Meta-analysis of case-control genome wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes.
We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population-based samples.
Genotypes and anthropometric traits were available in up to 31 083 adults from the Fenland, EPIC-Norfolk, Whitehall II, Ely and Hertfordshire studies and in 2 042 children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study. In each study, we tested associations of rs4712652 (near-PRL), rs10508503 (near-PTER), rs1424233 (near-MAF) and rs1805081 (NPC1), or proxy variants (r2>0.8), with the odds of being overweight and obese, as well as with BMI, percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). Associations were adjusted for sex, age and age2 in adults and for sex, age, age-group, country and maturity in children and adolescents. Summary statistics were combined using fixed effects meta-analysis methods.
We had 80% power to detect ORs of 1.046 to 1.092 for overweight and 1.067 to 1.136 for obesity. Variants near PRL, PTER and MAF were not associated with the odds of being overweight or obese, or with BMI, %BF or WC after meta-analysis (P > 0.15). The NPC1 variant rs1805081 showed some evidence of association with %BF (beta=0.013 SD/allele, P =0.040), but not with any of the remaining obesity-related traits (P >0.3).
Overall, these variants, which were identified in a GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity, do not seem to influence obesity-related traits in the general population.
Obesity-susceptibility loci; genome-wide association; morbid; early-onset; anthropometric traits; children and adolescents; population-based
A recent genome-wide association (GWA) study of U.S. Caucasians suggested that eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CTNNBL1 are associated with obesity and increased fat mass. We analysed the respective SNPs in data from our previously published GWA for early onset obesity (case-control design), in GWA data from a population-based cohort of adults, and in an independent family-based obesity study. We investigated whether variants in CTNNBL1 (including rs6013029) and in three other genes (SH3PXD2B, SLIT3 and FLJ42133,) were associated with obesity.
The GWA studies were carried out using Affymetrix® SNP Chips with approximately 500,000 markers each. In the families, SNP rs6013029 was genotyped using the TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay. The German case-control GWA included 487 extremely obese children and adolescents and 442 healthy lean individuals. The adult GWA included 1,644 individuals from a German population-based study (KORA). The 775 independent German families consisted of extremely obese children and adolescents and their parents.
We found no evidence for an association of the reported variants in CTNNBL1 with early onset obesity or increased BMI. Further, in our family-based study we found no evidence for over-transmission of the rs6013029 risk-allele T to obese children. Additionally, we found no evidence for an association of SH3PXD2B, SLIT3 and FLJ42133 variants in our two GWA samples.
We detected no confirmation of the recent association of variants in CTNNBL1 with obesity in a population of Central European ancestry.
Obesity is a well-established risk factor for endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic malignancy. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple genetic markers for obesity. The authors evaluated the association of obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with endometrial cancer using GWAS data from their recently completed study, the Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Genetics Study, which comprised 832 endometrial cancer cases and 2,049 controls (1996–2005). Thirty-five SNPs previously associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) at a minimum significance level of ≤5 × 10−7 in the US National Human Genome Research Institute's GWAS catalog (http://genome.gov/gwastudies) and representing 26 unique loci were evaluated by either direct genotyping or imputation. The authors found that for 22 of the 26 unique loci tested (84.6%), the BMI-associated risk variants were present at a higher frequency in cases than in population controls (P = 0.0003). Multiple regression analysis showed that 9 of 35 BMI-associated variants, representing 7 loci, were significantly associated (P ≤ 0.05) with the risk of endometrial cancer; for all but 1 SNP, the direction of association was consistent with that found for BMI. For consistent SNPs, the allelic odds ratios ranged from 1.15 to 1.29. These 7 loci are in the SEC16B/RASAL, TMEM18, MSRA, SOX6, MTCH2, FTO, and MC4R genes. The associations persisted after adjustment for BMI, suggesting that genetic markers of obesity provide value in addition to BMI in predicting endometrial cancer risk.
body mass index; endometrial neoplasms; genetics; genome-wide association study; obesity; risk factors
Vitamin D deficiency has been consistently associated with obesity. However, it is unclear whether vitamin D deficiency is the cause or consequence of obesity. We investigated this question by evaluating the association between genetic variants in vitamin D metabolism pathway genes and obesity-related traits. Using directly genotyped and imputed data from a genome-wide association (GWA) study of 6,922 women aged 25–70 years, we examined the association of 198 SNPs in vitamin D pathway genes (CYP27A1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP2R1, GC, and VDR) with body mass index (BMI) and body weight. Per allele beta (β) estimates were calculated for this association using linear regression models, controlling for age, square of age, menopausal status, and sample sets. Overall, only two SNPs (rs2248359 in CYP24A1 and rs10832313 in CYP2R1) had a nominally significant association with BMI and weight (P=0.02 for both) with no variation observed by menopausal status, physical activity, or dietary energy intake. None of the SNPs examined in the VDR gene were associated with BMI or weight. Our findings suggest that common genetic variations in vitamin D pathway genes do not play a major role in obesity among Chinese women.
genetic variants; body mass index; body weight; obesity; vitamin D pathway; genome-wide association study; women; China
Obesity is a major health problem. Although heritability is substantial, genetic mechanisms predisposing to obesity are not very well understood. We have performed a genome wide association study (GWA) for early onset (extreme) obesity.
a) GWA (Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 5.0 comprising 440,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms) for early onset extreme obesity based on 487 extremely obese young German individuals and 442 healthy lean German controls; b) confirmatory analyses on 644 independent families with at least one obese offspring and both parents. We aimed to identify and subsequently confirm the 15 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥10%) with the lowest p-values of the GWA by four genetic models: additive, recessive, dominant and allelic. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene) within one linkage disequilibrium (LD) block including the GWA SNP rendering the lowest p-value (rs1121980; log-additive model: nominal p = 1.13×10−7, corrected p = 0.0494; odds ratio (OR)CT 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22–2.27; ORTT 2.76, 95% CI 1.88–4.03) belonged to the 15 SNPs showing the strongest evidence for association with obesity. For confirmation we genotyped 11 of these in the 644 independent families (of the six FTO SNPs we chose only two representing the LD bock). For both FTO SNPs the initial association was confirmed (both Bonferroni corrected p<0.01). However, none of the nine non-FTO SNPs revealed significant transmission disequilibrium.
Our GWA for extreme early onset obesity substantiates that variation in FTO strongly contributes to early onset obesity. This is a further proof of concept for GWA to detect genes relevant for highly complex phenotypes. We concurrently show that nine additional SNPs with initially low p-values in the GWA were not confirmed in our family study, thus suggesting that of the best 15 SNPs in the GWA only the FTO SNPs represent true positive findings.
We have previously identified strong association of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene) to early onset extreme obesity within the first genome wide association study (GWA) for this phenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the obesity risk allele of one of these SNPs (rs9939609) is associated with weight loss in a lifestyle intervention program. Additionally, we tested for association of rs9939609 alleles with fasting blood parameters indicative of glucose and lipid metabolism.
We initially analysed rs9939609 in a case-control study comprising 519 German overweight and obese children and adolescents and 178 normal weight adults. In 207 of the obese individuals who took part in the outpatient obesity intervention program 'Obeldicks' we further analysed whether carrier status of the obesity risk A-allele of rs9939609 has a differential influence on weight loss after the intervention program. Additionally, we investigated in 480 of the overweight and obese patients whether rs9939609 is associated with fasting blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and HDL and LDL-cholesterol. Genotyping was performed using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). For the association study (case-control approach), the Cochran-Armitage trend test was applied. Blood parameters were analysed using commercially available test kits and the log10-transformed blood parameters and changes in BMI-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) were analysed by linear regression with sex and age as covariates under an additive mode of inheritance with the rs9939609 A-allele as risk allele.
We confirmed the association of the risk A-allele of rs9939609 with overweight and early onset obesity (one sided p = 0.036). However, we observed no association of rs9939609 alleles with weight loss or fasting levels of blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol.
We confirmed the rs9939609 A-allele as a risk factor for early onset obesity whereas its impact on weight loss or on serum levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol could not be detected in our samples.
This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00435734).
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the leading cause of anovulatory infertility in women. It is also associated with metabolic disturbances that place women at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. There is strong evidence for familial clustering of PCOS and a genetic predisposition. However, the gene(s) responsible for the PCOS phenotypes have not been elucidated. This two-phase family-based and case-control genetic study was designed to address the question of whether SNPs identified as susceptibility loci for obesity in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are also associated with PCOS and elevated BMI. Members of 439 families having at least one offspring with PCOS were genotyped for 15 SNPs previously shown to be associated with obesity. Linkage and association with PCOS was assessed using the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT). These SNPs were also analyzed in an independent case-control study involving 395 women with PCOS and 176 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. Only one of these 15 SNPs (rs2815752 in NEGR1) was found to have a nominally significant association with PCOS (χ2 = 6.11, P = 0.013), but this association failed to replicate in the case-control study. While not associated with PCOS itself, five SNPs in FTO and two in MC4R were associated with BMI as assessed with a quantitative-TDT analysis, several of which replicated association with BMI in the case-control cohort. These findings demonstrate that certain SNPs associated with obesity contribute to elevated BMI in PCOS, but do not appear to play a major role in PCOS per se. These findings support the notion that PCOS phenotypes are a consequence of an oligogenic/polygenic mechanism.
Recent genome-wide association (GWA) analyses have identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with obesity. However, the reported genetic variation in obesity explains only a minor fraction of the total genetic variation expected to be present in the population. Thus many genetic variants controlling obesity remain to be identified. The aim of this study was to use GWA followed by multiple stepwise validations to identify additional genes associated with obesity.
We performed a GWA analysis in 164 morbidly obese subjects (BMI:body mass index > 40 kg/m2) and 163 Swedish subjects (> 45 years) who had always been lean. The 700 SNPs displaying the strongest association with obesity in the GWA were analyzed in a second cohort comprising 460 morbidly obese subjects and 247 consistently lean Swedish adults. 23 SNPs remained significantly associated with obesity (nominal P< 0.05) and were in a step-wise manner followed up in five additional cohorts from Sweden, France, and Germany together comprising 4214 obese and 5417 lean or population-based control individuals. Three samples, n = 4133, were used to investigate the population-based associations with BMI. Gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in relation to obesity was investigated for14 adults.
Potassium channel, calcium activated, large conductance, subfamily M, alpha member (KCNMA1) rs2116830*G and BDNF rs988712*G were associated with obesity in five of six investigated case-control cohorts. In meta-analysis of 4838 obese and 5827 control subjects we obtained genome-wide significant allelic association with obesity for KCNMA1 rs2116830*G with P = 2.82 × 10-10 and an odds ratio (OR) based on cases vs controls of 1.26 [95% C.I. 1.12-1.41] and for BDNF rs988712*G with P = 5.2 × 10-17and an OR of 1.36 [95% C.I. 1.20-1.55]. KCNMA1 rs2116830*G was not associated with BMI in the population-based samples. Adipose tissue (P = 0.0001) and fat cell (P = 0.04) expression of KCNMA1 was increased in obesity.
We have identified KCNMA1 as a new susceptibility locus for obesity, and confirmed the association of the BDNF locus at the genome-wide significant level.
Obesity causes severe healthcare problem worldwide leading to numerous diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Previous Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) identified an association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7138803, on chromosome 12q13 and obesity in European Caucasians. Since the genetic architecture governing the obesity may vary among different populations, we investigate the variant rs7138803 in Chinese population to find out whether it is associated with obesity.
A population-based cohort association study was carried out using the High Resolution Melt (HRM) method with 1851 participants. The association between rs7138803 genotypes and body mass index (BMI) was modeled with a general linear model, and a case–control study for the association between rs7138803 genotypes and obesity was performed using Pearson’s χ2 test. There was no indication of a deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE p value = 0.51) in our sample.
No association was detected between SNP rs7138803 and BMI in our Chinese Han population with a P value of 0.51. SNP rs7138803 was found to be not associated with common forms of obesity after adjusting for age and sex in the Chinese population. SNP rs7138803 was not associated with other obesity related traits, including T2DM, hypertension, lipid profiles, and ischemic stroke.
Our data suggest that the rs7138803 exerts no significant effect on obesity in Chinese Han population. Larger cohorts may be more appropriate to detect an effect of this SNP on common obesity.
FAIM2; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Obesity susceptibility
The INSIG2 rs7566605 and PFKP rs6602024 polymorphisms have been identified as obesity gene variants in genome-wide association (GWA) studies. However, replication has been contradictory for both variants. The aims of this study were to validate these obesity-associations through case-control studies and analyses of obesity-related quantitative traits. Moreover, since environmental and genetic factors may modulate the impact of a genetic variant, we wanted to perform such interaction analyses. We focused on physical activity as an environmental risk factor, and on the GWA identified obesity variants in FTO (rs9939609) and near MC4R (rs17782313) as genetic risk factors.
Materials and Methods
The four variants were genotyped in a combined study sample comprising a total of 18,014 subject ascertained from, the population-based Inter99 cohort (n = 6,514), the ADDITION screening cohort (n = 8,662), a population-based study sample (n = 680) and a type 2 diabetic patient group (n = 2,158) from Steno Diabetes Center.
No association with overweight, obesity or obesity-related measures was shown for either the INSIG2 rs7566605 or the PFKP rs6602024 variants. However, an interaction between the INSIG2 rs7566605 variant and the level of self-reported physical activity (pInt = 0.004) was observed. A BMI difference of 0.53 (SE 0.42) kg/m2 was found when comparing physically passive homozygous C-allele carriers with physically passive G-allele carriers. No interactions between the two variants and FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 were observed.
The INSIG2 rs7566605 and PFKP rs6602024 polymorphisms play no apparent role in the development of common forms of obesity in the Danish population. However, if replicated, the INSIG2 rs7566605 may influence the level of BMI in combination with the level of physical activity.
Epidemiological studies consistently show associations between asthma and obesity. Shared genetics may account for this association.
To identify genetic variants associated with both asthma and obesity.
Based on a literature search, we identified genes from: 1) Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Body Mass Index (BMI) (n=17 genes), 2) GWAS of asthma (n=14) and 3) candidate gene studies of BMI and asthma (n=7). We used GWAS data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) to analyze associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes and asthma (n=359 subjects) and BMI (n=537).
One top BMI GWAS SNP from the literature, rs10938397 near GNPDA2, was associated with both BMI (p=4 × 10−4) and asthma (p=0.03). Of the top asthma GWAS SNPs and the candidate gene SNPs, none was found to be associated with both BMI and asthma. Gene-based analyses that included all available SNPs in each gene found associations (p<0.05) with both phenotypes for several genes: NEGR1, ROBO1, DGKG, FAIM2, FTO and CHST8 among the BMI GWAS genes; ILRL1/IL18R1, DPP10, PDE4D, MYB, PDE10A, IL33 and especially PTPRD among the asthma GWAS genes; and PRKCA among the BMI and asthma candidate genes.
SNPs within several genes showed associations to BMI and asthma at a gene level, but none of these associations were significant after correction for multiple testing. Our analysis of known candidate genes reveals some evidence for shared genetics between asthma and obesity, but other shared genetic determinants are likely to be identified in novel loci.
Association; Asthma; BMI; Children; Genetics; GWAS; Obesity; Polymorphism; SNP
Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) and previous positional linkage studies have identified more than 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with obesity, mostly in Europeans. We aimed to assess the contribution of some of these SNPs to obesity risk and to the variation of related metabolic traits, in Mexican children.
The association of six European obesity-related SNPs in or near FTO, NPC1, ENPP1, NEGR1, GNPDA2 and MC4R genes with risk of obesity was tested in 1,463 school-aged Mexican children (Ncases = 514; Ncontrols = 949). We also assessed effects of these SNPs on the variation of body mass index (BMI), fasting serum insulin levels, fasting plasma glucose levels, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, in a subset of 1,171 nonobese Mexican children.
We found a significant effect of GNPDA2 rs10938397 on risk of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30; P = 1.34 × 10-3). Furthermore, we found nominal associations between obesity risk or BMI variation and the following SNPs: ENPP1 rs7754561, MC4R rs17782313 and NEGR1 rs2815752. Importantly, the at-risk alleles of both MC4R rs17782313 and NPC1 rs1805081 showed significant effect on increased fasting glucose levels (β = 0.36 mmol/L; P = 1.47 × 10-3) and decreased fasting serum insulin levels (β = −0.10 μU/mL; P = 1.21 × 10-3), respectively.
Our present results suggest that some obesity-associated SNPs previously reported in Europeans also associate with risk of obesity, or metabolic quantitative traits, in Mexican children. Importantly, we found new associations between MC4R and fasting glucose levels, and between NPC1 and fasting insulin levels.
Obesity; Mexican children; Single nucleotide polymorphism
Childhood obesity strongly predisposes to some adult diseases. Recently, genome-wide association (GWA) studies in Caucasians identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI and obesity. The associations of those SNPs with BMI and obesity among other ethnicities are not fully described, especially in children. Among those previously identified SNPs, we selected six (rs7138803, rs1805081, rs6499640, rs17782313, rs6265, and rs10938397, in or near obesity-related genes FAIM2, NPC1, FTO, MC4R, BDNF, and GNPDA2, respectively) because of the relatively high minor allele frequencies in Chinese individuals and tested the associations of the SNPs with BMI and obesity in Chinese children.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We investigated the associations of these SNPs with BMI and obesity in school-aged children. A total of 3,503 children participated in the study, including 1,229 obese, 655 overweight, and 1,619 normal-weight children (diagnosed by the Chinese age- and sex-specific BMI cutoffs).
After age and sex adjustment and correction for multiple testing, the SNPs rs17782313, rs6265, and rs10938397 were associated with BMI (P = 1.0 × 10−5, 0.038, and 0.00093, respectively) and also obesity (P = 5.0 × 10−6, 0.043, and 0.00085, respectively) in the Chinese children. The SNPs rs17782313 and rs10938397 were also significantly associated with waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass percentage.
Results of this study support obesity-related genes in adults as important genes for BMI variation in children and suggest that some SNPs identified by GWA studies in Caucasians also confer risk for obesity in Chinese children.
Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified a number of novel genes/variants predisposing to obesity. However, most GWA studies have focused on individual single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs)/genes with a strong statistical association with a phenotypic trait without considering potential biological interplay of the tested genes. In this study, we performed biological pathway-based GWA analysis for BMI and body fat mass. We used individual level genotype data generated from 1,000 unrelated US whites that were genotyped for ~500,000 SNPs. Statistical analysis of pathways was performed using a modification of the Gene Set Enrichment Algorithm. A total of 963 pathways extracted from the BioCarta, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Ambion GeneAssist, and Gene Ontology (GO) databases were analyzed. Among all of the pathways analyzed, the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) pathway was most strongly associated with fat mass (nominal P = 0.0009) and was the third most strongly associated pathway with BMI (nominal P = 0.0006). After multiple testing correction, the VIP pathway achieved false-discovery rate (FDR) q values of 0.042 and 0.120 for fat mass and BMI, respectively. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the VIP pathway may play an important role in development of obesity. The study also highlights the importance of pathway-based GWA analysis in identification of additional genes/variants for complex human diseases.
Recently an association was demonstrated between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, within the FTO locus and obesity as a consequence of a genome wide association (GWA) study of type 2 diabetes in adults. We examined the effects of two perfect surrogates for this SNP plus 11 other SNPs at this locus with respect to our childhood obesity cohort, consisting of both Caucasians and African Americans (AA). Utilizing data from our ongoing GWA study in our cohort of 418 Caucasian obese children (BMI≥95th percentile), 2,270 Caucasian controls (BMI<95th percentile), 578 AA obese children and 1,424 AA controls, we investigated the association of the previously reported variation at the FTO locus with the childhood form of this disease in both ethnicities. The minor allele frequencies (MAF) of rs8050136 and rs3751812 (perfect surrogates for rs9939609 i.e. both r2 = 1) in the Caucasian cases were 0.448 and 0.443 respectively while they were 0.391 and 0.386 in Caucasian controls respectively, yielding for both an odds ratio (OR) of 1.27 (95% CI 1.08–1.47; P = 0.0022). Furthermore, the MAFs of rs8050136 and rs3751812 in the AA cases were 0.449 and 0.115 respectively while they were 0.436 and 0.090 in AA controls respectively, yielding an OR of 1.05 (95% CI 0.91–1.21; P = 0.49) and of 1.31 (95% CI 1.050–1.643; P = 0.017) respectively. Investigating all 13 SNPs present on the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip in this region of linkage disequilibrium, rs3751812 was the only SNP conferring significant risk in AA. We have therefore replicated and refined the association in an AA cohort and distilled a tag-SNP, rs3751812, which captures the ancestral origin of the actual mutation. As such, variants in the FTO gene confer a similar magnitude of risk of obesity to children as to their adult counterparts and appear to have a global impact.
Meta-analyses of population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have recently led to the detection of new genetic loci for obesity. Here we aimed to discover additional obesity loci in extremely obese children and adolescents. We also investigated if these results generalize by estimating the effects of these obesity loci in adults and in population-based samples including both children and adults. We jointly analysed two GWAS of 2,258 individuals and followed-up the best, according to lowest p-values, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 21 genomic regions in 3,141 individuals. After this DISCOVERY step, we explored if the findings derived from the extremely obese children and adolescents (10 SNPs from 5 genomic regions) generalized to (i) the population level and (ii) to adults by genotyping another 31,182 individuals (GENERALIZATION step). Apart from previously identified FTO, MC4R, and TMEM18, we detected two new loci for obesity: one in SDCCAG8 (serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8 gene; p = 1.85×10−8 in the DISCOVERY step) and one between TNKS (tankyrase, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase gene) and MSRA (methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene; p = 4.84×10−7), the latter finding being limited to children and adolescents as demonstrated in the GENERALIZATION step. The odds ratios for early-onset obesity were estimated at ∼1.10 per risk allele for both loci. Interestingly, the TNKS/MSRA locus has recently been found to be associated with adult waist circumference. In summary, we have completed a meta-analysis of two GWAS which both focus on extremely obese children and adolescents and replicated our findings in a large followed-up data set. We observed that genetic variants in or near FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, and TNKS/MSRA were robustly associated with early-onset obesity. We conclude that the currently known major common variants related to obesity overlap to a substantial degree between children and adults.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully contributed to the detection of genetic variants involved in body-weight regulation. We jointly analysed two GWAS for early-onset extreme obesity in 2,258 individuals of European origin and followed-up the findings in 3,141 individuals. Evidence for association of markers in two new genetic loci was shown (SDCCAG8 on chromosome 1q43–q44 and between TNKS/MSRA on chromosome 8p23.1). We also re-identified variants in or near FTO, MC4R, and TMEM18 to be associated with extreme obesity. In addition, we assessed the effect of the markers in 31,182 obese, lean, normal weight, and unselected individuals from population-based samples and showed that the variants near FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, and SDCCAG8 were consistently associated with obesity. For variants of TNKS/MSRA, the obesity association was limited to children and adolescents. In summary, we detected two new obesity loci and confirmed that the currently known major common variants related to obesity overlap to a substantial degree between children and adults.
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple risk loci for common obesity (FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, SH2B1, KCTD15, MTCH2, NEGR1 and PCSK1). Here we extend those studies by examining associations with adiposity and type 2 diabetes in Swedish adults. The nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 3885 non-diabetic and 1038 diabetic individuals with available measures of height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Adipose mass and distribution were objectively assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a sub-group of non-diabetics (n = 2206). In models with adipose mass traits, BMI or obesity as outcomes, the most strongly associated SNP was FTO rs1121980 (P < 0.001). Five other SNPs (SH2B1 rs7498665, MTCH2 rs4752856, MC4R rs17782313, NEGR1 rs2815752 and GNPDA2 rs10938397) were significantly associated with obesity. To summarize the overall genetic burden, a weighted risk score comprising a subset of SNPs was constructed; those in the top quintile of the score were heavier (+2.6 kg) and had more total (+2.4 kg), gynoid (+191 g) and abdominal (+136 g) adipose tissue than those in the lowest quintile (all P < 0.001). The genetic burden score significantly increased diabetes risk, with those in the highest quintile (n = 193/594 cases/controls) being at 1.55-fold (95% CI 1.21–1.99; P < 0.0001) greater risk of type 2 diabetes than those in the lowest quintile (n = 130/655 cases/controls). In summary, we have statistically replicated six of the previously associated obese-risk loci and our results suggest that the weight-inducing effects of these variants are explained largely by increased adipose accumulation.
Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with BMI and risk of obesity. However, information on their associations with type 2 diabetes is limited. Such information could help increase our understanding of the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of 12 obesity susceptibility loci, individually and in combination, with risk of type 2 diabetes in the population-based European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort.
We genotyped 12 SNPs, identified by GWA studies of BMI, in 20,428 individuals (aged 39–79 years at baseline) with an average follow-up of 12.9 years, during which 729 individuals developed type 2 diabetes. A genetic predisposition score was calculated by adding the BMI-increasing alleles across the 12 SNPs. Associations with incidence of type 2 diabetes were examined by logistic regression models.
Of the 12 SNPs, eight showed a trend with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, consistent with their BMI-increasing effects. Each additional BMI-increasing allele in the genetic predisposition score was associated with a 4% increased odds of developing type 2 diabetes (OR 1.041, 95% CI 1.005–1.078; p = 0.02). Adjustment for BMI completely abolished the association with incident type 2 diabetes (OR 1.003, 95% CI 0.967–1.039; p = 0.89).
The genetic predisposition to obesity leads to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which is completely mediated by its obesity-predisposing effect.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2044-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Genetic predisposition; Genome-wide association studies; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
Obesity is an increasingly common disorder that predisposes to several medical conditions, including type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether large and rare copy-number variations (CNVs) differentiate moderate to extreme obesity from never-overweight control subjects.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, we performed a genome-wide CNV survey on 430 obese case subjects (BMI >35 kg/m2) and 379 never-overweight control subjects (BMI <25 kg/m2). All subjects were of European ancestry and were genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap550 arrays with ∼550,000 SNP markers. The CNV calls were generated by PennCNV software.
CNVs >1 Mb were found to be overrepresented in case versus control subjects (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5 [95% CI 0.5–5]), and CNVs >2 Mb were present in 1.3% of the case subjects but were absent in control subjects (OR = infinity [95% CI 1.2–infinity]). When focusing on rare deletions that disrupt genes, even more pronounced effect sizes are observed (OR = 2.7 [95% CI 0.5–27.1] for CNVs >1 Mb). Interestingly, obese case subjects who carry these large CNVs have moderately high BMI and do not appear to be extreme cases. Several CNVs disrupt known candidate genes for obesity, such as a 3.3-Mb deletion disrupting NAP1L5 and a 2.1-Mb deletion disrupting UCP1 and IL15.
Our results suggest that large CNVs, especially rare deletions, confer risk of obesity in patients with moderate obesity and that genes impacted by large CNVs represent intriguing candidates for obesity that warrant further study.
There are hints of an altered mitochondrial function in obesity. Nuclear-encoded genes are relevant for mitochondrial function (3 gene sets of known relevant pathways: (1) 16 nuclear regulators of mitochondrial genes, (2) 91 genes for oxidative phosphorylation and (3) 966 nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes). Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed no association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in these gene sets. Here we performed a GSEA for the same gene sets for obesity. Genome wide association study (GWAS) data from a case-control approach on 453 extremely obese children and adolescents and 435 lean adult controls were used for GSEA. For independent confirmation, we analyzed 705 obesity GWAS trios (extremely obese child and both biological parents) and a population-based GWAS sample (KORA F4, n = 1,743). A meta-analysis was performed on all three samples. In each sample, the distribution of significance levels between the respective gene set and those of all genes was compared using the leading-edge-fraction-comparison test (cut-offs between the 50th and 95th percentile of the set of all gene-wise corrected p-values) as implemented in the MAGENTA software. In the case-control sample, significant enrichment of associations with obesity was observed above the 50th percentile for the set of the 16 nuclear regulators of mitochondrial genes (pGSEA,50 = 0.0103). This finding was not confirmed in the trios (pGSEA,50 = 0.5991), but in KORA (pGSEA,50 = 0.0398). The meta-analysis again indicated a trend for enrichment (pMAGENTA,50 = 0.1052, pMAGENTA,75 = 0.0251). The GSEA revealed that weak association signals for obesity might be enriched in the gene set of 16 nuclear regulators of mitochondrial genes.
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible associations between insertion/deletion (ID) polymorphism in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (dbSNP rs 4646994) with the food intake and body composition in the Czech non-obese, obese and extremely obese populations. A total of 453 various-weighted individuals were enrolled in the study and were according to their BMI assigned into following subgroups, such as obese (30 ≤ BMI < 40), morbidly obese (BMI ≥40) and non-obese (20 < BMI < 30) subjects. Both the obese cases and the non-obese controls underwent the identical subset of standardized examinations (BMI, % body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, skin fold thickness, native dietary composition examined by 7-day food records, etc.). No significant case–control differences in genotype distributions or allelic frequencies were observed. There were no differences in genotype frequencies between males and females either. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among subjects with the II genotype (42 %) when compared with those with DD (36%) and those with ID (37%) genotypes (P = 0.04). When compared with carbohydrate intake in the whole studied cohort, the odds ratios of carrying the DD allele in the morbidly obese cohort were 0.84 (95% CI 0.34, 2.10, P = 0.17), 0.27 (0.07, 0.98, P = 0.02), and 4.25 (1.44, 12.51, P = 0.005) in those individuals consuming <210, 210–260, and >260 g of carbohydrates/day, respectively. Based on our findings, the ID ACE polymorphism could represent a gene modulator of carbohydrate intake in morbidly obese Czech population; the strong significant effect of DD genotype was observed in the phenotypes of extreme obesity with the highest carbohydrate intake.
ID ACE; Polymorphism; Obesity; Food intake
Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 16 loci incontrovertibly associated with obesity-related traits in adults. We examined associations of variants in these loci with anthropometric traits in children and adolescents.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Seventeen variants representing 16 obesity susceptibility loci were genotyped in 1,252 children (mean ± SD age 9.7 ± 0.4 years) and 790 adolescents (15.5 ± 0.5 years) from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). We tested for association of individual variants and a genetic predisposition score (GPS-17), calculated by summing the number of effect alleles, with anthropometric traits. For 13 variants, summary statistics for associations with BMI were meta-analyzed with previously reported data (Ntotal = 13,071 children and adolescents).
In EYHS, 15 variants showed associations or trends with anthropometric traits that were directionally consistent with earlier reports in adults. The meta-analysis showed directionally consistent associations with BMI for all 13 variants, of which 9 were significant (0.033–0.098 SD/allele; P < 0.05). The near-TMEM18 variant had the strongest effect (0.098 SD/allele P = 8.5 × 10−11). Effect sizes for BMI tended to be more pronounced in children and adolescents than reported earlier in adults for variants in or near SEC16B, TMEM18, and KCTD15, (0.028–0.035 SD/allele higher) and less pronounced for rs925946 in BDNF (0.028 SD/allele lower). Each additional effect allele in the GPS-17 was associated with an increase of 0.034 SD in BMI (P = 3.6 × 10−5), 0.039 SD, in sum of skinfolds (P = 1.7 × 10−7), and 0.022 SD in waist circumference (P = 1.7 × 10−4), which is comparable with reported results in adults (0.039 SD/allele for BMI and 0.033 SD/allele for waist circumference).
Most obesity susceptibility loci identified by GWA studies in adults are already associated with anthropometric traits in children/adolescents. Whereas the association of some variants may differ with age, the cumulative effect size is similar.
Two meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have suggested that four variants: rs2605100 in lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1), rs10146997 in neuroxin 3 (NRXN3), rs545854 in methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), and rs987237 in transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) associate with measures of central obesity.
To elucidate potential underlying phenotypes we aimed to investigate whether these variants associated with: 1) quantitative metabolic traits, 2) anthropometric measures (waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio, and BMI), or 3) type 2 diabetes, and central and general overweight and obesity.
The four variants were genotyped in Danish individuals using KASPar®. Quantitative metabolic traits were examined in a population-based sample (n = 6,038) and WC and BMI were furthermore analyzed in a combined study sample (n = 13,507). Case-control studies of diabetes and adiposity included 15,326 individuals. The major G-allele of LYPLAL1 rs2605100 associated with increased fasting serum triglyceride concentrations (per allele effect (β) = 3%(1;5(95%CI)), padditive = 2.7×10−3), an association driven by the male gender (pinteraction = 0.02). The same allele associated with increased fasting serum insulin concentrations (β = 3%(1;5), padditive = 2.5×10−3) and increased insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (β = 4%(1;6), padditive = 1.5×10−3). The minor G-allele of rs10146997 in NRXN3 associated with increased WC among women (β = 0.55cm (0.20;0.89), padditive = 1.7×10−3, pinteraction = 1.0×10−3), but showed no associations with obesity related metabolic traits. The MSRA rs545854 and TFAP2B rs987237 showed nominal associations with central obesity; however, no underlying metabolic phenotypes became obvious, when investigating quantitative metabolic traits. None of the variants influenced the prevalence of type 2 diabetes.
We demonstrate that several of the central obesity-associated variants in LYPLAL1, NRXN3, MSRA, and TFAP2B associate with metabolic and anthropometric traits in Danish adults. However, analyses were made without adjusting for multiple testing, and further studies are needed to confirm the putative role of LYPLAL1, NRXN3, MSRA, and TFAP2B in the pathophysiology of obesity.
Current Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) are performed in a single trait framework without considering genetic correlations between important disease traits. Hence, the GWAS have limitations in discovering genetic risk factors affecting pleiotropic effects.
This work reports a novel data mining approach to discover patterns of multiple phenotypic associations over 52 anthropometric and biochemical traits in KARE and a new analytical scheme for GWAS of multivariate phenotypes defined by the discovered patterns. This methodology applied to the GWAS for multivariate phenotype highLDLhighTG derived from the predicted patterns of the phenotypic associations. The patterns of the phenotypic associations were informative to draw relations between plasma lipid levels with bone mineral density and a cluster of common traits (Obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance) related to Metabolic Syndrome (MS). A total of 15 SNPs in six genes (PAK7, C20orf103, NRIP1, BCL2, TRPM3, and NAV1) were identified for significant associations with highLDLhighTG. Noteworthy findings were that the significant associations included a mis-sense mutation (PAK7:R335P), a frame shift mutation (C20orf103) and SNPs in splicing sites (TRPM3).
The six genes corresponded to rat and mouse quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that had shown associations with the common traits such as the well characterized MS and even tumor susceptibility. Our findings suggest that the six genes may play important roles in the pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism and the MS, which increase the risk of Type 2 Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The use of the multivariate phenotypes can be advantageous in identifying genetic risk factors, accounting for the pleiotropic effects when the multivariate phenotypes have a common etiological pathway.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many novel susceptibility loci for T2DM, and indicated that there are common genetic causes contributing to the susceptibility to T2DM in multiple populations worldwide. In addition, clinical and epidemiological studies have indicated that obesity is a major risk factor for T2DM. However, the prevalence of obesity varies among the various ethnic groups. We aimed to determine the combined effects of these susceptibility loci and obesity/overweight for development of T2DM in the Japanese.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 17 susceptibility loci for T2DM, identified through GWAS in Caucasian and Asian populations, were genotyped in 333 cases with T2DM and 417 control subjects.
We confirmed that the cumulative number of risk alleles based on 17 susceptibility loci for T2DM was an important risk factor in the development of T2DM in Japanese population (P < 0.0001), although the effect of each risk allele was relatively small. In addition, the significant association between an increased number of risk alleles and an increased risk of T2DM was observed in the non-obese group (P < 0.0001 for trend), but not in the obese/overweight group (P = 0.88 for trend).
Our findings indicate that there is an etiological heterogeneity of T2DM between obese/overweight and non-obese subjects.