The objective of this study was to assess the impact of certolizumab pegol (CZP) treatment on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), fatigue and other patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Patients with active RA (N = 982) were randomized 2:2:1 to subcutaneous CZP (400 mg at weeks 0, 2 and 4; followed by CZP 200 mg or 400 mg) plus methotrexate (MTX) every other week, or placebo (PBO) plus MTX. PRO assessments included HRQoL, fatigue, physical function, arthritis pain and disease activity. Adjusted mean changes from baseline in all PROs were obtained using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) applying last observation carried forward (LOCF) imputation. The proportion of patients achieving clinically meaningful improvements in each PRO was obtained using logistic regression and by applying non-responder imputation to missing values after rescue medication or withdrawal. The correlations between PRO responses and clinical responses were also assessed by tetrachoric correlation using non-responder imputation.
Patients treated with CZP plus MTX reported significant (P < 0.001), clinically meaningful improvements in HRQoL at the first assessment (week 12); reductions in fatigue, disease activity and pain and improvements in physical function were reported at week 1. In particular, CZP-treated patients reported improvements in mental health. Mean changes from baseline in the SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) at week 52 for CZP 200 mg and 400 mg plus MTX, and PBO plus MTX were 6.4, 6.4 and 2.1, respectively (P < 0.001). In addition, mental health and vitality scores in CZP-treated patients approached age- and gender-adjusted US population norms. Improvements in all PROs were sustained. Similar benefits were reported with both CZP doses. Changes in SF-36 MCS scores had the lowest correlation with disease activity scores (DAS28) and American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement (ACR20) response rates, while improvements in pain showed the highest correlation.
Treatment with CZP plus MTX resulted in rapid and sustained improvements in all PROs, indicating that the benefits of CZP extend beyond clinical efficacy endpoints into areas that are more relevant and meaningful for patients on a daily basis.
Objectives. To evaluate the association between improvements in physical function, fatigue and pain and improvements in productivity at work and at home in patients treated with certolizumab pegol (CZP) in combination with MTX.
Methods. Physical function, fatigue and pain were assessed in two CZP clinical trials (Rheumatoid Arthritis PreventIon of structural Damage 1 and 2) using the HAQ-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and Patient Assessment of Pain, with minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) defined as ≥0.22, ≥1 and ≥10 points, respectively. Work and home productivity were evaluated using the RA-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS-RA). The odds of achieving an HAQ-DI, FAS or pain ‘response’ at Week 12, defined as improvements ≥MCID, were compared between CZP and control groups. Improvements in productivity at Week 12 were compared between CZP-treated HAQ-DI, FAS or pain responders and non-responders.
Results. The odds of achieving improvements ≥MCID were five times higher for pain, and two to three times higher for physical function and fatigue, in patients receiving CZP vs control. Per month, responders reported significantly greater improvements in productivity at work and reduced interference of RA with their work productivity than non-responders. Responders also reported significantly greater improvements in productivity at home and participation in family, social and leisure activities.
Conclusions. This study demonstrated a clear association between patient-reported improvements in physical function, fatigue and pain, and improvements in productivity both at work and home.
Rheumatoid arthritis; Certolizumab pegol; Physical function; Fatigue; Pain; TNF; Work productivity; Household productivity; Daily activities
Biological agents, including TNF inhibitors, have revolutionized the treatment of RA in recent years. Certolizumab pegol (CZP) is a novel pegylated anti-TNF approved for the treatment of adult patients with moderately to severely active RA. This article provides an overview of three published clinical trials of CZP in RA in patients with active disease who have shown an inadequate response to DMARDs, including MTX: RA prevention of structural damage (RAPID) 1 and 2, which evaluated the efficacy and safety of CZP added to MTX when dosed every 2 weeks, and efficacy and safety of CZP – 4 weekly dosage in rheumatoid arthritis (FAST4WARD), which evaluated CZP monotherapy when dosed every 4 weeks. In the trials, CZP plus MTX or as monotherapy significantly improved the signs and symptoms of RA and RA disease activity, and CZP plus MTX significantly inhibited the progression of radiographic joint damage as early as Week 16 of the treatment. In addition, CZP treatment significantly improved patient-reported outcome measures, providing significant reductions in pain and fatigue and improvements in physical function as early as Week 1 of treatment; improvements in health-related quality of life were evident at the first assessment at Week 12. CZP treatment improved productivity at work, significantly reducing the number of days of missed work as well as the number of days with reduced productivity, and also increased productivity within the home and improved participation in family, social and leisure activities. CZP was generally well tolerated when used either as monotherapy or added to MTX; most adverse events were mild or moderate. Taken together, the results of these trials suggest that CZP is an effective new option for the treatment of RA.
Certolizumab pegol; Methotrexate; Monotherapy; Rheumatoid arthritis; TNF-α inhibitor
To examine the effect of certolizumab pegol (CZP) on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients with and without prior tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor exposure.
The ongoing phase III RAPID-PsA trial was double blind and placebo controlled to week 24. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo every 2 weeks or CZP 400 mg at weeks 0, 2, and 4, followed by either CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks or CZP 400 mg every 4 weeks. PRO measures evaluated were the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability index (DI), health status (measured by the Short Form 36 [SF-36] health survey), Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQOL), Fatigue Assessment Scale, patient assessment of pain (visual analog scale), and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Post hoc analyses of PROs in patients with and without prior TNF inhibitor exposure were conducted. Change from baseline for all PROs was analyzed for the randomized population using analysis of covariance with last observation carried forward imputation.
A total of 409 patients were randomized. Twenty percent had received a prior TNF inhibitor. Baseline demographics were similar between the treatment groups. At week 24, clinically meaningful differences in HAQ DI, SF-36, PsAQOL, fatigue, pain, and DLQI were observed in both CZP arms versus placebo (P < 0.001), irrespective of prior TNF inhibitor exposure. More CZP-treated patients reached SF-36 general population norms than placebo-treated patients.
Both CZP dosing schedules provided rapid improvements in PROs across multiple disease aspects in patients with PsA. The benefits of CZP treatment for health-related quality of life were seen across generic, PsA-specific, and dermatology-specific measures and were observed in patients regardless of prior TNF inhibitor exposure.
Objective: Certolizumab pegol (CZP) is a novel anti-TNF agent that is used for patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the efficacy of CZP in RA remains controversial. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of CZP in the treatment of RA patients. Methods: Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy and safe of CZP in the patients with active RA. The primary outcome was American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20), and secondary outcome were ACR50, ACR70, disease activity, patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and adverse events. A fixed-effect model or random-effect model was used to pool the estimates, depending on the absence or presence of heterogeneity among the included studies. Results: Nine RCTs with a total of 5228 patients were included in this meta-analysis, and all of the patients were administered CZP or placebo. The pooled results showed that CZP significantly improved the ACR20, ACR50, ACR70 response rates, and physical function. CZP was associated with a statistically significant reduction in Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, arthritis pain, and fatigue. Patients who received CZP treatment did not have a higher incidence of treatment-related adverse events, no matter in any intensity. Conclusions: CZP 200 or 400mg in the treatment of active RA significantly reduced the RA signs and symptoms, and improved physical function as compared with the placebo. More large-scale RCTs are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of CZP in the treatment of active RA.
Certolizumab pegol; rheumatoid arthritis; meta-analysis
To examine the safety and efficacy of 5-year administration of certolizumab pegol (CZP)+methotrexate (MTX) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Eligible patients from the Rheumatoid Arthritis Prevention of Structural Damage (RAPID)1 randomised controlled trial (RCT) were treated in open-label extension (OLE) with CZP 400 mg every other week (Q2W), reduced to 200 mg Q2W after ≥6 months, +MTX. Combined safety data from RCT and OLE are presented from initiation of CZP treatment to 12 wks post last visit in patients receiving ≥1 dose of CZP (Safety population, N=958). Efficacy data are presented to start of first site closure (wk 256 of CZP treatment: 52 wks in RCT+204 wks in OLE) for all patients randomised to receive CZP (intent-to-treat (ITT) population, N=783) and CZP patients who completed the 52 wk RCT and enrolled into OLE (wk 52 CZP completers, N=508). Disease Activity Score (DAS)28 (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)), American College of Rheumatology Criteria (ACR) 20/50/70, Health Assessment Questionnaire – Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and patient retention (Kaplan–Meier analysis) were assessed.
Overall event rate per 100 patient-years (ER) of adverse events (AEs) was 290.4, most frequently: urinary tract infections (ER=7.9), nasopharyngitis (ER=7.3) and upper respiratory tract infections (ER=7.3). ER of serious AEs was 20.3 (infections=5.9, malignancies=1.2). 21 patients (2.2%) experienced an AE resulting in death (incidence rate=0.6). At wk 256 of treatment, 55.3% of the CZP ITT population were estimated to remain on treatment (68.7% if solely withdrawals due to AE or lack of efficacy were considered). In wk 52 CZP completers and CZP ITT population, DAS28 (ESR) remission rates and improvements from baseline were sustained to wk 256.
CZP+MTX treatment provided a favourable risk-benefit profile over 5 years in patients with active RA. No new safety signals were identified.
DMARDs (biologic); Rheumatoid Arthritis; Anti-TNF
Certolizumab pegol is a PEGylated tumour necrosis factor inhibitor.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol versus placebo, plus methotrexate (MTX), in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
An international, multicentre, phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in active adult-onset RA. Patients (n = 619) were randomised 2:2:1 to subcutaneous certolizumab pegol (liquid formulation) 400 mg at weeks 0, 2 and 4 followed by 200 mg or 400 mg plus MTX, or placebo plus MTX, every 2 weeks for 24 weeks. The primary end point was ACR20 response at week 24. Secondary end points included ACR50 and ACR70 responses, change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score, ACR core set variables and physical function.
Significantly more patients in the certolizumab pegol 200 mg and 400 mg groups achieved an ACR20 response versus placebo (p⩽0.001); rates were 57.3%, 57.6% and 8.7%, respectively. Certolizumab pegol 200 and 400 mg also significantly inhibited radiographic progression; mean changes from baseline in mTSS at week 24 were 0.2 and −0.4, respectively, versus 1.2 for placebo (rank analysis p⩽0.01). Certolizumab pegol-treated patients reported rapid and significant improvements in physical function versus placebo; mean changes from baseline in HAQ-DI at week 24 were −0.50 and −0.50, respectively, versus −0.14 for placebo (p⩽0.001). Most adverse events were mild or moderate, with low incidence of withdrawals due to adverse events. Five patients developed tuberculosis.
Certolizumab pegol plus MTX was more efficacious than placebo plus MTX, rapidly and significantly improving signs and symptoms of RA and physical function and inhibiting radiographic progression.
Trial registration number:
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) after 24 weeks in RAPID-axSpA (NCT01087762), an ongoing Phase 3 trial in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA).
Patients with active axSpA were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo, CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or CZP 400 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W). In total 325 patients were randomised. Primary endpoint was ASAS20 (Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society 20) response at week 12. Secondary outcomes included change from baseline in Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) linear.
Baseline disease activity was similar between AS and nr-axSpA. At week 12, ASAS20 response rates were significantly higher in CZP 200 mg Q2W and CZP 400 mg Q4W arms versus placebo (57.7 and 63.6 vs 38.3, p≤0.004). At week 24, combined CZP arms showed significant (p<0.001) differences in change from baseline versus placebo in BASFI (−2.28 vs −0.40), BASDAI (−3.05 vs −1.05), and BASMI (−0.52 vs −0.07). Improvements were observed as early as week 1. Similar improvements were reported with CZP versus placebo in both AS and nr-axSpA subpopulations. Adverse events were reported in 70.4% vs 62.6%, and serious adverse events in 4.7% vs 4.7% of All CZP versus placebo groups. No deaths or malignancies were reported.
CZP rapidly reduced the signs and symptoms of axSpA, with no new safety signals observed compared to the safety profile of CZP in RA. Similar improvements were observed across CZP dosing regimens, and in AS and nr-axSpA patients.
Immunotherapy has markedly improved treatment outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonists, such as infliximab (IFX), etanercept (ETN), adalimumab (ADA), golimumab (GOLI) and certolizumab pegol (CZP) have been widely used for the treatment of RA. IFX provides significant, clinically relevant improvement in physical function and the quality of life, inhibits progressive joint damage and sustains improvement in the signs and symptoms of patients with RA. ETN is effective and safe for patients with RA. Combination therapy with ETN plus methotrexate (MTX) reduces disease activity, decreases total joint score progression, slows the pace of joint destruction and improves function more effectively compared to any of the monotherapies. ADA with or without MTX also relieves the signs and symptoms of RA. CZP and GOLI expand the therapeutic schedule for patients with RA. The TNF-α inhibitors have similar efficacy, but distinct clinical pharmacokinetic and -dynamic properties. The common adverse events of these TNF-α antagonists include adverse reactions, infections and injection-site reaction. Additionally, these adverse events are mostly mild or moderate and their incidence is low. Certain patients exhibit a lack of response to anti-TNF-α therapies. Some patients may discontinue the initial drug and switch to a second anti-TNF-α agent. The shortage of clinical response to one agent may not predict deficiency of response to another. This review mainly addresses the latest developments of these biological agents in the treatment of RA.
rheumatoid arthritis; immunotherapy; biological agent
The novel arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS) was developed to estimate patient productivity limitations associated with arthritis within and outside the home, which is an unmet need in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The WPS has been validated in rheumatoid arthritis. This report assesses the discriminant validity, responsiveness and reliability of the WPS in adult-onset PsA.
Psychometric properties were assessed using data from the RAPID-PsA trial (NCT01087788) investigating certolizumab pegol (CZP) efficacy and safety in PsA. WPS was completed at baseline and every 4 weeks until Week 24. Validity was evaluated at baseline via known-groups defined using first and third quartiles of patients’ Disease Activity Score 28 based on C-reactive protein (DAS28(CRP)), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Short Form-36 (SF-36) items and PsA Quality of Life (PsAQoL) scores. Responsiveness and reliability were assessed by comparing WPS mean changes at Week 12 in American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR20) or HAQ-DI Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) 0.3 responders versus non-responders, as well as using standardized response means (SRM). All comparisons were conducted on the observed cases in the Randomized Set, regardless of the randomization group, using a non-parametric bootstrap-t method.
Compared with patients with a better health state, patients with a worse health state had on average 2 to 6 times more household work days lost, more days with reduced household productivity, more days missed of family/social/leisure activities, more days with outside help hired and a significantly higher interference of arthritis per month. Among employed patients, those with a worse health state had 2 to 4 times more workplace days lost, more days with patient workplace productivity reduced, and a significantly higher interference of arthritis on patient workplace productivity versus patients with a better health state. WPS was also responsive to clinical changes, with responders having significantly larger improvements at Week 12 in WPS scores versus non-responders. The effect sizes for changes in productivity in ACR20 or HAQ-DI MCID responders were moderate (0.5 < SRM < 0.8) or small.
These analyses demonstrate the validity, responsiveness and reliability of the WPS, as an instrument for the measurement of patient productivity within and outside the home in an adult-onset PsA population.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) after 24 weeks in RAPID-PsA (NCT01087788), an ongoing Phase 3 trial in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA).
Patients were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo, 200 mg CZP every 2 weeks (Q2W) or 400 mg CZP every 4 weeks (Q4W). Patients could have had exposure to one previous tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy. Primary endpoints were American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 12 and modified Total Sharp Score change from baseline at week 24. Secondary endpoints included; Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria (PsARC) score, Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, Leeds Enthesitis Index, Leeds Dactylitis Index, and Modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index.
Of 409 patients randomised, 368 completed 24 weeks of treatment. ACR20 response was significantly greater in CZP 200 mg Q2W and 400 mg Q4W-treated patients than placebo (58.0% and 51.9% vs 24.3% (p<0.001)) at week 12, with improvements observed by week 1. There was a statistically significant improvement in physical function from baseline, measured by HAQ-DI in CZP patients compared with placebo (−0.50 vs −0.19, p<0.001) and more patients treated with CZP 200 mg Q2W and CZP 400 mg achieved an improvement in PsARC at week 24 than placebo (78.3% and 77.0% vs 33.1% (p<0.001)). Sustained improvements were observed in psoriatic skin involvement, enthesitis, dactylitis and nail disease. Higher ACR20 response with CZP was independent of prior TNF inhibitor exposure. No new safety signals were observed.
Rapid improvements in the signs and symptoms of PsA, including joints, skin, enthesitis, dactylitis and nail disease were observed across both CZP dosing regimens.
Anti-TNF; Treatment; Psoriatic Arthritis
Objective. To investigate the effect of tocilizumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in RA patients with inadequate responses to TNF inhibitors (TNFis).
Methods. In a Phase III randomized controlled trial, 489 patients received 4 or 8 mg/kg tocilizumab or placebo every 4 weeks plus MTX for 24 weeks. Mean changes from baseline over time and proportions of patients reporting improvements greater than or equal to minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) in PROs were analyzed.
Results. At week 24, 8 mg/kg resulted in significantly greater improvements vs placebo in pain, global assessment of disease activity (P = 0.001), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI; P < 0.0001), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (P = 0.0150) and Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36 v2) Physical Component Summary (PCS; P = 0.0003) scores, all greater than MCID; 4 mg/kg resulted in greater improvements in pain (P = 0.0100), HAQ-DI (P = 0.0030) and SF-36 PCS (P = 0.0020) scores. Tocilizumab-associated improvements were evident as early as week 2. At week 24, more tocilizumab-treated than control patients reported improvements greater than or equal to MCID in SF-36 domain scores and related PROs (50.9–84.9% vs 35.0–51.7%) and achieved ACR50 responses and/or Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) remission with PRO improvements greater than or equal to MCID (36.2–51.2% vs 10–20.7% and 10.7–37.5% vs 0.0–3.4%, respectively).
Conclusion. Tocilizumab treatment in patients with inadequate responses to TNFis resulted in rapid and sustained improvements in multiple PROs that were statistically significant and clinically meaningful, consistent with previous efficacy reports.
Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT00106522.
rheumatoid arthritis; tocilizumab; health-related quality of life; patient-reported outcomes; randomized controlled trial
Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Treatment with TNFα inhibitors reduces disease activity and improves outcomes for patients with RA. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol 400 mg, a novel, poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated, Fc-free TNFα inhibitor, as monotherapy in patients with active RA.
In this 24-week, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 220 patients previously failing ⩾1 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) were randomised 1:1 to receive subcutaneous certolizumab pegol 400 mg (n = 111) or placebo (n = 109) every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was 20% improvement according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR20) at week 24. Secondary endpoints included ACR50/70 response, ACR component scores, 28-joint Disease Activity Score Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate 3 (DAS28(ESR)3), patient-reported outcomes (including physical function, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pain and fatigue) and safety.
At week 24, the ACR20 response rates were 45.5% for certolizumab pegol 400 mg every 4 weeks vs 9.3% for placebo (p<0.001). Differences for certolizumab pegol vs placebo in the ACR20 response were statistically significant as early as week 1 through to week 24 (p<0.001). Significant improvements in ACR50, ACR components, DAS28(ESR)3 and all patient-reported outcomes were also observed early with certolizumab pegol and were sustained throughout the study. Most adverse events were mild or moderate and no deaths or cases of tuberculosis were reported.
Treatment with certolizumab pegol 400 mg monotherapy every 4 weeks effectively reduced the signs and symptoms of active RA in patients previously failing ⩾1 DMARD compared with placebo, and demonstrated an acceptable safety profile.
Trial registration number:
To evaluate the effect of certolizumab pegol (CZP) on productivity outside and within the home, and on participation in family, social and leisure activities in adult patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA).
RAPID-PsA (NCT01087788) is a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 409 patients with active PsA were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo, CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or CZP 400 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W). The arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS) assessed the impact of PsA on paid work and household productivity, and participation in social activities during the preceding month. WPS responses were compared between treatment arms using a non-parametric bootstrap-t method.
At baseline, 56.6%, 60.1% and 61.5% of placebo, CZP 200 mg Q2W and CZP 400 mg Q4W patients were employed. By week 24, employed CZP patients reported an average of 1.0–1.8 and 3.0–3.9 fewer days of absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively, per month compared with 1.0 and 0.3 fewer days for placebo patients (p<0.05). Within the home, by week 24, CZP patients reported an average of 3.0–3.5 household work days gained per month versus 1.0 day for placebo (p<0.05). CZP patients also reported fewer days with reduced household productivity or days lost for participation in family, social and leisure activities. Improvements with CZP were seen as early as week 4 and continued to week 24.
CZP treatment significantly improved productivity at paid work and within the home, and resulted in greater participation in social activities for PsA patients.
Trial registration number
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthropathy associated with psoriasis (PsO). PsA could be considered an enthesal disease because of the link between mechanical stress (entheses) and immunologically active tissue (synovium). Evidence of efficacy of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is supported by reduction of histological vascularity and immune cell infiltrates in synovial tissue after treatment. Certolizumab pegol (CZP) is a polyethylene glycolylated (PEGylated) Fab’ fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds and neutralizes human TNF-α. The PEG moiety of the Fab fragment, markedly increases the half-life of CZP and confers to the drug a unique structure that differs from the other anti-TNF-α agents tested for the treatment of Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, axial spondyloarthritis, nonradiographic spondyloarthritis, PsO, and PsA. In contrast to other anti-TNF-α agents, CZP did not mediate increased levels of apoptosis, suggesting that these mechanisms are not essential for the anti-TNF-α efficacy in Crohn’s disease. As CZP, infliximab, and adalimumab, but not etanercept, almost completely inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1 beta release from monocytes, this cytokine-production inhibition may be relevant for drug efficacy. Due to these characteristics, it has been demonstrated in clinical studies that CZP effectively improves signs and symptoms of arthritis and physical function and skin manifestations of PsO, with a safety profile similar to rheumatoid arthritis. This drug can be considered as a valid treatment in patients affected by PsA. The efficacy and tolerability profiles suggest CZP as a suitable antipsoriatic drug in the treatment of PsA.
psoriatic arthritis; certolizumab pegol; biological therapies; anti-TNF
To compare biologics as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in terms of patient reported outcomes (PROs) in RA patients with an inadequate response to conventional DMARDs (DMARD-IR).
With a systematic literature review 17 RCTs were identified that evaluated adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, abatacept, anakinra or tocilizumab. Treatment effects in terms of pain (0-100 mm), patient’s global assessment of disease activity (PGA; 0-100 mm), Health Assessment-Questionnaire (HAQ) disability index (DI; 0–3), and the physical component summary (PCS) of the SF36 Health Survey (0–100) at 24 weeks were combined by means of Bayesian network meta-analyses.
With tocilizumab monotherapy, greater improvements in pain (difference = -11.1; (95% Credible Interval -21.3, -0.1)) and PGA (-10.3 (-20.4, 0.8)) were observed than with aTNF monotherapy. Tocilizumab was at least as efficacious as aTNF in HAQ-DI improvements (-0.16; (-0.37, 0.05)). aTNF + MTX (-17.9 (-23.1, -13.0) & -19.1 (-24.2, -14.4)), abatacept + MTX (-23.0 (-47.3, 1. 5) & -13.6 (-28.4, 2.0)) and tocilizumab + MTX (-16.0 (-26.3, -6.3) & -15.1 (-25.1, -5.7)) showed comparable reductions in pain and PGA relative to MTX. Efficacy of anakinra + MTX was much smaller as compared to other biologics. The greatest improvements in HAQ-DI relative to MTX were observed with aTNF + MTX (-0.30 (-0.37, -0.22)) and tocilizumab + MTX (-0.27 (-0.42, -0.12)), followed by abatacept + MTX (-0.21 (-0.37, -0.05)) and anakinra + MTX (-0.11 (-0.26, 0.05)). The improvements in SF36-PCS with abatacept + MTX, aTNF + MTX and tocilizumab + MTX were comparable. There is a >90% probability that aTNF + MTX results in a greater improvement in pain (-12.4), PGA (-16.1) and HAQ-DI (-0.21) than aTNF as monotherapy. Efficacy of tocilizumab + MTX showed comparable improvements in PROs as tocilizumab monotherapy.
Based on a network meta-analysis involving indirect comparison of trial findings, the following observations were made for DMARD-IR patients. In monotherapy, tocilizumab was associated with a greater improvement in pain and self-reported disease activity than aTNF, and was at least as efficacious regarding functional ability. The improvements in PROs with aTNF, abatacept and tocilizumab in combination with MTX were comparable. Improvements in PROs with tocilizumab as monotherapy were similar to that of tocilizumab + MTX, whereas aTNF as monotherapy was likely to be less efficacious than aTNF + MTX.
Rheumatoid arthritis; Biologics; Patient reported outcomes; Network meta-analysis; Indirect comparison
To evaluate the efficacy of certolizumab pegol (CZP) in improving endoscopic lesions in patients with active ileocolonic Crohn's disease (CD).
This phase IIIB multicentre open-label clinical trial enrolled 89 adult patients with active endoscopic disease (ulceration in ≥2 intestinal segments with a Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) score ≥8 points). Patients received subcutaneous CZP 400 mg at weeks 0, 2 and 4 and every 4 weeks up to week 52. Endoscopic evaluations were performed at weeks 0, 10 and 54. The primary outcome was mean change in CDEIS score at week 10; secondary outcome measures included endoscopic response (decrease in CDEIS score >5 points), remission (CDEIS score <6), complete remission (CDEIS score <3) and mucosal healing (no ulcer) at weeks 10 and 54.
In the intention-to-treat population (n=89) the mean±SD CDEIS score was 14.5±5.3 at baseline; the mean decrease in CDEIS score at week 10 was 5.7 (95% CI 4.6 to 6.8, p<0.0001). Rates of endoscopic response, endoscopic remission, complete endoscopic remission and mucosal healing at week 10 were 54%, 37%, 10% and 4%, respectively. At week 54 the corresponding rates were 49%, 27%, 14% and 8%, respectively. The safety profile was consistent with that of previous CZP trials.
Following CZP treatment in patients with active CD, endoscopic lesions were improved as shown by the decrease in mean CDEIS score and by endoscopic response and remission rates. These benefits were achieved as early as week 10 and were generally maintained through week 54.
Clinical Trial Registration Number
Certolizumab pegol; mucosal healing; endoscopic response; Crohn's disease; anti-TNF agent
Patient reported outcomes (PROs) are especially useful in assessing treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since they measure dimensions of health-related quality of life that cannot be captured using strictly objective physiological measures. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of combination etanercept and methotrexate (ETN + MTX) versus combination synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and methotrexate (DMARD + MTX) on PRO measures among RA patients from the Asia-Pacific region, a population not widely studied to date. Patients with established moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to methotrexate were studied.
Patients were randomized to either ETN + MTX (N = 197) or DMARD + MTX (N = 103) in an open-label, active-comparator, multicenter study, with PRO measures designed as prospective secondary endpoints. The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale (FACIT-Fatigue), Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health (WPAI:GH) were used.
Significantly greater improvements were noted for the ETN + MTX group at week16 for HAQ mean scores and for proportion of patients achieving HAQ score ≤ 0.5, compared to patients in the DMARD + MTX group. SF-36 Summary Scores for physical and mental components and for 6 of 8 health domains showed significantly greater improvements at week16 for the ETN + MTX group; only scores for physical functioning and role-emotional domains did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms. Greater improvements at week16 were noted for the ETN + MTX group for FACIT-Fatigue, HADS, and WPAI:GH mean scores.
Combination therapy using ETN + MTX demonstrated superior improvements using a comprehensive set of PRO measures, compared to combination therapy with usual standard of care DMARDs plus MTX in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis from the Asia-Pacific region.
clintrials.gov # NCT00422227
Patient reported outcomes; Etanercept; Rheumatoid arthritis; Asia-Pacific; Health outcomes assessments
To report the long-term safety data of certolizumab pegol (CZP) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) accumulated as of 30 November 2011.
Data from 10 completed randomised controlled trials (RCT) of CZP in RA and several open-label extensions (OLE) were pooled across all doses. Reported adverse events (AE) occurred between the first dose and 84 days after the last dose. All deaths, serious infectious events (SIE) and malignancies were reviewed by external experts, classified according to predefined rules, and validated by an external steering committee. Incidence rates (IR) and event rates (ER) per 100 patient-years (PY) are presented.
4049 RA patients who received CZP were included in the safety pooling; total exposure 9277 PY, mean exposure 2.1 years (range 0.04–7.6). SIE, most frequently pneumonia (IR 0.73/100 PY), were the most common serious AE, occurring more frequently in CZP compared to placebo-treated patients in RCT (IR 5.61/100 PY vs 1.35/100 PY, odds ratio (OR) 4.35, 95% CI 0.65 to 29.30). SIE rates were lower in the CZP-treated population including OLE (ER 4.33/100 PY). 44 patients developed tuberculosis (IR 0.47/100 PY), 39 from high endemic regions. 58 deaths occurred in CZP-exposed patients (IR 0.63/100 PY) and 70 developed malignancies excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (IR 0.76/100 PY), including five lymphomas (IR 0.05/100 PY).
No new or unexpected safety signals associated with CZP emerged in this updated long-term safety analysis. While SIE rates were higher for CZP than for placebo in RCT, the rate decreased with continued exposure to CZP. These rates are consistent with data previously reported for CZP and other tumour necrosis factor inhibitors.
Anti-TNF; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Infections; Tuberculosis
The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy in terms of Health Assessment Questionnaire change from baseline (HAQ CFB), 50% improvement in American College of Rheumatology criterion (ACR-50) and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) defined remission (< 2.6) between abatacept and other biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who have inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX-IR).
A systematic literature review identified controlled trials investigating the efficacy of abatacept (three studies), etanercept (two studies), infliximab (two), adalimumab (two), certolizumab pegol (two) ritixumab (three), and tocilizumab (two) in MTX-IR patients with RA. The clinical trials included in this analysis were similar with respect to trial design, baseline patient characteristics and background therapy (MTX). The key clinical endpoints of interest were HAQ CFB, ACR-50 and DAS28 < 2.6 measured at 24 and 52 weeks. The results were analysed using network meta-analysis methods that enabled calculation of an estimate for expected relative effect of comparative treatments. Analysis results were expressed as the difference in HAQ CFB score and odds ratio (OR) of achieving an ACR-50 and DAS28 response and associated 95% credible intervals (CrI).
The analysis of HAQ CFB at 24 weeks and 52 weeks showed that abatacept in combination with MTX is expected to be more efficacious than MTX monotherapy and is expected to show a comparable efficacy relative to other biologic DMARDs in combination with MTX. Further, abatacept showed comparable ACR-50 and DAS28 < 2.6 response rates with other biologic DMARDs at 24 and 52 weeks, except for ACR-50 compared to certolizumab pegol at 52 weeks and for DAS28 < 2.6 compared to tocilizumab at 24 weeks. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the findings.
Abatacept in combination with MTX is expected to result in a comparable change from baseline in HAQ score and comparable ACR-50 and DAS28 < 2.6 response rates in MTX-IR patients compared to other approved biologic agents.
abatacept; rheumatoid arthritis; biologic DMARDs; network meta-analysis; health assessment questionnaire
The ACR hybrid (a modified mean percent response to treatment) was officially recommended by the ACR as a revision to ACR20/50/70 scores but has not been tested in clinical trials. We performed a post hoc analysis of a phase III study of certolizumab pegol (RAPID 1) using the ACR hybrid.
Patients with active RA were randomized to certolizumab pegol (200 mg or 400 mg every other week) plus methotrexate or placebo plus methotrexate. ACR hybrid scores were compared with ACR20/50/70 outcomes.
Differences between active treatment and placebo were significant throughout the study using the ACR20 and ACR hybrid outcomes. In the certolizumab pegol 200 mg group, the median ACR hybrid score at Week 52 (LOCF) was 49.99. 258/392 (65.8%) and 172/392 (43.9%) patients had ACR20 and ACR50 responses, respectively. An additional 55 (14.0%) and 59 (15.1%) patients had mean improvements in ACR core measures of ≥20% and ≥50%, respectively, and therefore had positive ACR hybrid scores, despite lacking ACR20 and ACR50 responses, respectively. In the placebo group, median ACR hybrid scores were <10 at most time points; unlike other measures, the ACR hybrid measure indicated worsening scores for many patients.
ACR hybrid analysis had greater sensitivity than traditional ACR20/50/70 criteria, demonstrating improvements in ACR20 nonresponders treated with certolizumab pegol. Negligible benefit was observed with placebo using ACR hybrid analysis.
To determine the prognostic significance of data collected early after starting certolizumab pegol (CZP) to predict low disease activity (LDA) at Week 52.
Data through Week 12 from 703 CZP-treated patients in the RA PreventIon of structural Damage (RAPID 1) trial were used as variables to predict LDA (DAS28 [ESR] ≤3.2) at Week 52. We identified variables, developed prediction models using classification trees, and tested performance using training and testing datasets. Additional prediction models were constructed using CDAI and an alternate outcome definition (composite of LDA or ACR50).
Using Week 6 and 12 data and across several different prediction models, response (LDA) and nonresponse at 1 year was predicted with relatively high accuracy (70–90%) for most patients. The best performing model predicting nonresponse by 12 weeks was 90% accurate and applied to 46% of the population. Model accuracy for predicted responders (30% of the RAPID1 population) was 74%. The area under the receiver operator curve was 0.76. Depending on the desired certainty of prediction at 12 weeks, ~12–24% of patients required >12 weeks of treatment to be accurately classified. CDAI-based models, and those evaluating the composite outcome (LDA or ACR50), achieved comparable accuracy.
We could accurately predict within 12 weeks of starting CZP whether most established RA patients with high baseline disease activity would likely achieve/not achieve LDA at 1 year. Decision trees may be useful to guide prospective management for RA patients treated with CZP and other biologics.
To report the effect of different imputation methodologies on the assessment of radiographic progression in clinical trials.
The 216-week RAPID-psoriatic arthritis (PsA) (NCT01087788) trial of certolizumab pegol (CZP) in patients with active PsA was double-blind and placebo-controlled until week 24. A primary end point was change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score(s) (mTSS). Prespecified imputation methodology in patients with fewer than two analysable mTSS used minimum observed baseline score for missing baseline values and maximum observed week 24 score for missing week 24 values. Post hoc analyses used alternative methods of imputation in patients with fewer than two analysable mTSS. mTSS non-progressors were defined as patients with ≤0 (predefined) or ≤0.5 (post hoc) change in mTSS from baseline to week 24. Baseline mTSS and C-reactive protein levels as predictors of radiographic progression were investigated.
409 patients were randomised. Baseline demographics were similar between groups. Prespecified imputation analysis inappropriately overestimated radiographic progression (least squares mean placebo, 28.9; CZP, 18.3; p≥0.05). Multiple post hoc analyses demonstrated that CZP inhibited radiographic progression compared with placebo, particularly in patients with high baseline mTSS and C-reactive protein levels. mTSS non-progression rate was higher in CZP than placebo groups in all analyses.
Inappropriate prespecified imputation methodology resulted in an unrealistic assessment of progression in all arms. Methodologies for imputing missing radiographic data can greatly affect assessment and reporting of mTSS progression.
Anti-TNF; Psoriatic Arthritis; Outcomes research
The axial spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that predominantly affect the axial joints. This group includes ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthropathy. While the pathogenesis of axial spondyloarthropathies is not clear, immunologically active tissues primarily include the entheses, ie, the areas where ligaments, tendons, and joint capsules attach to bone and to the annulus fibrosis at the vertebrae. One of the major mediators of the immune response in this group of diseases is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). Blockade of TNFα results in reduced vascularity and inflammatory cell infiltration in the synovial tissues of affected joints. Certolizumab pegol (CZP) is an Fc-free, PEGylated anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody. CZP has unique properties that differ from other available TNFα inhibitors by virtue of its lack of an Fc region, which minimizes potential Fc-mediated effects, and its PEGylation, which improves drug pharmacokinetics and bioavailability. It has been shown in clinical trials that CZP improves patient outcomes and reduces inflammation in the sacroiliac joints and spine in both ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthropathies. These data support CZP as a treatment option for axial spondyloarthropathies.
axial spondyloarthropathy; certolizumab pegol; anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha; therapy
Background and Objectives
Five-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-blockers (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol and golimumab) are available for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Only few clinical trials compare one TNF-blocker to another. Hence, a systematic review is required to indirectly compare the substances. The aim of our study is to estimate the efficacy and the safety of TNF-blockers in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and indirectly compare all five currently available blockers by combining the results from included randomized clinical trials (RCT).
A systematic literature review was conducted using databases including: MEDLINE, SCOPUS (including EMBASE), Cochrane library and electronic search alerts. Only articles reporting double-blind RCTs of TNF-blockers vs. placebo, with or without concomitant methotrexate (MTX), in treatment of RA were selected. Data collected were information of patients, interventions, controls, outcomes, study methods and eventual sources of bias.
Forty-one articles reporting on 26 RCTs were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Five RCTs studied infliximab, seven etanercept, eight adalimumab, three golimumab and three certolizumab. TNF-blockers were more efficacious than placebo at all time points but were comparable to MTX. TNF-blocker and MTX combination was superior to either MTX or TNF-blocker alone. Increasing doses did not improve the efficacy. TNF-blockers were relatively safe compared to either MTX or placebo.
No single substance clearly rose above others in efficacy, but the results of the safety analyses suggest that etanercept might be the safest alternative. Interestingly, MTX performs nearly identically considering both efficacy and safety aspects with a margin of costs.