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1.  The Radiological Society of North America’s medical image resource center: An update 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2001;14(Suppl 1):77-79.
The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) has initiated a long-term project called the Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC). The overall goal of the effort is to create an on-line library of medical images and related information and to maintain and index a number of other medical image resources. The rationale for the project, a summary of the overall requirements and objectives, and a finally a brief description of the future plans for MIRC are presented.
doi:10.1007/BF03190302
PMCID: PMC3452689  PMID: 11442128
2.  Health sciences library building projects: 1994 survey. 
Designing and building new or renovated space is time consuming and requires politically sensitive discussions concerning a number of both long-term and immediate planning issues. The Medical Library Association's fourth annual survey of library building projects identified ten health sciences libraries that are planning, expanding, or constructing new facilities. Two projects are in predesign stages, four represent new construction, and four involve renovations to existing libraries. The Texas Medical Association Library, the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre Library, and the Northwestern University Galter Health Sciences Library illustrate how these libraries are being designed for the future and take into account areas of change produced by new information technologies, curricular trends, and new ways to deliver library services.
Images
PMCID: PMC226028  PMID: 7599586
3.  Transitions of Care Consensus Policy Statement American College of Physicians-Society of General Internal Medicine-Society of Hospital Medicine-American Geriatrics Society-American College of Emergency Physicians-Society of Academic Emergency Medicine 
The American College of Physicians (ACP), Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM), Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM), American Geriatric Society (AGS), American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) developed consensus standards to address the quality gaps in the transitions between inpatient and outpatient settings. The following summarized principles were established: 1.) Accountability; 2) Communication; 3.) Timely interchange of information; 4.) Involvement of the patient and family member; 5.) Respect the hub of coordination of care; 6.) All patients and their family/caregivers should have a medical home or coordinating clinician; 7.) At every point of transitions the patient and/or their family/caregivers need to know who is responsible for their care at that point; 9.) National standards; and 10.) Standardized metrics related to these standards in order to lead to quality improvement and accountability. Based on these principles, standards describing necessary components for implementation were developed: coordinating clinicians, care plans/transition record, communication infrastructure, standard communication formats, transition responsibility, timeliness, community standards, and measurement.
doi:10.1007/s11606-009-0969-x
PMCID: PMC2710485  PMID: 19343456
4.  Trauma among American Indians in an urban county. 
Public Health Reports  1996;111(4):321-327.
OBJECTIVE. To describe severe injury among American Indians in a large metropolitan county given that most previous studies of the high Indian injury morbidity and mortality rates have been conducted primarily in rural areas. METHODS. A retrospective analysis of a hospital trauma registry was conducted for the years 1986-92 at the Harborview Medical Center, the only Level I trauma center in King County, Washington, metropolitan county with the seventh largest number of urban American Indians in the United States. RESULTS. Of 14,851 King County residents included in the registry, 593 (4%) were classified as American Indian. With King County whites as the reference, the age-standardized incidence ratio for inclusion of American Indians in the registry was 4.4 (95% confidence interval 4.1, 4.8). The standardized incidence ratios and proportional incidence ratios showed significant differences in mechanism and whether it was intentional or unintentional among Indians compared with whites. Hospitalizations for stab wounds, bites, and other blunt trauma were all significantly more frequent among Indians. Trauma admissions among Indians were disproportionately associated with assaults. A high proportion (72.3%) of American Indians tested had blood alcohol levels exceeding 0.1%. CONCLUSION. Urban American Indians experience high rates of trauma, differing from those among whites. Efforts to reduce injury in urban areas should include collaboration with representative urban American Indian organizations.
PMCID: PMC1381875  PMID: 8711098
5.  Use of Rapid Genomic Deletion Typing To Monitor a Tuberculosis Outbreak within an Urban Homeless Population 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(11):5550-5554.
Beginning in mid-2002, a large tuberculosis outbreak occurred among homeless persons in King County, Washington. In order to further monitor the outbreak following its peak in 2003, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all new King County tuberculosis (TB) patients in 2004 and the first half of 2005 (n = 220) were genotyped by using a rapid comparative genomics-based (genomic deletion-typing) approach, with confirmation by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units and repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). Results were compared to retrospective genotypic data from 1995 to 2003. The outbreak strain SBRI9, which was not seen among King County homeless persons prior to 2002, accounted for 16 out of 30 TB cases (53%) within this population in 2002. This trend continued with 27 out of 35 cases (77%) caused by the outbreak strain in 2003, 11 out of 13 cases (85%) caused by the outbreak strain in 2004, and 4 out of 10 cases (40%) caused by the outbreak strain in the first 5 months of 2005. Thus, the outbreak strain remained well established within this homeless population throughout the study period. At least four SBRI9 cases were in people who had previously been infected by other strains. The novel PCR-based strain-typing approach used in this investigation proved to be cost-effective and very rapid. In most cases, it was possible to analyze DNA extracted directly from primary isolation (Mycobacterium growth indicator tube) cultures submitted by clinical laboratories, a feature that markedly reduced the delay between diagnosis and strain typing results. This rapid turnaround facilitated public health efforts to prevent new outbreaks involving this strain.
doi:10.1128/JCM.43.11.5550-5554.2005
PMCID: PMC1287805  PMID: 16272485
6.  The Founding of a Medical Service Bureau in King County, Washington, 1933 
Western Journal of Medicine  1976;124(1):67-69.
The events leading to the establishment of the King County Medical Service Corporation, now King County Medical-Blue Shield, were varied and complex. Under pressure, the King County Medical Society redefined its code of ethics, expanded its view of acceptable practice and gave birth to a major provider of prepaid health care services.
PMCID: PMC1129988  PMID: 766413
7.  Management of hemodynamically unstable pelvic trauma: results of the first Italian consensus conference (cooperative guidelines of the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology -Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology- and the World Society of Emergency Surgery) 
Hemodynamically Unstable Pelvic Trauma is a major problem in blunt traumatic injury. No cosensus has been reached in literature on the optimal treatment of this condition. We present the results of the First Italian Consensus Conference on Pelvic Trauma which took place in Bergamo on April 13 2013. An extensive review of the literature has been undertaken by the Organizing Committee (OC) and forwarded to the Scientific Committee (SC) and the Panel (JP). Members of them were appointed by surgery, critical care, radiology, emergency medicine and orthopedics Italian and International societies: the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology and the World Society of Emergency Surgery. From November 2012 to January 2013 the SC undertook the critical revision and prepared the presentation to the audience and the Panel on the day of the Conference. Then 3 recommendations were presented according to the 3 submitted questions. The Panel voted the recommendations after discussion and amendments with the audience. Later on a email debate took place until December 2013 to reach a unanimous consent. We present results on the 3 following questions: which hemodynamically unstable patient needs an extraperitoneal pelvic packing? Which hemodynamically unstable patient needs an external fixation? Which hemodynamically unstable patient needs emergent angiography? No longer angiography is considered the first therapeutic maneuver in such a patient. Preperitoneal pelvic packing and external fixation, preceded by pelvic binder have a pivotal role in the management of these patients.
Hemodynamically Unstable Pelvic Trauma is a frequent death cause among people who sustain blunt trauma. We present the results of the First Italian Consensus Conference.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-9-18
PMCID: PMC3975341  PMID: 24606950
Pelvic trauma; Angiography; Preperitoneal pelvic packing; External fixation; Pelvic binder
8.  The Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh: Sale of its Library at Sotheby's * 
The library of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, which has been in existence for nearly 250 years, was sold by Sotheby & Co. of London at three auction sales during 1969. The author describes her attendance at the three sales, with emphasis on the most valuable items sold and the considerable acquisitions made for the Middleton Medical Library of the University of Wisconsin. Concluding observations concern some of the practical problems of acquiring antiquarian books at auction.
Images
PMCID: PMC197506  PMID: 5496237
9.  Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections Among HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children: Recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics 
Summary
This report updates and combines into one document earlier versions of guidelines for preventing and treating opportunistic infections (OIs) among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care workers providing medical care for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children in the United States. The guidelines discuss opportunistic pathogens that occur in the United States and one that might be acquired during international travel (i.e., malaria). Topic areas covered for each OI include a brief description of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the OI in children; prevention of exposure; prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis and/or vaccination; discontinuation of primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; treatment of disease; monitoring for adverse effects during treatment; management of treatment failure; prevention of disease recurrence; and discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution. A separate document about preventing and treating of OIs among HIV-infected adults and postpubertal adolescents (Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents) was prepared by a working group of adult HIV and infectious disease specialists.
The guidelines were developed by a panel of specialists in pediatric HIV infection and infectious diseases (the Pediatric Opportunistic Infections Working Group) from the U.S. government and academic institutions. For each OI, a pediatric specialist with content-matter expertise reviewed the literature for new information since the last guidelines were published; they then proposed revised recommendations at a meeting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in June 2007. After these presentations and discussions, the guidelines underwent further revision, with review and approval by the Working Group, and final endorsement by NIH, CDC, the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (PIDS), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of the evidence supporting the recommendation so readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments.
An important mode of acquisition of OIs, as well as HIV infection among children, is from their infected mother; HIV-infected women coinfected with opportunistic pathogens might be more likely than women without HIV infection to transmit these infections to their infants. In addition, HIV-infected women or HIV-infected family members coinfected with certain opportunistic pathogens might be more likely to transmit these infections horizontally to their children, resulting in increased likelihood of primary acquisition of such infections in the young child. Therefore, infections with opportunistic pathogens might affect not just HIV-infected infants but also HIV-exposed but uninfected infants who become infected by the pathogen because of transmission from HIV-infected mothers or family members with coinfections. These guidelines for treating OIs in children therefore consider treatment of infections among all children, both HIV-infected and uninfected, born to HIV-infected women.
Additionally, HIV infection is increasingly seen among adolescents with perinatal infection now surviving into their teens and among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV infection. Although guidelines for postpubertal adolescents can be found in the adult OI guidelines, drug pharmacokinetics and response to treatment may differ for younger prepubertal or pubertal adolescents. Therefore, these guidelines also apply to treatment of HIV-infected youth who have not yet completed pubertal development.
Major changes in the guidelines include 1) greater emphasis on the importance of antiretroviral therapy for preventing and treating OIs, especially those OIs for which no specific therapy exists; 2) information about the diagnosis and management of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes; 3) information about managing antiretroviral therapy in children with OIs, including potential drug--drug interactions; 4) new guidance on diagnosing of HIV infection and presumptively excluding HIV infection in infants that affect the need for initiation of prophylaxis to prevent Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in neonates; 5) updated immunization recommendations for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, including hepatitis A, human papillomavirus, meningococcal, and rotavirus vaccines; 6) addition of sections on aspergillosis; bartonella; human herpes virus-6, −7, and −8; malaria; and progressive multifocal leukodystrophy (PML); and 7) new recommendations on discontinuation of OI prophylaxis after immune reconstitution in children. The report includes six tables pertinent to preventing and treating OIs in children and two figures describing immunization recommendations for children aged 0--6 years and 7--18 years.
Because treatment of OIs is an evolving science, and availability of new agents or clinical data on existing agents might change therapeutic options and preferences, these recommendations will be periodically updated and will be available at http://AIDSInfo.nih.gov.
PMCID: PMC2821196  PMID: 19730409
10.  The Library of the Royal Society of Physicians in Budapest becomes today's Semmelweis Medical History Library 
Objectives:
The 170-year history of the library of the Royal Society of Medicine in Budapest illustrates both that political and cultural context matter and that “medical” libraries, if they survive, in due course become primarily “medical history” libraries.
Methods:
Two of the authors are on the staff of the Semmelweis Medical History Library; the third is a US scholar who makes frequent use of the library. Together, they avail themselves of archival and published materials—and personal experience with the collection—to establish the context that produced the original library, trace its evolution, and describe its present-day incarnation.
Results:
A tale of transformation emerges that reflects how collections are likely to change. The authors present events and individuals in the life of the Royal Society's library and paint a picture of the value of today's Semmelweis Medical History Library. Unique treasures in the collection are described.
Conclusion:
The story told here is of how a particular nineteenth-century library became a twenty-first–century institution. The authors establish its peculiarly Hungarian context and potential value to librarians and historians from outside Hungary. The overall message is that general medical libraries everywhere are perforce likely to become medical historical libraries over time.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.99.1.007
PMCID: PMC3016667  PMID: 21243053
11.  Injuries and their relation to potential hazards in child day care. 
Injury Prevention  1996;2(2):105-108.
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively determine the incidence rate of injuries that required medical attention among children in day care and to identify possible hazards related to these injuries. SETTING: King County, Washington. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of children in a sample of licensed day care facilities. RESULTS: From 1 July 1992 to 30 June 1993, 53 medically attended injuries were reported by 133 day care sites; incidence rate 1.9 per 100,000 hours of day care attendance. The rate of injury in 91 small family day care homes was essentially the same as that in 42 larger day care centers; relative rate 1.0 (95% confidence interval 0.6 to 1.9). Injuries that required sutures accounted for 39% of the cases, while 17% required a cast, splint, or sling. No child was hospitalized. Sixty nine sites were inspected and all had potentially correctable physical hazards, with a median of 15 hazards per site (range 7 to 26). These potential hazards had little relationship to the risk of injury and a case-by-case review identified only two injuries that might have been prevented by a more energy absorbent playground surface. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of medically attended injuries found in this study is consistent with other studies from the United States. Most injuries were minor and had little relation to physical hazards at day care locations.
PMCID: PMC1067670  PMID: 9346070
12.  Stimulating Growth and Development of Medical Society Libraries * 
A library can represent the most valuable personal service which a medical society can offer to a physician; yet, libraries unfortunately are taking a lessening role in medical societies. Surveys show that medical society libraries have declined in number from seventy-one in 1942 to forty-eight at the present time. This paper offers a positive plan of action with the objective of enabling libraries to regain a position of eminence in medical societies. It is pointed out that there are four vital elements in stimulating the growth and development of a library. These are the constant enhancement of resources; the promotion of library services; the rendering of prompt, valuable services; and ultimately, the recognition of the library through gifts, endowments, and expressions of appreciation.
PMCID: PMC198497  PMID: 6016368
13.  The role of the academic medical center library in training public librarians*† 
Purpose: This project enhanced access to and awareness of health information resources on the part of public libraries in western Pennsylvania.
Setting/Participants/Resources: The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS), University of Pittsburgh, conducted a needs assessment and offered a series of workshops to 298 public librarians.
Brief Description: The National Library of Medicine–funded project “Access to Electronic Health Information” at the HSLS, University of Pittsburgh, provided Internet health information training to public libraries and librarians in sixteen counties in western Pennsylvania. Through this project, this academic medical center library identified the challenges for public librarians in providing health-related reference service, developed a training program to address those challenges, and evaluated the impact of this training on public librarians' ability to provide health information.
Results/Outcome: The HSLS experience indicates academic medical center libraries can have a positive impact on their communities by providing health information instruction to public librarians. The success of this project—demonstrated by the number of participants, positive course evaluations, increased comfort level with health-related reference questions, and increased use of MEDLINEplus and other quality information resources—has been a catalyst for continuation of this programming, not only for public librarians but also for the public in general.
Evaluation Method: A training needs assessment, course evaluation, and impact training survey were used in developing the curriculum and evaluating the impact of this training on public librarians' professional activities.
PMCID: PMC164399  PMID: 12883558
14.  Scope of resident ophthalmology consultation service and patient follow-up rates at a level 1 trauma center in Brooklyn, New York 
Background
The purpose of this study was to investigate the most common reasons for urgent ophthalmology consultations in both the emergency room and inpatient settings at a large public hospital served by a busy ophthalmology residency program, and to track patient follow-up rates.
Methods
We reviewed the medical records of all patients evaluated by the ophthalmology consultation service at Kings County Hospital Center from June 2003 to October 2005 using a retrospective hospital-based study design. We categorized emergency room patients and inpatients into traumatic and nontraumatic subgroups, and looked at diagnoses and patient demographics, as well as follow-up patterns for emergency room consultations.
Results
In total, 743 patients were evaluated; 436 (59%) were emergency room patients and 307 (41%) were inpatients. Consultation for traumatic eye injury was provided for 399 patients (54%), accounting for 284 (65%) of the emergency room consults and 115 (37.5%) of the inpatient consults. The most common reason for inpatient consultation was to rule out ocular manifestations of systemic disease (57 patients, 29.7%), while the most common final diagnosis for trauma inpatient consultation was orbital wall fracture (59 patients, 51.3%). In total, 262 patients (60%) in the emergency room consultation group returned for follow-up care; 162 (57%) of the trauma patients followed up and 100 (66%) of the nontrauma patients followed up.
Conclusion
This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the eye conditions and follow-up rates evaluated by the ophthalmology service at Kings County Hospital Center. By evaluating the follow-up patterns of these patients, we may be able to alter patient counseling to increase patient compliance.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S43345
PMCID: PMC3617788  PMID: 23576862
ophthalmology; residency program; urgent consultation; inpatients; outpatients; follow-up
15.  PREPARATION FOR DISASTER—What the Individual Medical Society Can Do 
California Medicine  1958;89(2):132-135.
Standardization of county medical society plans for dealing with casualties in disasters would greatly facilitate integration with the state Civil Defense organization.
Without such plans there can be no hope of coping with the great number of casualties that would come should this area be attacked.
The plan of the Alameda-Contra Costa County Medical Association herein described, has been tested in actual emergency and has been found effective.
PMCID: PMC1512336  PMID: 13561128
16.  Feasibility of Partnering with Emergency Medical Services to Identify People at Risk for Uncontrolled High Blood Pressure 
Introduction
Uncontrolled high blood pressure (HBP) is a significant health problem and often goes undetected. In the prehospital care-delivery system of 9-1-1 emergency medical services (EMS) calls, emergency medical technicians (EMTs) routinely collect medical information, including blood pressure values, that may indicate the presence of chronic disease. This information is usually archived without any further follow-up. We conducted several planning activities during the fall of 2006 to determine if a partnership between researchers at the Health Marketing Research Center at the University of Washington, Public Health Seattle King County EMS division, and several large fire departments could be developed to help identify community residents with uncontrolled HBP and determine the most effective way to communicate HBP information to them.
Methods
We partnered with 4 King County, Washington, fire departments that provide 9-1-1 EMS to develop an intervention for people with uncontrolled HBP who were attended by EMTs in response to a 9-1-1 call for assistance. On the basis of discussions with EMS personnel at all levels, we developed a system by which we could identify at-risk community residents by using medical incident report forms that EMS personnel completed; we consulted with EMS personnel to determine the most effective means of reaching these people. In addition we developed a survey to assess community residents' beliefs about blood pressure control, the role of EMTs as health care providers, and the convenience of fire stations as places to have blood pressure checked. Using contact information that EMS personnel obtained, we surveyed 282 community residents from a total of 794 people whom EMTs had identified as at risk for uncontrolled HBP to help us understand our target audience.
Results
In consultation with EMS personnel, we determined that direct mail was the most effective way to reach people with uncontrolled HBP identified from EMS records to advise them of their risk. On the basis of the number with a known response to each question, 67% (n = 180/269) of the respondents reported that a doctor or other health professional had told them they had HBP, 95% (246/259) believed that regular screening for HBP was important, 65% (166/254) said that EMTs were highly credible health care providers, and 82% (136/165) said that they would feel comfortable receiving blood pressure screening at a local fire station.
Conclusion
Partnering with local EMS may be an effective way to identify and reach community residents with uncontrolled HBP with information on their medical condition and to encourage them to have follow-up screening.
PMCID: PMC3340291  PMID: 22300868
17.  Factors Associated With the Adoption of a Patient Education Intervention Among First Responders, King County, Washington, 2010–2011 
Introduction
This study investigated facilitators and barriers to adoption of an at-scene patient education program by firefighter emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in King County, Washington.
Methods
We consulted providers of emergency medical services (EMS) to develop a patient education pamphlet in the form of a tear-off sheet that could be attached to the EMT medical incident report. The pamphlet included resources for at-scene patient education on high blood pressure, blood glucose, falls, and social services. The program was launched in 29 fire departments in King County, Washington, on January 1, 2010, and a formal evaluation was conducted in late 2011. We developed a survey based on diffusion theory to assess 1) awareness of the pamphlet, 2) evaluation of the pamphlet attributes, 3) encouragement by peers and superiors for handing out the pamphlet, 4) perceived behavioral norms, and 5) demographic variables associated with self-reported adoption of the at-scene patient education program. The survey was completed by 822 (40.1%) of 2,047 firefighter emergency medical technicians. We conducted bivariate and multivariable analyses to assess associations between independent variables and self-reported adoption of the program.
Results
Adoption of the at-scene patient education intervention was significantly associated with positive evaluation of the pamphlet, encouragement from peers and superiors, and perceived behavioral norms. EMS providers reported they were most likely to hand out the pamphlet to patients in private residences who were treated and left at the scene.
Conclusion
Attributes of chronic disease prevention programs and encouragement from peers and supervisors are necessary in diffusion of patient education interventions in the prehospital care setting.
doi:10.5888/pcd11.130221
PMCID: PMC3917608  PMID: 24480631
18.  The Contemporary Medical Society Library 
Four hundred sixty-eight medical societies in the United States were surveyed to determine those which sponsor libraries. Seventy-eight libraries were identified, of which eighteen are “marginal” and nine are jointly supported by a medical school and a society, leaving fifty-one relatively “substantial” libraries whose major support is through society membership. Characteristics measured include size of collection, types of media, staff, budget, services, and sources of support. Questions are raised concerning the role of the medical library as one institution which participates in the continuing education of the physician.
PMCID: PMC198253  PMID: 14271112
19.  Laws, leaders, and legends of the modern National Library of Medicine 
Purpose: The paper is an expanded version of the 2007 Joseph Leiter National Library of Medicine (NLM)/Medical Library Association Lecture presented at MLA ‘07, the Medical Library Association annual meeting in Philadelphia in May 2007. It presents an historical accounting of four major pieces of legislation, beginning with the NLM Act of 1956 up through the creation of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.
Brief Description: The transition from the United States Armed Forces Medical Library to the United States National Library of Medicine in 1956 was a major turning point in NLM's history, scope, and direction. The succeeding landmark legislative achievements—namely, the 1965 Medical Library Assistance Act, the 1968 Joint Resolution forming the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, and the 1988 authorization for the National Center for Biotechnology Information— transformed the library into a major biomedical communications institution and a leader and supporter of an effective national network of libraries of medicine. The leaders of the library and its major advocates—including Dr. Michael DeBakey, Senator Lister Hill, and Senator Claude Pepper—together contributed to the creation of the modern NLM.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.96.2.121
PMCID: PMC2268223  PMID: 18379667
20.  Analysis of fatal pedestrian injuries in King County, WA, and prospects for prevention. 
Public Health Reports  1989;104(3):293-297.
Pedestrian fatalities caused by motor vehicles in King County, WA, over a 12-month period were reviewed to examine the potential for prevention by various strategies. Cases were identified through the King County Medical Examiner's Office. Between April 1, 1985, and March 31, 1986, a total of 38 pedestrians died of motor vehicle injuries. The victims were generally children (N = 11), the elderly (N = 13), or intoxicated adults (N = 9). Supervision of the child was inadequate in 64 percent of the children's deaths. The driver was at fault in deaths of seven children, five adults, and three elderly persons. None of the children and only one of the elderly victims was injured at night. The majority of injuries occurred on major thorough-fares; only 16 percent occurred on residential streets. Possible strategies for prevention appear to include improved enforcement of pedestrian right-of-way laws, changes in vehicle design, modification of the environment (particularly in urban areas), and improved training programs for children.
PMCID: PMC1579918  PMID: 2498980
21.  Effect of Intensive Care Unit Organizational Model and Structure on Outcomes in Patients with Acute Lung Injury 
Rationale: Prior studies supported an association between intensive care unit (ICU) organizational model or staffing patterns and outcome in critically ill patients.
Objectives: To examine the association of closed versus open models with patient mortality across adult ICUs in King County (WA).
Methods: Cohort study of patients with acute lung injury (ALI).
Measurements and Main Results: ICU structure, organization, and patient care practices were assessed using self-administered mail questionnaires completed by the medical director and nurse manager. We defined closed ICUs as units that required patient transfer to or mandatory patient comanagement by an intensivist and open ICUs as those relying on other organizational models. Outcomes were obtained from the King County Lung Injury Project, a population-based cohort of patients with ALI. The main endpoint was hospital mortality. Of 24 eligible ICUs, 13 ICUs were designated closed and 11 open. Complete survey data were available for 23 (96%) ICUs. Higher physician and nurse availability was reported in closed versus open ICUs. A total of 684 of 1,075 (63%) of patients with ALI were cared for in closed ICUs. After adjusting for potential confounders, patients with ALI cared for in closed ICUs had reduced hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.53, 0.89; P = 0.004). Consultation by a pulmonologist in open ICUs was not associated with improved mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.74, 1.20; P = 0.62). These findings were robust for varying assumptions about the study population definition.
Conclusions: Patients with ALI cared for in a closed-model ICU have reduced mortality. These data support recommendations to implement structured intensive care in the United States.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200701-165OC
PMCID: PMC1994237  PMID: 17556721
intensive care unit; intensivist; outcome; practice patterns; Leapfrog Group
22.  Prediction of Critical Illness During Out-of-Hospital Emergency Care 
Context
Early identification of nontrauma patients in need of critical care services in the emergency setting may improve triage decisions and facilitate regionalization of critical care.
Objectives
To determine the out-of-hospital clinical predictors of critical illness and to characterize the performance of a simple score for out-of-hospital prediction of development of critical illness during hospitalization.
Design and Setting
Population-based cohort study of an emergency medical services (EMS) system in greater King County, Washington (excluding metropolitan Seattle), that transports to 16 receiving facilities.
Patients
Nontrauma, non–cardiac arrest adult patients transported to a hospital by King County EMS from 2002 through 2006. Eligible records with complete data (N=144 913) were linked to hospital discharge data and randomly split into development (n=87 266 [60%]) and validation (n=57 647 [40%]) cohorts.
Main Outcome Measure
Development of critical illness, defined as severe sepsis, delivery of mechanical ventilation, or death during hospitalization.
Results
Critical illness occurred during hospitalization in 5% of the development (n=4835) and validation (n=3121) cohorts. Multivariable predictors of critical illness included older age, lower systolic blood pressure, abnormal respiratory rate, lower Glasgow Coma Scale score, lower pulse oximetry, and nursing home residence during out-of-hospital care (P<.01 for all). When applying a summary critical illness prediction score to the validation cohort (range, 0-8), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.78), with satisfactory calibration slope (1.0). Using a score threshold of 4 or higher, sensitivity was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.20-0.23), specificity was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.98-0.98), positive likelihood ratio was 9.8 (95% CI, 8.9-10.6), and negative likelihood ratio was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.79-0.82). A threshold of 1 or greater for critical illness improved sensitivity (0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.98) but reduced specificity (0.17; 95% CI, 0.17-0.17).
Conclusions
In a population-based cohort, the score on a prediction rule using out-of-hospital factors was significantly associated with the development of critical illness during hospitalization. This score requires external validation in an independent population.
doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1140
PMCID: PMC3949007  PMID: 20716737
23.  CNS toxoplasmosis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a clinical-pathological-radiological review of 12 cases. 
From January 1981 to January 1983 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed in 90 patients admitted to Kings County Hospital-Downstate Medical Center. CNS involvement occurred in 18 patients of whom 12 had toxoplasmosis confirmed by biopsy or necropsy. Pathological specimens from these 12 patients were notable for a marked diminution or absence of cellular inflammation. Each patient had elevated serological studies for toxoplasma. AIDS presented with symptoms referable to CNS toxoplasma in eight patients. In the remaining four patients, toxoplasma was found late in the course of the illness. CT showed either ring enhancing lesions or solid nodules. The course was uniformly fatal, though patients treated continuously with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine survived longer.
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PMCID: PMC1028896  PMID: 3746305
24.  Mammary Malignancy in The Male 
Mammary carcinoma in the male, a relatively uncommon disease, represents about 0.9 to 1.5 percent of all breast cancers. 1,2 The authors reviewed 16 cases of male breast cancer seen in a 30-year period at the State University of New York, Kings County Hospital Medical Center in Brooklyn, and the North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset. Epidemiology, etiology, demography, signs and symptoms, management, and prognosis are discussed. A review of pertinent literature is presented.
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PMCID: PMC2537176  PMID: 722829
25.  CHILDHOOD ACCIDENT PREVENTION—Program and Statistical Survey by a County Medical Society 
California Medicine  1959;91(2):62-64.
A study of childhood accidents was begun by the Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association to determine the incidence of various kinds of accidents, the causes and possible means of prevention. Hospitals, the State Department of Public Health and county and city health departments gave willing assistance when their aid was sought.
Data gathered thus far have served to better identify the problems and can be used to set priorities for various phases of future study.
PMCID: PMC1577898  PMID: 13671356

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