Previously undiagnosed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency can be unmasked by a diabetic crisis and both can be associated with rhabdomyolysis. The relationship between diabetes and G6PD deficiency is discussed and the possible triggers for haemolysis as outlined in this case report. The incidence of G6PD deficiency is 10% in African-American males and up to 35% in parts of Africa so an increased awareness of G6PD deficiency is important when treating diabetes in these populations.
A 54-year-old Kenyan man presented with a 3-day history of reduced appetite, weakness and reduced level of consciousness as a result of a hyperglycaemic diabetic crisis with both hyperosmolarity and ketoacidosis. The patient then developed haemolysis and a raised creatine kinase level. A diagnosis of G6PD deficiency and rhabdomyolysis was made.
This case highlights the importance of simple laboratory investigations in the early identification of the rarer complications of diabetic crisis such as haemolysis secondary to G6PD deficiency and rhabdomyolysis.
Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in South Africa and of concern to traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, because they experience a high incidence of diabetic cases in their practices. A collaborative research project with these practitioners focused on the screening of Bulbine frutescens, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Ruta graveolens, Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Tulbaghia violacea for antidiabetic and cytotoxic potential. In vitro glucose utilisation assays with Chang liver cells and C2C12 muscle cells, and growth inhibition assays with Chang liver cells were conducted. The aqueous extracts of Bulbine frutescens (143.5%), Ornithogalum longibracteatum (131.9%) and Tarchonanthus camphoratus (131.5%) showed significant increased glucose utilisation activity in Chang liver cells. The ethanol extracts of Ruta graveolens (136.9%) and Tulbaghia violacea (140.5%) produced the highest increase in glucose utilisation in C2C12 muscle cells. The ethanol extract of Bulbine frutescens produced the most pronounced growth inhibition (33.3%) on Chang liver cells. These findings highlight the potential for the use of traditional remedies in the future for the management of diabetes and it is recommended that combinations of these plants be tested in future.
Diabetes mellitus; Cytotoxicity; Collaborative research; Chang liver cells; C2C12 muscle cells
Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with infectious complications. Swift activation of leucocytes is important for an adequate immune response. We determined the selective effects of hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory gene expression and cytokine production in leucocytes and on neutrophil functions.
Six healthy humans were studied on four occasions for 6 h during: (i) lower insulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, (ii) lower insulinaemic hyperglycaemic clamp, (iii) hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, and (iv) hyperinsulinaemic hyperglycaemic clamp. Target levels of plasma glucose were 12.0 mmol/l (hyperglycaemic clamps) or 5.0 mmol/l (euglycaemic clamps). Target plasma insulin levels were 400 pmol/l (hyperinsulinaemic clamps) or 100 pmol/l (lower insulinaemic clamps).
Hyperglycaemia reduced LPS-induced mRNA expression of nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA), interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), whereas during hyperinsulinaemia enhanced mRNA levels occurred in six out of eight measured inflammation-related genes, irrespective of plasma glucose levels. Combined hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia led to enhanced IL1A, interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) and CCL3 mRNA levels upon LPS stimulation. Neither hyperglycaemia nor hyperinsulinaemia altered cytokine protein production, neutrophil migration, phagocytic capacity or oxidative burst activity.
These results suggest that short-term hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia influence the expression of several inflammatory genes in an opposite direction, that the acute effects of hyperinsulinaemia on inflammatory mRNA levels may be stronger than those of hyperglycaemia, and that the effects of insulin, in particular, may be relevant in the concurrent presence of hyperglycaemia.
Diabet. Med. 25, 157–164 (2008)
cytokines; hyperglycaemia; hyperinsulinaemia; mRNA; neutrophils
Critically ill patients may benefit from strict glucose control. An objective measure of hyperglycaemia for assessing glucose control in acutely ill patients should reflect the magnitude and duration of hyperglycaemia, should be independent of the number of measurements, and should not be falsely lowered by hypoglycaemic values. The time average of glucose values above the normal range meets these requirements.
A retrospective, single-centre study was performed at a 12-bed surgical intensive care unit. From 1990 through 2001 all patients over 15 years, staying at least 4 days, were included. Admission type, sex, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and outcome were recorded. The hyperglycaemic index (HGI) was defined as the area under the curve above the upper limit of normal (glucose level 6.0 mmol/l) divided by the total length of stay. HGI, admission glucose, mean morning glucose, mean glucose and maximal glucose were calculated for each patient. The relations between these measures and 30-day mortality were determined.
In 1779 patients with a median stay in the intensive care unit of 10 days, the 30-day mortality was 17%. A total of 65,528 glucose values were analyzed. Median HGI was 0.9 mmol/l (interquartile range 0.3–2.1 mmol/l) in survivors versus 1.8 mmol/l (interquartile range 0.7–3.4 mmol/l) in nonsurvivors (P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.64 for HGI, as compared with 0.61 and 0.62 for mean morning glucose and mean glucose. HGI was the only significant glucose measure in binary logistic regression.
HGI exhibited a better relation with outcome than other glucose indices. HGI is a useful measure of glucose control in critically ill patients.
critically ill patients; hyperglycaemia; normoglycaemia; outcome prognosis
Comorbidity in patients with diabetes is associated with poorer health and increased cost. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and ingredient cost of comorbidity in patients ≥ 65 years with and without medication treated type 2 diabetes using a national pharmacy claims database.
The Irish Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Service pharmacy claims database, which includes all prescribing to individuals covered by the General Medical Services scheme, was used to identify the study population (≥ 65 years). Patients with medication treated type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were identified using the prescription of oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents alone or in combination with insulin as a proxy for disease diagnosis. The prevalence and ingredient prescribing cost of treated chronic comorbidity in the study population with and without medication treated T2DM were ascertained using a modified version of the RxRiskV index, a prescription based comorbidity index. The association between T2DM and comorbid conditions was assessed using logistic regression adjusting for age and sex. Bootstrapping was used to ascertain the mean annual ingredient cost of treated comorbidity. Statistical significance at p < 0.05 was assumed.
In 2010, 43165 of 445180 GMS eligible individuals (9.7%) were identified as having received medication for T2DM. The median number of comorbid conditions was significantly higher in those with T2DM compared to without (median 5 vs. 3 respectively; p < 0.001). Individuals with T2DM were more likely to have ≥ 5 comorbidities when compared to those without (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 2.76-2.88, p < 0.0001). The mean annual ingredient cost for comorbidity was higher in the study population with T2DM (€1238.67, 95% CI = €1238.20 - €1239.14) compared to those without the condition (€799.28, 95% CI = €799.14 - € 799.41).
Individuals with T2DM were more likely to have a higher number of treated comorbid conditions than those without and this was associated with higher ingredient costs. This has important policy and economic consequences for the planning and provision of future health services in Ireland, given the expected increase in T2DM and other chronic conditions.
Comorbidity; Type 2 diabetes; Pharmacoepidemiology; RxRisk V index; Ireland; Ingredient cost; Elderly
Endocrine emergencies constitute only a small percentage of the emergency workload of general doctors, comprising about 1.5% of all hospital admission in England in 2004–5. Most of these are diabetes related with the remaining conditions totalling a few hundred cases at most. Hence any individual doctor might not have sufficient exposure to be confident in their management. This review discusses the management of diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state, hypoglycaemia, hypercalcaemia, thyroid storm, myxoedema coma, acute adrenal insufficiency, phaeochromocytoma hypertensive crisis and pituitary apoplexy in the adult population.
Crisis resolution teams (CRTs) provide a community alternative to psychiatric hospital admission for patients presenting in crisis. Little is known about the characteristics of patients admitted despite the availability of such teams.
Data were drawn from three investigations of the outcomes of CRTs in inner London. A literature review was used to identify candidate explanatory variables that may be associated with admission despite the availability of intensive home treatment. The main outcome variable was admission to hospital within 8 weeks of the initial crisis. Associations between this outcome and the candidate explanatory variables were tested using first univariate and then multivariate analysis.
Patients who were uncooperative with initial assessment (OR 10.25 95% CI-4.20–24.97), at risk of self-neglect (OR 2.93 1.42–6.05), had a history of compulsory admission (OR 2.64 1.07–6.55), assessed outside usual office hours (OR 2.34 1.11–4.94) and/or were assessed in hospital casualty departments (OR 3.12 1.55–6.26), were more likely to be admitted. Other than age, no socio-demographic features or diagnostic variables were significantly associated with risk of admission.
With the introduction of CRTs, inpatient wards face a significant challenge, as patients who cooperate little with treatment, neglect themselves, or have previously been compulsorily detained are especially likely to be admitted. The increased risk of admission associated with casualty department assessment may be remediable.
Erythrocyte deformability was studied in a total of 83 poorly controlled diabetics (mean blood glucose 12.2 mmol/l) who were divided into three groups, each with matched healthy controls. There was no appreciable difference between diabetics and matched controls regarding the filtration of erythrocytes through 3 micron diameter straight channel pores (25 diabetics) or tortuous channel pores (28 diabetics), or for the measurement of erythrocyte elongation over a range of osmolalities in the Ektacytometer (30 diabetics). When erythrocytes from 17 additional diabetics and 17 healthy controls were incubated for two hours at 37 degrees C in hyperglycaemic (50 mmol glucose/l) buffer, however, there was a considerable reduction in erythrocyte filterability for both diabetics and controls in parallel with an increase in erythrocyte sorbitol concentration. This loss of filterability was prevented by the addition of an aldose reductase inhibitor (Sorbinil). High glucose concentrations (congruent to 50 mmol/l) impair the filterability of erythrocytes through 3 micron pores, and the intracellular accumulation of sorbitol in poorly controlled outpatients is therefore unlikely to have a major adverse effect on erythrocyte rheology in diabetes mellitus.
Aim: The hypothesis that patients with hyperglycaemia during admission, regardless of previous diagnosis of diabetes, have worse prognosis than those with normal glucose values is controversial. The objective was to assess the role of hyperglycaemia on short-term mortality after myocardial infarction (MI).
Methods and Results: A cohort study nested in a prospective registry of MI patients in the reference hospital of Gerona, Spain was performed. All consecutive MI patients under 75 were registered between 1993 and 1996. Patient and clinical characteristics, including previous diagnosis of diabetes, glycaemia on admission and in the next four days, were recorded. Patients with glycaemia on admission or four day mean glycaemia >6.67 mmol/l were considered hyperglycaemic. The main outcome measure was mortality at 28 days. Of 662 patients with MI included, 195 (29.7%) had previously known diabetes mellitus, but 457 (69.0%) had glycaemia >6.67 mmol/l on admission. Patients with hyperglycaemia on admission were older, more often female, more frequently had a previous diagnosis of diabetes, developed more complications, and had higher 28 day mortality. The effect of admission glycaemia >6.67 mmol/l on 28 day mortality was independent of major confounding factors, particularly previous diagnosis of diabetes (OR=4.20, 95% confidence intervals 1.18 to 14.96).
Conclusions: Higher 28 day mortality was observed among MI patients with glycaemia on admission >6.67 mmol/l compared with patients with lower levels, independently of major confounding variables and, particularly, previous diagnosis of diabetes. This early, simple, and inexpensive marker of bad prognosis after MI should prompt the application of more aggressive treatment of MI and risk factors and, probably, of glycaemia during admission.
To develop and validate a new immuno-deficient mouse strain that spontaneously develops a non-autoimmune hyperglycaemia to serve as a diabetic host for human islets and human beta stem and progenitor cells without the need for induction of hyperglycaemia by toxic chemicals with their associated side effects.
We generated and characterised a new strain of immunodeficient spontaneously hyperglycaemic mice, the NOD-Rag1null Prf1null Ins2Akita strain and compared this strain with the NOD-scidIl2rγnull (also known as Il2rg) immunodeficient strain rendered hyperglycaemic by administration of a single dose of streptozotocin. Hyperglycaemic mice were transplanted with human islets ranging from 1,000 to 4,000 islet equivalents (IEQ) and were monitored for normalisation of blood glucose levels.
NOD-Rag1null Prf1null Ins2Akita mice developed spontaneous hyperglycaemia, similar to Ins2Akita-harbouring strains of immunocompetent mice. Histological examination of islets in the host pancreas validated the spontaneous loss of beta cell mass in the absence of mononuclear cell infiltration. Human islets transplanted into spontaneously diabetic NOD-Rag1null Prf1null Ins2Akita and chemically diabetic NOD-scid Il2rγnull mice resulted in a return to euglycaemia that occurred with transplantation of similar beta cell masses.
The NOD-Rag1null Prf1null Ins2Akita mouse is the first immunodeficient, spontaneously hyperglycaemic mouse strain described that is based on the Ins2Akita mutation. This strain is suitable as hosts for human islet and human beta stem and progenitor cell transplantation in the absence of the need for pharmacological induction of diabetes. This strain of mice also has low levels of innate immunity and can be engrafted with a human immune system for the study of human islet allograft rejection.
Akita; Humanised mice; Insulin; Islet transplantation; NOD mice
Hyperglycaemic emergencies are common acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) but unfortunately, there is a dearth of published data on this entity from Nigeria. This study attempts to describe the clinical and laboratory scenario associated with this complication of DM.
This study was carried out in DM patients who presented to an urban hospital in Nigeria with hyperglycaemic emergencies (HEs). The information extracted included biodata, laboratory data and hospitalization outcome. Outcome measures included mortality rates, case fatality rates and predictive factors for HEs mortality. Statistical tests used are χ2, Student's t test and logistic regression.
A total of 111 subjects with HEs were recruited for the study. Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosomolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) accounted for 94 (85%) and 17 (15%) respectively of the HEs. The mean age (SD) of the subjects was 53.9 (14.4) years and their ages ranged from 22 to 86 years. DKA occurred in all subjects with type 1 DM and 73 (81%) of subjects with type 2 DM. The presence of HSS was noted in 17 (19%) of the subjects with type 2 DM.
Hypokalaemia (HK) was documented in 41 (37%) of the study subjects. Elevated urea levels and hyponatraemia were noted more in subjects with DKA than in those subjects with HHS (57.5%,19% vs 53%,18%). The mortality rate for HEs in this report is 20% and the case fatality rates for DKA and HHS are 18% and 35% respectively.
The predictive factors for HEs mortality include, sepsis, foot ulceration, previously undetected DM, hypokalaemia and being elderly.
HHS carry a higher case fatality rate than DKA and the predictive factors for hyperglycaemic emergencies' mortality in the Nigerian with DM include foot ulcers, hypokalaemia and being elderly.
Severe pressures on beds in psychiatric services have led to the implementation of an early ("crisis") discharge policy in the Western Cape, South Africa. The study examined the effect of this policy and length of hospital stay (LOS) on readmission rates in one psychiatric hospital in South Africa.
Discharge summaries of adult male patients (n = 438) admitted to Stikland Psychiatric Hospital during 2004 were retrospectively examined. Each patient's clinical course was then analysed for the period between January 1st, 2004, and August 31st, 2006.
Although shorter LOS was associated with decreased readmission rates, the effect of crisis discharges was far more powerful. Patients discharged as usual had a far lower risk of readmission than those discharged due to bed pressures (i.e. crisis discharge).
Increased risks associated with the early discharge policy necessitate the urgent review of the current management of bed shortages in this inpatient facility. The strengthening of community initiatives, particularly assertive outreach could be a way forward.
An 88 year old woman presented comatose, hypothermic and hyperglycaemic. She died soon after admission and at autopsy recent small bowel infarction was found. The superior mesenteric artery was encased in a dense pancreatic mass and there was marked luminal narrowing of the vessel. Histology revealed a pancreatic glucagonoma which had metastasized to colonic submucosa and serosa. Glucagonoma is a rare tumour and this presentation of small bowel infarction associated with pancreatic glucagonoma would appear to be a unique event.
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a cardio-metabolic disorder. Whether metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR) and albuminuria are independently associated with OSA is unclear, but defining the interactions between OSA and various cardiovascular (CV) risk factors independent of obesity facilitates the development of therapeutic strategies to mitigate their increased CV risks. We prospectively recruited 38 subjects with OSA and 41 controls. Anthropometric measurements, glucose, lipids, insulin and blood pressure (BP) were measured after an overnight fast. IR state was defined as homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) value >3.99 and MS diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Subjects with OSA were more obese, more insulin resistant, more hyperglycaemic, had higher Epworth score (measure of day time somnolence) and systolic blood pressure levels. The prevalence of MS was higher in OSA compared with non-OSA subjects (74% vs 24%, p < 0.001). The prevalence of microalbuminuria in both groups was negligible. Logistic regression adjusted for age, BMI and smoking showed that the patient with OSA was 5.9 (95% CI 2.0–17.6) times more likely to have MS than non-OSA patient. Triglyceride (p = 0.031), glucose (0.023) and Epworth score (0.003) values were independently associated with OSA after adjusting for BMI and other covariates whilst IR status was found not to be significant. Using the ROC curve analysis, we found that a waist circumference of >103 cm would predict MS in patients with OSA at 75–78% sensitivity and 61–64% specificity. The agreement between MS and IR state in this cohort is poor. Thus, OSA is associated with MS independent of obesity predominantly due to increased triglyceride, glucose and Epworth score values but not IR or microalbuminuria status. This observation suggests an alternative pathogenic factor mediating the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with OSA and MS, other than that due to IR. The independent link between Epworth score and MS in patients with OSA implicates the role of daytime sleepiness and chronic hypoxia as a potential mediator. Given the discordant between MS and IR state, measurement of waist is useful for predicting mainly MS but not insulin resistance status in patients with OSA. Appropriate pharmacological intervention targeting these independent factors is important in reducing the increased CV risks among patients with OSA.
Some neonates, such as those who are preterm or small for dates, become hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic. These disorders represent a failure of neonatal metabolic adaptation, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Data from studies of hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic infants were reviewed in the light of new data from studies of healthy neonates. Data from 28 neonates, who had disordered blood glucose homoeostasis, were analysed to determine the interrelationships between circulating concentrations of glucose, intermediary metabolites, glucagon and insulin, and glucose production rates. Blood glucose concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 26.1 mmol/l, and glucose production rates from 0 to 19.2 mg/kg/min. Blood glucose concentrations were positively related to intravenous glucose infusion rates and to glucose production rates. A negative relationship existed between plasma glucagon and blood glucose concentrations, but there was a wide variation in plasma insulin levels at all blood glucose concentrations. No relationship between either plasma insulin or glucagon concentration and glucose production rate was shown. It is concluded that in neonates with disordered blood glucose homoeostasis, blood glucose concentration is influenced by the rate of administration of glucose, with less precise internal control mechanisms than older subjects. This emphasises the importance of blood glucose monitoring and careful prescribing of exogenous glucose by clinicians caring for such infants.
Objective: To investigate whether factors other than hyperglycaemia may be responsible for the neurological involvement.
Methods: Three patients who developed a persistent chorea-ballism syndrome triggered by a hyperglycaemic crisis were investigated. In these patients, the persistence of the involuntary movements required neuroleptic medication.
Results: T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral hyperintense lesions involving the striatum. Surprisingly, in these patients, the laboratory investigations revealed peripheral red blood cell acanthocytosis in a significant proportion of cells.
Conclusion: Compared with the large population of patients with diabetes who do not show abnormal involuntary movements, unrecognised acanthocytosis in diabetes might render patients prone to develop hemichorea-hemiballism.
Diabetic patients are at increased risk of cardiomyopathy, acute myocardial infarction and loss of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), but the aetiology is poorly understood. We hypothesised a significant role for mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in cardiomyopathies associated with hyperglycaemia.
The role of MBL in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion (MI/R) injury was investigated in wild-type (WT) and MBL-null mice following 2 weeks of streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia.
Hyperglycaemic WT mice presented with significantly decreased left ventricular ejection fractions and increased serum troponin I levels and myocardial inflammation compared with non-diabetic WT mice following MI/R. Hyperglycaemic MBL-null mice or insulin-treated diabetic WT mice were significantly protected from MI/R injury compared with diabetic WT mice. In an additional study using diabetic WT mice, echocardiographic measurements demonstrated signs of dilative cardiomyopathy, whereas heart:body weight ratios suggested hypertrophic cardiac remodelling after 2 weeks of hyperglycaemia. Immunohistochemical analysis of CPCs showed significantly lower numbers in diabetic WT hearts compared with non-diabetic hearts. Insulin-treated diabetic WT or untreated diabetic MBL-null mice were protected from dilative cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic remodelling and loss of CPCs.
These data demonstrate that MBL may play a critical role in diabetic MI/R injury. Further, the absence of MBL appears to inhibit hypertrophic remodelling and hyperglycaemia-induced loss of CPCs after just 2 weeks of hyperglycaemia in mice.
Animal; Complement; Mannose-binding lectin; Type 1 diabetes
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a crisis resolution team.
Design Randomised controlled trial.
Participants 260 residents of the inner London Borough of Islington who were experiencing crises severe enough for hospital admission to be considered.
Interventions Acute care including a 24 hour crisis resolution team (experimental group), compared with standard care from inpatient services and community mental health teams (control group).
Main outcome measures Hospital admission and patients' satisfaction.
Results Patients in the experimental group were less likely to be admitted to hospital in the eight weeks after the crisis (odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.32), though compulsory admission was not significantly reduced. A difference of 1.6 points in the mean score on the client satisfaction questionnaire (CSQ-8) was not quite significant (P = 0.07), although it became so after adjustment for baseline characteristics (P = 0.002).
Conclusion Crisis resolution teams can reduce hospital admissions in mental health crises. They may also increase satisfaction in patients, but this was an equivocal finding.
The presentation, pattern of acute illness, and incidence of learning difficulties are described in 63 (33 boys, 30 girls) children with salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency, drawn from a cohort study of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the South West Region of England between 1968 and 1988. Thirty boys presented with a salt losing crisis from birth whereas the other three boys presented between 2 and 14 months of age with failure to thrive and hyponatraemia. Diagnostic uncertainty led to 13 (43%) of 30 girls developing a salt losing crisis. Five girls were misassigned as boys at birth. There were four deaths in the group, two due to salt losing crisis, one to complications of prematurity possibly compounded by 21-hydroxylase deficiency, and one from heart failure probably related to an excess of steroids. Acute admissions were common, especially during the first year of life, with convulsions in 7% of admissions. The 9% incidence of hypoglycaemia was considered to be an underestimate as blood glucose was measured in only 56 (22%) of 254 admissions. No convulsions occurred in the 38 (15%) admissions where the parents had given intramuscular hydrocortisone before bringing the child to hospital. A high incidence of learning difficulties was found among the 59 surviving children (9/30 (30%) boys and 6/29 (21%) girls), and in only two children could any factor other than 21-hydroxylase deficiency be invoked. Analysis of the subgroup with learning difficulties indicated that they were more ill at presentation with a significantly higher incidence of hypoglycaemia, and that growth in the first year was significantly worse. It is concluded that congenital adrenal hyperplasia remains a formidable disorder with an appreciable mortality and morbidity. The high incidence of learning difficulties seen in salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency needs further attention. A prospective study is indicated to examine the effect of neonatal screening on morbidity from congenital adrenal hyperplasia, particularly the intellectual impairment seen in this study.
Objective To investigate the cost effectiveness of joint crisis plans, a form of advance agreement for people with severe mental illness.
Design Single blind randomised controlled trial.
Setting Eight community mental health teams in southern England.
Participants 160 people with a diagnosis of psychotic illness or non-psychotic bipolar disorder who had been admitted to hospital at least once within the previous two years.
Intervention Joint crisis plan formulated by the patient, care coordinator, psychiatrist, and project worker containing contact information, details of illnesses, treatments, relapse indicators, and advance statements of preferences for care for future relapses. Control group was standardised service information.
Main outcome measures Admission to hospital; service use over 15 months.
Results Use of a joint crisis plan was associated with less service use and lower costs on average than in the standardised service information group, but differences were not significant. Total costs during follow-up were £7264 (€10 616, $13 560) for each participant with a joint crisis plan and £8359 (€12 217, $15 609) for each participant with standardised service information (mean difference £1095; 95% confidence interval -2814 to 5004). Cost effectiveness acceptability curves, used to explore uncertainty in estimates of costs and effects, suggest there is a greater than 78% probability that joint crisis plans are more cost effective than standardised service information in reducing the proportion of patients admitted to hospital.
Conclusion Joint crisis plans produced a non-significant decrease in admissions and total costs. Though the cost estimates had wide confidence intervals, the associated uncertainty suggests there is a relatively high probability of the plans being more cost effective than standardised service information for people with psychotic disorders.
Electrofusion-derived BRIN-BD11 cells are glucosesensitive
insulin-secreting cells which provide an
archetypal bioengineered surrogate β-cell for
insulin replacement therapy in diabetes mellitus,
5x106 BRIN-BD11 cells were implanted intraperitoneally
into severely hyperglycaemic (>24mmol/l)
streptozotocin-induced insulin-treated diabetic
athymic nude (nu/nu) mice. The implants reduced
hyperglycaemia such that insulin injections were
discontinued by 5–16 days (<17mmol/l) and normoglycaemia
(<9mmol/l) was achieved by 7–20
days. Implanted cells were removed after 28 days
and re-established in culture. After re-culture for 20
days, glucose-stimulated (16.7mmol/l) insulin
release was enhanced by 121% (p<0.001) compared
to non-implanted cells. Insulin responses to
glucagon-like peptide-1 (10−9mol/l), cholecystokinin-8 (10−8 mol/l) and L-alanine (10 mmol/l) were
increased by 32%, 31% and 68% respectively
(p<0.05–0.01). Insulin content of the cells was 148%
greater at 20 days after re-culture than before
implantation (p<0.001), but basal insulin release (at
5.6 mmol/l glucose) was not changed. After re-culture
for 40 days, insulin content declined to 68% of
the content before implantation (p<0.01), although
basal insulin release was unchanged. However, the
insulin secretory responses to glucose, glucagonlike
peptide-1, cholecystokinin-8 and L-alanine
were decreased after 40 days of re-culture to 65%,
72%, 73% and 42% respectively of the values before
implantation (p<0.05–0.01). The functional
enhancement of electrofusion-derived surrogate β-cells that were re-cultured for 20 days after implantation
and restoration of normoglycaemia indicates
that the in vivo environment could greatly assist β-cell engineering approaches to therapy for diabetes.
This study compared the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and pathways to admission for women admitted to women’s crisis houses and to psychiatric hospitals. A women’s crisis house is a residential mental health crisis facility for women who would otherwise be considered for voluntary hospital admission.
A survey of all 388 female admissions to women’s crisis houses and psychiatric hospitals in four boroughs of London during a 12-week period in 2006 was conducted with questionnaires administered to key workers involved in the admissions.
Pathways to admission were significantly less complex for women admitted to the crisis houses (fewer preadmission contacts with police, emergency departments, and other services). Women admitted to psychiatric wards were more likely to require supervision or observation. A multivariate analysis of data for the 245 voluntary admissions indicated that women admitted to women’s crisis houses were significantly less likely to have a care coordinator (odds ratio [OR]=.528) or to have gone to an accident and emergency department (OR=.214) before admission. No other differences were found between the two groups.
Pathways to admission were somewhat different for women admitted to women’s crisis houses, but few clinical or sociodemographic differences were found between the two groups. Women’s crisis houses may be a viable alternative to traditional wards for voluntary patients not needing intensive supervision and observation. Research should examine whether women’s crisis houses are as effective as traditional inpatient services in treating women with acute psychiatric problems.
This case involves a 43-year-old female patient with highly uncontrolled type 2 diabetes for the past 14 years. Her weekly mean (SD) glycaemia (WMG) concentration at week 1 was 20.9 (4.8) mmol/l (377 (87) mg/dl). Four weeks after reaching full control at week 3 with insulin glargine plus regular insulin and metformin (WMG 7.0 (1.9) mmol/l (127 (34) mg/dl)) she was diagnosed with acute pulmonary tuberculosis and treated with rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide, which caused her to lose glycaemic control (WMG 21.0 (7.1) mmol/l (378 (128) mg/dl)). No other potentially hyperglycaemic drug such as corticosteroid was used. During this entire period she was intensively treated with NPH (neutral protamine Hagedorn) and regular insulins, reaching a total daily dose of 170 IU, but with no clinical response. Together with insulin therapy, rosiglitazone was started at week 12 and glycaemic control returned to normal within just 3 weeks (WMG 6.6 (2.9) mmol/l (120 (53) mg/dl)).
Insulin is neuroprotective in animal stroke models but its
effects in acute stroke in humans are unknown. The Glucose Insulin in
Stroke Trial (GIST-UK) is a randomised controlled trial investigating the benefits of maintaining euglycaemia in hyperglycaemic patients with
acute stroke. Data are reported from a GIST-UK substudy which sought to
determine the influence of glucose potassium insulin (GKI) infusion on
blood pressure in acute stroke. All adult patients admitted to hospital
with acute stroke with hyperglycaemia (plasma glucose 6.1-17 mmol/l)
were potentially eligible. Randomised patients received either a GKI
infusion (500 ml 10% glucose, 20 mmol potassium chloride, 16 units of
insulin) or control therapy with 154 mmol/l (0.9%) saline at 100 ml/h
for 24 hours. BM test strip glucose monitoring was performed 2 hourly,
blood pressure monitoring 4hourly, and plasma glucose sampling 8 hourly. Insulin concentration in the GKI infusate was altered according
to test strip values to maintain test strip values between 4-7 mmol/l
in the GKI group. Neurological impairment was determined using the
European stroke scale (ESS). 145 patients were studied (73 GKI, 72 control). Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly lower during
GKI infusion between 4 hours and 24 hours except at 8 hours. Median
total ESS scores improved significantly between admission and day 7 in
the GKI group (p<0.001) although there was no significant difference in total ESS score between groups at day 7. The significant reduction of systolic blood pressure in acute stroke associated with GKI therapy
was not associated with neurological deterioration and may have been beneficial.
BACKGROUND--Visual pathway function is abnormal in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) without retinopathy, yet the mechanism underlying this abnormality is unknown. It is hypothesised that short term changes in blood glucose level affect visual pathway function in IDDM. METHODS--Colour discrimination was measured in 10 uncomplicated aretinopathic IDDM patients during hyperinsulinaemic clamp, with the Farnsworth Munsell 100 hue test (100 hue test). After stable euglycaemia, patients were made hyperglycaemic (14 mmol/l), maintained euglycaemic (5 mmol/l), and rendered hypoglycaemic (2.5 mmol/l), in random order, on separate occasions at least 1 week apart. RESULTS--Short term (1-2 hours) changes in blood glucose did not affect colour discrimination: mean (SD) 100 hue error score at 2.5 mmol/l was 34 (22) compared with 35 (33) at 5 mmol/l, and 39 (28) at 14 mmol/l. CONCLUSION--These data suggest that short term (1-2 hours) changes in blood glucose are not the mechanism for visual pathway dysfunction in aretinopathic IDDM patients.