In many animals, the epidermis is in permanent contact with the environment and represents a first line of defense against pathogens and injury. Infection of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by the natural fungal pathogen Drechmeria coniospora induces the expression in the epidermis of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes such as nlp-29. Here, we tested the hypothesis that injury might also alter AMP gene expression and sought to characterize the mechanisms that regulate the innate immune response.
Injury induces a wound-healing response in C. elegans that includes induction of nlp-29 in the epidermis. We find that a conserved p38-MAP kinase cascade is required in the epidermis for the response to both infection and wounding. Through a forward genetic screen, we isolated mutants that failed to induce nlp-29 expression after D. coniospora infection. We identify a kinase, NIPI-3, related to human Tribbles homolog 1, that is likely to act upstream of the MAP2K SEK-1. We find NIPI-3 is required only for nlp-29 induction following infection and not following wounding.
Our results show that the C. elegans epidermis actively responds to wounding and infection via distinct pathways that converge on a conserved signaling cassette that controls the expression of the AMP gene nlp-29. A comparison between these results and MAP kinase signaling in yeast gives insights into the possible origin and evolution of innate immunity.
The nematode C. elegans responds to infection by the fungus Drechmeria coniospora with a rapid increase in the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes. To investigate further the molecular basis of this innate immune response, we took a two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) approach to characterize the changes in host protein that accompany infection. We identified a total of 68 proteins from differentially represented spots and their corresponding genes. Through class testing, we identified functional categories that were enriched in our proteomic data set. One of these was “protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum,” pointing to a potential link between innate immunity and endoplasmic reticulum function. This class included HSP-3, a chaperone of the BiP/GRP78 family known to act coordinately in the endoplasmic reticulum with its paralog HSP-4 to regulate the unfolded protein response (UPR). Other studies have shown that infection of C. elegans can provoke a UPR. We observed, however, that in adult C. elegans infection with D. coniospora did not induce a UPR, and conversely, triggering a UPR did not lead to an increase in expression of the well-characterized antimicrobial peptide gene nlp-29. On the other hand, we demonstrated a specific role for hsp-3 in the regulation of nlp-29 after infection that is not shared with hsp-4. Epistasis analysis allowed us to place hsp-3 genetically between the Tribbles-like kinase gene nipi-3 and the protein kinase C delta gene tpa-1. The precise function of hsp-3 has yet to be determined, but these results uncover a hitherto unsuspected link between a BiP/GRP78 family protein and innate immune signaling.
Drechmeria coniospora; MAPK; gene regulation; proteomics; signal transduction
The Caenorhabditis elegans DAF-16 transcription factor is critical for diverse biological processes, particularly longevity and stress resistance. Disruption of the DAF-2 signaling cascade promotes DAF-16 activation, and confers resistance to killing by pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. However, daf-16 mutants exhibit similar sensitivity to these bacteria as wild-type animals, suggesting that DAF-16 is not normally activated by these bacterial pathogens. In this report, we demonstrate that DAF-16 can be directly activated by fungal infection and wounding in wild-type animals, which is independent of the DAF-2 pathway. Fungal infection and wounding initiate the Gαq signaling cascade, leading to Ca2+ release. Ca2+ mediates the activation of BLI-3, a dual-oxidase, resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS then activate DAF-16 through a Ste20-like kinase-1/CST-1. Our results indicate that DAF-16 in the epidermis is required for survival after fungal infection and wounding. Thus, the EGL-30-Ca2+-BLI-3-CST-1-DAF-16 signaling represents a previously unknown pathway to regulate epidermal damage response.
In the natural environment, animals encounter different pathogens. Thus, different tissues within an organism must develop specific immune systems for survival. The epidermis acts as a physical barrier and represents a first line of defense against infection and physical injury in a variety of animals. Natural nematophagous fungi, such as Drechmeria coniospora and Clonostachys rosea, infect the epidermis of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans by producing conidia. Here we demonstrated that the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor in the epidermis has a direct role in C. elegans defense against fungal infection and physical injury. We found that the EGL-30/EGL-8/IP3/ITR-1 signaling pathway triggers epidermal Ca2+ release through IP3 and its receptor ITR-1 after fungal infection. Ca2+ release induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activating a dual-oxidase BLI-3. ROS in turn mediate DAF-16 activation in a Ste20-like kinase-1/CST-1-dependent manner. Thus, DAF-16 could act in a cell-autonomous way in the epidermis as an active regulator of immune responses to fungal infection and physical injury.
Hosts have developed diverse mechanisms to counter the pathogens they face in their natural environment. Throughout the plant and animal kingdoms, the up-regulation of antimicrobial peptides is a common response to infection. In C. elegans, infection with the natural pathogen Drechmeria coniospora leads to rapid induction of antimicrobial peptide gene expression in the epidermis. Through a large genetic screen we have isolated many new mutants that are incapable of upregulating the antimicrobial peptide nlp-29 in response to infection (i.e. with a Nipi or ‘no induction of peptide after infection’ phenotype). More than half of the newly isolated Nipi mutants do not correspond to genes previously associated with the regulation of antimicrobial peptides. One of these, nipi-4, encodes a member of a nematode-specific kinase family. NIPI-4 is predicted to be catalytically inactive, thus to be a pseudokinase. It acts in the epidermis downstream of the PKC∂ TPA-1, as a positive regulator of nlp antimicrobial peptide gene expression after infection. It also controls the constitutive expression of antimicrobial peptide genes of the cnc family that are targets of TGFß regulation. Our results open the way for a more detailed understanding of how host defense pathways can be molded by environmental pathogens.
The fungal pathogen Drechmeria coniospora infects C. elegans and elicits an innate immune response mediated, in part, by the induction of antimicrobial peptides in the epidermis. The signaling pathways controlling this phenomenon remain to be fully characterized. In this issue of Virulence, Couillault and colleagues use both proteomics and genetics to discover an unexpected role for the unfolded protein response (UPR) target chaperone BiP/GRP78/hsp-3 in the control of fungal infection-induced antimicrobial peptide expression in C. elegans. Although the expression of hsp-3 is regulated by the UPR, Couillault and colleagues describe a novel signaling role for this BiP/GRP78 homolog.
C. elegans; D. coniospora; ER stress; chaperone; proteomics
An important part of the innate immune response of the nematode C. elegans to fungal infection is the rapid induction of antimicrobial peptide gene expression. One of these genes, nlp-29, is expressed at a low level in adults under normal conditions. Its expression is upregulated in the epidermis by infection with Drechmeria coniospora, but also by physical injury and by osmotic stress. For infection and wounding, the induction is dependent on a p38 MAP kinase cascade, but for osmotic stress, this pathway is not required. To characterize further the pathways that control the expression of nlp-29, we carried out a genetic screen for negative regulatory genes. We isolated a number of Peni (peptide expression no infection) mutants and cloned one. It corresponds to fasn-1, the nematode ortholog of vertebrate fatty acid synthase. We show here that a pathway involving fatty acid synthesis and the evolutionary conserved wnk-1 and gck-3/Ste20/GCK-VI kinases modulates nlp-29 expression in the C. elegans epidermis, independently of p38 MAPK signaling. The control of the antimicrobial peptide gene nlp-29 thus links different physiological processes, including fatty acid metabolism, osmoregulation, maintenance of epidermal integrity and the innate immune response to infection.
innate immunity; homeostasis; signalling; model organism; genetics
Removal of the reproductive system of many animals including fish, flies, nematodes, mice and humans can increase lifespan through mechanisms largely unknown. The abrogation of the germline in Caenorhabditis elegans increases longevity by 60% due to a signal emitted from the somatic gonad. Apart from increased longevity, germline-less C. elegans is also resistant to other environmental stressors such as feeding on bacterial pathogens. However, the evolutionary conservation of this pathogen resistance, its genetic basis and an understanding of genes involved in producing this extraordinary survival phenotype are currently unknown. To study these evolutionary aspects we used the necromenic nematode Pristionchus pacificus, which is a genetic model system used in comparison to C. elegans. By ablation of germline precursor cells and subsequent feeding on the pathogen Serratia marcescens we discovered that P. pacificus shows remarkable resistance to bacterial pathogens and that this response is evolutionarily conserved across the Genus Pristionchus. To gain a mechanistic understanding of the increased resistance to bacterial pathogens and longevity in germline-ablated P. pacificus we used whole genome microarrays to profile the transcriptional response comparing germline ablated versus un-ablated animals when fed S. marcescens. We show that lipid metabolism, maintenance of the proteasome, insulin signaling and nuclear pore complexes are essential for germline deficient phenotypes with more than 3,300 genes being differentially expressed. In contrast, gene expression of germline-less P. pacificus on E. coli (longevity) and S. marcescens (immunity) is very similar with only 244 genes differentially expressed indicating that longevity is due to abundant gene expression also involved in immunity. By testing existing mutants of Ppa-DAF-16/FOXO and the nuclear hormone receptor Ppa-DAF-12 we show a conserved function of both genes in resistance to bacterial pathogens and longevity. This is the first study to show that the influence of the reproductive system on extending lifespan and innate immunity is conserved in evolution.
Removal of the germline in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can increase lifespan and resistance to bacterial pathogens. Currently there is no information on what genes are regulated to produce this resistance phenotype in other nematodes and whether they are the same as genes involved in lifespan regulation. We used the necromenic nematode, Pristionchus pacificus, a species that diverged from C. elegans 250–400 MYA, ablated its germline and found increased resistance to the pathogens Serratia marcescens and Xenorhabdus nematophila. In a novel manner we performed cell ablation of the germline, exposure to bacterial pathogens and used whole genome microarrays of the same animals to find that this resistance is due to expression of genes involved in insulin signaling, nuclear pore complexes, ribosomal translation and lipid production. Furthermore, we see little difference between germline ablated lifespan and immunity leading us to believe that living longer is due to an abundance of genes also being involved with immunity. We could also show that, similar to C. elegans, the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO and nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, are integral for this response. Our study is the first to understand how the reproductive system regulates both lifespan and innate immunity transcriptionally and offers insights into the signaling cascades involved with resisting pathogen attack.
Candida albicans yeast cells are found in the intestine of most humans, yet this opportunist can invade host tissues and cause life-threatening infections in susceptible individuals. To better understand the host factors that underlie susceptibility to candidiasis, we developed a new model to study antifungal innate immunity. We demonstrate that the yeast form of C. albicans establishes an intestinal infection in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas heat-killed yeast are avirulent. Genome-wide, transcription-profiling analysis of C. elegans infected with C. albicans yeast showed that exposure to C. albicans stimulated a rapid host response involving 313 genes (124 upregulated and 189 downregulated, ∼1.6% of the genome) many of which encode antimicrobial, secreted or detoxification proteins. Interestingly, the host genes affected by C. albicans exposure overlapped only to a small extent with the distinct transcriptional responses to the pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that there is a high degree of immune specificity toward different bacterial species and C. albicans. Furthermore, genes induced by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were strongly over-represented among the genes downregulated during C. albicans infection, suggesting that in response to fungal pathogens, nematodes selectively repress the transcription of antibacterial immune effectors. A similar phenomenon is well known in the plant immune response, but has not been described previously in metazoans. Finally, 56% of the genes induced by live C. albicans were also upregulated by heat-killed yeast. These data suggest that a large part of the transcriptional response to C. albicans is mediated through “pattern recognition,” an ancient immune surveillance mechanism able to detect conserved microbial molecules (so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPs). This study provides new information on the evolution and regulation of the innate immune response to divergent pathogens and demonstrates that nematodes selectively mount specific antifungal defenses at the expense of antibacterial responses.
Despite being a part of the normal flora of healthy individuals, Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of humans and can cause infections that are associated with staggeringly high mortality rates. Here we devise a model for the study of the host immune response to C. albicans infection using the nematode C. elegans. We found that infection with the yeast form of C. albicans induces rapid and robust transcriptional changes in C. elegans. Analyses of these differentially regulated genes indicate that the nematode mounts antifungal defenses that are remarkably distinct from the host responses to pathogenic bacteria and that the nematode recognizes components possessed by heat-killed C. albicans to initiate this response. Interestingly, during infection with a pathogenic fungus, the nematode downregulates antibacterial immune response genes, which may reflect an evolutionary tradeoff between bacterial and fungal defense.
Microarray analysis of the transcriptional response of C. elegans to four bacterial pathogens revealed that different infections trigger responses, some of which are common to all four pathogens, such as necrotic cell death, which has been associated with infection in humans.
There are striking similarities between the innate immune systems of invertebrates and vertebrates. Caenorhabditis elegans is increasingly used as a model for the study of innate immunity. Evidence is accumulating that C. elegans mounts distinct responses to different pathogens, but the true extent of this specificity is unclear. Here, we employ direct comparative genomic analyses to explore the nature of the host immune response.
Using whole-genome microarrays representing 20,334 genes, we analyzed the transcriptional response of C. elegans to four bacterial pathogens. Different bacteria provoke pathogen-specific signatures within the host, involving differential regulation of 3.5-5% of all genes. These include genes that encode potential pathogen-recognition and antimicrobial proteins. Additionally, variance analysis revealed a robust signature shared by the pathogens, involving 22 genes associated with proteolysis, cell death and stress responses. The expression of these genes, including those that mediate necrosis, is similarly altered following infection with three bacterial pathogens. We show that necrosis aggravates pathogenesis and accelerates the death of the host.
Our results suggest that in C. elegans, different infections trigger both specific responses and responses shared by several pathogens, involving immune defense genes. The response shared by pathogens involves necrotic cell death, which has been associated with infection in humans. Our results are the first indication that necrosis is important for disease susceptibility in C. elegans. This opens the way for detailed study of the means by which certain bacteria exploit conserved elements of host cell-death machinery to increase their effective virulence.
Encounters with pathogens provoke changes in gene transcription that are an integral part of host innate immune responses. In recent years, studies with invertebrate model organisms have given insights into the origin, function, and evolution of innate immunity. Here, we use genome-wide transcriptome analysis to characterize the consequence of natural fungal infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify several families of genes encoding putative antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins that are transcriptionally up-regulated upon infection. Many are located in small genomic clusters. We focus on the nlp-29 cluster of six AMP genes and show that it enhances pathogen resistance in vivo. The same cluster has a different structure in two other Caenorhabditis species. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the evolutionary diversification of this cluster, especially in cases of intra-genomic gene duplications, is driven by natural selection. We further show that upon osmotic stress, two genes of the nlp-29 cluster are strongly induced. In contrast to fungus-induced nlp expression, this response is independent of the p38 MAP kinase cascade. At the same time, both involve the epidermal GATA factor ELT-3. Our results suggest that selective pressure from pathogens influences intra-genomic diversification of AMPs and reveal an unexpected complexity in AMP regulation as part of the invertebrate innate immune response.
We are interested in how exactly the nematode Caenorhabditi elegans, widely used in biological research, defends itself against fungal infection. Like most animals, this worm responds to infection by switching on defense genes. We used DNA chips to measure the levels of all the worm's 20,000 genes and discovered new inducible defense genes. Many of them encode small proteins or peptides that can probably kill microbes. By looking in other nematode species, we saw that these antimicrobial peptide genes are evolving rapidly. This means that they could be important for the worms' survival in their natural environment. We also looked at how some of these genes are regulated and uncovered a sophisticated control mechanism involving a series of proteins called kinases that relay signals within cells. The genes we looked at are active in the worm's skin. Some of the antimicrobial peptide genes that we looked at are also switched on in the skin by high salt, but in this case, the regulation doesn't involve the same cascade of kinases. The responses to both infection and high salt do, however, require the same transcription factor (the protein that actually switches genes on), in this case called a GATA factor.
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers currently untapped potential for carrying out high-throughput, live-animal screens of low molecular weight compound libraries to identify molecules that target a variety of cellular processes. We previously used a bacterial infection assay in C. elegans to identify 119 compounds that affect host-microbe interactions among 37,214 tested. Here we show that one of these small molecules, RPW-24, protects C. elegans from bacterial infection by stimulating the host immune response of the nematode. Using transcriptome profiling, epistasis pathway analyses with C. elegans mutants, and an RNAi screen, we show that RPW-24 promotes resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by inducing the transcription of a remarkably small number of C. elegans genes (∼1.3% of all genes) in a manner that partially depends on the evolutionarily-conserved p38 MAP kinase pathway and the transcription factor ATF-7. These data show that the immunostimulatory activity of RPW-24 is required for its efficacy and define a novel C. elegans–based strategy to identify compounds with activity against antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens.
Infections with antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens are increasing at an alarming rate, and there are very few new therapies currently being developed. We have identified a small molecule that protects the nematode C. elegans from bacterial infection by stimulating the host immune response, not by directly interfering with bacterial growth, which is the mechanism employed by all currently available antibiotics. In this study, we investigate the mode of action of this small molecule and demonstrate that it stimulates the expression of immune effector molecules via evolutionarily conserved immune regulators. These studies illustrate the potential of targeting host immunity for the treatment of bacterial infections and the advantages that C. elegans offers both to identify small molecules that target key cellular processes and to study their mechanism of action.
Microsporidia comprise a phylum of over 1400 species of obligate intracellular pathogens that can infect almost all animals, but little is known about the host response to these parasites. Here we use the whole-animal host C. elegans to show an in vivo role for ubiquitin-mediated response to the microsporidian species Nematocida parisii, as well to the Orsay virus, another natural intracellular pathogen of C. elegans. We analyze gene expression of C. elegans in response to N. parisii, and find that it is similar to response to viral infection. Notably, we find an upregulation of SCF ubiquitin ligase components, such as the cullin ortholog cul-6, which we show is important for ubiquitin targeting of N. parisii cells in the intestine. We show that ubiquitylation components, the proteasome, and the autophagy pathway are all important for defense against N. parisii infection. We also find that SCF ligase components like cul-6 promote defense against viral infection, where they have a more robust role than against N. parisii infection. This difference may be due to suppression of the host ubiquitylation system by N. parisii: when N. parisii is crippled by anti-microsporidia drugs, the host can more effectively target pathogen cells for ubiquitylation. Intriguingly, inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) increases expression of infection-upregulated SCF ligase components, indicating that a trigger for transcriptional response to intracellular infection by N. parisii and virus may be perturbation of the UPS. Altogether, our results demonstrate an in vivo role for ubiquitin-mediated defense against microsporidian and viral infections in C. elegans.
Microbial pathogens have two distinct lifestyles: some pathogens live outside of host cells, and others live inside of host cells and are called intracellular pathogens. Microsporidia are fungal-related intracellular pathogens that can infect all animals, but are poorly understood. We used the roundworm C. elegans as a host to show that ubiquitin pathways provide defense against both a natural microsporidian infection of C. elegans, as well as a natural viral infection. Our study shows that ubiquitin, the proteasome and autophagy components are all important to control intracellular infection in C. elegans, although microsporidia seem to partially evade this defense. We also show that SCF ubiquitin ligases help control both microsporidia and virus infection. Furthermore, we find that C. elegans upregulates expression of SCF ligases when ubiquitin-related degradation machinery is inhibited, indicating that C. elegans monitors the functioning of this core cellular process and upregulates ligase expression when it is perturbed. Altogether, our findings describe ubiquitin-mediated pathways that are involved in host response and defense against intracellular pathogens, and how this machinery is regulated by infection to increase defense against intracellular pathogens such as microsporidia and viruses.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes infections in a variety of animal and plant hosts. Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model with which one can identify bacterial virulence genes. Previous studies with C. elegans have shown that depending on the growth medium, P. aeruginosa provokes different pathologies: slow or fast killing, lethal paralysis and red death. In this study, we developed a high-throughput semi-automated liquid-based assay such that an entire genome can readily be scanned for virulence genes in a short time period. We screened a 2,200-member STM mutant library generated in a cystic fibrosis airway P. aeruginosa isolate, TBCF10839. Twelve mutants were isolated each showing at least 70% attenuation in C. elegans killing. The selected mutants had insertions in regulatory genes, such as a histidine kinase sensor of two-component systems and a member of the AraC family, or in genes involved in adherence or chemotaxis. One mutant had an insertion in a cheB gene homologue, encoding a methylesterase involved in chemotaxis (CheB2). The cheB2 mutant was tested in a murine lung infection model and found to have a highly attenuated virulence. The cheB2 gene is part of the chemotactic gene cluster II, which was shown to be required for an optimal mobility in vitro. In P. aeruginosa, the main player in chemotaxis and mobility is the chemotactic gene cluster I, including cheB1. We show that, in contrast to the cheB2 mutant, a cheB1 mutant is not attenuated for virulence in C. elegans whereas in vitro motility and chemotaxis are severely impaired. We conclude that the virulence defect of the cheB2 mutant is not linked with a global motility defect but that instead the cheB2 gene is involved in a specific chemotactic response, which takes place during infection and is required for P. aeruginosa pathogenicity.
The increase in hospital acquired and multi-drug resistant bacterial infections calls for an urgent development of new antimicrobials. As such, the identification and characterization of novel molecular targets involved in bacterial virulence has become a common goal for researchers. The use of non-mammalian hosts, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, is useful to accelerate this process. In our study, we developed a high-throughput screening method, which further facilitates the use of C. elegans, and allows the rapid screening of a large collection of bacterial mutants at the genomic scale. We have used Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a potent opportunistic pathogen, to perform this study. The screening of more than 2,000 mutant strains allowed the characterization of a mutant affected in the cheB2 gene. Importantly, this mutant was shown to be impaired in a mouse model of infection, supporting that our new screen is a good model to identify virulence genes relevant for infection in mammals. The cheB2 gene encodes a component of a chemotaxis pathway, which is likely involved in the perception of stimuli during the infection process, and allows an appropriate adaptive response for a successful infection. Our method could be applied to other bacterial pathogens and will help researchers discover candidate genes leading to the design of novel antimicrobials.
The evolution of genetic mechanisms used to combat bacterial infections is critical for the survival of animals and plants, yet how these genes evolved to produce a robust defense system is poorly understood. Studies of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have uncovered a plethora of genetic regulators and effectors responsible for surviving pathogens. However, comparative studies utilizing other free-living nematodes and therefore providing an insight into the evolution of innate immunity have been lacking. Here, we take a systems biology approach and use whole genome microarrays to profile the transcriptional response of C. elegans and the necromenic nematode Pristionchus pacificus after exposure to the four different pathogens Serratia marcescens, Xenorhabdus nematophila, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus thuringiensis DB27. C. elegans is susceptible to all four pathogens whilst P. pacificus is only susceptible to S. marcescens and X. nematophila. We show an unexpected level of specificity in host responses to distinct pathogens within and across species, revealing an enormous complexity of effectors of innate immunity. Functional domains enriched in the transcriptomes on different pathogens are similar within a nematode species but different across them, suggesting differences in pathogen sensing and response networks. We find translation inhibition to be a potentially conserved response to gram-negative pathogens in both the nematodes. Further computational analysis indicates that both nematodes when fed on pathogens up-regulate genes known to be involved in other stress responses like heat shock, oxidative and osmotic stress, and genes regulated by DAF-16/FOXO and TGF-beta pathways. This study presents a platform for comparative systems analysis of two nematode model species, and a catalog of genes involved in the evolution of nematode immunity and identifies both pathogen specific and pan-pathogen responses. We discuss the potential effects of ecology on evolution of downstream effectors and upstream regulators on evolution of nematode innate immunity.
The genetically tractable model host Caenorhabditis elegans provides a valuable tool to dissect host-microbe interactions in vivo. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus utilize virulence factors involved in human disease to infect and kill C. elegans. Despite much progress, virtually nothing is known regarding the cytopathology of infection and the proximate causes of nematode death. Using light and electron microscopy, we found that P. aeruginosa infection entails intestinal distention, accumulation of an unidentified extracellular matrix and P. aeruginosa-synthesized outer membrane vesicles in the gut lumen and on the apical surface of intestinal cells, the appearance of abnormal autophagosomes inside intestinal cells, and P. aeruginosa intracellular invasion of C. elegans. Importantly, heat-killed P. aeruginosa fails to elicit a significant host response, suggesting that the C. elegans response to P. aeruginosa is activated either by heat-labile signals or pathogen-induced damage. In contrast, S. aureus infection causes enterocyte effacement, intestinal epithelium destruction, and complete degradation of internal organs. S. aureus activates a strong transcriptional response in C. elegans intestinal epithelial cells, which aids host survival during infection and shares elements with human innate responses. The C. elegans genes induced in response to S. aureus are mostly distinct from those induced by P. aeruginosa. In contrast to P. aeruginosa, heat-killed S. aureus activates a similar response as live S. aureus, which appears to be independent of the single C. elegans Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) protein. These data suggest that the host response to S. aureus is possibly mediated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Because our data suggest that neither the P. aeruginosa nor the S. aureus–triggered response requires canonical TLR signaling, they imply the existence of unidentified mechanisms for pathogen detection in C. elegans, with potentially conserved roles also in mammals.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are bacteria that can form part of the human microbiota, but can also cause severe disease. Despite their great clinical importance, little is known about their interactions with the human host before disease onset, particularly regarding the molecules that host cells use to prevent and combat infection. The invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model host to study host-pathogen interactions and, because of its simplicity and highly-developed experimental methods, can illuminate fundamental mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. We used C. elegans to understand the cellular events that occur during early stages of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus infection. We found that P. aeruginosa slowly colonizes the intestine, producing virulence-related membrane vesicles, and causing accumulation of electron-dense biofilm-like material on intestinal cells and abnormalities in them. In contrast, S. aureus colonizes rapidly, disrupting microvilli and lysing host cells. We found that these different strategies result in different host gene expression responses. Focusing on S. aureus infection, the C. elegans response is mainly microbicidal and detoxifying, aiding host survival and bearing similarities with the human response. Our study provides new insights into mechanisms that P. aeruginosa and S. aureus use to cause disease, and into C. elegans defenses, with potential implications for human immunity and disease.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nearly ubiquitous human pathogen, and infections can be lethal to patients with impaired respiratory and immune systems. Prior studies have established that strong loss-of-function mutations in the egl-9 gene protect the nematode C. elegans from P. aeruginosa PAO1 fast killing. EGL-9 inhibits the HIF-1 transcription factor via two pathways. First, EGL-9 is the enzyme that targets HIF-1 for oxygen-dependent degradation via the VHL-1 E3 ligase. Second, EGL-9 inhibits HIF-1-mediated gene expression through a VHL-1-independent mechanism. Here, we show that a loss-of-function mutation in hif-1 suppresses P. aeruginosa PAO1 resistance in egl-9 mutants. Importantly, we find stabilization of HIF-1 protein is not sufficient to protect C. elegans from P. aeruginosa PAO1 fast killing. However, mutations that inhibit both EGL-9 pathways result in higher levels of HIF-1 activity and confer resistance to the pathogen. Using forward genetic screens, we identify additional mutations that confer resistance to P. aeruginosa. In genetic backgrounds that stabilize C. elegans HIF-1 protein, loss-of-function mutations in swan-1 increase the expression of hypoxia response genes and protect C. elegans from P. aeruginosa fast killing. SWAN-1 is an evolutionarily conserved WD-repeat protein belonging to the AN11 family. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays show that EGL-9 forms a complex with SWAN-1. Additionally, we present genetic evidence that the DYRK kinase MBK-1 acts downstream of SWAN-1 to promote HIF-1-mediated transcription and to increase resistance to P. aeruginosa. These data support a model in which SWAN-1, MBK-1 and EGL-9 regulate HIF-1 transcriptional activity and modulate resistance to P. aeruginosa PAO1 fast killing.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common bacterial pathogen that can infect a wide range of animals. In some conditions, P. aeruginosa produces cyanide, a toxin that limits cellular capacity to metabolize oxygen and produce energy. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful genetic model system for understanding the mechanisms of stress response and pathogen resistance. Here, we show that HIF-1, a DNA-binding transcription factor that mediates cellular responses to low oxygen, can protect C. elegans from P. aeruginosa fast killing. Additionally, we identify swan-1 as a gene that functions to inhibit HIF-1 activity and suppress P. aeruginosa resistance. The SWAN-1 protein binds directly to the oxygen-sensing EGL-9 enzyme that controls HIF-1 stability and activity. This study advances understanding of HIF-1 regulatory networks, defines connections between hypoxia response and P. aeruginosa fast killing, and provides new insights into mechanisms by which animals can resist this bacterial pathogen.
Photorhabdus luminescens is a Gram-negative luminescent enterobacterium and a symbiote to soil nematodes belonging to the species Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. P.luminescens is simultaneously highly pathogenic to insects. This bacterium exhibits a complex life cycle, including one symbiotic stage characterized by colonization of the upper nematode gut, and a pathogenic stage, characterized by release from the nematode into the hemocoel of insect larvae, resulting in rapid insect death caused by bacterial toxins. P. luminescens appears to sense and adapt to the novel host environment upon changing hosts, which facilitates the production of factors involved in survival within the host, host-killing, and -exploitation.
A differential fluorescence induction (DFI) approach was applied to identify genes that are up-regulated in the bacterium after infection of the insect host Galleria mellonella. For this purpose, a P. luminescens promoter-trap library utilizing the mCherry fluorophore as a reporter was constructed, and approximately 13,000 clones were screened for fluorescence induction in the presence of a G. mellonella larvae homogenate. Since P. luminescens has a variety of regulators that potentially sense chemical molecules, like hormones, the screen for up-regulated genes or operons was performed in vitro, excluding physicochemical signals like oxygen, temperature or osmolarity as variables. Clones (18) were obtained exhibiting at least 2.5-fold induced fluorescence and regarded as specific responders to insect homogenate. In combination with a bioinformatics approach, sequence motifs were identified in these DNA-fragments that are similar to 29 different promoters within the P. luminescens genome. By cloning each of the predicted promoters upstream of the reporter gene, induction was verified for 27 promoters in vitro, and for 24 promoters in viable G. mellonella larvae. Among the validated promoters are some known to regulate the expression of toxin genes, including tccC1 (encoding an insecticidal toxin complex), and others encoding putative toxins. A comparably high number of metabolic genes or operons were observed to be induced upon infection; among these were eutABC, hutUH, and agaZSVCD, which encode proteins involved in ethanolamine, histidine and tagatose degradation, respectively. The results reflect rearrangements in metabolism and the use of other metabolites available from the insect. Furthermore, enhanced activity of promoters controlling the expression of genes encoding enzymes linked to antibiotic production and/or resistance was observed. Antibiotic production and resistance may influence competition with other bacteria, and thus might be important for a successful infection. Lastly, several genes of unknown function were identified that may represent novel pathogenicity factors.
We show that a DFI screen is useful for identifying genes or operons induced by chemical stimuli, such as diluted insect homogenate. A bioinformatics comparison of motifs similar to known promoters is a powerful tool for identifying regulated genes or operons. We conclude that signals for the regulation of those genes or operons induced in P. luminescens upon insect infection may represent a wide variety of compounds that make up the insect host. Our results provide insight into the complex response to the host that occurs in a bacterial pathogen, particularly reflecting the potential for metabolic shifts and other specific changes associated with virulence.
Novel viruses have been discovered in wild Caenorahbditis nematode isolates and can now be used to explore host antiviral pathways, nematode ecology, and host-pathogen co-evolution.
An ideal model system to study antiviral immunity and host-pathogen co-evolution would combine a genetically tractable small animal with a virus capable of naturally infecting the host organism. The use of C. elegans as a model to define host-viral interactions has been limited by the lack of viruses known to infect nematodes. From wild isolates of C. elegans and C. briggsae with unusual morphological phenotypes in intestinal cells, we identified two novel RNA viruses distantly related to known nodaviruses, one infecting specifically C. elegans (Orsay virus), the other C. briggsae (Santeuil virus). Bleaching of embryos cured infected cultures demonstrating that the viruses are neither stably integrated in the host genome nor transmitted vertically. 0.2 µm filtrates of the infected cultures could infect cured animals. Infected animals continuously maintained viral infection for 6 mo (∼50 generations), demonstrating that natural cycles of horizontal virus transmission were faithfully recapitulated in laboratory culture. In addition to infecting the natural C. elegans isolate, Orsay virus readily infected laboratory C. elegans mutants defective in RNAi and yielded higher levels of viral RNA and infection symptoms as compared to infection of the corresponding wild-type N2 strain. These results demonstrated a clear role for RNAi in the defense against this virus. Furthermore, different wild C. elegans isolates displayed differential susceptibility to infection by Orsay virus, thereby affording genetic approaches to defining antiviral loci. This discovery establishes a bona fide viral infection system to explore the natural ecology of nematodes, host-pathogen co-evolution, the evolution of small RNA responses, and innate antiviral mechanisms.
The nematode C. elegans is a robust model organism that is broadly used in biology. It also has great potential for the study of host-microbe interactions, as it is possible to systematically knockout almost every gene in high-throughput fashion to examine the potential role of each gene in infection. While C. elegans has been successfully applied to the study of bacterial infections, only limited studies of antiviral responses have been possible since no virus capable of infecting any Caenorhabditis nematode in laboratory culture has previously been described. Here we report the discovery of natural viruses infecting wild isolates of C. elegans and its relative C. briggsae. These novel viruses are most closely related to the ssRNA nodaviruses, but have larger genomes than other described nodaviruses and clearly represent a new taxon of virus. We were able to use these viruses to infect a variety of laboratory nematode strains. We show that mutant worms defective in the RNA interference pathway, an antiviral system known to operate in a number of organisms, accumulate more viral RNA than wild type strains. The discovery of these viruses will enable further studies of host-virus interactions in C. elegans and the identification of other host mechanisms that counter viral infection.
Some pathogens have evolved mechanisms to overcome host immune defenses by inhibiting host defense signaling pathways and suppressing the expression of host defense effectors. We present evidence that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to suppress the expression of a subset of immune defense genes in the animal host Caenorhabditis elegans by activating the DAF-2/DAF-16 insulin-like signaling pathway. The DAF-2/DAF-16 pathway is important for the regulation of many aspects of organismal physiology, including metabolism, stress response, longevity, and immune function. We show that intestinal expression of DAF-16 is required for resistance to P. aeruginosa and that the suppression of immune defense genes is dependent on the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 and the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. By visualizing the subcellular localization of DAF-16::GFP fusion protein in live animals during infection, we show that P. aeruginosa–mediated downregulation of a subset of immune genes is associated with the ability to translocate DAF-16 from the nuclei of intestinal cells. Suppression of DAF-16 is mediated by an insulin-like peptide, INS-7, which functions upstream of DAF-2. Both the inhibition of DAF-16 and downregulation of DAF-16–regulated genes, such as thn-2, lys-7, and spp-1, require the P. aeruginosa two-component response regulator GacA and the quorum-sensing regulators LasR and RhlR and are not observed during infection with Salmonella typhimurium or Enterococcus faecalis. Our results reveal a new mechanism by which P. aeruginosa suppresses host immune defense.
Bacterial pathogens have evolved mechanisms to overcome the immune defenses that animals and plants deploy against them. In some cases, this involves directly interfering with the proper functioning of the immune system. Because pathogens that employ these strategies are often the most deadly and difficult to treat, it is important to understand how they are able to suppress the immune system in the context of the whole organism. In this paper, we show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterial pathogen that is a major contributor to hospital-borne infections such as pneumonia, suppresses an immune defense pathway during infection of the simple animal host Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic modifications of both the pathogen and host, we identify components of the signaling pathways required to suppress host immune defenses. We find that P. aeruginosa employs the cell-to-cell communication system known as quorum sensing, which coordinates the expression of virulence factors to suppress host immune defense. In the host, an evolutionarily conserved insulin-like signaling pathway is affected by P. aeruginosa, resulting in the suppression of genes that are required for defense against infection in the intestinal epithelial cells. These findings suggest the possibility that P. aeruginosa may exploit similar mechanisms when causing infections of human epithelium, such as the epithelial lining of the lungs.
The sensory systems of multicellular organisms are designed to provide information about the environment and thus elicit appropriate changes in physiology and behavior. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, sensory neurons affect the decision to arrest during development in a diapause state, the dauer larva, and modulate the lifespan of the animals in adulthood. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are incompletely understood. Using whole-genome microarray analysis, we identified transcripts whose levels are altered by mutations in the intraflagellar transport protein daf-10, which result in impaired development and function of many sensory neurons in C. elegans. In agreement with existing genetic data, the expression of genes regulated by the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was affected by daf-10 mutations. In addition, we found altered expression of transcriptional targets of the DAF-12/nuclear hormone receptor in the daf-10 mutants and showed that this pathway influences specifically the dauer formation phenotype of these animals. Unexpectedly, pathogen-responsive genes were repressed in daf-10 mutant animals, and these sensory mutants exhibited altered susceptibility to and behavioral avoidance of bacterial pathogens. Moreover, we found that a solute transporter gene mct-1/2, which was induced by daf-10 mutations, was necessary and sufficient for longevity. Thus, sensory input seems to influence an extensive transcriptional network that modulates basic biological processes in C. elegans. This situation is reminiscent of the complex regulation of physiology by the mammalian hypothalamus, which also receives innervations from sensory systems, most notably the visual and olfactory systems.
The senses provide animals with information about their environment, which affects not only their behavior but also their internal state and physiological outputs. How this information is processed is still unclear. In this study, we used mutant C. elegans roundworms that had defective sensory neurons to investigate how changes in sensation alter the expression of genes and regulate physiology, specifically the worms' choice to hibernate during growth and their longevity as fully-grown adults. We showed that defects in sensory neurons change the pattern of gene expression and regulate these outputs through known hormonal pathways, including insulin/IGF-1 and steroid pathways. We also identified a new regulator of longevity, MCT-1, that is predicted to transport small metabolites and hormones in the body. Unexpectedly, we found that sensory impairment altered yet another physiological output, the response to infectious agents. It prevented the worms from avoiding infectious bacteria and reduced the expression of potentially protective factors, but also increased the worms' resistance to infection, suggesting a complex network of responses to environmental stimuli. Understanding how sensory information is relayed in this relatively simple organism may inform our understanding of sensory processing in higher organisms like mammals.
Selenium (Se) is an important nutrient that carries out many biological processes including maintaining optimal immune function. Here, inorganic selenite (Se(IV)) was evaluated for its pathogen resistance and potential-associated factors in Caenorhabditis elegans. The immune effects of Se(IV) were investigated by examining the responses of C. elegans to Pseudomonas aerugonisa PA14 strain.
Se(IV)-treated C. elegans showed increased survival under PA14 infection compared with untreated controls. The significant pathogen resistance of Se(IV) on C. elegans might not be attributed to the effects of Se(IV) on PA14 as Se(IV) showed no effect on bacterial quorum-sensing and virulence factors of PA14. This study showed that Se(IV) enhanced the expression of a gene pivotal for the innate immunity in C. elegans. The study found that the pathogen-resistant phenotypes contributed by Se(IV) was absent from the skn-1 mutant worms. Moreover, Se(IV) influenced the subcellular distribution of SKN-1/Nrf in C. elegans upon PA14 infection. Furthermore, Se(IV) increased mRNA levels of SKN-1 target genes (gst-4 and gcs-1).
This study found evidence of Se(IV) protecting C. elegans against P. aeruginosa PA14 infection by exerting effects on the innate immunity of C. elegans that is likely mediated via regulation of a SKN-1-dependent signaling pathway.
In response to infection, Caenorhabditis elegans produces an array of antimicrobial proteins. To understand the C. elegans immune response, we have investigated the regulation of a large, representative sample of candidate antimicrobial genes. We found that all these putative antimicrobial genes are expressed in tissues exposed to the environment, a position from which they can ward off infection. Using RNA interference to inhibit the function of immune signaling pathways in C. elegans, we found that different immune response pathways regulate expression of distinct but overlapping sets of antimicrobial genes. We also show that different bacterial pathogens regulate distinct but overlapping sets of antimicrobial genes. The patterns of genes induced by pathogens do not coincide with any single immune signaling pathway. Thus, even in this simple model system for innate immunity, striking specificity and complexity exist in the immune response. The unique patterns of antimicrobial gene expression observed when C. elegans is exposed to different pathogens or when different immune signaling pathways are perturbed suggest that a large set of yet to be identified pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) exist in the nematode. These PRRs must interact in a complicated fashion to induce a unique set of antimicrobial genes. We also propose the existence of an “antimicrobial fingerprint,” which will aid in assigning newly identified C. elegans innate immunity genes to known immune signaling pathways.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) form a class of essential micronutrients that play a vital role in development, cardiovascular health, and immunity. The influence of lipids on the immune response is both complex and diverse, with multiple studies pointing to the beneficial effects of long-chain fatty acids in immunity. However, the mechanisms through which PUFAs modulate innate immunity and the effects of PUFA deficiencies on innate immune functions remain to be clarified. Using the Caenorhabditis elegans–Pseudomonas aeruginosa host–pathogen system, we present genetic evidence that a Δ6-desaturase FAT-3, through its two 18-carbon products—gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n6) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n3), but not the 20-carbon PUFAs arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n3)—is required for basal innate immunity in vivo. Deficiencies in GLA and SDA result in increased susceptibility to bacterial infection, which is associated with reduced basal expression of a number of immune-specific genes—including spp-1, lys-7, and lys-2—that encode antimicrobial peptides. GLA and SDA are required to maintain basal activity of the p38 MAP kinase pathway, which plays important roles in protecting metazoan animals from infections and oxidative stress. Transcriptional and functional analyses of fat-3–regulated genes revealed that fat-3 is required in the intestine to regulate the expression of infection- and stress-response genes, and that distinct sets of genes are specifically required for immune function and oxidative stress response. Our study thus uncovers a mechanism by which these 18-carbon PUFAs affect basal innate immune function and, consequently, the ability of an organism to defend itself against bacterial infections. The conservation of p38 MAP kinase signaling in both stress and immune responses further encourages exploring the function of GLA and SDA in humans.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are vital for optimal physiological functions, including immunity. Much of these effects are mediated by eicosanoids, which are metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In mammals, PUFAs cannot be synthesized de novo. They are produced from essential dietary fatty acids, which are first converted to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) by a rate-limiting step catalyzed by a Δ6-desaturase, FADS2. Activity of FADS2 is impaired under numerous conditions—including aging, diabetes, stress, and smoking—and could lead to reduced production of GLA and SDA. In this study, we examined the effects of loss-of-function mutations in PUFA biosynthetic genes on the ability of C. elegans to survive infection by the Gram-negative human pathogen P. aeruginosa. We show that the enhanced pathogen susceptibility of the C. elegans Δ6-desaturase mutant fat-3 is associated with decreased basal expression of immunity genes and disrupted activity of the p38 MAP kinase. These defects could be fully restored when both GLA and SDA, but not AA or EPA, were added into the diets of fat-3 mutants, further supporting the conclusion that GLA and SDA are required for basal immunity in C. elegans.
It is now well established that natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster harbor substantial genetic variation associated with physiological measures of immune function. In no case, however, have intermediate measures of immune function, such as transcriptional activity of immune-related genes, been tested as mediators of phenotypic variation in immunity. In this study, we measured bacterial load sustained after infection of D. melanogaster with Serratia marcescens, Providencia rettgeri, Enterococcus faecalis, and Lactococcus lactis in a panel of 94 third-chromosome substitution lines. We also measured transcriptional levels of 329 immune-related genes eight hours after infection with E. faecalis and S. marcescens in lines from the phenotypic tails of the test panel. We genotyped the substitution lines at 137 polymorphic markers distributed across 25 genes in order to test for statistical associations among genotype, bacterial load, and transcriptional dynamics. We find that genetic polymorphisms in the pathogen recognition genes (and particularly in PGRP-LC, GNBP1, and GNBP2) are most significantly associated with variation in bacterial load. We also find that overall transcriptional induction of effector proteins is a significant predictor of bacterial load after infection with E. faecalis, and that a marker upstream of the recognition gene PGRP-SD is statistically associated with variation in both bacterial load and transcriptional induction of effector proteins. These results show that polymorphism in genes near the top of the immune system signaling cascade can have a disproportionate effect on organismal phenotype due to the amplification of minor effects through the cascade.
Genetic variation for resistance to infection is widespread among insects and other organisms. However, the extent to which this variation in resistance is mediated by changes in infection-induced gene expression is not known. In this study, we assayed expression of immune system genes and bacterial load after infection in a genotyped panel of lines of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. We find that statistical associations between genetic variants and bacterial load tend to cluster in genes encoding proteins involved in microbial recognition. Variation in suppression of bacterial growth is also determined in part by genetic variation in the expression of downstream components of the immune system that function to directly kill bacteria, despite finding no genetic variation in any single of these effector gene significantly associated with phenotype. Instead, it appears that activity differences in upstream components of the pathway have a cascading effect that results in larger variation in the expression of coordinately regulated downstream effector genes. These results imply that the interactions among genes need to be taken into account when assessing the phenotypic consequences of genetic variation, as signaling cascades such as those in the immune response have the potential to amplify the phenotypic effects of minor genetic variation in individual genes.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis forms biofilms on Caenorhabditis elegans which block nematode feeding. This genetically amenable host-pathogen model has important implications for biofilm development on living, motile surfaces. Here we show that Y. pseudotuberculosis biofilm development on C. elegans is governed by N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing (QS) since (i) AHLs are produced in nematode associated biofilms and (ii) Y. pseudotuberculosis strains expressing an AHL-degrading enzyme or in which the AHL synthase (ypsI and ytbI) or response regulator (ypsR and ytbR) genes have been mutated, are attenuated. Although biofilm formation is also attenuated in Y. pseudotuberculosis strains carrying mutations in the QS-controlled motility regulator genes, flhDC and fliA, and the flagellin export gene, flhA, flagella are not required since fliC mutants form normal biofilms. However, in contrast to the parent and fliC mutant, Yop virulon proteins are up-regulated in flhDC, fliA and flhA mutants in a temperature and calcium independent manner. Similar observations were found for the Y. pseudotuberculosis QS mutants, indicating that the Yop virulon is repressed by QS via the master motility regulator, flhDC. By curing the pYV virulence plasmid from the ypsI/ytbI mutant, by growing YpIII under conditions permissive for type III needle formation but not Yop secretion and by mutating the type III secretion apparatus gene, yscJ, we show that biofilm formation can be restored in flhDC and ypsI/ytbI mutants. These data demonstrate that type III secretion blocks biofilm formation and is reciprocally regulated with motility via QS.
Many Gram-negative bacteria communicate by producing and sensing the presence of chemical signal molecules such as the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Bacterial cells use AHLs to convey information about their environment, metabolism and population size. This type of chemical signalling is called ‘quorum sensing’ (QS) and is often used by pathogenic bacteria to promote acute or chronic infections through the control of motility, toxins, tissue degrading enzymes and surface-associated biofilms. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a human pathogen which forms biofilms on the surface of the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. This offers a simple means for investigating biofilm development on living tissues and can be used to identify genetic features of both the pathogen and the host that contribute to biofilm-associated infections. We have discovered that quorum sensing is required for Y. pseudotuberculosis biofilm formation on C. elegans through a regulatory pathway which involves the master motility regulator protein (FlhDC) reciprocally controlling bacterial swimming and the construction of a specialized secretion needle that delivers proteins into mammalian cells to disrupt their normal activities.