A large class of cation-responsive fluorescent sensors utilizes a donor-spacer-acceptor (D-A) molecular framework that can modulate the fluorescence emission intensity through a fast photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer (PET) process. The emission enhancement upon binding of the analyte defines the contrast ratio of the probe, a key property that is particularly relevant in fluorescence microscopy imaging applications. Due to their unusual electronic structure, 1,3,5-triaryl-pyrazoline fluorophores allow for the differential tuning of the excited state energy ΔE00 and the fluorophore acceptor potential E(A/A−), both of which are critical parameters that define the ET thermodynamics and thus the contrast ratio. By systematically varying the number and attachment positions of fluoro-substituents on the fluorophore π-system, ΔE00 can be adjusted over a broad range (0.4 eV) without significantly altering the acceptor potential E(A/A−). Experimentally measured D-A coupling and reorganization energies were used to draw a potential map for identifying the optimal ET driving force that is expected to give a maximum fluorescence enhancement for a given change in donor potential upon binding of the analyte. The rational design strategy was tested by optimizing the fluorescence response of a pH sensitive probe, thus yielding a maximum emission enhancement factor of 400 upon acidification. Furthermore, quantum chemical calculations were used to reproduce the experimental trends of reduction potentials, excited state energies, and ET driving forces within the framework of linear free energy relationships (LFER). Such LFERs should be suitable to semi-empirically predict ET driving forces with an average unsigned error of 0.03 eV, consequently allowing for the computational prescreening of substituent combinations to best match the donor potential of a given cation receptor. Within the scaffold of the triarylpyrazoline platform, the outlined differential tuning of the electron transfer parameters should be applicable to a broad range of cation receptors for designing PET sensors with maximized contrast ratios.
The photophysical properties of 1,3,5-triarylpyrazolines are strongly influenced by the nature and position of substituents attached to the aryl-rings, rendering this fluorophore platform well suited for the design of fluorescent probes utilizing a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) switching mechanism. To explore the tunability of two key parameters that govern the PET thermodynamics, the excited state energy ΔE00 and acceptor potential E(A/A−), a library of polyfluoro-substituted 1,3-diaryl-5-phenyl-pyrazolines was synthesized and characterized. The observed trends for the PET parameters were effectively captured through multiple Hammett linear free energy relationships (LFER) using a set of independent substituent constants for each of the two aryl rings. Given the lack of experimental Hammett constants for polyfluoro substituted aromatics, theoretically derived constants based on the electrostatic potential at the nucleus (EPN) of carbon atoms were employed as quantum chemical descriptors. The performance of the LFER was evaluated with a set of compounds that were not included in the training set, yielding a mean unsigned error of 0.05 eV for the prediction of the combined PET parameters. The outlined LFER approach should be well suited to design and optimize the performance of cation-responsive 1,3,5-triarylpyrazolines.
The design of fluorescent probes for the detection of redox-active transition metals such as Cu(I/II) is challenging due to potentially interfering metal-induced non-radiative deactivation pathways. By using a ligand architecture with a built-in conformational switch that maximizes the change in donor potential upon metal binding and an electronically decoupled tunable pyrazoline fluorophore as acceptor, we systematically optimized the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) switching behavior of a series of Cu(I)-selective probes and achieved an excellent fluorescence enhancement of greater than 200-fold. Crystal structure analysis combined with NMR solution studies revealed significant conformational changes of the ligand framework upon Cu(I) coordination. The photophysical data are consistent with a kinetically controlled PET reaction involving only the ligand moiety, despite the fact that Cu(I)-mediated reductive quenching would be thermodynamically preferred. The study demonstrates that high-contrast ratios can be achieved even for redox-active metal cations, providing that the metal-initiated quenching pathways are kinetically unfavorable.
Copper(I)-responsive fluorescent probes based on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) switching consistently display incomplete recovery of emission upon Cu(I) binding compared to the corresponding isolated fluorophores, raising the question of whether Cu(I) might engage in adverse quenching pathways. To address this question, we performed detailed photophysical studies on a series of Cu(I)-responsive fluorescent probes that are based on a 16-membered thiazacrown receptor (aneNS3) tethered to 1,3,5-triarylpyrazoline-fluorophores. The fluorescence enhancement upon Cu(I) binding, which is mainly governed by changes in the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) driving force between the ligand and fluorophore, was systematically optimized by increasing the electron withdrawing character of the 1-aryl-ring, yielding a maximum 29-fold fluorescence enhancement upon saturation with Cu(I) in methanol and a greater than 500-fold enhancement upon protonation with trifluoroacetic acid. Time-resolved fluorescence decay data for the Cu(I)-saturated probe indicated the presence of three distinct emissive species in methanol. Contrary to the notion that Cu(I) might engage in reductive electron transfer quenching, femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe experiments provided no evidence for formation of a transient Cu(II) species upon photoexcitation. Variable temperature 1H NMR experiments revealed a dynamic equilibrium between the tetradentate NS3-coordinated Cu(I) complex and a ternary complex involving coordination of a solvent molecule, an observation that was further supported by quantum chemical calculations. The combined photophysical, electrochemical, and solution chemistry experiments demonstrate that electron transfer from Cu(I) does not compete with radiative deactivation of the excited fluorophore, and hence, that the Cu(I)-induced fluorescence switching is kinetically controlled.
copper; fluorescent probes; photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer; PET; Marcus theory; pyrazoline fluorophores
We have prepared and characterized a Cu(I)-responsive fluorescent probe, constructed using a large tetradentate, 16-membered thiazacrown ligand (aneNS3) and 1,3,5-triaryl-substituted pyrazoline fluorophores. The fluorescence contrast ratio upon analyte binding, which is mainly governed by changes of the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) driving force between the ligand and fluorophore, was systematically optimized by increasing the electron withdrawing character of the 1-aryl-ring, yielding a maximum 50-fold fluorescence enhancement upon saturation with Cu(I) in methanol and a greater than 300-fold enhancement upon protonation with trifluoroacetic acid. The observed fluorescence increase was selective towards Cu(I) over a broad range of mono- and divalent transition metal cations. Previously established Hammett LFERs proved to be a valuable tool to predict two of the PET key parameters, the acceptor potential E(A/A−) and the excited state energy ΔE00, and thus to identify a set of pyrazolines that would best match the thermodynamic requirements imposed by the donor potential E(D+/D) of the thiazacrown receptor. The described approach should be applicable for rationally designing high-contrast pyrazoline-based PET probes selective towards other metal cations.
Using a computational strategy based on density functional theory calculations, we successfully designed a fluorescent sensor for detecting Zn2+ [J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 22991-22994]. In this work, we report our further studies on the computational design protocol for developing Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET) fluorescence sensors. This protocol was applied to design a PET fluorescence sensor for Zn2+ ions, which consists of anthracene as the fluorophore connected to pyridine as the receptor through dimethylethanamine as the linker. B3LYP and time-dependent B3LYP calculations were performed with the basis set 6-31G(d,p), 6-31+G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p), and 6-311+G(d,p). The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies of the fluorophore and receptor using all four basis sets show that the relative energy levels remain unchanged. This indicates that any of these basis sets can be used in calculating the relative molecular orbital (MO) energy levels. Furthermore, the relative MO energies of the independent fluorophore and receptor are not altered when they are linked together, which suggests that one can calculate the MO energies of these components separately and use them as the MO energies of the free sensor. These are promising outcomes for the computational design of sensors, though more case studies are needed to further confirm these conclusions. The binding selectivity studies indicate that the predicted sensor can be used for Zn2+ even in the presence of the divalent cation, Ca2+.
A series of poly [p-(phenyleneethynylene)-alt-(thienyleneethynylene)] (PPETE) polymers with variable percent loadings of the N, N, N’-trimethylethylenediamino group on the polymer backbone were synthesized and fully characterized. Photophysical studies show that changes in the loading of the amino group receptor on the backbone do not affect the polymer electronic structure in either the ground or excited states. The fluorescence quantum yields were found to be directly related to the loading of the amino groups and can be modeled by a Stern-Volmer type relationship. Photophysical studies related the total quenching efficiency to the inherent rate of photoinduced electron transfer (PET), the lifetime of the exciton, the rate of excitation energy migration along the polymer backbone and the total loading of the receptor on the polymer. The role of the loading dependence on the application of these polymers as fluorescence “turn-on” sensors for toxic metal cations in dilute solution was also studied. Results showed that the fluorescence enhancement upon binding various cations was maintained even when the amino receptor loading along the polymer backbone was reduced.
We describe the design of new fluorescent binary probe sensors for DNA detection based on spin-forbidden resonance energy transfer (SF-RET). Binary probes consist of a donor and acceptor fluorophores that are attached to two different oligonucleotides and serve as resonance energy transfer (RET) donor-acceptor pair when hybridized to adjacent sites of a target sequence. In the absence of target, excitation of the donor results in fluorescence only from the donor, but when the probes hybridize to target, the fluorophores are brought into close proximity favoring RET, yielding fluorescence mainly from the acceptor fluorophore. These new binary probes use the metal complex Ru(bpy′)(DIP)22+ as the energy donor and an organic fluorophore (Cy5) as the energy acceptor. Energy transfer from the MLCT state of the Ru complex to singlet Cy5 is spin forbidden and produces a delayed fluorescence of Cy5. This paper demonstrate that fluorescence delay of Cy5 can be used to time resolve the emission of the probe from the intense fluorescence background of a model system for cellular background; this provides the reported system to overcome intense autofluorescence, an important and general advantage over “classical” spin-allowed steady-state probes.
Ratiometric fluorescence sensing is an important technique for precise and quantitative analysis of biological events occurring under complex conditions by simultaneously recording fluorescence intensities at two wavelengths and calculating their ratios. Herein, we design a ratiometric chemosensor for pH that is based on photo-induced electron transfer (PET) and binding-induced modulation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanisms. This ratiometric chemosensor was constructed by introduction of a pH-insensitive coumarin fluorophore as a FRET donor into a pH-sensitive amino-naphthalimide derivative as the FRET acceptor. The sensor exhibited clear dual-mission signal changes in blue and green spectral windows upon pH changes. The pH sensor was applied for not only measuring cellular pH, but also for visualizing stimulus-responsive changes of intracellular pH values.
pH sensor; Ratiometric sensing; FRET; PET; Biological imaging
The fluorescence signal of single organic fluorophores is characterized by random blinking and irreversible photobleaching. Photoinduced blinking of Cy5 has posed various limitations of this popular near-infrared (NIR) probe in biological applications. Here we show that fluorophore–metal nanoparticle (NP) complexes greatly suppress Cy5 blinking and noticeably reduce photobleaching events. The blinking behavior of single Cy5 molecules was investigated and compared in the absence and the presence of silver nanostructures. A power-law distribution of off time population was observed for single Cy5 molecules. Average off times were compared to evaluate the plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles on the triplet decay rates. We furthermore demonstrate enhanced photostability in the presence of silver NPs. The results show that plasmonic-controlled fluorescence can lead to a novel physical mechanism to enhance fluorescence intensity, reduce blinking, and increase photostability.
We report the design, synthesis and characterization of binary oligonucleotide probes for mRNA detection. The probes were designed to avoid common problems found in standard binary probes such as direct excitation of the acceptor fluorophore and overlap between the donor and acceptor emission spectra. Two different probes were constructed that contained an array of either two or three dyes and that were characterized using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence depolarization measurements. The three-dye binary probe (BP-3d) consists of a Fam fluorophore which acts as a donor, collecting light and transferring it as energy to Tamra, which subsequently transfers energy to Cy5 when the two probes are hybridized to mRNA. This design allows the use of 488 nm excitation, which avoids the direct excitation of Cy5 and at the same time provides a good fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency. The two-dye binary probe system (BP-2d) was constructed of Alexa488 and Cy5 fluorophores. Although the overlap between the fluorescence of Alexa488 and the absorption of Cy5 is relatively low, FRET still occurs due to their close physical proximity when the probes are hybridized to mRNA. This framework also decreases the direct excitation of Cy5 and reduces the fluorescence overlap between the donor and the acceptor. Picosecond time-resolved spectroscopy showed a reduction in the fluorescence lifetime of donor fluorophores after the formation of the hybrid between the probes and target mRNA. Interestingly, BP-2d in the presence of mRNA shows a slow rise in the fluorescence decay of Cy5 due to a relatively low FRET rate, which together with the reduction in the Alexa488 lifetime provides a way to improve the signal to background ratio using time-resolved fluorescence spectra (TRES). In addition, fluorescence depolarization measurements showed complete depolarization of the acceptor dyes (Cy5) for both BP-3d (due to sequential FRET steps) and BP-2d (due to the relatively low FRET rate) in the presence of the mRNA target.
Binary probes; fluorescence; energy transfer; FRET; time-resolved emission spectra (TRES); Cy5; Alexa488; Fam; Tamra; mRNA
The structure and function of the Influenza A M2 proton channel have been the subject of intensive investigations in recent years because of its critical role in the life cycle of the Influenza virus. Using a truncated version of the M2 proton channel (i.e., M2TM) as a model, here we show that fluctuations in the fluorescence intensity of a dye reporter that arise from both fluorescence quenching via the mechanism of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) by an adjacent tryptophan (Trp) residue and local motions of the dye molecule can be used to probe the conformational dynamics of membrane proteins. Specifically, we find that the dynamics of the conformational transition between the N-terminally-open and C-terminally-open states of the M2TM channel occur on a timescale of about 500 μs and that binding of either amantadine or rimantadine does not inhibit the pH-induced structural equilibrium of the channel. These results are consistent with the direct occluding mechanism of inhibition which suggests that the antiviral drugs act by sterically occluding the channel pore.
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; M2 proton channel; Conformational dynamics; Photo-induced electron transfer
Two fluorescent heteroditopic ligands (2a and 2b) for zinc ion were synthesized and studied. The efficiencies of two photophysical processes, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photoinduced electron transfer (PET), determine the magnitudes of emission bathochromic shift and enhancement, respectively, when a heteroditopic ligand forms mono- or dizinc complexes. The electron-rich 2b is characterized by a high degree of ICT in the excited state with little propensity for PET, which is manifested in a large bathochromic shift of emission upon Zn2+ coordination without enhancement in fluorescence quantum yield. The electron-poor 2a displays the opposite photophysical consequence where Zn2+ binding results in greatly enhanced emission without significant spectral shift. The electronic structural effects on the relative efficiencies of ICT and PET in 2a and 2b as well as the impact of Zn2+-coordination are probed using experimental and computational approaches. This study reveals that the delicate balance between various photophysical pathways (e.g. ICT and PET) engineered in a heteroditopic ligand is sensitively dependent on the electronic structure of the ligand, i.e. whether the fluorophore is electron-rich or poor, whether it possesses a donor–acceptor type of structure, and where the metal binding occurs.
The steady-state photophysical, NMR, and two-photon absorption (2PA) properties of a new fluorene derivative (1) containing the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole (HBT) terminal construct was investigated for use as a fluorescence probe in bioimaging. A comprehensive analysis of the linear spectral properties revealed inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding and excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) processes in the HBT substituent. A specific electronic model with a double minimum potential energy surface was consistent with the observed spectral properties. The 2PA spectra were obtained using a standard two-photon induced fluorescence method with femtosecond kHz laser system, affording a maximum 2PA cross section of ~600 GM, a sufficiently high value for two-photon fluorescence imaging. No dependence of two-photon absorption efficiency on solvent properties and hydrogen bonding in the HBT substituent was observed. The potential use of this fluorenyl probe in bioimaging was demonstrated via one- and two-photon fluorescence imaging of COS-7 cells.
Fluorescence probes; imaging agents; hydrogen bonding; two-photon induced fluorescence
Two-photon fluorescence microscopy has become an indispensable tool for imaging scattering biological samples by detecting scattered fluorescence photons generated from a spatially confined excitation volume. However, this optical sectioning capability breaks down eventually when imaging much deeper, as the out-of-focus fluorescence gradually overwhelms the in-focal signal in the scattering samples. The resulting loss of image contrast defines a fundamental imaging-depth limit, which cannot be overcome by increasing excitation efficiency. Herein we propose to extend this depth limit by performing stimulated emission reduced fluorescence (SERF) microscopy in which the two-photon excited fluorescence at the focus is preferentially switched on and off by a modulated and focused laser beam that is capable of inducing stimulated emission of the fluorophores from the excited states. The resulting image, constructed from the reduced fluorescence signal, is found to exhibit a significantly improved signal-to-background contrast owing to its overall higher-order nonlinear dependence on the incident laser intensity. We demonstrate this new concept by both analytical theory and numerical simulations. For brain tissues, SERF is expected to extend the imaging depth limit of two-photon fluorescence microscopy by a factor of more than 1.8.
(180.4315) Nonlinear microscopy; (180.2520) Fluorescence microscopy; (190.4180) Multiphoton processes; (170.4090) Modulation techniques
Fluorescent conjugated polymers have received a great deal of recent interest due to their ability to act as chemosensors to detect various chemical species in both environmental and biological systems with sensitivity and selectivity. Examples from the literature include polymer chemosensors that operate on either fluorescence “turn-on” or “turn-off” as mechanisms of sensor response. These responses can be related to either photoinduced electron transfer or electronic energy transfer mechanisms. Recently, a series of metal-containing polymers or metallopolymers have been explored by various research groups for their use as chemosensors. In many cases, these metallopolymers have been shown to be more sensitive and selective for specific chemical species. This review focuses on fluorescent conjugated polymers as chemosensors, with a specific concentration on recent advances in metallopolymer chemosensors.
metallopolymer; conjugated polymer; chemosensors; fluorescent enhancement and quenching
In this study, a series of new BF2-chelated
dyes are synthesized and are shown to be suitable for the preparation
of on/off photoinduced electron transfer modulated fluorescent sensors.
The new indicators are noncovalently entrapped in polyurethane hydrogel
D4 and feature absorption maxima in the range 660–710 nm and
fluorescence emission maxima at 680–740 nm. Indicators have
high molar absorption coefficients of ∼80 000 M–1 cm–1, good quantum yields (up to
20%), excellent photostability and low cross-sensitivity to the ionic
strength. pKa values of indicators are
determined from absorbance and fluorescence measurements and range
from 7 to 11, depending on the substitution pattern of electron-donating
and -withdrawing functionalities. Therefore, the new indicators are
suitable for exploitation and adaptation in a diverse range of analytical
applications. Apparent pKa values in sensor
films derived from fluorescence data show 0.5–1 pH units lower
values in comparison with those derived from the absorption data due
to Förster resonance energy transfer from protonated to deprotonated
form. A dual-lifetime referenced sensor is prepared, and application
for monitoring of pH in corals is demonstrated.
The excitation wavelength dependence of the steady-state and time-resolved emission spectra of ethyl 5-(4-aminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate (EAADCy) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at room temperature has been examined. It is found that the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of the long-wavelength and short-wavelength fluorescence bands strongly depends on the excitation wavelength, whereas the wavelengths of the fluorescence excitation and fluorescence bands maxima are independent on the observation/excitation wavelengths. The dynamic Stokes shift of fluorophore in locally excited (LE) and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) states has been studied with a time resolution about 30 ps. The difference between Stokes shift in the LE and ICT states was attributed to the solvent response to the large photoinduced dipole moment of EAADCy in the fluorescent charge transfer state. On this base we can state that, the relaxation of the polar solvent molecules around the fluorophore was observed.
Ethyl 5-(4-aminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate; Donor-acceptor system; Excitation-wavelength dependent fluorescence
Successful translation of the use of nanoparticles from laboratories to clinics requires exhaustive and elaborate studies involving the biodistribution, clearance and biocompatibility of nanoparticles for in vivo biomedical applications. We report here the use of multimodal organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles for in vivo bioimaging, biodistribution, clearance and toxicity studies. We have synthesized ORMOSIL nanoparticles with diameters of 20-25 nm, conjugated with near infra-red (NIR) fluorophores and radiolabelled them with 124I, for optical and PET imaging in vivo. The biodistribution of the non targeted nanoparticles was studied in non-tumored nude mice by optical fluorescence imaging, as well by measuring the radioactivity from harvested organs. Biodistribution studies showed a greater accumulation of nanoparticles in liver, spleen and stomach than in kidney, heart and lungs. The clearance studies carried out over a period of 15 days indicated hepatobiliary excretion of the nanoparticles. Selected tissues were analyzed for any potential toxicity by histological analysis, which confirmed the absence of any adverse effect or any other abnormalities in the tissues. The results demonstrate that these multimodal nanoparticles have potentially ideal attributes for use as biocompatible probes for in vivo imaging.
ORMOSIL Nanoparticles; optical and PET Imaging; NIR fluorophore; 124I radiolabeling; Biodistribution; clearance and toxicity
Rare-earth phosphors are commonly used in display panels, security printing, and fluorescent lamps, and have potential applications in lasers and bioimaging. In the present study, Eu3+- and Dy3+-codoped uniform-shaped Y2O3 submicron particles were prepared using the urea homogeneous precipitation method. The structure and morphology of the resulting particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and field emission transmission electron microscope, whereas their optical properties were monitored by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The room-temperature luminescence color emission of the synthesized particles can be tuned from red to yellow by switching the excitation wavelength from 254 to 350 nm. The luminescence intensities of red and yellow emissions could be altered by varying the dopant concentration. Strong quenching was observed at high Eu3+ and Dy3+ concentrations in the Y2O3 host lattice.
Y2O3 particles; Luminescence; Urea homogeneous precipitation; Eu3+ and Dy3+ codoped
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) microscopy is a commonly-used technique to study problems in biophysics that range from uncovering cellular signaling pathways to detecting conformational changes in single biomolecules. Unfortunately, excitation and emission spectral overlap between the fluorophores create challenges in quantitative FRET studies. It has been shown previously that quantitative FRET stoichiometry can be performed by selective excitation of donor and acceptor fluorophores. Extending this approach to two-photon FRET applications is difficult when conventional femtosecond laser sources are used due to their limited bandwidth and slow tuning response time. Extremely broadband titanium:sapphire lasers enable the simultaneous excitation of both donor and acceptor for two-photon FRET, but do so without selectivity. Here we present a novel two-photon FRET microscopy technique that employs pulse-shaping to perform selective excitation of fluorophores in live cells and detect FRET between them. Pulse-shaping via multiphoton intrapulse interference can tailor the excitation pulses to achieve selective excitation. This technique overcomes the limitation of conventional femtosecond lasers to allow rapid switching between selective excitation of the donor and acceptor fluorophores. We apply the method to live cells expressing the fluorescent proteins mCerulean and mCherry, demonstrating selective excitation of fluorophores via pulse-shaping and the detection of two-photon FRET. This work paves the way for two-photon FRET stoichiometry.
Multiphoton microscopy; FRET; pulse-shaping
In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that poly(m-phenylenediamine) (PMPD) nanospheres and nanorods can be selectively synthesized via chemical oxidation polymerization of m-phenylenediamine (MPD) monomers using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidant at room temperature. It suggests that the pH value plays a critical role in controlling the the morphology of the nanostructures and fast polymerization rate favors the anisotropic growth of PMPD under homogeneous nucleation condition. We further demonstrate that such PMPD nanostructures can be used as an effective fluorescent sensing platform for multiplex nucleic acid detection. A detection limit as low as 50 pM and a high selectivity down to single-base mismatch could be achieved. The fluorescence quenching is attributed to photoinduced electron transfer from nitrogen atom in PMPD to excited fluorophore. Most importantly, the successful use of this sensing platform in human blood serum system is also demonstrated.
Fluorescence modulation for selective recovery of desired fluorescence signals has to date required careful fluorophore selection combined with repeated optical recovery from long-lived photoinduced dark states. Adapting an all-optical scheme, modulated Stimulated Emission Depletion generalizes such modulation schemes by eliminating the need for dark state residence by directly optically depopulating the emissive state at any externally applied frequency. Using two overlapped Gaussian laser spots with the depletion beam being intensity-modulated, fluorescence modulation is readily achieved with a depletion ratio governed by the intensity of the depleting laser. Selective image recovery of otherwise unmodulatable fluorophore signals is directly achieved through this all-optical modulation, and common STED-degrading multiphoton-excited background is readily discriminated against. Both beads and dyes in solution as well as fluorophores bound within fixed cells are readily imaged in this manner.
The synthesis, linear photophysical and photochemical parameters, two-photon absorption (2PA), and superfluorescence properties of 2,2′-(5,5′-(9,9-didecyl-9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl)bis(ethyne-2,1-diyl)bis(thiophene-5,2-diyl))dibenzo[d]thiazole (1) were investigated, suggesting its potential as an efficient fluorescent probe for bioimaging applications. The steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and excitation anisotropy spectra of 1 were measured in several organic solvents and aqueous media. Probe 1 exhibited high fluorescence quantum yield (∼ 0.7-0.8) and photochemical stability (photobleaching quantum yield ∼ (3 - 7)·10-6). The 2PA spectra were determined over a broad spectral range (640-920 nm) using a standard two-photon induced fluorescence method under femtosecond excitation. A well-defined two-photon allowed absorption band at 680-720 nm with corresponding 2PA cross sections δ2PA ≈ 800-900 GM was observed. The use of probe 1 in bioimaging was shown via one- and two-photon fluorescence imaging of HCT-116 cells. An amplification of the stimulated emission of 1 was demonstrated in organic solvents and thin polystyrene films, which potentially can be used for the development of new fluorescent labels with increased spectral brightness.
We combine suspended-core microstructured optical fibers with the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) effect to demonstrate a new type of fluorescent optical fiber-dip sensing platform for small volume ion detection. A sensor design based on a simple model PET-fluoroionophore system and small core microstructured optical fiber capable of detecting sodium ions is demonstrated. The performance of the dip sensor operating in a high sodium concentration regime (925 ppm Na+) and for lower sodium concentration environments (18.4 ppm Na+) is explored and future approaches to improving the sensor’s signal stability, sensitivity and selectivity are discussed.
fluorescence sensor; fiber-optic sensor; microstructured optical fiber (MOF); photo induced electron transfer (PET); metal ion