving MTM services. A majority of the students perceived their provision of MTM services as valuable to their patients.
Conclusions. Providing MTM services to patients in a pharmacy practice setting allowed student pharmacists to apply skills learned in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum.
doi:10.5688/ajpe76351
PMCID: PMC3327249  PMID: 22544968
medication therapy management; experiential education; doctor of pharmacy program; advanced pharmacy practice experience; community pharmacy
10.  The chronic kidney disease self-efficacy (CKD-SE) instrument: development and psychometric evaluation 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2012;27(10):3828-3834.
While the new disease-specific self-efficacy scale for early CKD appears to be a promising new tool (…), additional evaluation is needed to further refine it.
Background
Self-management has been associated with positive health outcomes among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Perceived disease-related self-efficacy (DSE) is considered a critical component in the successful self-management of chronic disease. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring CKD patients' self-efficacy is needed. This study aims to develop and test a new instrument to measure the DSE of patients with early stage CKD.
Methods
A total of 594 Taiwanese patients with early stage CKD recruited from two medical centers and one regional hospital in southern Taiwan completed the questionnaire. The CKD self-efficacy (CKD-SE) was evaluated using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and measures of reliability.
Results
EFA identified four distinct factors with loadings ranging from 0.557 to 0.970: autonomy, self-integration, problem solving and seeking social support, accounting for 64.348% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the subscales ranged from 0.843 to 0.901.
Conclusion
This promising 25-item CKD-SE instrument can be used for the early identification of patients with low DSE, thus allowing the development of interventions to help these patients attain an appropriate level of DSE.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfr788
PMCID: PMC3808692  PMID: 22344776
chronic kidney disease; exploratory factor analysis; instrument development; self-efficacy; self-management
11.  Simulated Medication Therapy Management Activities in a Pharmacotherapy Laboratory Course 
Objective. To measure the impact of medication therapy management (MTM) learning activities on students’ confidence and intention to provide MTM using the Theory of Planned Behavior.
Design. An MTM curriculum combining lecture instruction and active-learning strategies was incorporated into a required pharmacotherapy laboratory course.
Assessment. A validated survey instrument was developed to evaluate student confidence and intent to engage in MTM services using the domains comprising the Theory of Planned Behavior. Confidence scores improved significantly from baseline for all items (p < 0.00), including identification of billable services, documentation, and electronic billing. Mean scores improved significantly for all Theory of Planned Behavior items within the constructs of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms (p < 0.05). At baseline, 42% of students agreed or strongly agreed that they had knowledge and skills to provide MTM. This percentage increased to 82% following completion of the laboratory activities.
Conclusion. Implementation of simulated MTM activities in a pharmacotherapy laboratory significantly increased knowledge scores, confidence measures, and scores on Theory of Planned Behavior constructs related to perceived behavioral control and subjective norms. Despite these improvements, intention to engage in future MTM services remained unchanged.
doi:10.5688/ajpe75595
PMCID: PMC3142971  PMID: 21829269
medication therapy management; active learning; theory of planned behavior; laboratory course; student confidence; intention
12.  Development and Validation of the Chinese Attitudes to Starting Insulin Questionnaire (Ch-ASIQ) for Primary Care Patients with Type 2 Diabetes 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78933.
Objectives
To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Chinese questionnaire which assesses the barriers and enablers to commencing insulin in primary care patients with poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes.
Research Design and Method
Questionnaire items were identified using literature review. Content validation was performed and items were further refined using an expert panel. Following translation, back translation and cognitive debriefing, the translated Chinese questionnaire was piloted on target patients. Exploratory factor analysis and item-scale correlations were performed to test the construct validity of the subscales and items. Internal reliability was tested by Cronbach’s alpha.
Results
Twenty-seven identified items underwent content validation, translation and cognitive debriefing. The translated questionnaire was piloted on 303 insulin naïve (never taken insulin) Type 2 diabetes patients recruited from 10 government-funded primary care clinics across Hong Kong. Sufficient variability in the dataset for factor analysis was confirmed by Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity (P<0.001). Using exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, 10 factors were generated onto which 26 items loaded with loading scores > 0.4 and Eigenvalues >1. Total variance for the 10 factors was 66.22%. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure was 0.725. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the first four factors were ≥0.6 identifying four sub-scales to which 13 items correlated. Remaining sub-scales and items with poor internal reliability were deleted. The final 13-item instrument had a four scale structure addressing: ‘Self-image and stigmatization’; ‘Factors promoting self-efficacy; ‘Fear of pain or needles’; and ‘Time and family support’.
Conclusion
The Chinese Attitudes to Starting Insulin Questionnaire (Ch-ASIQ) appears to be a reliable and valid measure for assessing barriers to starting insulin. This short instrument is easy to administer and may be used by healthcare providers and researchers as an assessment tool for Chinese diabetic primary care patients, including the elderly, who are unwilling to start insulin.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078933
PMCID: PMC3827341  PMID: 24236071
13.  Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting 
Background
Stigma and discrimination (SAD) against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting.
Methods
A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS) and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART) service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity.
Results
Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach’s alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as nonreligious were all negatively associated with SAD as measured by the seven newly identified latent factors.
Conclusion
The findings in this study demonstrate that the HIV-related stigma scale is valid and reliable when used in resource-poor settings. Considering the local situation, health care managers and researchers may use this scale to measure and characterize HIV-related SAD among health care providers. Tailoring for local regions may require further development of the tool.
doi:10.2147/JMDH.S29789
PMCID: PMC3333803  PMID: 22536080
stigma; discrimination; health care providers; HIV
14.  Design of a medication management program for Medicare beneficiaries: Qualitative findings from patients and physicians 
Background
The quality of pharmacologic care provided to older adults is less than optimal. Medication therapy management (MTM) programs delivered to older adults in the ambulatory care setting may improve the quality of medication use for these individuals.
Objectives
We conducted focus groups with older adults and primary care physicians to explore: (1) older adults' experiences working with a clinical pharmacist in managing medications, (2) physician perspectives on the role of clinical pharmacists in facilitating medication management, and (3) key attributes of an effective MTM program and potential barriers from both patient and provider perspectives.
Methods
Five focus groups (4 with older adults, 1 with primary care physicians) were conducted by a trained moderator using a semi-structured interview guide. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire. Sessions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative analysis software for theme identification.
Results
Twenty-eight older adults and 8 physicians participated. Older adults valued the professional, trusting nature of their interactions with the pharmacist. They found the clinical pharmacist to be a useful resource, thorough, personable, and a valuable team member. Physicians believe the clinical pharmacist fills a unique role as a specialized practitioner, contributing meaningfully to patient care. Physicians emphasized the importance of effective communication, pharmacist's access to the medical record, and a mutually-trusting relationship as key attributes of a program. Potential barriers to an effective program include poor communication and lack of familiarity with the patient's history. The lack of a sustainable reimbursement model was cited as a barrier to widespread implementation of MTM.
Conclusions
This study provides information to assist pharmacists in designing MTM programs in the ambulatory setting. Key attributes of an effective program include one that is comprehensive, addressing all medication-related needs over time. The clinical pharmacist's ability to build trusting relationships with both patients and providers is essential.
doi:10.1016/j.amjopharm.2012.01.002
PMCID: PMC3322273  PMID: 22284582
older adults; medication management; focus groups; collaborative practice; pharmacists
15.  Measuring teamwork and conflict among Emergency Medical Technician personnel 
Objective
We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) partnerships.
Methods
We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool. We performed a series of Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics.
Results
We received 687 completed surveys. The EFA analyses identified a 9-factor solution. We labeled these factors [1] Team Orientation, [2] Team Structure & Leadership, [3] Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring, [4] Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models, [5] Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior, [6] Process Conflict, [7] Strong Task Conflict, [8] Mild Task Conflict, and [9] Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short form (30-item SF) and long form (45-item LF) version. The CFA analyses determined that both the SF and LF versions possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties with a mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all 9-factors (mean=0.84; min=0.78, max=0.94). The mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF version was 0.87 (min=0.79, max=0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all 9 factors and the global score for the SF and LF versions. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, SD 21.5 SF; 49.3 SD 19.8 LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7 SD 18.1 for both SF and LF).
Conclusions
We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners.
doi:10.3109/10903127.2011.616260
PMCID: PMC3233978  PMID: 22128909
16.  Psychometric Properties of a Symptom Management Self-Efficacy Scale for Women Living with HIV/AIDS 
Context
Many people with HIV/AIDS find it difficult to manage the symptoms of the disease, but by adopting effective symptom management behavior, they increase the potential of alleviating the burden of those symptoms. Self-efficacy is a recognized mediator of successful behavior change and is utilized by many researchers and clinicians when developing symptom management interventions. Despite this, an instrument measuring the self-efficacy of symptom management behavior specifically for people living with HIV/AIDS has not yet been made available.
Objective
To introduce and test the psychometric properties of the HIV Symptom Management Self-Efficacy for Women Scale (HSM-SEWS) for women with HIV/AIDS. This scale, a new 9-item measurement instrument, was modified from the Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale.
Methods
In this study, psychometric testing focused on the reliability and validity of the HSM-SEWS instrument. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Exploratory factor analysis with oblique promax rotation was used to examine validity and test hypothetical associations.
Results
Eighty-nine HIV-positive women were recruited and asked to complete the scale every four weeks for a total of 16 weeks. Factor analysis supported a one-factor solution explaining 93% of the variance among items. Internal consistency of the nine items was found to range from 0.83–0.93, with an overall Cronbach’s alpha of 0.92.
Conclusions
Psychometric analyses suggest that the HIV Symptom Management Self-Efficacy for Women Scale is a reliable and valid instrument that measures the self-efficacy of symptom management behavior in women with HIV/AIDS and can be used during interventions and in research targeting this area of health care research.
doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.05.013
PMCID: PMC3062714  PMID: 21145198
Self-efficacy; symptom management; psychometric; women; HIV/AIDS
17.  Cultural adaptation of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) in Ghana 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:227.
Background
Accurate assessment of self-reports of sexual behaviours is vital to the evaluation of HIV prevention and family planning interventions. This investigation was to determine the cross-cultural suitability of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) originally developed for American adolescents and young adults by examining the structure and psychometric properties.
Method
A self-administered cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of 511 participants from a private university in Ghana with mean age 21.59 years.
Result
A Principal Component Analysis with varimax rotation identified a 14 item scale with four reliable factors labelled Appropriation (Cronbach alpha = .85), Assertive (Cronbach alpha = .90), Pleasure and Intoxicant (Cronbach alpha = .83), and STDs (Cronbach alpha = .81) that altogether explained 73.72% of the total variance. The scale correlated well with a measure of condom use at past sexual encounter (r = .73), indicating evidence of construct and discriminatory validity. The factor loadings were similar to the original CUSES scale but not identical suggesting relevant cultural variations.
Conclusion
The 14 item scale (CUSES-G) is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing condom use self efficacy. It is culturally appropriate for use among Ghanaian youth to gauge actual condom use and to evaluate interventions meant to increase condom use. Finally, the study cautioned researchers against the use of the original CUSES without validation in African settings and contexts.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-227
PMCID: PMC2874779  PMID: 20433724
18.  Community pharmacy-based medication therapy management services: financial impact for patients 
Pharmacy Practice  2012;10(3):119-124.
Objective
To determine the direct financial impact for patients resulting from Medication Therapy Management (MTM) interventions made by community pharmacists. Secondary objectives include evaluating the patient and physician acceptance rates of the community pharmacists' recommended MTM interventions.
Methods
This was a retrospective observational study conducted at 20 Price Chopper and Hen House grocery store chain pharmacies in the Kansas City metro area from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Study patients were Medicare Part D beneficiaries eligible for MTM services. The primary outcome was the change in patient out-of-pocket prescription medication expense as a result of MTM services.
Results
Of 128 patients included in this study, 68% experienced no out-of-pocket financial impact on their medication expenses as a result of MTM services. A total of 27% of the patients realized a cost-savings (USD440.50 per year, (SD=289.69)) while another 5% of patients saw a cost increase in out-of-pocket expense (USD255.66 per year, (SD=324.48)). The net financial impact for all 128 patients who participated in MTM services was an average savings of USD102.83 per patient per year (SD=269.18, p<0.0001). Pharmacists attempted a total of 732 recommendations; 391 (53%) were accepted by both the patient and their prescriber. A total of 341 (47%) recommendations were not accepted because of patient refusal (290, 85%) or prescriber refusal (51, 15%).
Conclusions
Patient participation in MTM services reduces patient out-of-pocket medication expense. However, this savings is driven by only 32% of subjects who are experiencing a financial impact on out-of-pocket medication expense. Additionally, the majority of the pharmacists' recommended interventions (53%) were accepted by patients and prescribers.
PMCID: PMC3780492  PMID: 24155827
Community Pharmacy Services; Medication Therapy Management; Drug Costs; United States
19.  The Thai version of the PSS-10: An Investigation of its psychometric properties 
Background
Among the stress instruments that measure the degree to which life events are perceived as stressful, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is widely used. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Thai version of the PSS-10 (T-PSS-10) with a clinical and non-clinical sample. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the factorial structure of the scale were tested.
Methods
A total sample of 479 adult participants was recruited for the study: 368 medical students and 111 patients from two hospitals in Northern Thailand. The T-PSS-10 was used along with the Thai version of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Thai Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI).
Results
Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 5.05 and 1.60, accounting for 66 percent of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "stress"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "control". The item loadings ranged from 0.547 to 0.881. Investigation of the fit indices associated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation revealed that the two-factor solution was adequate [χ2 = 35.035 (df = 26, N = 368, p < 0.111)]; Goodness-of-Fit Index (GFI) = 0.981; Root Mean Square Residual (RMR) = 0.022; Standardized Root Mean square Residual (SRMR) = 0.037, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.989; Normed Fit Index (NFI) = 0.96, Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI) = 0.981, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.031. It was found that the T-PSS-10 had a significant positive correlation with the STAI (r = 0.60, p < 0.0001), and the TDI (r = 0.55, p < 0.0001); and was significantly negatively correlated with the RSES (r = -0.46, p < 0.0001, N = 368). The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.85. The ICC was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72 and 0.88) at 4 week-retest reliability.
Conclusions
The Thai version of the PSS-10 demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit for the two factor solution model, as well as good reliability and validity for estimating the level of stress perception with a Thai population. Limitations of the study are discussed.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-4-6
PMCID: PMC2905320  PMID: 20540784
20.  Development and psychometric properties of a scale for measuring internal participation from a patient and health care professional perspective 
Background
Effective patient-centred health care requires internal participation, which is defined as interprofessional patient-centred teamwork. Many scales are designed for measuring teamwork from the perspective of one type of health care professional (e.g. physician or nurse), rather than for the use for all health care professionals as well as patients. Hence, this paper’s purpose is to develop a scale for measuring internal participation from all relevant perspectives and to check its psychometric properties.
Methods
In a multicentre cross-sectional study, a 6-item Internal Participation Scale (IPS) was developed and administered to 661 health care professionals (staff) and 1419 patients in 15 rehabilitation clinics to test item characteristics, acceptance, reliability (internal consistency) and construct validity. Additionally, we performed an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to determine the factorial structure and explained variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to verify the theoretically assumed one-dimensional factorial structure.
Results
A total of 275 health care professionals and 662 patients participated, and the complete data sets of 272 staff members and 536 patients were included in the final analysis. The discrimination index was above .4 for all items in both samples. Internal consistency was very good, with Cronbach’s alpha equalling .87 for the staff and .88 for the patient sample. EFA supported a one-dimensional structure of the instrument (explained variance: 61.1% (staff) and 62.3% (patients)). CFA verified the factorial structure, with the factor loadings exceeding .4 for five of six items in both samples. Global goodness-of-fit indices indicated a good model fit, with a Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) of .974 (staff) and .976 (patients) and a comparative fit index (CFI) of .988 (staff) and .989 (patients). The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) amounted to .068 for the patient sample and .069 for the staff sample. There is evidence of construct validity for both populations.
Conclusions
The analysis of the scale’s psychometric properties resulted in good values. The scale is a promising instrument to assess internal participation from the perspective of both patients and staff. Further research should investigate the scale’s psychometric properties in other interprofessional health care settings to examine its generalizability as well as its sensitivity to change.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-374
PMCID: PMC3850532  PMID: 24083632
Internal participation; Interprofessional collaboration; Team; Psychometrics; Scale development; Healthcare; Germany
21.  Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC): Examination of psychometric properties and responsiveness 
BMC Psychiatry  2014;14:120.
Background
Diminishing stigmatization for those with mental illnesses by health care providers (HCPs) is becoming a priority for programming and policy, as well as research. In order to be successful, we must accurately measure stigmatizing attitudes and behaviours among HCPs. The Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) was developed to measure stigma in HCP populations. In this study we revisit the factor structure and the responsiveness of the OMS-HC in a larger, more representative sample of HCPs that are more likely to be targets for anti-stigma interventions.
Methods
Baseline data were collected from HCPs (n = 1,523) during 12 different anti-stigma interventions across Canada. The majority of HCPs were women (77.4%) and were either physicians (MDs) (41.5%), nurses (17.0%), medical students (13.4%), or students in allied health programs (14.0%). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using complete pre-test (n = 1,305) survey data and responsiveness to change analyses was examined with pre and post matched data (n = 803). The internal consistency of the OMS-HC scale and subscales was evaluated using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The scale’s sensitivity to change was examined using paired t-tests, effect sizes (Cohen’s d), and standardized response means (SRM).
Results
The EFA favored a 3-factor structure which accounted for 45.3% of the variance using 15 of 20 items. The overall internal consistency for the 15-item scale (α = 0.79) and three subscales (α = 0.67 to 0.68) was acceptable. Subgroup analysis showed the internal consistency was satisfactory across HCP groups including physicians and nurses (α = 0.66 to 0.78). Evidence for the scale’s responsiveness to change occurred across multiple samples, including student-targeted interventions and workshops for practicing HCPs. The Social Distance subscale had the weakest level of responsiveness (SRM ≤ 0.50) whereas the more attitudinal-based items comprising the Attitude (SRM ≤ 0.91) and Disclosure and Help-seeking (SRM ≤ 0.68) subscales had stronger responsiveness.
Conclusions
The OMS-HC has shown to have acceptable internal consistency and has been successful in detecting positive changes in various anti-stigma interventions. Our results support the use of a 15-item scale, with the calculation of three sub scores for Attitude, Disclosure and Help-seeking, and Social Distance.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-120
PMCID: PMC4024210  PMID: 24758158
Stigma; Scales; Measurement instruments; Mental-health-related stigma; Attitudes; Contact; Intervention; Psychometrics
22.  A Scale to Measure Pharmacy Students’ Self-Efficacy in Performing Medication Therapy Management Services 
Objective. To determine whether a college of pharmacy curriculum creates a sense of self-efficacy among students with respect to providing medication therapy management (MTM) services.
Methods. An electronic survey instrument was sent to all pharmacy students to elicit information on their perceived confidence in providing MTM services, and the results were reviewed.
Results. Of the 1,160 students targeted, 464 (40%) completed the survey instrument. Responses indicated that overall self-efficacy increased with each successive year of the curriculum that students completed. Fourth-year students completing an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in medication therapy management (MTM) had significantly higher self-efficacy than did other fourth-year students, whose self-efficacy was similar to that of third-year students.
Conclusion. In this study population, students’ self-efficacy increased with each successive year in pharmacy school, with those who completed an APPE in MTM exhibiting the highest level of self-efficacy. These students may be more likely to pursue MTM opportunities in future careers.
doi:10.5688/ajpe779191
PMCID: PMC3831402  PMID: 24249853
medication therapy management; student self-efficacy; advanced pharmacy practice experience
23.  Development and psychometric properties of a belief-based Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients (PAQ-DP) 
Background
This study carried out to develop a scale for assessing diabetic patients' perceptions about physical activity and to test its psychometric properties (The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients-PAQ-DP).
Methods
An item pool extracted from the Theory of Planned Behavior literature was generated. Then an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing content validity index and content validity ratio. Consequently exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to indicate the scale constructs. In addition reliability analyses including internal consistency and test-retest analysis were carried out.
Results
In all a sample of 127 women with diabetes participated in the study. Twenty-two items were initially extracted from the literature. A six-factor solution (containing 19 items) emerged as a result of an exploratory factor analysis namely: instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, affective attitude, self-identity, and intention explaining 60.30% of the variance observed. Additional analyses indicated satisfactory results for internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.54 to 0.8) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ranging from 0.40 to 0.92).
Conclusions
The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients (PAQ-DP) is the first instrument that applies the Theory of Planned Behavior in its constructs. The findings indicated that the PAQ-DP is a reliable and valid measure for assessing physical activity perceptions and now is available and can be used in future studies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-104
PMCID: PMC2998522  PMID: 21062466
24.  The SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES): development and psychometric properties 
Background
Rising prevalence of secondary conditions among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) has focused recent attention to potential health promotion programs designed to reduce such adverse health conditions. A healthy lifestyle for people with SCI, including and specifically, the adoption of a vigorous exercise routine, has been shown to produce an array of health benefits, prompting many providers to recommend the implementation of such activity to those with SCI. Successfully adopting such an exercise regimen however, requires confidence in one's ability to engage in exercise or exercise self-efficacy. Exercise self-efficacy has not been assessed adequately for people with SCI due to a lack of validated and reliable scales, despite self efficacy's status as one of the most widely researched concepts and despite its broad application in health promotion studies. Exercise self efficacy supporting interventions for people with SCI are only meaningful if appropriate measurement tools exist. The objective of our study was to develop a psychometrically sound exercise self-efficacy self-report measure for people with SCI.
Methods
Based on literature reviews, expert comments and cognitive testing, 10 items were included and made up the 4-point Likert SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES) in its current form. The ESES was administered as part of the first wave of a nationwide survey (n = 368) on exercise behavior and was also tested separately for validity in four groups of individuals with SCI. Reliability and validity testing was performed using SPSS 12.0.
Results
Cronbach's alpha was .9269 for the ESES. High internal consistency was confirmed in split-half (EQ Length Spearman Brown = .8836). Construct validity was determined using principal component factor analysis by correlating the aggregated ESES items with the Generalised Self Efficacy Scale (GSE). We found that all items loaded on one factor only and that there was a statistically significant correlation between Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES) and Generalised Self Efficacy Scale (GSE) (Spearman RHO = .316; p < .05; n = 53, 2-sided).
Conclusion
Preliminary findings indicate that the ESES is a reliable instrument with high internal consistency and scale integrity. Content validity both in terms of face and construct validity is satisfactory.
doi:10.1186/1479-5868-4-34
PMCID: PMC2034591  PMID: 17760999
25.  The Self-Perception and Relationships Tool (S-PRT): A novel approach to the measurement of subjective health-related quality of life 
Background
The Self-Perception and Relationships Tool (S-PRT) is intended to be a clinically responsive and holistic assessment of patients' experience of illness and subjective Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL).
Methods
A diversity of patients were involved in two phases of this study. Patient samples included individuals involved with renal, cardiology, psychiatric, cancer, chronic pelvic pain, and sleep services. In Phase I, five patient focus groups generated 128 perceptual rating scales. These scales described important characteristics of illness-related experience within six life domains (i.e., Physical, Mental-Emotional, Interpersonal Receptiveness, Interpersonal Contribution, Transpersonal Receptiveness and Transpersonal Orientation). Item reduction was accomplished using Importance Q-sort and Importance Checklist methodologies with 150 patients across the participating services. In Phase II, a refined item pool (88 items) was administered along with measures of health status (SF-36) and spiritual beliefs (Spiritual Involvements and Beliefs Scale – SIBS) to 160 patients, of these 136 patients returned complete response sets.
Results
Factor analysis of S-PRT results produced a surprisingly clean five-factor solution (Eigen values> 2.0 explaining 73.5% of the pooled variance). Items with weaker or split loadings were removed leaving 36 items to form the final S-PRT rating scales; Intrapersonal Well-being (physical, mental & emotional items), Interpersonal Receptivity, Interpersonal Contribution, Transpersonal Receptivity and Transpersonal Orientation (Eigen values> 5.4 explaining 83.5% of the pooled variance). The internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha) of these scales was very high (0.82–0.97). Good convergent correlations (0.40 to 0.67) were observed between the S-PRT scales and the Mental Health scales of the SF-36. Correlations between the S-PRT Intrapersonal Well-being scale and three of SF-36 Physical Health scales were moderate (0.30 to 0.46). The criterion-related validity of the S-PRT spiritual scales was supported by moderate convergence (0.40–0.49) with three SIBS scales.
Conclusion
Evidence supports the validity of the S-PRT as a generally applicable measure of perceived health status and HRQL. The test-retest reliability was found to be adequate for most scales, and there is some preliminary evidence that the S-PRT is responsive to patient-reported changes in determinants of their HRQL. Clinical uses and directions for future research are discussed.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-2-36
PMCID: PMC497051  PMID: 15257754

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