Central nervous system (CNS) sparganosis is a rare parasitic infestation caused by ingestion of the raw or inadequately cooked snakes or frogs. Sparganum is well known for its ability of migrating though the tissue, therefore, it can cause various neurological symptoms if it involves neurological systems. A 51-year-old male patient visited our department of neurosurgery complaining of the motor weakness and radiating pain on both upper extremities over 4 months. He had a history of ingesting raw snakes untill his late twenties. The magnetic resonance (MR) images of cervical spine revealed an intramedullary ill-defined enhancing lesion with the aggregated cysts in the upper cervical spinal cord. Under presumptive diagnosis of sparganosis, we took brain MR image. The brain MR images revealed the signal change in right fronto-temporal lobe suggesting the trajectory of parasitic migration via ventricular systems. He underwent a midline myelotomy and granuloma removal followed by the posterior laminoplasty. Pathologic findings showed inflammatory changes and necrosis with keratinized tissue suggesting the CNS sparganosis. We report an uncommon case of CNS sparganosis migrated from the brain to the spinal cord with literature review.
Central nervous system; Migration; Sparganosis; Spinal cord; Ventricle
Intramuscular sparganosis is not common, and its rarity makes it difficult to be distinguished from soft tissue tumors. A case of rare intramuscular sparganosis is reported. A 44-year-old man presented with a painful mass in the left thigh for 8 months, which was initially diagnosed a as soft tissue tumor. Ultrasonography and MRI revealed a multilobulated mass in the sartorius muscle. After the needle biopsy under the guidance of ultrasonography, sparganum was discovered under microscopic examination of the excised tissue. Surgical excision was performed, and a live larva of sparganum was removed. Sparganosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, especially among Koreans who have frequently ingested mountain water and consumed raw snakes or frogs.
Sparganosis is a rare parasitic infection caused by the plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra.
We report the case of a 67-year-old man with a mass over the anteromedial surface of the proximal extremity of the tibia. We surgically excised a bursa containing Spirometra larvae.
Sparganosis is a rare parasitic infection. We found no cases of lower extremity sparganosis combined with bursitis reported in the literature.
Purposes and Clinical Relevance
Sparganosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, especially among patients who frequently have consumed mountain water or raw snakes or frogs.
A case of breast sparganosis was confirmed by surgical excision of a worm (fragmented into 5 pieces) in a 59-year-old Korean woman suffering from a palpable mass in the left breast. Mammography and ultrasonography characteristically revealed the presence of several well-defined, isodense and hypoechoic tubular masses, in the upper quadrant of the left breast, each mass consisting of a continuous cord- or worm-like structure. During surgery, a long segment of an actively moving sparganum of Spirometra sp. and 4 small fragments of the same worm, giving a total length of 20.3 cm, were extracted from the upper outer quadrant of the left breast and the axillary region. The infection source remains unclear, because the patient denied ingesting any snake or frog meat or drinking untreated water.
sparganum; sparganosis; case report; woman; breast; mammography; ultrasonography
A 29-year-old Korean woman visited the Department of Surgery in MizMedi Hospital with a palpable itching mass on the right breast that had existed for the past 7 months. She had no history to eat either frogs or snakes, but had the history of drinking impure water. Sonography revealed a serpiginous hypoechoic tubular structure associated with partial fat necrosis in breast parenchymal layer and subcutaneous fat layer. It also revealed oval cystic lesions. At operation, an ivory white opaque ribbon-like worm that measured 16.5 cm in length and 0.5 cm in width was extracted. Anti-sparganum specific serum IgG level in the patient's serum (absorbance = 0.71), measured by ELISA, was found to be significantly higher than those of normal controls (cut off point = 0.21). Sonography and ELISA appear to be helpful to diagnose sparganosis. Breast sparganosis is rarely found throughout the world.
sparganosis; breast; ultrasonography
Gangweon-do is known to be highly endemic area of sparganosis more than other provinces in Korea. A seroepidmiologic examination for the detection of anti-Spirometra erinacei plerocercoid IgG in serum was carried out in normal inhabitants in Hongcheon-gun, Gangweon-do. Sere were tested by enzyme-linked immunosrobent assay (ELISA) for the anti-sparganum antibodies. Positive rate for anti-sparganum antibody in 719 adults was 3.3%. Data of the questionnaire for 24 ELISA positive inhabitants revealed that 20 had a history of eating raw meat of snakes, 24 had a history of eating frogs, and 24 had a history of drinking stream water. Two positive cases had a past history of sparganosis. Two positive cases showed current symptoms of sparganosis. The data revealed that ELISA would be useful to find infected cases among normal inhabitants at sparganosis-endemic areas.
Sparganosis is caused by a larval tapeworm of the genus Spirometra, which commonly invades subcutaneous tissue, but less frequently invades muscle, intestines, spinal cord, and the peritoneopleural cavity. The authors managed a female patient who presented with a recurrent pericardiopleural effusion and peripheral eosinophilia. The anti-sparganum-specific IgG serum level was significantly higher than normal control levels. In this patient, sparganosis was caused by the ingestion of raw frogs in an effort to control her thyroid disease. The recurrent pericardiopleural effusion and peripheral eosinophilia were controlled by 3 consecutive doses of praziquantel (75 mg/kg/day). The patient is doing well 4 years after presentation. Sparganosis should be considered a rare, but possible cause of recurrent pericardial effusion and peripheral eosinophilia. Immunoserologic testing using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays can be helpful in diagnosing human sparganosis, especially in cases without a subcutaneous lump or mass. Praziquantel is an alternative treatment for sparganosis in surgically-unresectable cases.
Sparganosis; Pericardial effusion; Praziquantel
The life-span of the sparganum in humans is not exactly known, but it may survive longer than 5 years in some patients. We experienced a case infected with a sparganum that is presumed to have lived for 20 years in a patient's leg. The patient was a 60-year-old woman, and she was admitted to a hospital due to ankle pain that was aggravated on dorsiflexion. She had noticed a mass on her knee some 20 years ago, but she received no medical management for it. The mass moved into the ankle joint 3 months before the current admission, and then the aforementioned symptoms appeared. A living sparganum was recovered by surgery, and the calcified tract near the knee was proved to be the pathway along which the larva had passed.
sparganum; sparganosis; leg
To present a case of ocular sparoganosis presenting as itching sensation.
A 60-year-old woman presented for removal of an itchy subconjunctival mass in her left eye. Her ocular findings were normal, except for a subconjunctival mass (1.5×1.5 mm).
A parasite excised from the subconjunctival mass was identified as a sparganum, by microscopic examination after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The mummified parasite was identified as the plerocercoid phase of the sparganum, by microscopy.
Although rare, parasitic disease should be suspected in a palpable subconjunctival mass unresponsive to the medical treatment.
Subconjunctival mass; Sparoganosis
We report here a case of inguinal sparganosis, initially regarded as myeloid sarcoma, diagnosed in a patient undergone allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation (HSCT). A 56-year-old male patient having myelodysplastic syndrome was treated with allogeneic HSCT after myeloablative conditioning regimen. At day 5 post-HSCT, the patient complained of a painless palpable mass on the left scrotum and inguinal area. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed suspected myeloid sarcoma. Gun-biopsy was performed, and the result revealed eosinophilic infiltrations without malignancy. Subsequent serologic IgG antibody test was positive for sparganum. Excisional biopsy as a therapeutic diagnosis was done, and the diagnosis of sparganosis was confirmed eventually. This is the first report of sparganosis after allogeneic HSCT mimicking myeloid sarcoma, giving a lesson that the physicians have to consider the possibility of sparganosis in this clinical situation and perform adequate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Sparganum; sparganosis; myeloid sarcoma; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; myelodysplastic syndrome
The authors report the case of a 46-year-old woman with cerebral sparganosis resulting from infection with a larva of Spirometra. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion with prominent perifocal oedema in the left parietal lobe. Advanced imaging pulse sequences, including MR spectroscopy and MR perfusion, were performed. During surgery for the removal of a granuloma, the parasite was discovered and excised. Following treatment, the patient's neurological deficits markedly improved.
Spinal epidural hematoma is a well known complication of spinal surgery. Clinically insignificant small epidural hematomas develop in most spinal surgeries following laminectomy. However, the incidence of clinically significant postoperative spinal epidural hematomas that result in neurological deficits is extremely rare. In this report, we present a 33-year-old female patient whose spinal surgery resulted in postoperative spinal epidural hematoma. She was diagnosed with lumbar disc disease and underwent hemipartial lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. After twelve hours postoperation, her neurologic status deteriorated and cauda equina syndrome with acute spinal epidural hematoma was identified. She was immediately treated with surgical decompression and evacuation of the hematoma. The incidence of epidural hematoma after spinal surgery is rare, but very serious complication. Spinal epidural hematomas can cause significant spinal cord and cauda equina compression, requiring surgical intervention. Once diagnosed, the patient should immediately undergo emergency surgical exploration and evacuation of the hematoma.
Cases of Sparganum mansoni, caused by the plerocercoid larva of the tapeworm S. mansoni, occur throughout the world, particularly in Asian, Middle Eastern, and European countries. However, cases of infection with this parasite are rarely seen in Japan. Here, we present a case of a 61-year-old woman with a solitary subcutaneous nodule in left inner aspect of the thigh, from which a long, slender, whitish worm was surgically removed. The parasite was histopathologically identified as S. mansoni. Serological testing confirmed cure of the infection after surgical removal of the parasite. The authors advocate immunoserological examination in case of S. mansoni.
Sparganosis; Surgery; ELISA; Ultrasonography
A 59-year-old Korean man complained of a painless scrotal hard nodule and weak urine stream. The ultrasound scan revealed a 2.2-cm sized round heteroechogenic nodule located in the extratesticular area. Microscopic hematuria was detected in routine laboratory examinations. On scrotal exploration, multiple spargana were incidentally found in the mass and along the left spermatic cord. On cystoscopy, a 10-mm sized mucosal elevation was found in the right side of the bladder dome. After transurethral resection of the covered mucosa, larval tapeworms were removed from inside of the nodule by forceps. Plerocercoids of Spirometra erinacei was confirmed morphologically and also by PCR-sequencing analysis from the extracted tissue of the urinary bladder. So far as the literature is concerned, this is the first worm (PCR)-proven case of sparganosis in the urinary bladder.
Spirometra erinacei; sparganum; urinary bladder; scrotum; sparganosis
Neuroschistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) is a rare and severe condition potentially leading to permanent neurological deficit. An 18-year-old Brazilian female was admitted due to a severe conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome. MRI of thoracic/lumbar spine showed an expanded conus medullaris with patchy gadolinium-enhancement, needle electromyography revealed acute bilateral radiculopathy (L5-S1-S2), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed lymphocytosis and increased proteins and lesion’ surgical biopsy documented a lymphocyte infiltrate. Immunodiagnosis with cercariae hullen reaction using Sm cercariae in CSF and serum and immunoelectrodiffusion for circulating antigens detection using anti-Sm antibodies were positive. No schistosoma parasites were found. The patient was treated with praziquantel and corticotherapy for 6 months. At 1 month, partial clinical improvement was noticed, and MRI showed a normal size conus medullaris. At 6 months, there was complete clinical recovery. This case shows that a severe neurological deficit by Sm may have a clinical full recovery after treatment.
Spinal dermoid tumors are rare, benign, slow growing tumors. These tumors may become acutely symptomatic after rupture or infection. Excision of the lesion with long term close follow-up studies is required for the management of these lesions. We present a very rare case of ruptured conus medullaris dermoid cyst in a 22-year-old male presented with urinary retention and low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging scan with contrast reveals a lesion in the cauda equina inseparable from conus medullaris with fat droplets within the central spinal canal extending up to the medulla. Patient was operated with laminectomy and near complete excision of the lesion was done. Patient's low back pain was relieved following surgery. However patient had persistent urinary incontinence and on clean intermittent self-catheterization. Histopathology was suggestive of dermoid cyst.
Ruptured; Spinal cord; Dermoid cyst
Ependymomas presenting with intratumoural and/or subarachnoid haemorrhages are seen rarely. These haemorrhages are mostly due to anticoagulation, epidural analgesia or pregnancy. A 62-year-old male farmer with cauda equina syndrome after a work-related trauma is presented. He was admitted to our hospital with paraparesis, faecal incontinance and sensory loss below the level of the lumbar-2 dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine displayed an intradural mass lesion at the level of the first lumbar vertebrae. The lesion was excised totally via dorsal midline approach. Histopathologic examination revealed grade-3 ependymoma with intratumoural haemorrhage. The patient’s symptoms were relieved completely on postoperative day 7. The patient was given information about periodical examination for recurrence and discharged on the third postoperative week. Asymptomatic spinal lesions should be considered for operation whenever detected because of unpredicted complications.
Cauda equina syndrome; Ependymoma; Filum terminale; Intratumoural haemorrhage; Spinal cord tumours; Spinal trauma
A case of intraneural capillary hemangioma involving the dorsal root of a spinal nerve of the cauda equina is reported. The patient was a 41-year-old man with a 3-month history of intermittent left lumbosciatalgia. MRI and CT myelography showed a space-occupying mass at the level of the cauda equina. Laminectomy of L5 and complete removal of the lesion were performed without neurological problems. The clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of hemangiomas of the cauda equina are analyzed.
Cauda equina; Intraneural hemangioma; Spine surgery
A 55-year-old obese man (body mass index, 31.6 kg/m2) presented radiating pain and motor weakness in the left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass posterior to the L5 vertebral body, which was isosignal to subcutaneous fat and it asymmetrically compressed the left side of the cauda equina and the exiting left L5 nerve root on the axial T1 weighted images. Severe arthritis of the left facet joint and edema of the bone marrow regarding the left pedicle were also found. As far as we know, there have been no reports concerning a solitary epidural lipoma combined with ipsilateral facet arthorsis causing lumbar radiculopathy. Solitary epidural lipoma with ipsilateral facet arthritis causing lumbar radiculopathy was removed after the failure of conservative treatment. After decompression, the neurologic deficit was relieved. At a 2 year follow-up, motor weakness had completely recovered and the patient was satisfied with the result. We recommend that a solitary epidural lipoma causing neurologic deficit should be excised at the time of diagnosis.
Solitary epidural lipoma; Posterior facet; Ipsilateral arthritis; Lumbar radiculopathy
A case of intramural sparganosis of jejunum presenting as intestinal obstruction is described. Resected intestine from a 48 year old man with acute abdomen revealed a degenerated sparganum in the submucosa with typical tissue reaction and extensive edema. The tissue reaction was basically granulomatous, consisting of layers of inner palisading histiocytes and outer mononuclear cell infiltration. Many calcospherules were prominent within the degenerated worm. Eosinophil infiltration was scanty.
The first case of human sparganosis in Canada is reported in a 23-year-old woman who emigrated from Greece in 1969. Examination of a ribbon-like worm removed from a painful swelling in the neighbourhood of her right biceps muscle revealed a single larva, about 110 mm. long and 2.5 mm. wide, subsequently identified as the plerocercoid larva or sparganum of a member of the genus Spirometra. The source of this infection, acquired in Greece, may have been undercooked pork.
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is responsible for a broad range of infections. We report the case of a 46-year-old gentleman with a history of untreated, uncomplicated Hepatitis C who presented with a 2-month history of back pain and was found to have abscesses in his psoas and right paraspinal muscles with subsequent lumbar spine osteomyelitis. Despite drainage and appropriate antibiotic management the patient's clinical condition deteriorated and he developed new upper extremity weakness and sensory deficits on physical exam. Repeat imaging showed new, severe compression of the spinal cord and cauda equina from C1 to the sacrum by a spinal epidural abscess. After surgical intervention and continued medical therapy, the patient recovered completely. This case illustrates a case of CA-MRSA pyomyositis that progressed to lumbar osteomyelitis and a spinal epidural abscess extending the entire length of the spinal canal.
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare manifestation in patients with long-standing ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We report a 57-year-old male patient with a 30-year history of AS who developed CES in the past 4 years. The CT and MRI examinations showed unique appearances of dural ectasia, multiple dorsal dural diverticula, erosion of the vertebral posterior elements, tethering of the conus medullaris to the dorsal aspect of the spinal canal and adhesion of the nerve roots of the cauda equina to the wall of the dural sac. A large dural defect was found at surgery. De-adhesion of the tethered conus medullaris was performed but without significant clinical improvement. The possible aetiologies of CES and dural ectasia in patients with chronic AS are discussed and the literature is reviewed.
A 73-year-old male presented with a rare dorsally sequestrated lumbar disc herniation manifesting as severe radiating pain in both leg, progressively worsening weakness in both lower extremities, and urinary incontinence, suggesting cauda equina syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested the sequestrated disc fragment located in the extradural space at the L4-L5 level had surrounded and compressed the dural sac from the lateral to dorsal sides. A bilateral decompressive laminectomy was performed under an operating microscope. A large extruded disc was found to have migrated from the ventral aspect, around the thecal sac, and into the dorsal aspect, which compressed the sac to the right. After removal of the disc fragment, his sciatica was relieved and the patient felt strength of lower extremity improved.
Lumbar disc herniation; Dorsal; Intradural; Migrated
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, also known as pseudogout, is a disease that causes inflammatory arthropathy in peripheral joints, however, symptomatic involvement of the intervertebral disc is uncommon. Herein, we describe a 59-yr-old patient who presented with cauda equina syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging of the patient showed an epidural mass-like lesion at the disc space of L4-L5, which was compressing the thecal sac. Biopsy of the intervertebral disc and epidural mass-like lesion was determined to be CPPD deposits. We reviewed previously reported cases of pseudogout involving the lumbar intervertebral disc and discuss the pathogenesis and treatment of the disease.
Calcium Pyrophosphate Dehydrate (CPPD); Pseudogout; Lumbar Spine; Intervertebral Disc