A “simplex-centroid mixture design” was used to study the direct-compression properties of binary and ternary mixtures of chitin and two cellulosic direct-compression diluents. Native milled and fractioned (125–250 μm) crustacean chitin of lobster origin was blended with microcrystalline cellulose, MCC (Avicel® PH 102) and spray-dried lactose–cellulose, SDLC Cellactose® (composed of a spray-dried mixture of alpha-lactose monohydrate 75% and cellulose powder 25%). An instrumented single-punch tablet machine was used for tablet compactions. The flowability of the powder mixtures composed of a high percentage of chitin and SDLC was clearly improved. The fractioned pure chitin powder was easily compressed into tablets by using a magnesium stearate level of 0.1% (w/w) but, as the die lubricant level was 0.5% (w/w), the tablet strength collapsed dramatically. The tablets compressed from the binary mixtures of MCC and SDLC exhibited elevated mechanical strengths (>100 N) independent of the die lubricant level applied. In conclusion, fractioned chitin of crustacean origin can be used as an abundant direct-compression co-diluent with the established cellulosic excipients to modify the mechanical strength and, consequently, the disintegration of the tablets. Chitin of crustacean origin, however, is a lubrication-sensitive material, and this should be taken into account in formulating direct-compression tablets of it.
Cellactose®; chitin; direct compression; microcrystalline cellulose; simplex-centroid mixture design; tablets
This study evaluated the use of isothermal microcalorimetry (ITMC) to detect macrophage–nanoparticle interactions. Four different nanoparticle (NP) formulations were prepared: uncoated poly(isobutyl cyanoacrylate) (PIBCA), polysorbate-80-coated PIBCA, gelatin, and mannosylated gelatin NPs. Changes in NP formulations were aimed to either enhance or decrease macrophage–NP interactions via phagocytosis. Alveolar macrophages were cultured on glass slabs and inserted in the ITMC instrument. Thermal activities of the macrophages alone and after titration of 100 μL of NP suspensions were compared. The relative interactive coefficients of macrophage–NP interactions were calculated using the heat exchange observed after NP titration. Control experiments were performed using cytochalasin B (Cyto B), a known phagocytosis inhibitor. The results of NP titration showed that the total thermal activity produced by macrophages changed according to the NP formulation. Mannosylated gelatin NPs were associated with the highest heat exchange, 75.4 ± 7.5 J, and thus the highest relative interactive coefficient, 9,269 ± 630 M-1. Polysorbate-80-coated NPs were associated with the lowest heat exchange, 15.2 ± 3.4 J, and the lowest interactive coefficient, 890 ± 120 M-1. Cyto B inhibited macrophage response to NPs, indicating a connection between the thermal activity recorded and NP phagocytosis. These results are in agreement with flow cytometry results. ITMC is a valuable tool to monitor the biological responses to nano-sized dosage forms such as NPs. Since the thermal activity of macrophage–NP interactions differed according to the type of NPs used, ITMC may provide a method to better understand phagocytosis and further the development of colloidal dosage forms.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-010-9240-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
flow cytometry; isothermal microcalorimetry; macrophages; nanoparticles; phagocytosis
An ultrasound-assisted powder-coating technique was used to produce a homogeneous powder formulation of a low-dose active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The powdered particles of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC; Avicel® PH-200) were coated with a 4% m/V aqueous solution of riboflavin sodium phosphate, producing a uniform drug layer on the particle surfaces. It was possible to regulate the amount of API in the treated powder. The thickness of the API layer on the surface of the MCC particles increased near linearly as the number of coating cycles increased, allowing a precise control of the drug content. The tablets (n = 950) prepared from the coated powder showed significantly improved weight and content uniformity in comparison with the reference tablets compressed from a physical binary powder mixture. This was due to the coated formulation remaining uniform during the entire tabletting process, whereas the physical mixture of the powders was subject to segregation. In conclusion, the ultrasound-assisted technique presented here is an effective tool for homogeneous drug coating of powders of irregular particle shape and broad particle size distribution, improving content uniformity of low-dose API in tablets, and consequently, ensuring the safe delivery of a potent active substance to patients.
content uniformity; homogeneity; low-dose API; powder coating; ultrasound
Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl) tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms.
Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of 300 mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content. Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations.
Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F5 and F6 formulations of 300 mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics.
Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners (including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame) were selected. Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties.
Effervescent tablet; Ranitidine HCl; Fusion method; Direct compression method
Magnesium stearate (MS) is the most commonly used lubricant in pharmaceutical industry. During blending, MS particles form a thin layer on the surfaces of the excipient and drug particles prohibiting the bonding from forming between the particles. This hydrophobic layer decreases the tensile strength of tablets and prevents water from penetrating into the tablet restraining the disintegration and dissolution of the tablets. Although overlubrication of the powder mass during MS blending is a well-known problem, the lubricant distribution in tablets has traditionally been challenging to measure. There is currently no adequate analytical method to investigate this phenomenon. In this study, the distribution of MS in microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) tablets was investigated using three different blending scales. The crushing strength of the tablets was used as a secondary response, as its decrease is known to result from the overlubrication. In addition, coating of the MCC particles by MS in intact tablets was detected using Raman microscopic mapping. MS blending was more efficient in larger scales. Raman imaging was successfully applied to characterize MS distribution in MCC tablets despite low concentration of MS. The Raman method can provide highly valuable visual information about the proceeding of the MS blending process. However, the measuring set-up has to be carefully planned to establish reliable and reproducible results.
blending; lubricant; magnesium stearate; Raman spectroscopy; scale-up
The aim of this study was to prepare highly porous carrier particles by emulsion solvent evaporation and compare the loading capacity of these beads with two traditional carriers, sugar beads, and microcrystalline cellulose granules during an interactive mixing process. The porous carrier particles were prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation process using cellulose propionate as a binder, anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate, and ion exchange resins as a fillers, and polyethylene glycol as a pore inducer. Micronized furosemide or griseofulvin powder was mixed with the same volume of each carrier in an interactive mixing process. The tableting properties, drug loading per unit volume of carrier, content uniformity of the mixtures, and dissolution of the drugs from the mixtures were measured. The results showed that highly porous microcapsules with desirable hardness equivalent to that of sugar beads and MCC granules were successfully prepared. On average the loading capacity of the new carrier was 310% that of sugar beads and 320% that of MCC granules during an interactive mixing process with very good content uniformity. The tableting properties of the microcapsules were equivalent to that of microcrystalline cellulose granules, and the dissolution of the drugs from interactive mixtures prepared with the new carrier was equivalent to that of drug suspensions. This showed that the prepared microcapsule carrier could be used to improve the loading capacity during an interactive mixing and to prepare tablets by direct compression.
direct compression; emulsion solvent evaporation; interactive mixing; porous carrier
Interactions between particles are dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the interacting particles but it is also important to consider the manufacturing process. Blending active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with carrier is a critical stage that determines the blend homogeneity and is the first step towards obtaining the final quality of the powder blend. The aim of this work was to study parameters that influence the interactions between API and carrier in adhesive mixtures used in DPI and their effect on API dispersion. The study was done with fluticasone propionate blended with lactose ‘Lactohale 200’. The study was based on the influence of the operating conditions (speed, mixing time, resting steps during mixing), the size of the carrier and the storage conditions on the blend properties and on the API dispersion. The quality of the blends was examined by analysing the API content uniformity. Adhesion characteristics were evaluated by submitting mixtures to a sieving action by air depression with the Alpine air-jet sieve. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle fraction (FPF) was obtained using a Twin Stage Impinger; the FPF being defined as the mass percentage of API below 6.4 μm. For good dispersion and therefore good homogeneity of the API in the carrier particles, speed and powder blending time have to be sufficient, but not too long to prevent the appearance of static electricity, which is not favourable to homogeneity and stability. The FPF increases with the decrease in the carrier size. The storage conditions have also to be taken into consideration. Higher humidity favours the adhesion of API on the carrier and decreases the FPF.
adhesion; DPI performance; fluticasone propionate; operating parameters
Blending of powders is a crucial step in the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is often a powder that is blended with other powders (excipients) in order to produce tablets. The blending efficiency is influenced by several external factors, such as the desired degree of homogeneity and the required blending time, which mainly depend on the properties of the blended materials and on the geometry of the blender. This experimental study investigates the mixing behavior of acetyl salicylic acid as an API and α-lactose monohydrate as an excipient for different filling orders and filling levels in a blender. A multiple near-infrared probe setup on a laboratory-scale blender is used to observe the powder composition quasi-simultaneously and in-line in up to six different positions of the blender. Partial least squares regression modeling was used for a quantitative analysis of the powder compositions in the different measurement positions. The end point for the investigated mixtures and measurement positions was determined via moving block standard deviation. Observing blending in different positions helped to detect good and poor mixing positions inside the blender that are affected by convective and diffusive mixing.
blender geometry; multiprobe measurement; multivariate analysis; near-infrared spectroscopy; powder mixing dynamics; quantitative continuous monitoring
The purpose of this research was to evaluate β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as a vehicle, either singly or in blends with lactose (spray-dried or monohydrate), for preparing a meloxicam tablet. Aqueous solubility of meloxicam in presence of β-CD was investigated. The tablets were prepared by direct compression and wet granulation techniques. The powder blends and the granules were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index, total porosity, and drug content. The tablets were subjected to thickness, diameter, weight variation test, drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution studies. The effect of β-CD on the bioavailability of meloxicam was also investigated in human volunteers using a balanced 2-way crossover study. Phase-solubility studies indicated an AL-type diagram with inclusion complex of 1∶1 molar ratio. The powder blends and granules of all formulations showed satisfactory flow properties, compressibility, and drug content. All tablet formations prepared by direct compression or wet granulation showed acceptable mechanical properties. The dissolution rate of meloxicam was significantly enhanced by inclusion of β-CD in the formulations up to 30%. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, Ke, and area under the curve [AUC]0−∞) were significantly increased in presence of β-CD. These results suggest that β-CD would facilitate the preparation of meloxicam tablets with acceptable mechanical properties using the direct compression technique as there is no important difference between tablets prepared by direct compression and those prepared by wet granulation. Also, β-CD is particularly useful for improving the oral bioavailablity of meloxicam.
meloxicam; β-CD; tablet; solubility; bioavailability
The aim of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablet of cinnarizine. A combination of super disintegrants, i.e., sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and crosscarmellose sodium (CCS) were used along with camphor as a subliming material. An optimized concentration of camphor was added to aid the porosity of the tablet. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: Amount of SSG and CCS. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and polymer. IR spectroscopy showed that there is no interaction of drug with polymer. In the present study, direct compression was used to prepare the tablets. The powder mixtures were compressed into tablet using flat face multi punch tablet machine. Camphor was sublimed from the tablet by exposing the tablet to vacuum drier at 60°C for 12 hours. All the formulations were evaluated for their characteristics such as average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, dispersion time (DT), and dissolution rate. An optimized tablet formulation (F 9) was found to have good hardness of 3.30 ± 0.10 kg/cm2, wetting time of 42.33 ± 4.04 seconds, DT of 34.67 ± 1.53 seconds, and cumulative drug release of not less than 99% in 16 minutes.
Cinnarizine; contour plot; factorial design; orally disintegrating tablet; wetting time; water absorption ratio
The objective of this study was to evaluate near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic imaging as a tool to assess a pharmaceutical quality assurance problem—blend uniformity in the final dosage product. A system based on array detector technology was used to rapidly collect high-contrast NIR images of furosemide tablets. By varying the mixing, 5 grades of experimental tablets containing the same amount of furosemide and microcrystalline cellulose were produced, ranging from well blended to unblended. For comparison, these tablets were also analyzed by traditional NIR spectroscopy, and both approaches were used to evaluate drug product homogeneity. NIR spectral imaging was capable of clearly differentiating between each grade of blending, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The spatial distribution of the components was based on the variation or contrast in pixel intensity, which is due to the NIR spectral contribution to each pixel. The chemical nature of each pixel could be identified by the localized spectrum associated with each pixel. Both univariate and partial least squares (PLS) images were evaluated. In the suboptimal blends, the regions of heterogeneity were obvious by visual inspection of the images. A quantitative measure of blending was determined by calculating the standard deviation of the distribution of pixel intensities in the PLS score images. The percent standard deviation increased progressively from 11% to 240% from well blended to unblended tablets. The NIR spectral imaging system provides a rapid approach for acquiring spatial and spectral information on pharmaceuticals. The technique has potential for a variety of applications in product quality assurance and could affect the control of manufacturing processes.
NIR imaging; chemical imaging; NIR spectroscopy; blend uniformity; quality assurance
The dry-coated tablet with optimal lag time was designed to simulate the dosing time of drug administration according to the physiological needs. Different compositions of ethylcellulose (EC) powder with a coarse particle (167.5 μm) and several fine particles (<6 μm), respectively, were mixed to formulate the whole layer of the outer shell of dry-coated tablets. The formulations containing different weight ratios of coarse/fine particles of EC powders or 167.5 μm EC powder/excipient in the upper layer of the outer shell to influence the release behavior of sodium diclofenac from dry-coated tablet were also explored. The results indicate that sodium diclofenac released from all the dry-coated tablets exhibited an initial lag period, followed by a stage of rapid drug release. When the mixture of the coarse/fine particles of EC powders was incorporated into the whole layer, the lag time was almost the same. The outer shell broke into 2 halves to make a rapid drug release after the lag time, which belonged to the time-controlled disruption of release mechanism. When the lower layer in the outer shell was composed of 167.5 μm EC powder and the upper layer was formulated by mixing different weight ratios of 167.5 μm and 6 μm of EC powders, the drug release also exhibited a time-controlled disruption behavior. Its lag time might be freely modulated, depending on the amount of 6 μm EC powder added. Once different excipients were respectively incorporated into the upper layer of the outer shell, different release mechanisms were observed as follows: time-controlled explosion for Explotab, disruption for Avicel and spray-dried lactose, erosion for dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrate, and sigmoidal profile for hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.
micronized ethylcellulose; dry-coated tablet; outer layer; time-controlled dissolution; lag time
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nature of film formation on tablets with different compositions, using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and to measure film adhesion via the application of a novel “magnet probe test”. Three excipients, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), spray-dried lactose monohydrate, and dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, were individually blended with 0.5% magnesium stearate, as a lubricant, and 2.5% tetracycline HCl, as a fluorescent marker, and were compressed using a Carver press. Tablets were coated with a solution consisting of 7% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) phthalate (HP-55), and 0.5% cetyl alcohl in acetone and isopropanol (11:9). The nature of polymer interaction with the tablets and coating was evaluated using CLSM and a designed magnet probe test. CLSM images clearly showed coating efficiency, thickness, and uniformity of film formation, and the extent of drug migration into the film at the coating interfaces of tablets. Among the excipients, MCC demonstrated the best interface for both film formation and uniformity in thickness relative to lactose monohydrate and dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate. The detachment force of the coating layers from the tablet surfaces, as measured with the developed magnet probe test, was in the order of MCC>lactose monohydrate>dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate. It was also shown that the designed magnet probe test provides reliable and reproducible results when used for measurement of film adhesion and bonding strength.
Film coating; film formation; confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM); adhesion test; magnet probe test
Novel products were developed by combining freeze dried and conventionally dried broccoli sprouts powder with the commercially available cheese powder. Quality assessment of the blended products during the development process and of the final product was done by sensory analysis and estimation of total antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolics, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids. Freeze drying was more efficient in preserving the original nutritional and sensory characteristics of the dried broccoli sprouts. Blending of the samples including the blend with a least weight proportion of broccoli sprouts powder showed an improved content of healthy compounds. Based on chemical data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the blended cheese powder containing up to 20% freeze dried broccoli powder was an acceptable product.
Broccoli; Cheese; Antioxidant; Polyphenol; Carotenoid; Chlorophyll
The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force. In all cases, the tensile strength increases with raising tableting forces. The specific compaction force has a different influence. For isomalt alone the tensile strength is highest for tablets made from granules prepared at 2 kN/cm and 6 kN/cm and decreases at higher values, i.e., >10 kN/cm. Tensile strength of the blend tablets is almost one third lower compared to the strongest tablets of pure isomalt. Friability of pure isomalt tablets is above the limit. Disintegration time is longest when the tensile strength is at its maximum and decreases with higher porosity and lower tensile strengths. Isomalt proves to be suitable for tableting after roll compaction. Even though the capacity as a binder might not be as high as of other excipients, it is a further alternative for the formulation scientist.
isomalt; roll compaction; work hardening; recompression; compactibility
A near infrared (NIR) method able to directly quantify the active content in pharmaceutical powder blends used for manufacturing meloxicam tablets, without any sample preparation, was developed and fully validated. To develop calibration models for the assay of meloxicam in powder blends for tableting, the NIR reflectance spectra of different meloxicam powder blends prepared according to a calibration protocol was analysed using different preprocessing methods by partial last-square regression (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR).
The best calibration model was found when partial last-square regression (PLS) was used as regression algorithm in association with Smoothing-Savitsky as pre-processing spectrum method. The trueness, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy, linearity and range of application of the developed NIR method were validated according to the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) and Medicine European Agency (EMA) guidelines and found to be fit for its intended purpose.
Near Infrared Spectroscopy; Chemometrics; Meloxicam assay; Powder blends; Method validation
Lacidipine (LCDP) is a very low soluble and highly biovariable calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension. To increase its apparent solubility and to reduce its biovariability, solid dispersion fluid bed processing technology was explored, as it produces highly dispersible granules with a characteristic porous structure that enhances dispersibility, wettability, blend uniformity (by dissolving and spraying a solution of actives), flow ability and compressibility of granules for tableting and reducing variability by uniform drug-binder solution distribution on carrier molecules.
Materials and Methods:
Main object of this quality risk management (QRM) study is to provide a sophisticated “robust and rugged” Fluidized Bed Process (FBP) for the preparation of LCDP tablets with desired quality (stability) and performance (dissolution) by quality by design (QbD) concept.
Results and Conclusion:
This study is principally focusing on thorough mechanistic understanding of the FBP by which it is developed and scaled up with a knowledge of the critical risks involved in manufacturing process analyzed by risk assessment tools like: Qualitative Initial Risk-based Matrix Analysis (IRMA) and Quantitative Failure Mode Effective Analysis (FMEA) to identify and rank parameters with potential to have an impact on In Process/Finished Product Critical Quality Attributes (IP/FP CQAs). These Critical Process Parameters (CPPs) were further refined by DoE and MVDA to develop design space with Real Time Release Testing (RTRT) that leads to implementation of a control strategy to achieve consistent finished product quality at lab scale itself to prevent possible product failure at larger manufacturing scale.
Critical process parameter; critical quality attribute; failure mode effective analysis; fluidized bed process; quality by design; quality risk management; scale-up
The purpose of this study was to prepare sublingual tablets, containing the antiasthmatic drug ketotifen fumarate which suffers an extensive first-pass effect, using the fast-melt granulation technique. The powder mixtures containing the drug were agglomerated using a blend of polyethylene glycol 400 and 6000 as meltable hydrophilic binders. Granular mannitol or granular mannitol/sucrose mixture were used as fillers. A mechanical mixer was used to prepare the granules at 40°C. The method involved no water or organic solvents, which are used in conventional granulation, and hence no drying step was included, which saved time. Twelve formulations were prepared and characterized using official and non official tests. Three formulations showed the best results and were subjected to an ex vivo permeation study using excised chicken cheek pouches. The formulation F4I possessed the highest permeation coefficient due to the presence of the permeation enhancer (polyethylene glycol) in an amount which allowed maximum drug permeation, and was subjected to a pharmacokinetic study using rabbits as an animal model. The bioavailability of F4I was significantly higher than that of a commercially available dosage form (Zaditen® solution-Novartis Pharma-Egypt) (p > 0.05). Thus, fast-melt granulation allowed for rapid tablet disintegration and an enhanced permeation of the drug through the sublingual mucosa, resulting in increased bioavailabililty.
chicken pouches; fast-melt granulation; ketotifen fumarate; permeation; sublingual tablet; Zaditen®
The present study aimed to formulate orodispersible tablets of flutamide (FTM) to increase its bioavailability. Orodispersible tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using three different approaches namely; super-disintegration, effervescence and sublimation. Different combined approaches were proposed and evaluated to optimize tablet characteristics. Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) was used as the superdisintegrant. The prepared powder mixtures were subjected to both pre and post compression evaluation parameters including; IR spectroscopy, micromeritics properties, tablet hardness, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. IR studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and the excipients used except Ludipress. The results of micromeritics studies revealed that all formulations were of acceptable to good flowability. Tablet hardness and friability indicated good mechanical strength. Wetting and dispersion times decreased from 46 to 38 s by increasing the SSG concentration from 3.33 to 6.66% w/w in tablets prepared by superdisintegration method. The F8 formulation which was prepared by combined approaches of effervescence and superdisintegrant addition gave promising results for tablet disintegration and wetting times but failed to give faster dissolution rate. The incorporation of 1:5 solid dispersion of FTM: PEG 6000 instead of the pure drug in the same formulation increased the drug release rate from 73.12 to 96.99% after 15 min. This increase in the dissolution rate may be due to the amorphization of the drug during the solid dispersion preparation. The presence of the amorphous form of the drug was shown in the IR spectra.
Flutamide; Orodispersible tablets; Superdisintegrant-addition; Sublimation; Effervescence
This study investigated the effect of phase transformations of amorphous and deliquescent ingredients on catechin stability in green tea powder formulations. Blends of amorphous green tea and crystalline sucrose, citric acid, and/or ascorbic acid were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic water vapor sorption, water activity measurements, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after storage for up to 12 weeks at 0–75% relative humidity (RH) and 22 °C. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of green tea was reduced to below room temperature (<22 °C) at 68% RH. Dissolution of deliquescent ingredients commenced at RH values below deliquescence points in blends with amorphous green tea, and these blends had greater water uptake than predicted by an additive model of individual ingredient moisture sorption. Catechin degradation was affected by Tg of green tea powder and both dissolution and deliquescence of citric and ascorbic acids.
Catechins; water vapor sorption; phase behavior; chemical stability; deliquescence
Almost any process in life is accompanied by heat changes which can be monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both techniques are now established tools in fundamental research but over the last decade a clear tendency towards more problem‐driven applications is noted. This review aims at summarizing these problem‐oriented applications of microcalorimetry and the solutions both techniques can provide to problems in biotechnology. The biotechnological issues to which microcalorimetry has been successfully applied are as diverse as rational drug design, overcoming drug resistance, optimization of long‐term stability of proteins, estimation of the bioavailability of drugs, control of complex pharmaceutical products or the optimization of gene delivery efficiency. The main limitation of microcalorimetry, which is the relatively large amounts of sample necessary for analysis, is less important in the biotechnology sector which frequently uses large‐scale produced bulk products for analysis. The recently developed high‐throughput DSC and ITC microcalorimeters will additionally reduce the labour intensity of these techniques. Due to the precision of microcalorimetric analyses and the versatility of processes which can be studied, it is expected that ITC and DSC will soon be key technologies in biotechnological research.
Purpose: Rosuvastatin is a poorly water soluble drug and the rate of its oral absorption is often controlled by the dissolution rate in the gastrointestinal tract. Hence it is necessary to increase the solubility of the Rosuvastatin.
Methods: Several liquisolid tablets formulations containing various drug concentrations in liquid medication (ranging from 15% to 25% w/w) were prepared. The ratio of Avicel PH 102 (carrier) to Aerosil 200 (coating powder material) was kept 10, 20, 30. The prepared liquisolid systems were evaluated for their flow properties and possible drug-excipient interactions by Infrared spectra (IR) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X- ray powder diffraction (XRPD).
Results: The liquisolid system showed acceptable flow properties. The IR and DSC studies demonstrated that there is no significant interaction between the drug and excipients. The XRPD analysis confirmed formation of a solid solution inside the compact matrix. The tabletting properties of the liquisolid compacts were within the acceptable limits. Liquisolid compacts demonstrated significantly higher drug release rates than those of conventional and marketed tablet due to increasing wetting properties and surface area of the drug.
Conclusion: This study shows that liquisolid technique is a promising alternative for improvement of the dissolution rate of water insoluble drug.
Rosuvastatin calcium; Liquisolid compacts; Liquid load factor; Excipient ratio; Tablets; Dissolution rate
The potential of liquisolid systems to improve the dissolution properties of a water-insoluble agent (indomethacin) was the purpose of this survey. In this study, different formulations of liquisolid tablets using different co-solvents (non-volatile solvents) were prepared and the effect of several amounts of them on the dissolution behaviour of indomethacin was investigated. It is worth mentioning that the ratio of microcrystalline cellulose (carrier) to silica (coating powder material) was 20 in all formulations. To evaluate any interaction between indomethacin and the other components in liquisolid formulations, the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used. The results showed that the liquisolid formulations exhibited significantly higher drug dissolution rates in comparison with directly compressed tablet. The enhanced rate of indomethacin dissolution derived from liquisolid tablets was probably due to an increase in wetting properties and surface area of drug particles available for dissolution. Moreover, it was indicated that the fraction of molecularly dispersed drug (FM) in the liquid medication of liquisolid systems was directly proportional to their indomethacin dissolution rate (DR). An attempt was made to correlate the percentage drug dissolved in 10 min with the solubility of indomethacin in PEG 200 and glycerin. In conclusion, the liquisolid compacts technique can be a promising alternative for the formulation of water insoluble drugs, such as indomethacin into rapid release tablets.
Indomethacin; Liquisolid compacts; Dissolution rate; PEG 200; Glycerin
The purpose of the present study was to use the solid dispersion (SD) technique to improve the dissolution rates of indomethacin (IMC).
Materials and Methods
IMC solid dispersions in PVP K30 and isomalt (GALEN IQ 990) were prepared using the solvent evaporation technique and a hot melt method in weight ratios of 2, 10 and 30% (IMC:PVP). Solid dispersions and physical mixtures were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dissolution test. Physical stability tests were also performed at different temperatures and humidity conditions.
The dissolution rates of all solid dispersions were faster than those of their physical mixtures. In samples containing 2% or 10% of IMC, there were no significant differences between the dissolution rates of IMC in PVP and isomalt solid dispersions, but in samples containing 30% of IMC, the dissolution rates were higher in isomalt dispersions. The XRPD analysis showed no crystalline peaks in solid dispersions, indicating that IMC was amorphous within the carrier. The DSC results showed that an interaction occurred between the drug and the carrier in PVP and isomalt dispersions. Physical stability tests at severe storage conditions showed that the dissolution rate of IMC in PVP solid dispersions decreased, while the dissolution profile of IMC in isomalt solid dispersions did not change significantly.
It was shown that the dissolution rates of IMC in PVP and isomalt solid dispersions were substantially increased compared with their physical mixtures and pure IMC.
Dissolution enhancement; Indomethacin; Isomalt; PVP
The aim of this research was to describe the thermal behavior of β-sitosterol crystals in oil-suspensions with a focus on the role of water during heating. The suspensions were prepared by recrystallization in order to achieve a microcrystalline particle size. The structural changes together with the mechanical properties of the suspensions during heating were studied by using variable temperature X-ray powder diffractometry (VT-XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Hydrated β-sitosterol crystals in an oil-suspension, dehydrated, despite the composition of the suspensions, at low temperatures. At high β-sitosterol concentration, the monohydrate crystal form changed partially to a hemihydrated form, and when only a small amount of water was initially incorporated, the hemihydrate crystal form dehydrated to a mostly anhydrate crystal form. The released water, which was immiscible in the surrounding oil, caused the recrystallization of hydrated β-sitosterol during cooling. This procedure indicated a reversible dehydration process. Structural and thermal analysis of β-sitosterol crystals in suspensions, together with mechanical analysis made it possible to understand various physical changes during heating.
β-sitosterol; suspension; pseudopolymorphs; dehydration