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1.  Juvenile granulosa cell tumor presenting as isosexual precocious puberty: A case report and review of literature 
The differential diagnosis for precocious puberty in a young female includes peripheral causes. This case report documents a rare cause of isosexual precocious puberty, a juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary–and a brief literature review. A 7-year-old girl presented with rapid onset of pubertal development and elevated estradiol levels. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the right adnexa. Other causes of precocious puberty were excluded. Elective surgery was planned, but the patient presented to the emergency room with torsion of ovary. She underwent an exploratory laparotomy for tumor resection and right salpingo oophorectomy. Pathology reported a juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively, she experienced a cessation of vaginal bleeding and estradiol levels normalized. Early stage disease has good prognosis. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not indicated in this setting.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.107870
PMCID: PMC3659885  PMID: 23776871
Juvenile granulosa cell tumor; precocious puberty; ovarian tumour; paediatric endocrinology
2.  Central Precocious Puberty and Granulosa Cell Ovarian Tumor in An 8-Year Old Female 
Pediatric Reports  2013;5(3):e13.
Ovarian tumors associated with hormonal changes of the peripheral iso-sexual precocious puberty are of common presentation. We describe here a rare case of juvenile granulosa cell tumor in a female with central precocious puberty (CPP). An 8-year old girl with CPP presented with vaginal bleeding four months after the diagnosis and before starting treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-analogs. Suppression of basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level, elevation of serum estradiol, progesterone and Cancer Antigen-125 were documented. Abdominal ultrasound examination (US) and magnetic resonance imaging showed a pelvic mass affecting the left ovary. A left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the mass was totally resected. Juvenile granulosa cell ovarian tumor was diagnosed. One month post surgery, estradiol and progesterone decreased to values of the first evaluation and FSH increased; Cancer Antigen-125 resulted normal while ultrasound pelvic examination showed absence of pelvic masses. In our patient, the tumor had grown very quickly since hormonal data demonstrated a CPP without any evidence of ovarian mass on US only four months before diagnosis. The overstimulation of the FSH or aberrant activation of FSH receptors may have contributed to the development of the mass.
doi:10.4081/pr.2013.e13
PMCID: PMC3812530  PMID: 24198925
central precocious puberty; juvenile granulosa cell; ovarian tumor; children
3.  Precocious puberty secondary to a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with an ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report 
Introduction
Ovarian tumors are the least common cause of sexual precocity in girls. Mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumors associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary are rare neoplasms, of which only a small number of well-documented cases have been described so far. Here, we report precocious puberty in a four-year-old Egyptian girl caused by a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary.
Case presentation
A four-year-old Egyptian girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology unit for evaluation of bilateral breast budding, pubic hair and vaginal bleeding. On examination, we found that her breast enlargement and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner III. A thorough workup revealed a large mass in her right ovary. Magnetic resonance imaging ofher brain showed that her pituitary gland was normal. A hormonal assay revealed high levels of estradiol, 280 to 375pmol/L; progesterone, 5.3 nmol/L; testosterone 38.9 pg/mL; and androstenedione, 4.1 ng/mL. Her basal and stimulated levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were low. Tumor markers levels were high, with a total inhibin of 1,069U/L and an alpha-fetoprotein of 987 μg/L. Her chromosomes were normal (46XX). Our patient underwent an explorative laparotomy and a solid tumor localized to her right ovary was identified. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumorwith a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively, she was started on treatment with chemotherapy. Our patient is doing well without evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis during eight months of postoperative follow-up.
Conclusion
Although a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a prepubescent girl with an abdominal mass and precocious puberty.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-162
PMCID: PMC3414798  PMID: 22734844
4.  An unusual presentation of a usual disorder: Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome 
Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome (VWGS) is characterized by juvenile hypothyroidism, delayed bone age, and isosexual precocious puberty. A 10.7-year-old girl presented with premature menarche and isosexual precocity. She had delayed bone age and multicystic ovaries. High circulating levels of TSH with prepubertal LH confirmed the diagnosis of VWGS. Tendency to manifest sexual precocity in VWGS may be directly related to the severity of the TSH elevation. High circulating levels of TSH acting directly on FSH receptors are the actual mediators of precocity.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.83356
PMCID: PMC3169870  PMID: 21966653
Hypothyroidism; precocious puberty; Van Wyk–Grumbach syndrome
5.  Premature Menarche Associated with Primary Hypothyroidism in a 5.5-Year-Old Girl 
Case Reports in Endocrinology  2011;2011:678305.
Children with hypothyroidism generally have delayed pubertal development. Rare association with precocious puberty may occur especially in long standing untreated patients. The cardinal features of hypothyroidism induced pseudo precocious pubertal development include thelarche, galactorrhea and menarche. Other characteristics features are an absence of sexual hair and retardation of linear growth. Its manifestation as isolated menarche has been rarely reported. Recently, a five and half year old girl presented to us with history of one episode of vaginal bleeding. A pelvic ultrasonogram revealed multiple cysts in both ovaries and subsequent investigations led to a diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism.
doi:10.1155/2011/678305
PMCID: PMC3420754  PMID: 22937289
6.  Short stature and an interesting association 
Indian Journal of Human Genetics  2013;19(1):101-103.
Untreated hypothyroidism in children usually results in delayed puberty, but juvenile hypothyroidism causes isosexual precocious puberty in a rare syndrome called Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome, with a complete reversal to the pre pubertal state following thyroid hormone replacement therapy. We report here, a 7-year-old girl who presented with short stature, constipation and isosexual precocious puberty due to the long standing untreated severe hypothyroidism with this syndrome.
doi:10.4103/0971-6866.112919
PMCID: PMC3722618  PMID: 23901203
Hypothyroidism; precocious puberty; short stature
7.  Precocious puberty in girls 
Precocious puberty in girls can be due to number of factors of which idiopathic central precocious puberty is the most common etiology. Here, we describe 3 cases of precocious puberty where the first case had premature thelarche in the background history of mother with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, cases 2 and 3 had ovarian tumours with heterogeneity in presentation.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.104036
PMCID: PMC3603023  PMID: 23565375
Precocious puberty; girls; ovarian tumours; idiopathic
8.  Leydig Cell Testicular Tumour Presenting as Isosexual Precocious Pseudopuberty in a 5 Year-old Boy with No Palpable Testicular Mass 
Leydig cell testicular tumors are very rare in children and cause isosexual precocious puberty. Palpable testicular mass or asymmetric testes are common findings on routine examination. We report on a 5-yr-old boy with a Leydig cell tumor of the testis presented with isosexual precocious puberty but no scrotal palpable mass. To our knowledge, this is the first reported Leydig cell tumor in a boy without palpable scrotal mass.
doi:10.1297/cpe.19.19
PMCID: PMC3687613  PMID: 23926374
Leydig-cell tumor; testicular; precocious puberty; neoplasm; testis
9.  Extraovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor of Mesentery: A Case Report 
Extraovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a very uncommon tumor, assumed to arise from the ectopic gonadal tissue along the embryonal route of the genital ridge. A 54 years old female patient presented with a mass and acute pain in abdomen. Exploratory laparatomy revealed hemoperitoneum with a large mesenteric mass measuring 13 × 12 cm in size, showing extensive areas of haemorrhages. Histopathological examination of the excised mass showed features of adult-type GCT. As the patient had a history of hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 10 years ago for ‘‘leiomyoma” with no evidence of GCT of the ovary in the histopathology report, a diagnosis of extraovarian GCT was made. A diagnosis of extraovarian GCT should be carried out after excluding any previous history of GCT of the ovary. Tumor rupture with haemoperitoneum is a well-known complication of GCT. Extraovarian GCT is a rare tumor with only 10 cases reported in literature. The case is presented for its rarity.
doi:10.4061/2010/292606
PMCID: PMC2997286  PMID: 21152176
10.  Diagnosis and constitutional and laboratory features of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2012;55(12):481-486.
Purpose
Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups.
Methods
The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from 2006 to 2010 for the evaluation of precocious puberty. Study groups comprised fast puberty, true precocious puberty (PP), pseudo PP, premature thelarche, and control. We determined the height standard deviation score (HSDS), weight standard deviation score (WSDS), and body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS) of each group using the published 2007 Korean growth charts. Hormone tests were performed at our outpatient clinic.
Results
The PP groups comprised fast puberty (67%), premature thelarche (17%), true PP (15%), and pseudo PP (1%). Advanced bone age and levels of estradiol, basal luteinizing hormone (LH), and peak LH after gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation testing were significantly high in the fast puberty and true PP groups compared with the control group. HSDS, WSDS, and BMISDS were significantly higher in the true PP group than in the control group (P<0.05).
Conclusion
The frequent causes of PP were found to be fast puberty, true PP, and premature thelarche. Furthermore, BMISDS were significantly elevated in the true PP group. Therefore, we emphasize the need for regular follow-up of girls who are heavier or taller than others in the same age group.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.12.481
PMCID: PMC3534162  PMID: 23300504
Precocious puberty; Puberty; Premature thelarche; Body mass index; Sexual maturation
11.  Refractory Hypertension and Isosexual Pseudoprecocious Puberty Associated with Renin-Secreting Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor in a Girl 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(6):836-838.
Steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified (NOS), are rare ovarian tumor, in addition, it is more rare in children. The majority of these tumors produce several steroid hormones, particularly testosterone. Estrogen also secreted by steroid cell tumor, NOS, but it is uncommon. Furthermore, hypertension is an infrequent sign in steroid cell tumor, NOS. An 8.5-yr-old girl with hypertension and frequent vaginal spotting visited at our clinic. On laboratory evaluation, secondary hypertension due to an elevated plasma renin level and isosexual pseudoprecocious puberty was diagnosed. Right solid ovarian mass was detected in radiologic tests. She underwent a right ooporectomy and it revealed renin and progesterone receptor positive steroid cell tumor, NOS. After operation, her blood pressure returned to normal level and vaginal bleeding disappeared. Even though this case is very rare, when hypertension coincides with virilization or feminization, a renin-secreting ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS, should be considered.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.6.836
PMCID: PMC3102882  PMID: 21655074
Pseudo-Precocious Puberty; Hypertension; Ovarian Neoplasms; Renin-Secreting Tumor
12.  A Case of Atypical McCune-Albright Syndrome with Vaginal Bleeding 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2011;21(3):399-403.
Background
McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare non-inherited disorder characterized by the clinical triad of precocious puberty, cafe-au-lait skin lesions, and fibrous dysplasia of bone.
Case Presentation
We report a girl with MAS, presenting initially with vaginal bleeding at the age of 17 months. Ultrasonography revealed unilateral ovarian cysts and ureteral and ovarian enlargement. Considering the clinical and paraclinical findings, the patient diagnosed as a case of gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty was treated with medroxy-progestrone acetate (MPA) for three months. During the follow up, recurrent episodes of bleeding, ovarian activation and cyst formation, as well as breast size development were reported. At the age of 5.5 years, fibrous dysplasia was detected, which in coexistence with precocious puberty confirmed the diagnosis of MAS. The patient had no cafe-au-lait skin macles during follow up.
Conclusion
Considering that clinical manifestations of MAS appear later in the course of recurrent periods of ovarian activation and cyst formation, a careful clinical observation and follow up of patients is necessary and the diagnosis of MAS must be kept in mind in cases with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty.
PMCID: PMC3446187  PMID: 23056821
McCune-Albright Syndrome; Bleeding; Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone; Precocious Puberty
13.  Precocious puberty: A blessing in disguise! 
Germ cell tumors may lead to incomplete isosexual male precocity and are commonly located in the pineal gland. Germinomas of the basal ganglia are almost always unilateral and precocious puberty is a rare manifestation in them. We report a 9.5-year-old boy who presented with incomplete isosexual precocity due to bilateral basal ganglia germinoma.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.119522
PMCID: PMC3830272  PMID: 24251126
Basal ganglia germinoma; precocious puberty
14.  Precocious pseudopuberty due to an autonomous ovarian follicular cyst: case report with a review of literatures 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:319.
Background
Small follicular cysts are commonly found in the ovaries of prepubertal girls, and in most cases, they are of no clinical importance. These cysts are usually self-limiting and resolve spontaneously. However, occasionally, these cysts may enlarge and continue to produce estrogen, resulting in signs of sexual precocity. Here, we report a case of precocious pseudopuberty associated with an autonomous ovarian follicular cyst.
Case presentation
A 5.9-year-old girl initially presented to a local clinic with vaginal bleeding and a large unilateral ovarian cyst. At 6 months after the initial acute episode, the patient visited our hospital as the ovarian cyst had persisted and increased in size. Endocrinological examination showed elevated estrogen levels and suppressed gonadotropin levels on GnRH stimulation test. Also, no skin pigmentation or bone anomaly was noted. Based on these observations, laparoscopic cystectomy was performed, and histologic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of a follicular cyst. After the laparoscopic cystectomy, the patient’s hormone levels returned to normal and no ovarian cyst was detected by ultrasound.
Conclusions
As autonomous ovarian cysts are usually self-limiting disorder, no treatment is necessary. Therefore, surgical management should be deferred as long as possible to avoid the risk of repeat surgery, as pseudoprecocious puberty due to autonomous ovarian cysts can resolve spontaneoulsy and frequently recurs. Precocious pseudopuberty with an ovarian cyst may be due to granulosa cell tumor or may be one symptom of the McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS). A careful longer-term follow up of patients with autonomous ovarian cysts and/or molecular studies may be necessary in such cases.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-319
PMCID: PMC3766658  PMID: 23937919
Precocious pseudopuberty; Autonomous ovarian follicular cyst; Laparoscopic
15.  Contemporary issues in precocious puberty 
Precocious puberty poses significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the physician. Recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology of precocious puberty have resulted in improved management. Timely intervention is mandatory to achieve successful outcome. The identification of critical role of KISS-1-kisspeptin-GPR54 system has gone a long way to provide an insight into pubertal physiology. It is likely that the system would become an important diagnostic and therapeutic target in children with precocious puberty. Epidemiological studies point toward earlier thelarche. This is, however, associated with slower progression as the age of menarche is static. These changes have led to suggestions of lowering the age cutoffs for precocious puberty in girls. New developments in assessment of precocious puberty including gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist test have made characterization of precocious puberty easier. Longstanding GnRH analogs have become the mainstay of treatment of gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty, while aromatase inhibitors and inhibitors of sex hormone action are increasingly being used in gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.84855
PMCID: PMC3183522  PMID: 22029021
GnRH analog; precocious puberty; recent advances
16.  Transforming Growth Factor Alpha (TGFα) Regulates Granulosa Cell Tumor (GCT) Cell Proliferation and Migration through Activation of Multiple Pathways 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e48299.
Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common ovarian estrogen producing tumors, leading to symptoms of excessive estrogen such as endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential and often recur. The etiology of GCT is unknown. TGFα is a potent mitogen for many different cells. However, its function in GCT initiation, progression and metastasis has not been determined. The present study aims to determine whether TGFα plays a role in the growth of GCT cells. KGN cells, which are derived from an invasive GCT and have many features of normal granulosa cells, were used as the cellular model. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that the ErbB family of receptors is expressed in human GCT tissues and GCT cell lines. RT-PCR results also indicated that TGFα and EGF are expressed in the human granulosa cells and the GCT cell lines, suggesting that TGFα might regulate GCT cell function in an autocrine/paracrine manner. TGFα stimulated KGN cell DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell viability, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. TGFα rapidly activated EGFR/PI3K/Akt and mTOR pathways, as indicated by rapid phosphorylation of Akt, TSC2, Rictor, mTOR, P70S6K and S6 proteins following TGFα treatment. TGFα also rapidly activated the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway, and P38 MAPK pathways, as indicated by the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR, MEK, ERK1/2, P38, and CREB after TGFα treatment. Whereas TGFα triggered a transient activation of Akt, it induced a sustained activation of ERK1/2 in KGN cells. Long-term treatment of KGN cells with TGFα resulted in a significant increase in cyclin D2 and a decrease in p27/Kip1, two critical regulators of granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell tumorigenesis. In conclusion, TGFα, via multiple signaling pathways, regulates KGN cell proliferation and migration and may play an important role in the growth and metastasis of GCTs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048299
PMCID: PMC3498304  PMID: 23155381
17.  Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Children Referred for Early Puberty: Preponderance in 7-8 Years of Age 
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the girls referred to the pediatric outpatient clinic with a presumptive diagnosis of early puberty due to early onset of breast development or pubarche.
Methods: Within the study period, we evaluated 289 subjects referred for concerns about early onset of puberty. History, anthropometric data, bone age (BA), hormones including luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, as well as pelvic ultrasonography (USG)-derived ovarian and uterine volumes were analyzed.
Results: Of the 289 girls referred for early onset of pubertal development, 64 (22.1%) had false alarms for puberty. Of the remaining 225 girls, 41 (18.2%) were diagnosed as premature pubarche, 56 (24.9%) as premature thelarche (PT), and 128 (56.9%) as precocious puberty (PP). Girls with early-onset puberty had more advanced BA, greater uterine and ovarian volumes, and also higher LH values than subjects with PP and PT. Nearly half of these girls were 7-8 years of age. Body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score was significantly higher in the PP cases.
Conclusions: There is a need for primary care physicians to be more knowledgeable on puberty and on puberty problems. There seems to be a preponderance of PP in 7-8-year-old children . Increased BMI may have a role in the trend towards earlier onset of puberty
Conflict of interest:None declared.
doi:10.4274/Jcrpe.736
PMCID: PMC3537288  PMID: 23261863
Pubarche; child; puberty; precox puberty; thelarche
18.  TLR4 activates NFkB in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells 
Previous studies have demonstrated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the surface epithelium of normal ovaries (OSE) and in epithelial ovarian tumors. Most notably, OSE-derived cancers express TLR4, which activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling cascade as a mediator of inflammatory response. Currently, there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of TLR-mediated signaling in cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of TLRs in granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and the extent to which GCT expression of TLRs may influence cell-signaling pathways and/or modulate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, has yet to be determined. In the present study, human GCT lines (COV434 and KGN) were utilized to evaluate expression of functional TLR4. TLR4 is expressed in GCT cell lines and ligation of TLR4 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to IκB degradation and activation of NF-κB. NF-κB activation was confirmed by nuclear localization of NF-κB p65 following treatment with LPS and the naturally occurring ligand, HSP60. Notably, immunoneutralization of TLR4 blocked nuclear localization, and inhibition of NF-κB signaling attenuated LPS-induced TNFαplus increased doubling time in both cell lines. Contradictory to reports using human OSE cell lines, inhibition of NF-κB signaling failed to sensitize GCT lines to TRAIL or cisplatin. In summary, findings herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR-signaling pathway specifically in GCTs, and indicate that in contrast to OSE-derived cancers, inhibition of NF-κB does not sensitize GCTs to TRAIL or cisplatin.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.05.063
PMCID: PMC3118942  PMID: 21616060
Granulosa cell tumor; Toll-like receptor; TLR; ovary; LPS; lipopolysaccharide
19.  Fine map of the Gct1 spontaneous ovarian granulosa cell tumor locus 
Mammalian Genome  2012;24(1-2):63-71.
The spontaneous development of juvenile-onset, ovarian granulosa cell (GC) tumors in the SWR/Bm (SWR) inbred mouse strain is a model for juvenile-type GC tumors that appear in infants and young girls. GC tumor susceptibility is supported by multiple Granulosa cell tumor (Gct) loci, but the Gct1 locus on Chr 4 derived from SWR strain background is fundamental for GC tumor development and uniquely responsive to the androgenic precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). To resolve the location of Gct1 independently from other susceptibility loci, Gct1 was isolated in a congenic strain that replaces the distal segment of Chr 4 in SWR mice with a 47 × 106-bp genomic segment from the Castaneus/Ei (CAST) strain. SWR females homozygous for the CAST donor segment were confirmed to be resistant to DHEA- and testosterone-induced GC tumorigenesis, indicating successful exchange of CAST alleles (Gct1CA) for SWR alleles (Gct1SW) at this tumor susceptibility locus. A series of nested, overlapping, congenic sublines was created to fine-map Gct1 based on GC tumor susceptibility under the influence of pubertal DHEA treatment. Twelve informative lines have resolved the Gct1 locus to a 1.31 × 106-bp interval on mouse Chr 4, a region orthologous to human Chr 1p36.22.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00335-012-9439-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00335-012-9439-6
PMCID: PMC3560948  PMID: 23179634
20.  Idiopathic central precocious puberty in girls: presentation factors 
BMC Pediatrics  2008;8:27.
Background
It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between premature thelarche and precocious puberty in girls who develop breasts before the age of 8 years. We evaluated the frequencies of the signs associated with breast development and the factors influencing the presentation of girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP).
Methods
353 girls monitored 0.9 ± 0.7 year after the onset of CPP.
Results
The age at CPP was < 3 years in 2%, 3–7 years in 38% and 7–8 years in 60% of cases. Pubic hair was present in 67%, growth rate greater than 2 SDS in 46% and bone age advance greater than 2 years in 33% of cases. Breast development was clinically isolated in 70 (20%) cases. However, only 31 of these (8.8% of the population) had a prepubertal length uterus and gonadotropin responses to gonadotropin releasing hormone and plasma estradiol. The clinical picture of CPP became complete during the year following the initial evaluation.
25% of cases were obese. The increase in weight during the previous year (3.7 ± 1.4 kg) and body mass index were positively correlated with the statural growth and bone age advance (P < 0.0001).
There was no relationship between the clinical-biological presentation and the age at puberty, the interval between the onset of puberty and evaluation, or the presence of familial CPP.
Conclusion
The variation in presentation of girls with CPP does not depend on their age, interval between the onset and evaluation, or familial factors. This suggests that there are degrees of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian activation that are not explained by these factors.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-8-27
PMCID: PMC2459158  PMID: 18601733
21.  Treatment of gonadotropin dependent precocious puberty due to hypothalamic hamartoma with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist depot 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1999;80(3):231-234.
The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secreting hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is a congenital malformation consisting of a heterotopic mass of nervous tissue that contains GnRH neurosecretory neurons attached to the tuber cinereum or the floor of the third ventricle. HH is a well recognised cause of gonadotropin dependent precocious puberty (GDPP). Long term data are presented on eight children (five boys and three girls) with GDPP due to HH. Physical signs of puberty were observed before 2 years of age in all patients. At presentation with sexual precocity, the mean height standard deviation (SD) for chronological age was +1.60 (1.27) and the mean height SD for bone age was −0.92 (1.77). Neurological symptoms were absent at presentation and follow up. The hamartoma diameter ranged from 5 to 18 mm and did not change in six patients who had magnetic resonance imaging follow up. All patients were treated clinically with GnRH agonists (GnRH-a). The duration of treatment varied from 2.66 to 8.41 years. Seven of the eight children had satisfactory responses to treatment, shown by regression of pubertal signs, suppression of hormonal levels, and improvement of height SD for bone age and predicted height. One patient had a severe local reaction to GnRH-a with failure of hormonal suppression and progression of pubertal signs. It seems that HH is benign and that GnRH-a treatment provides satisfactory and safe control for most children with GDPP due to HH.


PMCID: PMC1717869  PMID: 10325702
22.  Presentation of two patients with malignant granulosa cell tumors, with a review of the literature 
Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary account for 2 to 5 of ovarian malignancies. We present two patients with malignant ovarian adult GCT. In one patient, a combination of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin was effective after initial surgery for malignant GCT. In the other, an aromatase inhibitor was effective for recurrent malignant GCT. We also review the literature for further management of this tumor. Because GCT of the ovary is rare, it will be necessary to elucidate the clinical phenotype and establish treatment protocols by accumulating and analyzing more patients.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-185
PMCID: PMC3490972  PMID: 22963202
Ovarian malignant granulosa cell tumor; BEP combination therapy; Aromatase inhibitor
23.  Psychosocial Aspects in Girls with Idiopathic Precocious Puberty 
Psychiatry Investigation  2012;9(1):25-28.
Objective
Precocious puberty leads to discrepancies between physical and chronological age. The aim of the present study was to evaluate behavioral patterns and social competences in 34 girls with idiopathic precocious puberty.
Methods
Height, body weight, and BMI were determined, and pubertal development was assessed. The Korean-child behavior checklist (K-CBCL) was completed by parents.
Results
1) Body weight and BMI were significantly higher in precocious puberty group than in the control group. 2) T scores of total social competence and school scales of K-CBCL were significantly higher in the precocious puberty group than in the control group. 3) T scores of externalizing problems and total behavior problems of K-CBCL were also significantly higher in the precocious puberty group. 4) T scores of thought problems and attention problems of K-CBCL were significantly higher in the precocious puberty group than the control group.
Conclusion
Although girls with precocious puberty had more behavioral problems, no significant differences were observed between the two study groups in terms of clinically-important T scores. However, the concerns of parents and patients regarding behavioral and emotional changes might be most important when evaluating psychosocial problems. Early recognition, sufficient understanding, communication with patients and parents regarding physical developmental difference from children in the same age, can improve the self-image of those with precocious puberty.
doi:10.4306/pi.2012.9.1.25
PMCID: PMC3285737  PMID: 22396681
Precocious puberty; Psychosocial problem
24.  Precocious puberty in an infant with hepatoblastoma: a case report 
Introduction
The syndrome of isosexual precocious puberty associated with primary malignant hepatic tumors is rare. All previously reported cases in the literature are old and prognosis was grim.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 15-month-old Asian male baby who presented with precocious puberty associated with hepatoblastoma. Serum concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein and free testosterone were elevated, as was beta human chorionic gonadotropin hormone. He was treated with six courses of chemotherapy and underwent surgery. His surface markers as well as free testosterone level returned to normal during therapy. The child has now been off therapy for 18 months with no evidence of tumor recurrence at follow-up.
Conclusion
Virilizing hepatoblastoma is rare and reported with poor outcome, but the development of new chemotherapeutic agents and complete surgical resection are promising.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-422
PMCID: PMC3171382  PMID: 21878089
25.  The Multifaceted Granulosa Cell Tumours—Myths and Realities: A Review 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2012;2012:878635.
Background. Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs), representing ~2% of ovarian tumours, are poorly understood neoplasms with unpredictable and undetermined biological behaviour. Design. 5 unusual presentations of GCT and a retrospective 14-year (1997–2011) surgical pathology review based on patient sex, age, tumour type and concurrent pathology findings are presented to discuss the “myths and realities” of GCTs in the context of relevant evidence-based literature. Results. The 5 index cases included (1) a 5 month-old boy with a left testicular mass, (2) a 7-day-old neonate with a large complex cystic mass in the abdomen, (3) a 76-year-old woman with an umbilical mass, (4) a 64-year-old woman with a complex solid-cystic pelvic mass, and (5) a 45 year-old woman with an acute abdomen. Pathological analysis confirmed the final diagnosis as (1) juvenile GCT, (2) macrofollicular GCT, (3) recurrent GCT 32 years later, (4) collision tumour: colonic adenocarcinoma and GCT, and (5) ruptured GCT. Conclusion. GCT is best considered as an unusual indolent neoplasm of low malignant potential with late recurrences that can arise in the ovaries and testicles in both the young and the old. Multifaceted clinical presentations coupled with the unpredictable biological behaviour with late relapses are diagnostic pitfalls necessitating a high degree of suspicion for accurate clinical and pathological diagnosis.
doi:10.5402/2012/878635
PMCID: PMC3449135  PMID: 23008780

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