Recent revision of the biosynthetic pathway for menaquinone has led to the discovery of a previously unrecognized enzyme 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase, also known as MenH. This enzyme has an α/β hydrolase fold with a catalytic triad comprising Ser86, His232, and Asp210. Mutational studies identified a number of conserved residues of importance to activity, and modeling further implicated the side chains of Tyr85 and Trp147 in formation of a non-standard oxyanion hole. We have solved the structure of E. coli MenH (EcMenH) at 2.75 Å resolution, together with the structures of the active site mutant proteins Tyr85Phe and Arg124Ala, both at 2.5 Å resolution. EcMenH has the predicted α/β hydrolase fold with its core α/β domain capped by a helical lid. The active site, a long groove beneath the cap, contains a number of conserved basic residues and is found to bind exogeneous anions, modeled as sulfate and chloride, in all three crystal structures. Docking studies with the MenH substrate and a transition state model indicate that the bound anions mark the binding sites for anionic groups on the substrate. The docking studies, and careful consideration of the active site geometry, further suggest that the oxyanion hole is of a conventional nature, involving peptide NH groups, rather than the proposed site involving Tyr85 and Trp147. This is in accord with conclusions from the structure of S. aureus MenH. Comparisons with the latter do, however, indicate differences in the periphery of the active site that could be of relevance to selective inhibition of MenH enzymes.
The thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) and metal-ion-dependent enzyme 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase, or MenD, catalyze the Stetter-like conjugate addition of α-ketoglutarate with isochorismate to release 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate and carbon dioxide. This reaction represents the first committed step for biosynthesis of menaquinone, or vitamin K2, a key cofactor for electron transport in bacteria and a metabolite for posttranslational modification of proteins in mammals. The medium-resolution structure of MenD from Escherichia coli (EcMenD) in complex with its cofactor and Mn2+ has been determined in two related hexagonal crystal forms. The subunit displays the typical three-domain structure observed for ThDP-dependent enzymes in which two of the domains bind and force the cofactor into a configuration that supports formation of a reactive ylide. The structures reveal a stable dimer-of-dimers association in agreement with gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation studies and confirm the classification of MenD in the pyruvate oxidase family of ThDP-dependent enzymes. The active site, created by contributions from a pair of subunits, is highly basic with a pronounced hydrophobic patch. These features, formed by highly conserved amino acids, match well to the chemical properties of the substrates. A model of the covalent intermediate formed after reaction with the first substrate α-ketoglutarate and with the second substrate isochorismate positioned to accept nucleophilic attack has been prepared. This, in addition to structural and sequence comparisons with putative MenD orthologues, provides insight into the specificity and reactivity of MenD and allows a two-stage reaction mechanism to be proposed.
crystal structure; enzyme mechanism; menaquinone biosynthesis; thiamine diphosphate cofactor
The first committed step in the classical biosynthetic route to menaquinone (vitamin K2) is a Stetter-like conjugate addition of α-ketoglutarate with isochorismate. This reaction is catalyzed by the thiamine diphosphate and metal-ion-dependent 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase (MenD). The medium-resolution (2.35 Å) crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis MenD with cofactor and Mn2+ has been determined. Based on structure–sequence comparisons and modeling, a two-stage mechanism that is primarily driven by the chemical properties of the cofactor is proposed. Hypotheses for the molecular determinants of substrate recognition were formulated. Five basic residues (Arg32, Arg106, Arg409, Arg428, and Lys299) are postulated to interact with carboxylate and hydroxyl groups to align substrates for catalysis in combination with a cluster of non-polar residues (Ile489, Phe490, and Leu493) on one side of the active site. The powerful combination of site-directed mutagenesis, where each of the eight residues is replaced by alanine, and steady-state kinetic measurements has been exploited to address these hypotheses. Arg409 plays a significant role in binding both substrates while Arg428 contributes mainly to binding of α-ketoglutarate. Arg32 and in particular Arg106 are critical for recognition of isochorismate. Mutagenesis of Phe490 and Ile489 has the most profound influence on catalytic efficiency, indicating that these two residues are important for binding of isochorismate and for stabilizing the cofactor position. These data allow for a detailed description of the structure–reactivity relationship that governs MenD function and refinement of the model for the catalytic intermediate that supports the Stetter-like conjugate addition.
CoA, coenzyme A; PDB, Protein Data Bank; SAD, single-wavelength anomalous diffraction; SEPHCHC, 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate; SeMet, selenomethionine; ThDP, thiamine diphosphate; PEG, polyethylene glycol; crystal structure; enzyme mechanism; menaquinone biosynthesis; thiamine diphosphate cofactor
Single crystals of the holoenzyme (1R,6R)-2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase with ThDP and Mn2+ as cofactors were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 35% ethylene glycol as precipitant. Apoenzyme crystals were obtained by sitting-drop vapour diffusion with 70% MPD.
(1R,6R)-2-Succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate (SHCHC) synthase, also called MenD, participates in the menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a part of the superfamily of ThDP-dependent enzymes; however, it is the only enzyme known to catalyze a Stetter-like 1,4-addition of a ThDP adduct to the β-carbon of an unsaturated carboxylate. This is the first reported crystallization of the apoenzyme and holoenzyme forms of MenD. The apoenzyme crystals were obtained by sitting-drop vapour diffusion with 70% MPD. However, the crystals were too small to collect diffraction data and a search for better conditions was not successful. Single crystals of the holoenzyme with ThDP and Mn2+ as cofactors were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 35% ethylene glycol as precipitant. Diffraction data were collected on a cryocooled crystal to a resolution of 2.0 Å at BioCARS, Advanced Photon Source (APS), Chicago, IL, USA. The crystal was found to belong to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.86, b = 143.06, c = 156.85 Å, α = β = γ = 90°.
SHCHC synthase; MenD; ThDP-dependent enzymes
Standard numbering schemes for families of homologous proteins allow for the unambiguous identification of functionally and structurally relevant residues, to communicate results on mutations, and to systematically analyse sequence-function relationships in protein families. Standard numbering schemes have been successfully implemented for several protein families, including lactamases and antibodies, whereas a numbering scheme for the structural family of thiamine-diphosphate (ThDP) -dependent decarboxylases, a large subfamily of the class of ThDP-dependent enzymes encompassing pyruvate-, benzoylformate-, 2-oxo acid-, indolpyruvate- and phenylpyruvate decarboxylases, benzaldehyde lyase, acetohydroxyacid synthases and 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase (MenD) is still missing.
Despite a high structural similarity between the members of the ThDP-dependent decarboxylases, their sequences are diverse and make a pairwise sequence comparison of protein family members difficult.
We developed and validated a standard numbering scheme for the family of ThDP-dependent decarboxylases. A profile hidden Markov model (HMM) was created using a set of representative sequences from the family of ThDP-dependent decarboxylases. The pyruvate decarboxylase from S. cerevisiae (PDB: 2VK8) was chosen as a reference because it is a well characterized enzyme. The crystal structure with the PDB identifier 2VK8 encompasses the structure of the ScPDC mutant E477Q, the cofactors ThDP and Mg2+ as well as the substrate analogue (2S)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid. The absolute numbering of this reference sequence was transferred to all members of the ThDP-dependent decarboxylase protein family. Subsequently, the numbering scheme was integrated into the already established Thiamine-diphosphate dependent Enzyme Engineering Database (TEED) and was used to systematically analyze functionally and structurally relevant positions in the superfamily of ThDP-dependent decarboxylases.
The numbering scheme serves as a tool for the reliable sequence alignment of ThDP-dependent decarboxylases and the unambiguous identification and communication of corresponding positions. Thus, it is the basis for the systematic and automated analysis of sequence-encoded properties such as structural and functional relevance of amino acid positions, because the analysis of conserved positions, the identification of correlated mutations and the determination of subfamily specific amino acid distributions depend on reliable multisequence alignments and the unambiguous identification of the alignment columns. The method is reliable and robust and can easily be adapted to further protein families.
The menD gene of Escherichia coli codes for the first enzyme of menaquinone biosynthesis, 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate (SHCHC) synthase. DNA sequence analysis of menD shows an open reading frame encoding a 52-kilodalton protein. Possible promoter and ribosome binding sites are present. Insertion of the menD gene into a tac promoter expression vector leads to nearly a 100-fold increase in the level of SHCHC synthase activity upon induction with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of [35S]methionine-labeled proteins shows a 61-kilodalton protein produced upon induction of the menD-containing expression vector. This is the first reported sequence analysis of a men gene and the first significant amplification of any of the menaquinone biosynthetic enzymes.
The formation of 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid (SHCHC), the first identified intermediate in the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway, requires two reactions. They are the decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate by an alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylase, which results in the formation of succinic semialdehyde-thiamine PPi (TPP) anion, and the addition of the succinic semialdehyde-TPP anion to isochorismate carried out by the enzyme SHCHC synthase. Evidence is provided to support the conclusion that both enzymatic activities are encoded by an extended menD gene which is capable of generating a bifunctional 69-kDa protein. Consistent with the requirement for TPP in the decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate, the translated amino acid sequence contains the characteristic TPP-binding motif present in all well-characterized TPP-requiring enzymes.
The benzenoid aromatic compound o-succinylbenzoic acid is formed by dehydration of the prearomatic compound 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid by the enzyme o-succinylbenzoate synthase, encoded by the menC gene. A 1.3-kb PstI-PvuII fragment was found to complement the menC mutation. The complete nucleotide sequence of this fragment revealed a single open reading frame of 954 bp capable of encoding a 35-kDa protein. A consensus sequence for a ribosomal binding site but no promoter consensus sequences were found. However, the first base of the initiating codon of this open reading frame overlaps the upstream menB gene termination codon, suggesting an operon-like organization for these genes. Consistent with this suggestion, the menB promoter can initiate transcription of the menC gene.
The biosynthesis of o-succinylbenzoic acid (OSB), the first aromatic intermediate involved in the biosynthesis of menaquinone (vitamin K2) is demonstrated for the first time in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Cell extracts were found to contain isochorismate synthase, 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid (SHCHC) synthase-alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylase and o-succinylbenzoic acid synthase activities. An odhA mutant which lacks the decarboxylase component (usually termed E1, EC 18.104.22.168, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase [lipoamide]) of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex was found to synthesize SHCHC and form succinic semialdehyde-thiamine pyrophosphate. Thus, the presence of an alternate alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylase activity specifically involved in menaquinone biosynthesis is established for B. subtilis. A number of OSB-requiring mutants were also assayed for the presence of the various enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of OSB. All mutants were found to lack only the SHCHC synthase activity.
The structure of the menaquinone-specific isochorismate synthase (MenF) from Escherichia coli has been refined at a resolution of 2.0 Å in complex with magnesium. The magnesium-bound structure has a well defined and organized active site which better represents the active conformation of the enzyme than the currently available structure.
The electron carrier menaquinone is one of many important bacterial metabolites that are derived from the key intermediate chorismic acid. MenF, the first enzyme in the menaquinone pathway, catalyzes the isomerization of chorismate to isochorismate. Here, an improved structure of MenF in a new crystal form is presented. The structure, solved at 2.0 Å resolution in complex with magnesium, reveals a well defined closed active site. Existing evidence suggests that the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by MenF involves nucleophilic attack of a water molecule on the chorismate ring. The structure reveals a well defined water molecule located in an appropriate position for activation by Lys190 and attack on the substrate.
chorismate; isochorismate; menaquinone
The structure of S. aureus MenB, an enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to vitamin K2, has been determined and compared with the enzyme derived from another important pathogen, M. tuberculosis.
Vitamin K2, or menaquinone, is an essential cofactor for many organisms and the enzymes involved in its biosynthesis are potential antimicrobial drug targets. One of these enzymes, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase (MenB) from the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, has been obtained in recombinant form and its quaternary structure has been analyzed in solution. Cubic crystals of the enzyme allowed a low-resolution structure (2.9 Å) to be determined. The asymmetric unit consists of two subunits and a crystallographic threefold axis of symmetry generates a hexamer consistent with size-exclusion chromatography. Analytical ultracentrifugation indicates the presence of six states in solution, monomeric through to hexameric, with the dimer noted as being particularly stable. MenB displays the crotonase-family fold with distinct N- and C-terminal domains and a flexible segment of structure around the active site. The smaller C-terminal domain plays an important role in oligomerization and also in substrate binding. The presence of acetoacetyl-CoA in one of the two active sites present in the asymmetric unit indicates how part of the substrate binds and facilitates comparisons with the structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MenB.
crotonase; synthase; vitamin biosynthesis; menaquinone; MenB
The crystal structure of S. aureus cytidine monophosphate kinase in complex with cytidine 5′-monophosphate has been determined.
The crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus cytidine monophosphate kinase (CMK) in complex with cytidine 5′-monophosphate (CMP) has been determined at 2.3 Å resolution. The active site reveals novel features when compared with two orthologues of known structure. Compared with the Streptococcus pneumoniae CMK solution structure of the enzyme alone, S. aureus CMK adopts a more closed conformation, with the NMP-binding domain rotating by ∼16° towards the central pocket of the molecule, thereby assembling the active site. Comparing Escherichia coli and S. aureus CMK–CMP complex structures reveals differences within the active site, including a previously unreported indirect interaction of CMP with Asp33, the replacement of a serine residue involved in the binding of CDP by Ala12 in S. aureus CMK and an additional sulfate ion in the E. coli CMK active site. The detailed understanding of the stereochemistry of CMP binding to CMK will assist in the design of novel inhibitors of the enzyme. Inhibitors are required to treat the widespread hospital infection methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), currently a major public health concern.
cytidine monophosphate kinase; Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; cytidine 5′-monophosphate
Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the oxidation of L-proline to Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. PRODHs exhibit a pronounced preference for proline over hydroxyproline (trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline) as the substrate, but the basis for specificity is unknown. The goal of this study, therefore, is to gain insights into the structural determinants of substrate specificity of this class of enzyme, with a focus on understanding how PRODHs discriminate between the two closely related molecules, proline and hydroxyproline. Two site-directed mutants of the PRODH domain of Escherichia coli PutA were created: Y540A and Y540S. Kinetics measurements were performed with both mutants. Crystal structures of Y540S complexed with hydroxyproline, proline, and the proline analog L-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid were determined at resolutions of 1.75 Å, 1.90 Å and 1.85 Å. Mutation of Tyr540 increases the catalytic efficiency for hydroxyproline three-fold and decreases the specificity for proline by factors of twenty (Y540S) and fifty (Y540A). The structures show that removal of the large phenol side chain increases the volume of the substrate-binding pocket, allowing sufficient room for the 4-hydroxyl of hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the introduced serine residue participates in recognition of hydroxyproline by forming a hydrogen bond with the 4-hydroxyl. This result has implications for understanding substrate specificity of the related enzyme human hydroxyproline dehydrogenase, which has serine in place of tyrosine at this key active site position. The kinetic and structural results suggest that Tyr540 is an important determinant of specificity. Structurally, it serves as a negative filter for hydroxyproline by clashing with the 4-hydroxyl group of this potential substrate.
The 2.5 Å resolution structure of S. aureus adenylosuccinate lyase is reported and compared with those of orthologues to assess its potential as a template for early stage drug discovery. AMP and a putative assignment of oxalate, the latter an artefact possibly arising from an impurity in the PEG used for crystallization, occupy the active site.
The medium-resolution structure of adenylosuccinate lyase (PurB) from the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in complex with AMP is presented. Oxalate, which is likely to be an artifact of crystallization, has been modelled in the active site and occupies a position close to that where succinate is observed in orthologous structures. PurB catalyzes reactions that support the provision of purines and the control of AMP/fumarate levels. As such, the enzyme is predicted to be essential for the survival of S. aureus and to be a potential therapeutic target. Comparisons of this pathogen PurB with the enzyme from Escherichia coli are presented to allow discussion concerning the enzyme mechanism. Comparisons with human PurB suggest that the close similarity of the active sites would make it difficult to identify species-specific inhibitors for this enyme. However, there are differences in the way that the subunits are assembled into dimers. The distinct subunit–subunit interfaces may provide a potential area to target by exploiting the observation that creation of the enzyme active site is dependent on oligomerization.
adenylosuccinate lyase; AMP; oxalate; purine biosynthesis; purine cycle
Disruption of the unusual thiol-based redox homeostasis mechanisms in Staphylococcus aureus represents a unique opportunity to identify new metabolic processes, and new targets for intervention. Targeting uncommon aspects of CoASH biosynthetic and redox functions in S. aureus, the antibiotic CJ-15,801 has recently been demonstrated to be an antimetabolite of the CoASH biosynthetic pathway in this organism; CoAS-mimetics containing α,β-unsaturated sulfone and carboxyl moieties have also been exploited as irreversible inhibitors of S. aureus coenzyme A-disulfide reductase (SaCoADR). In this work we have determined the crystal structures of three of these covalent SaCoADR-inhibitor complexes, prepared by inactivation of wild-type enzyme during turnover. The structures reveal the covalent linkage between the active-site Cys43-Sγ and Cβ of the vinyl sulfone or carboxyl moiety. The full occupancy of two inhibitor molecules per enzyme dimer, together with kinetic analyses of the wild-type/C43S heterodimer, indicates that half-sites-reactivity is not a factor during normal catalytic turnover. Further, we provide the structures of SaCoADR active-site mutants; in particular, Tyr419′-OH plays dramatic roles in directing intramolecular reduction of the Cys43-SSCoA redox center, in the redox asymmetry observed for the two FAD per dimer in NADPH titrations, and in catalysis. The two conformations observed for the Ser43 side chain in the C43S mutant structure lend support to a conformational switch for Cys43-Sγ during its catalytic Cys43-SSCoA/Cys43-SH redox cycle. Finally, the structures of the three inhibitor complexes provide a framework for design of more effective inhibitors with therapeutic potential against several major bacterial pathogens.
MenE, the o-succinylbenzoate (OSB)-CoA synthetase from bacterial menaquinone biosynthesis, is a promising new antibacterial target. Sulfonyladenosine analogues of the cognate reaction intermediate, OSB-AMP, have been developed as inhibitors of the MenE enzymes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtMenE), Staphylococcus aureus (saMenE) and Escherichia coli (ecMenE). Both a free carboxylate and ketone moiety on the OSB side chain are required for potent inhibitory activity. OSB-AMS (4) is a competitive inhibitor of mtMenE with respect to ATP (Ki = 5.4 ± 0.1 nM) and a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to OSB (Ki = 11.2 ± 0.9 nM). These data are consistent with a bi uni uni bi ping-pong kinetic mechanism for these enzymes. In addition, OSB-AMS inhibits saMenE with
Kiapp of 22 ± 8 nM and ecMenE with
KiOSB=128±5nM. Putative active site residues, Arg-222, which may interact with the OSB aromatic carboxylate, and Ser-302, which may bind the OSB ketone oxygen, have been identified through computational docking of OSB-AMP with the unliganded crystal structure of saMenE. A pH-dependent interconversion of the free keto acid and lactol forms of the inhibitors is also described, along with implications for inhibitor design.
adenylation; inhibitors; docking; drug design; antibiotics
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme of the lysine-biosynthetic pathway, is a promising target for antibiotic development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis to 1.45 Å resolution of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant S. aureus is reported.
In recent years, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 22.214.171.124) has received considerable attention from both mechanistic and structural viewpoints. DHDPS is part of the diaminopimelate pathway leading to lysine, coupling (S)-aspartate-β-semialdehyde with pyruvate via a Schiff base to a conserved active-site lysine. In this paper, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, an important bacterial pathogen, are reported. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly from PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to beyond 1.45 Å resolution. The space group was P1 and the unit-cell parameters were a = 65.4, b = 67.6, c = 78.0 Å, α = 90.1, β = 68.9, γ = 72.3°. The crystal volume per protein weight (V
M) was 2.34 Å3 Da−1, with an estimated solvent content of 47% for four monomers per asymmetric unit. The structure of the enzyme will help to guide the design of novel therapeutics against the methicillin-resistant S. aureus pathogen.
antibiotics; antibiotic resistance; dihydrodipicolinate synthase; drug discovery; lysine biosynthesis; Staphylococcus aureus
We identified and characterized a methyl transfer activity of the toluate cis-dihydrodiol (4-methyl-3,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1,2-diol-1-carboxylic acid) dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0 towards toluene cis-dihydrodiol (3-methyl-4,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1,2-diol). When the purified enzyme from the recombinant Escherichia coli containing the xylL gene was incubated with toluene cis-dihydrodiol in the presence of NAD+, the end products differed depending on the presence of adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12). The enzyme yielded catechol in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, while it gave 3-methylcatechol in the absence of the cofactor. Adenosylcobalamin was transformed to methylcobalamin as a result of the enzyme reaction, which indicates that the methyl group of the substrate was transferred to adenosylcobalamin. Other derivatives of the cobalamin such as aquo (hydroxy)- and cyanocobalamin did not mediate the methyl transfer reaction. The dehydrogenation and methyl transfer reactions were assumed to occur concomitantly, and the methyl transfer reaction seemed to depend on the dehydrogenation. To our knowledge, the enzyme is the first dehydrogenase that shows a methyl transfer activity as well.
A novel dioxygenase from Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD (SadA) stereoselectively catalyzes the C3-hydroxylation of N-substituted branched-chain or aromatic L-amino acids, especially N-succinyl-L-leucine, coupled with the conversion of α-ketoglutarate to succinate and CO2. To elucidate the structural basis of the substrate specificity and stereoselective hydroxylation, we determined the crystal structures of the SadA.Zn(II) and SadA.Zn(II).α-KG complexes at 1.77 Å and 1.98 Å resolutions, respectively. SadA adopted a double-stranded β-helix fold at the core of the structure. In addition, an HXD/EXnH motif in the active site coordinated a Zn(II) as a substitute for Fe(II). The α-KG molecule also coordinated Zn(II) in a bidentate manner via its 1-carboxylate and 2-oxo groups. Based on the SadA.Zn(II).α-KG structure and mutation analyses, we constructed substrate-binding models with N-succinyl-L-leucine and N-succinyl-L-phenylalanine, which provided new insight into the substrate specificity. The results will be useful for the rational design of SadA variants aimed at the recognition of various N-succinyl L-amino acids.
The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis has been engineered by site-specific mutagenesis to facilitate crystallization at neutral pH. The wild-type enzyme crystallized only below pH 5, consistent with the observation of a carboxyl-carboxylate H bond in a crystal contact in the refined structure 2FJT. Based on that unliganded structure at 1.9 Å resolution, two different approaches were tested with the goal of producing a higher-pH crystal needed for inhibitor complexation and mechanistic studies. In one approach, Asp 19, which forms the growth-limiting dicarboxyl contact in wild-type triclinic crystals, was modified to Ala and Asn in hopes of relieving the acid-dependence of that crystal form. In the other approach, wild-type residues Met 18, Glu 25, and Asp 55 were (individually) changed to lysine to reduce the protein's excess negative charge in hopes of enabling growth of new, higher-pH forms. These 3 sites were selected based on their high solvent exposure and lack of intraprotein interactions. The D19A and D19N mutants had reduced solubility and did not crystallize. The other 3 mutants all crystallized, producing several new forms at neutral pH. One of these forms, with the D55K mutant, enabled a product complex at 1.6 Å resolution, structure 3GHX. This structure shows why the new crystal form required the mutation in order to grow at neutral pH. This approach could be useful in other cases where excess negative charge inhibits the crystallization of low-pI proteins.
crystal growth; crystal contact; crystal engineering; isoelectric point; mutation; structure; x-ray diffraction
The title compound, (CH6N)2[WS4], was synthesized by the reaction of ammonium tetrasulfidotungstate(VI) with aqueous methylamine. The title compound is isotypic with the corresponding Mo analogue (CH6N)2[MoS4], and its structure consists of a slightly distorted tetrahedral [WS4]2− dianion and two crystallographically independent methylammonium (MeNH3) cations, all of which are located on crystallographic mirror planes. The tetrasulfidotungstate anions are linked to the organic cations via hydrogen-bonding interactions.
The first structural and biophysical data on the folate biosynthesis pathway enzyme and drug target, 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (SaHPPK), from the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is presented. HPPK is the second essential enzyme in the pathway catalysing the pyrophosphoryl transfer from cofactor (ATP) to the substrate (6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin, HMDP). In-silico screening identified 8-mercaptoguanine which was shown to bind with an equilibrium dissociation constant, Kd, of ∼13 µM as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). An IC50 of ∼41 µM was determined by means of a luminescent kinase assay. In contrast to the biological substrate, the inhibitor has no requirement for magnesium or the ATP cofactor for competitive binding to the substrate site. The 1.65 Å resolution crystal structure of the inhibited complex showed that it binds in the pterin site and shares many of the key intermolecular interactions of the substrate. Chemical shift and 15N heteronuclear NMR measurements reveal that the fast motion of the pterin-binding loop (L2) is partially dampened in the SaHPPK/HMDP/α,β-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate (AMPCPP) ternary complex, but the ATP loop (L3) remains mobile on the µs-ms timescale. In contrast, for the SaHPPK/8-mercaptoguanine/AMPCPP ternary complex, the loop L2 becomes rigid on the fast timescale and the L3 loop also becomes more ordered – an observation that correlates with the large entropic penalty associated with inhibitor binding as revealed by ITC. NMR data, including 15N-1H residual dipolar coupling measurements, indicate that the sulfur atom in the inhibitor is important for stabilizing and restricting important motions of the L2 and L3 catalytic loops in the inhibited ternary complex. This work describes a comprehensive analysis of a new HPPK inhibitor, and may provide a foundation for the development of novel antimicrobials targeting the folate biosynthetic pathway.
The diaminopimelic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis has been suggested to provide attractive targets for the development of novel antibacterial drugs. Here we report the characterization of two enzymes from this pathway in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, utilizing structural biology, biochemistry and genetics. We show that tetrahydrodipicolinate N-succinyltransferase (DapD) from P. aeruginosa is specific for the L-stereoisomer of the amino substrate L-2-aminopimelate, and its D-enantiomer acts as a weak inhibitor. The crystal structures of this enzyme with L-2-aminopimelate and D-2-aminopimelate, respectively, reveal that both compounds bind at the same site of the enzyme. Comparison of the binding interactions of these ligands in the enzyme active site suggests misalignment of the amino group of D-2-aminopimelate for nucleophilic attack on the succinate moiety of the co-substrate succinyl-CoA as the structural basis of specificity and inhibition. P. aeruginosa mutants where the dapA gene had been deleted were viable and able to grow in a mouse lung infection model, suggesting that DapA is not an optimal target for drug development against this organism. Structure-based sequence alignments, based on the DapA crystal structure determined to 1.6 Å resolution revealed the presence of two homologues, PA0223 and PA4188, in P. aeruginosa that could substitute for DapA in the P. aeruginosa PAO1ΔdapA mutant. In vitro experiments using recombinant PA0223 protein could however not detect any DapA activity.
Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol) via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom β-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core β-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an “open-closed” mechanism involving a pocket of 8×8×15 Å dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer.
Aldehyde dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidation of aldehyde substrates to the corresponding carboxylic acids. Lactaldehyde dehydrogenase from E. coli (aldA gene product, P25553) is an NAD+-dependent enzyme implicated in the metabolism of L-fucose and L-rhamnose. During the heterologous expression and purification of taxadiene synthase from the Pacific yew, lactaldehyde dehydrogenase from E. coli was identified as a minor (≤ 5%) side product subsequent to its unexpected crystallization. Accordingly, we now report the serendipitous crystal structure determination of unliganded lactaldehyde dehydrogenase from E. coli determined by the technique of multiple isomorphous replacement using anomalous scattering at 2.2 Å... resolution. Additionally, we report the crystal structure of the ternary enzyme complex with products lactate and NADH at 2.1 Å... resolution, and the crystal structure of the enzyme complex with NADPH at 2.7 Å... resolution. The structure of the ternary complex reveals that the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor is disordered between two conformations: one with the ring positioned in the active site in the so-called “hydrolysis” conformation, and another with the ring extended out of the active site into the solvent region, designated the “out” conformation. This represents the first crystal structure of an aldehyde dehydrogenase-product complex. The active site pocket in which lactate binds is more constricted than that of medium-chain dehydrogenases such as the YdcW gene product of E. coli. The structure of the binary complex with NADPH reveals the first view of the structural basis of specificity for NADH: the negatively charged carboxylate group of E179 sterically and electrostatically destabilizes the binding of the 2′-phosphate group of NADPH, thereby accounting for the lack of enzyme activity with this cofactor.
protein crystallography; oxidoreductase; enzyme mechanism; cofactor; carbohydrate metabolism