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1.  Management of Bilateral Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens in a Patient with Subacute Splenic Laceration 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2008;1(1):45-48.
Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is a rare but limb-threatening complication of deep vein thrombosis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with recent splenic trauma and inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement, who developed bilateral lower extremity PCD. Utilizing an endoluminal approach, the patient underwent mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolysis through bilateral infusion catheters placed antegrade from bothpopliteal veins. Clot lysis and return of palpable pedal pulses occurred within 24 hours. We demonstrate that the endoluminal management of this disease may be cautiously applied to the trauma patient, and that the judicious use of thrombolytic therapy can be beneficial even in the patient with a high potential for hemorrhage.
doi:10.3400/avd.AVDcr07002
PMCID: PMC3610218  PMID: 23555338
phlegmasia; dolens; thrombolysis
2.  Advanced testicular cancer presenting with phlegmasia cerulea dolens 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2000;76(894):234-236.
A case of fulminating deep venous thrombosis secondary to invasion of the inferior vena cava is described in a 45 year old man presenting with a germ cell tumour. Despite aggressive supportive care and emergency chemotherapy his late presentation caused his death. The case highlights the necessity for increased public education of the attendant risks in delayed presentation with a testicular lump.


Keywords: phlegmasia cerulea dolens; testicular carcinoma
doi:10.1136/pmj.76.894.234
PMCID: PMC1741557  PMID: 10727571
3.  Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filter and Catheter Directed Thrombolysis (CDT) for Treating a 19-year-old Man with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Complicated by Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A Case Report 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2011;4(2):128-133.
Here, we report a case of a 19-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia complicated by deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in which we placed a retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter during catheter directed thrombolysis (CDT). We were able to retrieve the IVC filter after a successful CDT and concluded that the use of this filter might be efficacious and better than an indwelling IVC filter that is associated with long-term risks. A retrievable filter and CDT should be considered in patients who are at transient risk for phlebemphraxis and require placement of a filter.
doi:10.3400/avd.cr.10.01047
PMCID: PMC3595837  PMID: 23555443
catheter directed thrombolysis; retrievable inferior vena cava filter; deep vein thrombosis
4.  Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: What Should We Know 
Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is one of the most critical disorders of acute deep vein thrombosis in that it can cause permanent disability secondary to the compartment syndrome. Although several etiological factors have been proposed, PCD after coronary artery bypass surgery is extremely rare and its definitive pathophysiology is still under debate. We herein present a case of PCD that resulted in the compartment syndrome after coronary artery bypass surgery. Early recognition and decompression of PCD are crucial for saving the affected limbs.
doi:10.5090/kjtcs.2014.47.1.43
PMCID: PMC3928263  PMID: 24570866
Coronary artery bypass surgery; Complication; Compartment syndromes; Necrotizing fasciitis
5.  IVC Filters May Prevent Fatal Pulmonary Embolism in Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery 
To determine whether inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement protects patients with musculoskeletal tumors from fatal pulmonary embolisms (PE), we retrospectively analyzed the records of 81 patients who underwent surgery for pelvic and lower extremity malignancies. All 81 patients received an IVC filter and mechanical compression for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis, but no pharmacologic anticoagulation. Duplex imaging was performed before hospital discharge and when clinical suspicion of DVT arose. Seventy-six of the 81 (94%) patients were followed at least 3 months (mean, 21.3 months; range, 3–77 months) postoperatively. We reviewed the perioperative medical records and office visit notes to determine the rate of clinically evident DVT, symptomatic PE, wound complications, and IVC filter-related complications. DVT and PE incidences in the early postoperative period (< 30 days) were 21% (17 of 81) and 2% (two of 81), respectively. There were no known deaths from PE. Patients undergoing reconstruction surgery (n = 41) were more likely to have early DVT develop after definitive tumor surgery. Patient age, tumor type or histology, anatomic location, presence of pathologic fracture, or development of wound complications did not correlate with an increased DVT rate. Two (3%) patients had late DVT, and none had a late PE. Combining an IVC filter with mechanical limb compression prevented fatal PE in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery for malignancies of the pelvis and lower extremity and is a reasonable form of thromboembolic prophylaxis specific for this patient population.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0607-7
PMCID: PMC2601013  PMID: 18989730
6.  Phlegmasia caerulea dolens secondary to pelvic plasmacytoma and left femoral deep vein thrombosis☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Phlegmasia caerulea dolens (PCD) is a clinical syndrome caused by venous obstruction leading to peripheral limb ischaemia. It can ultimately lead to venous gangrene, amputation or death in 25% of cases.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 52-year-old man with a background of myeloma developed PCD secondary to an obstructing plasmacytoma and left femoral vein deep vein thrombosis (DVT). These were treated with combined radiotherapy and anticoagulation, with resolution of the patient's symptoms. His recovery was complicated by the development of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and cutaneous vasculitis.
DISCUSSION
Both plasmacytoma and DVT are recognised complications of myeloma. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of these phenomena in combination causing PCD. The combination of venous stasis from the obstructing plasmacytoma and hypercoagulability from the underlying myeloma may have contributed to clot formation. A multifaceted treatment approach was required which aimed at improving venous flow via radiotherapy to the plasmacytoma and dissolving the obstructing clot with anticoagulant therapy.
CONCLUSION
PCD has a high mortality and morbidity. Recognition is important to avoid an incorrect diagnosis of arterial occlusion and inappropriate surgical intervention. Treatment must be focused on removing the offending causes.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.07.010
PMCID: PMC3785849  PMID: 23959409
Phlegmasia caerulea dolens; Deep vein thrombosis; Myeloma
7.  Thermoregulatory catheter–associated inferior vena cava thrombus 
The use of thermoregulatory catheters (TRCs) in critically ill patients has become increasingly popular. TRCs have been shown to be effective in regulating patient body temperature with improved outcomes. Critically ill patients, especially multitrauma patients and those with femoral catheters, are at high risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Among patients for whom chemical DVT prophylaxis is not an option, inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are often placed prophylactically. The development of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has allowed placement of IVC filters at the bedside for patients who are too ill for transport to the operating room or cardiac catheterization lab. After encountering several patients with occult DVT of the IVC during bedside IVC filter placement, we performed a retrospective review to determine the incidence of DVT or pulmonary embolus (PE) in patients who had been treated with a TRC at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas. Since 2008, IVC filters have been deployed at the bedside with the use of IVUS at Baylor University Medical Center. During that same time period, 83 patients had a TRC placed for either intravascular warming or cooling during their resuscitation. Forty-seven out of 83 patients who had a TRC placed survived their injuries. Ten of 47 patients (21%) were diagnosed with DVT or PE, and 6 of these 10 (60%) were found to have caval thrombus. We present this case series as evidence that undiagnosed IVC thrombus associated with TRCs may be higher than previously suspected, given that 5 out of 10 patients who had IVUS of their IVC for prophylactic IVC filter placement, as well as one patient diagnosed with PE, were found to have caval thrombus.
PMCID: PMC3603720  PMID: 23543961
8.  Inferior Vena Cava Filters 
ABSTRACT
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a common disease with significant clinical impact upon our patients. Diagnostic challenges occur because of the nonspecific nature of the presenting symptoms. The advent of multidetector computed tomography, methods to stratify patients into VTE risks (low, intermediate, high) along with serological assays (D-dimers), have helped direct patients through proper workup and into conclusive diagnosis. In most cases, standard medical therapy for VTE is anticoagulation therapy (OAT). In situations where standard OAT is either contraindicated or complications result from that therapy, insertion of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters is considered. Recent reports suggest that although IVC filters are able to prevent pulmonary emboli (PE) in the short and intermediate term, there appear to be long-term consequences including excess recurrent deep venous thombosis (DVT and IVC/filter occlusions). Recognition of the time sequence of IVC filter benefits and complications has encouraged development of optional IVC filters, which can be left in place indefinitely or removed usually before certain time constraints. This article will attempt to address the timing of IVC filter placements to protect patients from significant PE.
doi:10.1055/s-2006-948760
PMCID: PMC3036373  PMID: 21326769
Venous; thrombosis; embolism; pulmonary; venae cavai; filters
9.  Successful Catheter-Directed Venous Thrombolysis in an Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient with Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2013;10(2):81-85.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens is a severe form of deep vein thrombosis characterized by swelling, pain, and bluish discoloration. Treatment delay may cause venous gangrene, tissue ischemia, limb loss or death. Here, we present an AS case who presented with phlegmasia cerulea dolens and treated by catheter-directed thrombolysis.
doi:10.5812/iranjradiol.11748
PMCID: PMC3767019  PMID: 24046784
Spondylitis, Ankylosing; Thrombosis; Treatment; Venous
10.  Endovascular Treatment for Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome: a Comparison between the Presence and Absence of Secondary Thrombosis  
Korean Journal of Radiology  2009;10(2):135-143.
Objective
To evaluate the value of early identification and endovascular treatment of iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), with or without deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
Materials and Methods
Three groups of patients, IVCS without DVT (group 1, n = 39), IVCS with fresh thrombosis (group 2, n = 52) and IVCS with non-fresh thrombosis (group 3, n = 34) were detected by Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance venography, computed tomography or venography. The fresh venous thrombosis were treated by aspiration and thrombectomy, whereas the iliac vein compression per se were treated with a self-expandable stent. In cases with fresh thrombus, the inferior vena cava filter was inserted before the thrombosis suction, mechanical thrombus ablation, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, stenting or transcatheter thrombolysis.
Results
Stenting was performed in 111 patients (38 of 39 group 1 patients and 73 of 86 group 2 or 3 patients). The stenting was tried in one of group 1 and in three of group 2 or 3 patients only to fail. The initial patency rates were 95% (group 1), 89% (group 2) and 65% (group 3), respectively and were significantly different (p = 0.001). Further, the six month patency rates were 93% (group 1), 83% (group 2) and 50% (group 3), respectively, and were similarly significantly different (p = 0.001). Both the initial and six month patency rates in the IVCS patients (without thrombosis or with fresh thrombosis), were significantly greater than the patency rates of IVCS patients with non-fresh thrombosis.
Conclusion
From the cases examined, the study suggests that endovascular treatment of IVCS, with or without thrombosis, is effective.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2009.10.2.135
PMCID: PMC2651445  PMID: 19270859
Iliac vein compression syndrome; Deep vein thrombosis; Therapy, Interventional
11.  Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis with Conventional Aspiration Thrombectomy for Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(2):197-201.
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to evaluate treatment outcomes in patients with symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) who had undergone a catheter-directed thrombolysis with conventional aspiration thrombectomy for the treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis.
Materials and Methods
The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 74 patients (mean age 61 ± 15) that underwent a catheter-directed thrombolysis with conventional aspiration thrombectomy. A retrieval inferior vena cava (IVC) filter was placed to protect against a pulmonary embolism in 60 patients (81%). Stenting and balloon angioplasty were performed in 37 patients (50%) under the left common iliac vein compression.
Results
Sixty-seven patients (91%) showed a clinical improvement within 48 hours, but seven patients (9%) showed no improvement. Multi detector computerized tomographic venography (MDCT venography) at discharge showed no thrombus in 15 patients (20%) and partial thrombus in 52 (70%). Twenty-eight patients (38%) developed post-thrombotic syndrome at 3.0 ± 4.2 months postoperatively. Six patients (8%) were admitted due to DVT recurrence at a mean of 5.6 ± 7.4 months postoperatively. Sixty-nine patients underwent follow up MDCT venography at 5.7 ± 5.6 months. fifty (72%) of these showed no thrombus, 15 (22%) partial thrombus, and 4 (6%) showed obstruction. Twentyeight of 61 (46%) were asymptomatic, twentyeight (46%) had moderate improvement, and four (6%) were mildly improved by a telephone interview (81%) at 22.8 ± 10.7 months postoperatively.
Conclusion
Catheter-directed thrombolysis with conventional aspiration thrombectomy is an effective treatment for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis and produces satisfactory clinical results.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.2.197
PMCID: PMC2824863  PMID: 20191009
Thrombolysis; thrombectomy; deep vein thrombosis; catheter
12.  Diagnosis and treatment of deep-vein thrombosis 
Deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common condition that can lead to complications such as postphlebitic syndrome, pulmonary embolism and death. The approach to the diagnosis of DVT has evolved over the years. Currently an algorithm strategy combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing and compression ultrasound imaging allows for safe and convenient investigation of suspected lower-extremity thrombosis. Patients with low pretest probability and a negative D-dimer test result can have proximal DVT excluded without the need for diagnostic imaging. The mainstay of treatment of DVT is anticoagulation therapy, whereas interventions such as thrombolysis and placement of inferior vena cava filters are reserved for special situations. The use of low-molecular-weight heparin allows for outpatient management of most patients with DVT. The duration of anticoagulation therapy depends on whether the primary event was idiopathic or secondary to a transient risk factor. More research is required to optimally define the factors that predict an increased risk of recurrent DVT to determine which patients can benefit from extended anticoagulant therapy.
doi:10.1503/cmaj.060366
PMCID: PMC1609160  PMID: 17060659
13.  Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients 
Thrombosis  2011;2011:505373.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Venous thromboembolic events are common and potentially life-threatening complications following trauma with an incidence of 5 to 63%. DVT prophylaxis is essential in the management of trauma patients. Currently, the optimal VTE prophylaxis strategy for trauma patients is unknown. Traditionally, pelvic and lower extremity fractures, head injury, and prolonged immobilization have been considered risk factors for VTE; however it is unclear which combination of risk factors defines a high-risk group. Modalities available for trauma patient thromboprophylaxis are classified into pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical prophylaxis, and inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. The available pharmacologic agents include low-dose heparin (LDH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and factor Xa inhibitors. Mechanical prophylaxis methods include graduated compression stockings (GCSs), pneumatic compression devices (PCDs), and A-V foot pumps. IVCs are traditionally used in high risk patients in whom pharmacological prophylaxis is contraindicated. Both EAST and ACCP guidelines recommend primary use of LMWHs in trauma patients; however there are still controversies regarding the definitive VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Large randomized prospective clinical studies would be required to provide level I evidence to define the optimal VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients.
doi:10.1155/2011/505373
PMCID: PMC3195354  PMID: 22084663
14.  Patient with a Massive Idiopathic Thrombosis in the Inferior Vena Cava 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2012;5(1):89-91.
A 50 year-old man with no significant medical history was admitted for dyspnea and left femoral swelling. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and a thrombus in the inferior vena cava (IVC). The thrombus extended from the proximal IVC to the left popliteal vein. Therefore, we decided that an IVC filter insertion was difficult to indicate. Urgent IVC and peripheral vein thrombectomy was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. On postoperative day 1, venous ultrasonography showed residual deep vein thrombosis in the left external iliac–femoral vein and the popliteal vein. The IVC filter insertion was performed to prevent the recurrence of PTE.
doi:10.3400/avd.cr.11.00071
PMCID: PMC3595909  PMID: 23555494
ivc thrombus; ivc filter; deep vein thrombosis
15.  Transcatheter thrombolytic therapy for symptomatic thrombo-occlusion of inferior vena cava filter 
Thrombus within an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter reduces filter patency and venous return from the lower extremities, and may progress to complete IVC occlusion. The clinical experiences and outcomes of transcatheter thrombolytic therapy for symptomatic IVC thrombosis following filter implantation have not been widely reported. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficiency and safety of trans-catheter thrombolysis for the treatment of symptomatic IVC thrombosis in patients with implanted IVC filters. Transcatheter thrombolysis was used to treat 5 patients with thrombosis of the filter-bearing IVC causing symptoms in 10 limbs from October 2005 to September 2010. The patients were implanted with a second IVC filter through the right internal jugular vein, followed by recanalization of the occluded IVC and intravenous transcatheter thrombolysis. The IVC filters were retrieved through the femoral or right internal jugular vein after the thrombus had dissolved. Technical and clinical outcome, complications and postoperative pulmonary embolism were monitored. A total of 5 filters were implanted and 6 filters were retrieved later. Technically and clinically successful recanalization and thrombolysis were achieved in 5 of 5 patients and 10 of 10 symptomatic limbs. The median thrombolysis period was 13 days (range, 8–14 days). The median dwell time for the filters that were removed was 50.5 days (range, 14–73 days). No major bleeding occurred during the current study. During clinical follow-up, no clinically detectable pulmonary embolism was observed. Endovascular recanalization and transcatheter thrombolysis of IVC thrombosis are efficient, feasible and safe in the presence of an IVC filter.
doi:10.3892/etm.2012.843
PMCID: PMC3570124  PMID: 23403505
thrombosis; filter; inferior vena cava; thrombolysis; efficiency
16.  Pararenal leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(3):355-359.
A complete surgical resection is the only proven therapeutic modality that prolongs the survival in patients with leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Reconstruction of the IVC is not always necessary but is often required to facilitate venous drainage of the kidney for the tumors at the pararenal area of the IVC. Controversy exists in postoperative adjuvant therapy. Recently, we experienced four cases of pararenal leiomyosarcoma of the IVC, of which treatment consisted of a complete resection of the tumor, ringed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft interposition, and bilateral renal vein reconstructions in all patients. Postoperative radiation therapy was instituted in 3 of 4 patients. One patient who did not receive the postoperative radiation therapy was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. The kidneys were preserved in all patients and no deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or venous insufficiency of the lower extremity veins developed. Distant metastasis to the lung was noted in one patient at 18 months after surgery, who was not received the postoperative radiation therapy but chemotherapy. In conclusion, a complete resection of the tumor, IVC reconstruction, and bilateral renal vein reconstruction followed by adjuvant radiation therapy is recommended for the treatment of pararenal leiomyosarcoma of the IVC.
PMCID: PMC3055040  PMID: 12808321
17.  Rates and Predictors of Plans for Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval in Hospitalized Patients 
BACKGROUND
Use of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters has been increasing over time. However, because of the increased risk of deep vein thrombosis with permanent filters, placement of retrievable filters has been recommended. Little is known about the factors associated with planned retrieval of IVC filters.
OBJECTIVE
To describe rates and predictors of plans to retrieve IVC filters in hospitalized patients.
DESIGN
We identified all IVC filter placements from 2001–2006 at an academic medical center and reviewed medical charts to obtain data about patient characteristics, filter retrieval plans, and retrieval success rates. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of planned filter retrieval in patients with retrievable filters.
RESULTS
Out of 240 patients who underwent placement of retrievable IVC filters, only 73 (30.4%) had documented plans for filter retrieval. Factors associated with lower rates of planned filter retrieval included a history of cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval 0.2 (0.1–0.5)] and not being discharged on anticoagulants [OR 0.1 (0.1–0.3)]. In addition, 36 (21.6%) of patients without retrieval plans had no contraindications to retrieval. Of the 62 patients who underwent attempted filter retrieval, 25.8% of filters could not be successfully removed.
CONCLUSIONS
Only 30.4% of patients who underwent placement of a retrievable IVC filter had documented plans for filter removal. Although most patients had justifiable reasons for filter retention, 21.6% of patients had no clear contraindications to filter removal. Efforts to improve rates of filter retrieval in appropriate patients may help reduce the long-term complications of IVC filters.
doi:10.1007/s11606-009-1227-y
PMCID: PMC2842553  PMID: 20087675
inferior vena cava; filter retrieval; deep vein thrombosis
18.  Prophylactic Implantation of Inferior Vena Cava Filter during Endovascular Therapies for Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremities 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2011;4(1):19-23.
Patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities have an increased risk of pulmonary emboli and post-thrombotic syndrome. Traditionally, they are treated medicinally, with anticoagulation therapy. Currently, endovascular therapies, with their higher efficiency, have replaced previously attempted systemic fibrinolytic therapies. There is a continuing controversy in the temporary use of filters in the inferior vena cava during these endovascular therapies, which may include catheter-directed thrombolysis, manual aspiration, mechanical thrombectomy, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and placement of self-expandable metallic stents. Here, we present an overview of the literature and analysis on the application of prophylactic implantation of an inferior vena cava filter during endovascular therapy for DVT of the lower extremities.
doi:10.3400/avd.ra.10.01048
PMCID: PMC3595772  PMID: 23555422
embolism; pulmonary; endovascular therapies; extremities; thrombosis; vena cava; filters
19.  Anomalies of the inferior vena cava and renal veins and implications for renal surgery 
Abnormalities of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and renal veins are extremely rare. However, with the increasing use of computed tomography (CT), these anomalies are more frequently diagnosed. The majority of venous anomalies are asymptomatic and they include left sided IVC, duplicated IVC, absent IVC as well as retro-aortic and circumaortic renal veins. The embryological development of the IVC is complex and involves the development and regression of three sets of paired veins. During renal surgery, undiagnosed venous anomalies may lead to major complications. There may be significant hemorrhage or damage to vascular structures. In addition, aberrant vessels may be mistaken for lymphadenopathy and may be biopsied. In this review we discuss the embryology of the IVC and the possible anomalies of IVC and its tributaries paying particular attention to diagnosis and implications for renal surgery.
doi:10.5173/ceju.2011.01.art1
PMCID: PMC3921701  PMID: 24578852
inferior vena cava; renal veins; venous anomalies
20.  Pheochromocytoma with inferior vena cava thrombosis: An unusual association 
Pheochromocytomas have been described in association with vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of headache, sweating, anxiety, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and hypertension. For last several days, he was having a dull aching abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed the presence of a left adrenal pheochromocytoma. An inferior vena cava (IVC) venogram via the right jugular vein demonstrated occlusion of the IVC inferior to the right atrium. Surgical removal of pheochromocytoma was done, followed by anticoagulant treatment for IVC thrombosis, initially with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin, and then with oral warfarin, resulting in restoration of patency. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of pheochromocytoma in IVC thrombosis has not been reported so far from India. Possible mechanisms of such an involvement are discussed.
doi:10.4103/0975-3583.95375
PMCID: PMC3354464  PMID: 22629039
Anticoagulant; hypertension; inferior vena cava thrombosis; pheochromocytoma
21.  The use of retrievable inferior vena cava filters in the trauma population 
OBJECTIVE:
To determine if the use of retrievable filters resulted in an increase in the placement of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in trauma patients.
DESIGN:
All patients who underwent IVC filter placement at Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, USA between the years 1999 and 2004.
SETTING:
Academic, level 1 trauma centre.
PATIENTS:
Included in the present study were 202 trauma patients and 676 nontrauma patients.
INTERVENTION:
IVC filter placement.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:
Demographics, indications, complication rates and type of IVC filters placed in trauma patients versus nontrauma patients were evaluated.
RESULTS:
The present study determined 45.4% (n=92) of trauma patients undergoing IVC filter placement were younger than 40 years of age, compared with 7.8% (n=53) of nontrauma patients. The most common indication for IVC filter placement in trauma patients was prophylaxis (n=162, 80.2%), while in the nontrauma patients only 11.4% (n=77) of patients underwent prophylactic filter placement. The number of retrievable filters used in trauma patients increased from 46.7% in 2001, the year they became available, to 78.9% in 2004. The use of retrievable filters similarly increased in the nontrauma population from 35.9% in 2001 to 78.3% in 2004. Approximately 24% of the patients that underwent IVC filter placement at Yale-New Haven Hospital were categorized as trauma patients. The complication rate for this time period was 0.5% (n=1) in the trauma population versus 3.7% (n=26) in the nontrauma population.
CONCLUSION:
The overall number of IVC filters placed in trauma patients did not dramatically increase with the introduction of retrievable filters, suggesting that the indications for the use of IVC filters have not changed.
PMCID: PMC2728370  PMID: 22477367
Prophylactic IVC filters; Retrievable IVC filters; Trauma population
22.  Mesoaortic entrapment of a left inferior vena cava 
A persistent left inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare anomaly, with a reported incidence of only 0.2-0.5%. When present, it courses between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta to continue as the right IVC, similar to the course of a left renal vein (LRV). This anomaly is usually asymptomatic, but there may be vague abdominal complaints if the IVC is compressed in the mesoaortic angle. Although symptomatic compression of the LRV (anterior nutcracker syndrome) is well recognized, there has been only one report in the literature of a similar compression of a persistent left IVC. Because of its rarity, this anomaly may be missed or mistaken for other conditions on imaging. An accurate diagnosis is crucial as the presence of this anomaly may have implications for surgical treatment of aortic lesions or placement of an IVC filter. Magnetic resonance angiography and, more recently, multidetector computed tomography scan, can provide an exquisite three-dimensional demonstration of vascular abnormalities.
doi:10.4103/0971-3026.59758
PMCID: PMC2844754  PMID: 20351998
Inferior vena cava; multidetector computed tomography; ultrasound
23.  Congenital Absence of Inferior Vena Cava with Azygos Continuation Revealed by Vascular Echo in a Patient with Pulmonary Thromboembolism and Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2013;6(2):195-197.
A 44-year-old man with an isolated anomaly of azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava (IVC) presented with dyspnea due to pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Sono-graphic examination disclosed not only pulmonary hypertension and DVT, but also infrahepatic interruption of the IVC with azygos continuation. A rare anomaly of azygos continuation of IVC could cause DVT and PTE. Vascular echo could play an important role in the examination of DVT and/or venous anomalies.
doi:10.3400/avd.cr.12.00104
PMCID: PMC3692990  PMID: 23825501
vascular echo; deep vein thrombosis; azygos continuation
24.  Three-year experience of prophylactic placement of inferior vena cava filters in women with gynecological cancer 
Objective
To evaluate the outcomes of prophylactic placement of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE) in women undergoing surgery and chemotherapy for gynecological cancer.
Methods and materials
Thirty-eight IVC filters were placed in 38 women between January 2008 and January 2010; 25 of these were placed in gynecological cancer patients for prevention of PE during surgery and the postoperative period. The patients’ electronic medical records, follow-up computed tomography scans, and outpatient follow-up notes were retrospectively reviewed for incidence of PE and adverse events.
Results
After 6 months of follow-up, no PE was observed and there was no mortality. Nine filters were retrieved uneventfully, and there were no clinical complications associated with any indwelling filter.
Conclusion
IVC filters are safe and beneficial towards preventing PE in women undergoing surgery and chemotherapy for gynecological cancer.
doi:10.2147/IJGM.S44191
PMCID: PMC3746779  PMID: 23976862
inferior vena cava filter; gynecological cancer; prophylaxis; pulmonary embolism
25.  The Mid-Term Efficacy and Safety of a Permanent Nitinol IVC Filter (TrapEase) 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2005;6(2):110-116.
Objective
1) To evaluate the mid-term efficacy and safety of a permanent nitinol inferior vena cava (IVC) filter; 2) to evaluate filter effectiveness, filter stability and caval occlusion.
Materials and Methods
A prospective evaluation of the TrapEase IVC filter was performed on 42 patients (eight men, 34 women) ranging in age from 22 to 78 years (mean age 66 years). All patients were ill with a high risk of pulmonary embolism (PE). Indications for filter placement were: 1) deep vein thrombosis with recurrent thromboembolism; 2) and/or free-floating thrombus with contraindication to anticoagulation; and 3) complications in achieving adequate anticoagulation. Follow-up evaluations (mean: 15.4 months, range: 2 to 28 months) were performed at 6- and 12-month intervals after the procedure and included clinical histories, chart reviews, plain film, Doppler ultrasounds, and contrasted abdominal CT scans.
Results
In follow-up evaluations, the data analysis revealed no cases of symptomatic PE. There were no cases of filter migration, insertion site thrombosis, filter fracture, or vessel wall perforation. During the study, there was one case of filter thrombosis; early symptomatic thrombosis that was successfully treated in the hospital. Of the 42 subjects, eight died. These deaths were not related to the filter device or the implantation procedure, but to the underlying disease.
Conclusion
This study demonstrates that the TrapEase permanent IVC filter is a safe and an effective device with low complication rates and is best used in patients with thromboembolic disease with a high risk of PE.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2005.6.2.110
PMCID: PMC2686418  PMID: 15968150
Pulmonary thromboembolism; IVC Filter; IVC thrombosis

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