A number of studies have shown that the outer membrane protein FomA found in Fusobacterium nucleatum demonstrates great potential as an immune target for combating periodontitis. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a useful antigen delivery vehicle for mucosal immunisation, and previous studies by our group have shown that L. acidophilus acts as a protective factor in periodontal health. In this study, making use of the immunogenicity of FomA and the probiotic properties of L. acidophilus, we constructed a recombinant form of L. acidophilus expressing the FomA protein and detected the FomA-specific IgG in the serum and sIgA in the saliva of mice through oral administration with the recombinant strains. When serum containing FomA-specific antibodies was incubated with the F. nucleatum in vitro, the number of Porphyromonas gingivalis cells that coaggregated with the F. nucleatum cells was significantly reduced. Furthermore, a mouse gum abscess model was successfully generated, and the range of gingival abscesses in the immune mice was relatively limited compared with the control group. The level of IL-1β in the serum and local gum tissues of the immune mice was consistently lower than in the control group. Our findings indicated that oral administration of the recombinant L. acidophilus reduced the risk of periodontal infection with P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum.
FomA; Lactobacillus acidophilus; Fusobacterium nucleatum; Porphyromonas gingivalis; periodontal infection
An abscess in a gum pocket, resulting from bacterial infection, is a common source of chronic halitosis. Although antibiotics are generally prescribed for abscesses, they require multiple treatments with risks of creating resistant bacterial strains. Here we develop a novel vaccine using ultraviolet-inactivated Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), a representative oral bacterium for halitosis. A gum pocket model, established by continuous inoculation of F. nucleatum, was employed to validate the vaccine potency. Mice immunized with inactivated F. nucleatum effectively minimized the progression of abscesses, measured by swollen tissues of gum pockets. Most notably, the immunized mice were capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies against the production of volatile sulfur compounds of F. nucleatum. The novel vaccine inducing protective immunity provides an alternative option to conventional antibiotic treatments for chronic halitosis associated with abscesses.
Vaccine; F. nucleatum; Abscesses; Halitosis
Many bacterial components selectively activate immune and nonhematopoietic target cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling; modulation of such host responses defines the immune adjuvant properties of these bacterial products. For example, the outer membrane protein porins from Neisseria, Salmonella, and Shigella are known TLR2 agonists with established systemic and mucosal immune adjuvanticity. Early work indicated that the FomA porin from Fusobacterium nucleatum has immune adjuvant activity in mice. Using a purified recombinant FomA, we have verified its immune stimulatory properties and have defined a role for TLR2 signaling in its in vitro and in vivo activity. FomA induces interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion and NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity in HEK cells expressing TLR2, IL-6 secretion, and cell surface upregulation of CD86 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II in primary B cells from wild-type mice, but it fails to activate cells from TLR2 knockout mice. Accordingly, the immune adjuvant activity of FomA is also TLR2 dependent. In a mouse model of immunization with ovalbumin (OVA), FomA induces enhanced production of OVA-specific IgM and IgG, including IgG1 and IgG2b antibodies, as well as enhanced secretion of IL-10 and IL-6, consistent with a Th2-type adjuvant effect. We also observe a moderate production of anti-FomA antibodies, suggesting that FomA is also immunogenic, a quality that is also TLR2 dependent. Therefore, modulation of host immune responses by FomA may be effective for targeting general host immunity not only to pathogens (as a novel TLR2 adjuvant) but also to F. nucleatum itself (as an antigen), expanding its use as a self-adjuvanted antigen in an immunization strategy against polymicrobial infections, including those by F. nucleatum.
We have previously shown that one of the minimal active regions of statherin, a human salivary protein, for binding to Fusobacterium nucleatum is a YQPVPE amino acid sequence. In this study, we identified the FomA protein of F. nucleatum, which is responsible for binding to the statherin-derived YQPVPE peptide. Overlay analysis showed that a 40-kDa protein of the F. nucleatum cell envelope (40-kDa CE) specifically bound to the YQPVPE peptide. The equilibrium association constant between the affinity-purified 40-kDa CE and the YQPVPE peptide was 4.30 × 106. Further, the purity and amino acid sequence analyses of the purified 40-kDa CE revealed approximately 98.7% (wt/wt) purity and a high degree of homology with FomA, a major porin protein of F. nucleatum. Thus, a FomA-deficient mutant failed to bind to the YQPVPE peptide. In addition, increased levels of a FomA-specific mucosal IgA antibody (Ab) and plasma IgG and IgA Abs were seen only in mice immunized nasally with cholera toxin (CT) and the purified 40-kDa FomA protein. Interestingly, saliva from mice that received FomA plus CT as a mucosal adjuvant nasally prevented in vitro binding of F. nucleatum to statherin-coated polyvinyl chloride plates. Taken together, these results suggest that induction of specific immunity to the 40-kDa FomA protein of F. nucleatum, which specifically binds to the statherin-derived peptide, may be an effective tool for preventing the formation of F. nucleatum biofilms in the oral cavity.
These studies determined the characteristics of tissue destruction in a murine abscess model elicited by mixed infection with the periodontopathogens Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The interbacterial effects of this synergism, the kinetics of the relationship of the bacterial interaction, and the characteristics of the bacteria required for the tissue destruction were studied. Infection of mice with P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum strains elicited lesions of various sizes as a function of infective dose. Primary infection with F. nucleatum plus P. gingivalis at various ratios (i.e., <1:1) resulted in a significantly greater lesion size (P < 0.001) compared with that resulting from primary infection with P. gingivalis alone. At F. nucleatum/P. gingivalis ratios of > or = 1:1, spreading lesion formation and progression were significantly (P < 0.001) decreased, suggesting that bacterial interaction (i.e., coaggregation) may have inhibited the spread of the P. gingivalis infection to a site distant from the initial injection. Infection with F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis simultaneously (at different sites) or F. nucleatum administered within 4 h prior to or 1 h following P. gingivalis infection significantly enhanced the ability of P. gingivalis to form large phlegmonous lesions. Chemical inhibition of the P. gingivalis trypsin-like protease activity or the use of a trypsin-negative P. gingivalis strain abrogated tissue destruction either alone or in combination with F. nucleatum. Therefore, it was possible to examine aspects of virulence of these pathogens in a murine lesion model by either altering bacterial ratios, manipulating the time of infection, or targeting vital bacterial virulence factors.
Isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of isopentenyl phosphate to form the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in the archaeal mevalonate pathway. This enzyme is highly homologous to fosfomycin kinase (FomA), an antibiotic resistance enzyme found in a few strains of Streptomyces and Pseudomonas whose mode of action is inactivation by phosphorylation. Superposition of Thermoplasma acidophilum (THA) IPK and FomA structures aligns their respective substrates and catalytic residues, including H50 and K14 in THA IPK, and H58 and K18 in S. wedmorensis FomA. These residues are conserved only in the IPK and FomA members of the phosphate subdivision of the amino acid kinase superfamily. We measured the fosfomycin kinase activity of THA IPK, Km = 15.1 ± 1.0 mM and kcat = (4.0 ± 0.1) × 10−2 s−1, resulting in a catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km = 2.6 M−1s−1, that is five orders of magnitude less than the native reaction. Fosfomycin is a competitive inhibitor of IPK, Ki = 3.6 ± 0.2 mM. Molecular dynamics simulation of the IPK•fosfomycin•MgATP complex identified two binding poses for fosfomycin in the IP binding site, one of which results in a complex analogous to the native IPK•IP•ATP complex that it engages H50 and the lysine triangle formed by K5, K14, and K205. The other binding pose leads to a dead-end complex that engages K204 near the IP binding site to bind fosfomycin. Our findings suggest a mechanism for acquisition of FomA-based antibiotic resistance in fosfomycin producing organisms.
Streptococcus gordonii is one of several species that can initiate the formation of oral biofilms that develop into the complex multispecies microbial communities referred to as dental plaque. It is in the context of dental plaque that periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis cause disease. We have previously reported a whole cell quantitative proteomics investigation of P. gingivalis in a model dental plaque community of S. gordonii, P. gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Here we report the adaptation of S. gordonii to the same model.
1122 S. gordonii proteins were detected in S. gordonii control samples, 915 in communities with F. nucleatum, 849 with P. gingivalis, and 649 with all three organisms. Quantitative comparisons showed extensive proteome changes in association with F. nucleatum or P. gingivalis individually or both P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum together. The changes were species specific, though the P. gingivalis interaction may be dominant, indicated by large differences between the proteomes with F. nucleatum or P. gingivalis but limited changes between communities with P. gingivalis or both P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. The results were inspected manually and an ontology analysis conducted using DAVID. Extensive changes were seen in nutrition pathways with increases in energy metabolism and changes in the resulting byproducts, while the acid and sugar repressed PTS (phosphoenolpyruvate dependent phosphotransferase system) sugar transport systems showed decreases. These results were seen across all the multispecies samples, though with different profiles according to the partner species. F. nucleatum association decreased proteins for the metabolic end products acetate and ethanol but increased lactate, the primary source of acidity from streptococcal cultures. P. gingivalis containing samples had a reduction in levels of proteins for ethanol and formate but increased proteins for both acetate and lactate production. The communities also showed increases in exopolysaccharide synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection and decreases in adhesion and transporter proteins.
This study showed that S. gordonii demonstrates species specific responses during interactions with F. nucleatum or P. gingivalis. Extensive changes were seen in energy metabolism and byproduct production implicating nutrient transfer as an important community interaction.
Streptococcus gordonii; Oral biofilm; Proteomics; Model community; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Fusobacterium nucleatum
Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum
has been associated with a variety of oral and nonoral infections such
as periodontitis, pericarditis, bone infections, and brain abscesses.
Several studies have shown the role of plasmin, a plasma serine
protease, in increasing the invasive capacity of microorganisms. In
this study, we investigated the binding of human plasminogen to
F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, and its
subsequent activation into plasmin. Plasminogen-binding activity of
bacterial cells was demonstrated by a solid-phase dot blot assay using
an anti-plasminogen antibody. The binding activity was heat resistant
and involved cell-surface lysine residues since it was abolished in the
presence of the lysine analog ɛ-aminocaproic acid. Activation of
plasminogen-coated bacteria occurred following incubation with either
streptokinase, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), or a
Porphyromonas gingivalis culture supernatant. In the case
of the P. gingivalis culture supernatant, a cysteine
protease was likely involved in the activation. The plasmin activity
generated on the cell surface of F. nucleatum subsp.
nucleatum could be inhibited by aprotinin. Activation of
plasminogen by u-PA was greatly enhanced when plasminogen was bound to
bacteria rather than in a free soluble form. u-PA-activated
plasminogen-coated F. nucleatum subsp.
nucleatum was found to degrade fibronectin, as determined
by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Tissue
inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 was also degraded by the plasmin
activity generated on the bacterial cells. This study suggests a
possible role for plasminogen, which is present in affected periodontal
sites, in promoting tissue destruction and invasion by nonproteolytic
bacteria such as F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum.
Biofilms are organized communities of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM), often with great phylogenetic variety. Bacteria in the subgingival biofilm are key factors that cause periodontal diseases; among these are the Gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The objectives of this study were to characterize the major components of the EPM and to test the effect of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) and proteinase K.
F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis bacterial cells were grown in dynamic and static biofilm models. The effects of DNase I and proteinase K enzymes on the major components of the EPM were tested during biofilm formation and on mature biofilm. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used in observing biofilm structure.
Proteins and carbohydrates were the major components of the biofilm matrix, and extracellular DNA (eDNA) was also present. DNase I and proteinase K enzymes had little effect on biofilms in the conditions used. In the flow cell, F. nucleatum was able to grow in partially oxygenated conditions while P. gingivalis failed to form biofilm alone in similar conditions. F. nucleatum supported the growth of P. gingivalis when they were grown together as dual species biofilm.
DNase I and proteinase K had little effect on the biofilm matrix in the conditions used. F. nucleatum formed biofilm easily and supported the growth of P. gingivalis, which preferred anaerobic conditions.
Subgingival biofilm; extracellular polymeric matrix; Fusobacterium nucleatum; Porphyromonas gingivalis; static and dynamic biofilm models; confocal laser scanning microscopy
Periodontitis is a common human chronic inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of the tooth attachment apparatus and tooth loss. Although infections with periopathogenic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) are essential for inducing periodontitis, the nature and magnitude of the disease is determined by the host's immune response. Here, we investigate the role played by the NK killer receptor NKp46 (NCR1 in mice), in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Using an oral infection periodontitis model we demonstrate that following F. nucleatum infection no alveolar bone loss is observed in mice deficient for NCR1 expression, whereas around 20% bone loss is observed in wild type mice and in mice infected with P. gingivalis. By using subcutaneous chambers inoculated with F. nucleatum we demonstrate that immune cells, including NK cells, rapidly accumulate in the chambers and that this leads to a fast and transient, NCR1-dependant TNF-α secretion. We further show that both the mouse NCR1 and the human NKp46 bind directly to F. nucleatum and we demonstrate that this binding is sensitive to heat, to proteinase K and to pronase treatments. Finally, we show in vitro that the interaction of NK cells with F. nucleatum leads to an NCR1-dependent secretion of TNF-α. Thus, the present study provides the first evidence that NCR1 and NKp46 directly recognize a periodontal pathogen and that this interaction influences the outcome of F. nucleatum-mediated periodontitis.
Periodontal disease is a common bacterial-induced inflammatory process in which F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis infections lead to the destruction of the teeth supporting attachment apparatus. Previous reports demonstrated that immune cells aggravate the severity of the disease. However, whether NK cells in general and NKp46 (a major killer receptor expressed by NK cells) in particular, play a protective or destructive role in this disease is unknown. Using mice deficient in NCR1 (the mouse orthlogue of NKp46), we demonstrate that oral infection of mice with F. nucleatum, but not with P. gingivalis results in an NCR1-dependent alveolar bone loss. In addition, we show that F. nucleatum is recognized by NCR1 and NKp46 directly and that this recognition leads to the secretion of TNF-α, a central cytokine critically involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal destruction. Collectively, we show that NCR1 and NKp46 play a critical role in the pathogenesis of F. nucleatum-mediated periodontitis.
Gingival inflammation, bacterial infection, alveolar bone destruction, and subsequent tooth loss are characteristic features of periodontal disease, but the precise mechanisms of bone loss are poorly understood. Most animal models of the disease require injury to gingival tissues or teeth, and the effects of microorganisms are thus complicated by host responses to tissue destruction. To determine whether three putative periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Campylobacter rectus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum, could cause localized bone resorption in vivo in the absence of tissue injury, we injected live or heat-killed preparations of these microorganisms into the subcutaneous tissues overlying the calvaria of normal mice once daily for 6 days and then examined the bones histologically. We found that all three microorganisms (both live and heat killed) stimulated bone resorption and that the strain of F. nucleatum used appeared to be the strongest inducer of osteoclast activity. Treatment of the mice concomitantly with indomethacin reduced but did not completely inhibit bone resorption by these microorganisms, suggesting that their effects were mediated, in part, by arachidonic acid metabolites (e.g., prostaglandins). Our findings indicate that these potential pathogens can stimulate bone resorption locally when placed beside a bone surface in vivo in the absence of prior tissue injury and support a role for them in the pathogenesis of bone loss around teeth in periodontitis.
Primary gingival epithelial cells were cultured in multilayers as a model for the study of interactions with oral bacteria associated with health and periodontal disease. Multilayers maintained at an air-liquid interface in low calcium medium displayed differentiation and cytokeratin properties characteristic of junctional epithelium. Multilayers were infected with fluorescently labeled Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum or Streptococcus gordonii, and bacterial association was determined by confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis. P. gingivalis invaded intracellularly and spread cell to cell. A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum remained extracellular and showed intercellular movement through the multilayer. S. gordonii remained extracellular and predominantly associated with the superficial cell layer. None of the bacterial species disrupted barrier function as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance. P. gingivalis did not elicit secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. However, A. actinomycetemcomitans and S. gordonii induced IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 secretion; and F. nucleatum stimulated production of IL-1β and TNF-α. A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum and S. gordonii, but not P. gingivalis, increased levels of apoptosis after 24 h infection. The results indicate that the organisms with pathogenic potential were able to traverse the epithelium, while the commensal bacteria did not. In addition, distinct host responses characterized the interaction between the junctional epithelium and oral bacteria.
oral pathogens; oral commensals; virulence; periodontal disease
Periodontitis results from an ecological shift in the composition of subgingival biofilms. Subgingival community maturation is modulated by inter-organismal interactions and the relationship of communities with the host. In an effort to better understand this process, we evaluated biofilm formation, with oral commensal species, by three strains of the subgingivally prevalent microorganism Fusobacterium nucleatum and four strains of the periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. We also tested the effect of serum, which resembles gingival exudates, on subgingival biofilms. Biofilms were allowed to develop in flow cells using salivary medium. We found that although not all strains of F. nucleatum were able to grow in mono-species biofilms, forming a community with health-associated partners Actinomyces oris and Veillonella parvula promoted biofilm growth of all F. nucleatum strains. Strains of P. gingivalis also showed variable ability to form mono-species biofilms. P. gingivalis W50 and W83 did not form biofilms, while ATCC 33277 and 381 formed biofilm structures, but only strain ATCC 33277 grew over time. Unlike the enhanced growth of F. nucleatum with the two health-associated species, no strain of P. gingivalis grew in three-species communities with A. oris and V. parvula. However, addition of F. nucleatum facilitated growth of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 with health-associated partners. Importantly, serum negatively affected the adhesion of F. nucleatum, while it favored biofilm growth by P. gingivalis. This work highlights strain specificity in subgingival biofilm formation. Environmental factors such as serum alter the colonization patterns of oral microorganisms and could impact subgingival biofilms by selectively promoting pathogenic species.
oral multi-species communities; subgingival; Fusobacterium nucleatum; Porphyromonas gingivalis; strain variability; serum; biofilms
Together, the fomA and fomB genes in the fosfomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces wedmorensis confer high-level fosfomycin resistance on Escherichia coli. To elucidate their functions, the fomA and fomB genes were overexpressed in E. coli and the gene products were characterized. The recombinant FomA protein converted fosfomycin to fosfomycin monophosphate, which was inactive on E. coli, in the presence of a magnesium ion and ATP. On the other hand, the recombinant FomB protein did not inactivate fosfomycin. However, a reaction mixture containing FomA and FomB proteins converted fosfomycin to fosfomycin monophosphate and fosfomycin diphosphate in the presence of ATP and a magnesium ion, indicating that FomA and FomB catalyzed phosphorylations of fosfomycin and fosfomycin monophosphate, respectively. These results suggest that the self-resistance mechanism of the fosfomycin-producing organism S. wedmorensis is mono- and diphosphorylation of the phosphonate function of fosfomycin catalyzed by FomA and FomB.
The efficacy of a novel synthetic antimicrobial peptide (WLBU2) was evaluated against three oral microorganisms (grown planktonically): Streptococcus gordonii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. WLBU2 killed all three species, with F. nucleatum being the most susceptible. WLBU2 also reduced the bacterial burden of S. gordonii and F. nucleatum biofilms.
Adherence of pathogenic bacteria is often an essential first step in the infectious process. The ability of bacteria to adhere to one another, or to coaggregate, may be an important factor in their ability to colonize and function as pathogens in the periodontal pocket. Previously, a strong and specific coaggregation was demonstrated between two putative periodontal pathogens, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The interaction appeared to be mediated by a protein adhesin on the F. nucleatum cells and a carbohydrate receptor on the P. gingivalis cells. In this investigation, we have localized the adhesin activity of F. nucleatum T18 to the outer membrane on the basis of the ability of F. nucleatum T18 vesicles to coaggregate with whole cells of P. gingivalis T22 and the ability of the outer membrane fraction of F. nucleatum T18 to inhibit coaggregation between whole cells of F. nucleatum T18 and P. gingivalis T22. Proteolytic pretreatment of the F. nucleatum T18 outer membrane fraction resulted in a loss of coaggregation inhibition, confirming the proteinaceous nature of the adhesin. The F. nucleatum T18 outer membrane fraction was found to be enriched for several proteins, including a 42-kDa major outer membrane protein which appeared to be exposed on the bacterial cell surface. Fab fragments prepared from antiserum raised to the 42-kDa outer membrane protein were found to partially but specifically block coaggregation. These data support the conclusion that the 42-kDa major outer membrane protein of F. nucleatum T18 plays a role in mediating coaggregation with P. gingivalis T22.
Filifactor alocis is a gram positive anaerobe that is emerging as an important periodontal pathogen. In the oral cavity F. alocis colonizes polymicrobial biofilm communities; however, little is known regarding the nature of the interactions between F. alocis and other oral biofilm bacteria. Here we investigate the community interactions of two strains of F. alocis with Streptococcus gordonii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, organisms with differing pathogenic potential in the oral cavity. In an in vitro community development model, S. gordonii was antagonistic to the accumulation of F. alocis into a dual species community. In contrast, F. nucleatum and the type strain of F. alocis formed a synergistic partnership. Accumulation of a low passage isolate of F. alocis was also enhanced by F. nucleatum. In three species communities of S. gordonii, F. nucleatum and F. alocis, the antagonistic effects of S. gordonii superseded the synergistic effects of F. nucleatum toward F. alocis. The interaction between A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. alocis was strain specific and A. actinomycetemcomitans could either stimulate F. alocis accumulation or have no effect depending on the strain. P. gingivalis and F. alocis formed heterotypic communities with the amount of P. gingivalis greater than in the absence of F. alocis. However, while P. gingivalis benefited from the relationship, levels of F. alocis in the dual species community were lower compared to F. alocis alone. The inhibitory effect of P. gingivalis toward F. alocis was dependent, at least partially, on the presence of the Mfa1 fimbrial subunit. In addition, AI-2 production by P. gingivalis helped maintain levels of F. alocis. Collectively, these results show that the pattern of F. alocis colonization will be dictated by the spatial composition of microbial microenvironments, and that the organism may preferentially accumulate at sites rich in F. nucleatum.
Bacterial biofilms have been found to develop on root surfaces outside the apical foramen and be associated with refractory periapical periodontitis. However, it is unknown which bacterial species form extraradicular biofilms. The present study aimed to investigate the identity and localization of bacteria in human extraradicular biofilms. Twenty extraradicular biofilms, used to identify bacteria using a PCR-based 16S rRNA gene assay, and seven root-tips, used to observe immunohistochemical localization of three selected bacterial species, were taken from 27 patients with refractory periapical periodontitis. Bacterial DNA was detected from 14 of the 20 samples, and 113 bacterial species were isolated. Fusobacterium nucleatum (14 of 14), Porphyromonas gingivalis (12 of 14), and Tannellera forsythensis (8 of 14) were frequently detected. Unidentified and uncultured bacterial DNA was also detected in 11 of the 14 samples in which DNA was detected. In the biofilms, P. gingivalis was immunohistochemically detected in all parts of the extraradicular biofilms. Positive reactions to anti-F. nucleatum and anti-T. forsythensis sera were found at specific portions of the biofilm. These findings suggested that P. gingivalis, T. forsythensis, and F. nucleatum were associated with extraradicular biofilm formation and refractory periapical periodontitis.
In the present study we sought to determine whether serum antibody was present against microorganisms which predominate in the subgingival flora of young adults with generalized severe periodontitis (SP). Subjects with SP were often seropositive for Eubacterium brachy, Fusobacterium nucleatum E3C22, and Peptostreptococcus micros, whereas subjects with juvenile periodontitis (JP) and subjects with healthy periodontium (HP) were not. Both SP and JP subjects were more frequently seropositive for Bacteroides gingivalis, F. nucleatum D52B16, and F. nucleatum E1D1 than were HP subjects. The data were most striking for B. gingivalis, for which both the incidence and the magnitude of specific antibody was clearly elevated for SP and JP subject groups. However, SP subjects generally had either a high antibody titer or no detectable titer. In contrast, JP and HP subjects generally had at least very small amounts of antibody. Except at very low levels of antibody, neither SP nor JP groups differed significantly from the HP group for antibody to Eubacterium nodatum, Bacteroides intermedius (homology group 4197 or 8944), or Lactobacillus minutus antibody. There was a high frequency of antibody to E. nodatum, with very high titers in all groups despite the fact that this organism is rarely found in HP subjects. For Eubacterium timidum, the JP group was clearly more frequently seropositive than the HP group. Despite high levels of L. minutus in subgingival flora, none of the 50 SP subjects had a detectable antibody titer, and only four of the HP and JP subjects had detectable antibody. These results indicate that many organisms in the subgingival flora elicit antibody responses. B. gingivalis is probably the best example among the species tested. However, some organisms that are present in high concentration, e.g., L. minutus, apparently fail to induce significant antibody responses.
The purpose of this study was to compare the phototoxic effects of blue light exposure on periodontal pathogens in both planktonic and biofilm cultures.
Strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, in planktonic or biofilm states, were exposed to visible light at wavelengths of 400.520 nm. A quartz-tungsten-halogen lamp at a power density of 500 mW/cm2 was used for the light source. Each sample was exposed to 15, 30, 60, 90, or 120 seconds of each bacterial strain in the planktonic or biofilm state. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) was used to observe the distribution of live/dead bacterial cells in biofilms. After light exposure, the bacterial killing rates were calculated from colony forming unit (CFU) counts.
CLSM images that were obtained from biofilms showed a mixture of dead and live bacterial cells extending to a depth of 30-45 µm. Obvious differences in the live-to-dead bacterial cell ratio were found in P. gingivalis biofilm according to light exposure time. In the planktonic state, almost all bacteria were killed with 60 seconds of light exposure to F. nucleatum (99.1%) and with 15 seconds to P. gingivalis (100%). In the biofilm state, however, only the CFU of P. gingivalis demonstrated a decreasing tendency with increasing light exposure time, and there was a lower efficacy of phototoxicity to P. gingivalis as biofilm than in the planktonic state.
Blue light exposure using a dental halogen curing unit is effective in reducing periodontal pathogens in the planktonic state. It is recommended that an adjunctive exogenous photosensitizer be used and that pathogens be exposed to visible light for clinical antimicrobial periodontal therapy.
Biofilms; Dental curing lights
The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586). The screening test of antibacterial activity was performed using agar-well diffusion method. Subsequently, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using twofold serial microdilution method at a concentration ranging between 0.01 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained by subculturing microtiter wells which showed no changes in colour of the indicator after incubation. Both extracts showed inhibition zones which did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) against each tested bacteria. Among all tested bacteria, S. salivarius was the most susceptible. The MIC ranges for methanol and acetone extracts were the same, between 0.16 and 0.63 mg/mL. The MBC value, for methanol and acetone extracts, was in the ranges 0.31–1.25 mg/mL and 0.31–2.50 mg/mL, respectively. Both extracts of Q. infectoria galls exhibited similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens.
Bacteria are causative agents of periodontal diseases. Interactions between oral bacteria and gingival epithelial cells are essential aspects of periodontal infections. Using an in vitro tissue culture model, a selected group of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria frequently associated with periodontal diseases, including Bacteroides forsythus, Campylobacter curvus, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, were examined for their ability to adhere to and invade primary cultures of human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC). The effects of these bacteria on the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a proinflammatory chemokine, were also measured. These studies provided an initial demonstration that F. nucleatum adhered to and invaded HGEC and that this was accompanied by high levels of IL-8 secretion from the epithelial cells. The attachment and invasion characteristics of F. nucleatum were also tested using KB cells, an oral epithelial cell line. The invasion was verified by transmission electron microscopy and with metabolic inhibitors. Invasion appeared to occur via a “zipping” mechanism and required the involvement of actins, microtubules, signal transduction, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism of the epithelial cell, as well as protein synthesis by F. nucleatum. A spontaneous mutant, lam, of F. nucleatum, isolated as defective in autoagglutination, was unable to attach to or invade HGEC or KB cells, further indicating the requirement of bacterial components in these processes. Sugar inhibition assays indicated that lectin-like interactions were involved in the attachment of F. nucleatum to KB cells. Investigation of these new virulence phenotypes should improve our understanding of the role of F. nucleatum in periodontal infections.
Periodontal infection (Periodontitis) is a chronic inflammatory disease, which results in the breakdown of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that resistance to chronic periodontitis is controlled to some extent by genetic factors of the host. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic response of inbred and Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse populations to periodontal bacterial challenge, using an experimental periodontitis model. In this model, mice are co-infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, bacterial strains associated with human periodontal disease. Six weeks following the infection, the maxillary jaws were harvested and analyzed for alveolar bone loss relative to uninfected controls, using computerized microtomography (microCT). Initially, four commercial inbred mouse strains were examined to calibrate the procedure and test for gender effects. Subsequently, we applied the same protocol to 23 lines (at inbreeding generations 10–18) from the newly developed mouse genetic reference population, the Collaborative Cross (CC) to determine heritability and genetic variation of control bone volume prior to infection (CBV, naïve bone volume around the teeth of uninfected mice), and residual bone volume (RBV, bone volume after infection) and loss of bone volume (LBV, the difference between CBV and RBV) following infection.
BALB/CJ mice were highly susceptible (P<0.05) whereas DBA/2J, C57BL/6J and A/J mice were resistant. Six lines of the tested CC population were susceptible, whereas the remaining lines were resistant to alveolar bone loss. Gender effects on bone volume were tested across the four inbred and 23 CC lines, and found not to be significant. Based on ANOVA analyses, broad-sense heritabilities were statistically significant and equal to 0.4 for CBV and 0.2 for LBV.
The moderate heritability values indicate that the variation in host susceptibility to the disease is controlled to an appreciable extent by genetic factors. These results strongly support the possibility of using the Collaborative Cross, as well as developing dedicated F2 (resistant x susceptible inbred strains) resource populations, for future dissection of genetic factors in periodontitis.
Periodontal infection; Experimental periodontitis; microCT; Collaborative cross; Genes; Heritability
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a periodontal pathogen that resides in a complex multispecies microbial biofilm community known as dental plaque. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that P. gingivalis can assemble into communities in vitro with Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum, common constituents of dental plaque. Whole cell quantitative proteomics, along with mutant construction and analysis, were conducted to investigate how P. gingivalis adapts to this three species community.
1156 P. gingivalis proteins were detected qualitatively during comparison of the three species model community with P. gingivalis incubated alone under the same conditions. Integration of spectral counting and summed signal intensity analyses of the dataset showed that 403 proteins were down-regulated and 89 proteins up-regulated. The proteomics results were inspected manually and an ontology analysis conducted using DAVID. Significant decreases were seen in proteins involved in cell shape and the formation of the cell envelope, as well as thiamine, cobalamin, and pyrimidine synthesis and DNA repair. An overall increase was seen in proteins involved in protein synthesis. HmuR, a TonB dependent outer membrane receptor, was up-regulated in the community and an hmuR deficient mutant was deficient in three species community formation, but was unimpaired in its ability to form mono- or dual-species biofilms.
Collectively, these results indicate that P. gingivalis can assemble into a heterotypic community with F. nucleatum and S. gordonii, and that a community lifestyle provides physiologic support for P. gingivalis. Proteins such as HmuR, that are up-regulated, can be necessary for community structure.
Recent investigations have shown that some antibiotics also work as immunomodulators. We have recently reported that fosfomycin (FOM) has an immunomodulatory effect on human B-cell activation. FOM is a unique antibiotic which is chemically unrelated to any other known antibacterial agent. In the present study, we examined the effect of FOM on human T-cell function. FOM inhibited the proliferation of human lymphocytes induced by polyclonal T-cell mitogens in a dose-dependent manner. FOM also strongly suppressed mixed lymphocyte reaction and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by T cells. Moreover, FOM inhibited the expressions of IL-2 receptor (CD25) and transferrin receptor (CD71) on the activated T-cell surfaces. These data suggest that FOM may block the T-cell division during the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle. Combined treatment with FOM and low-dose cyclosporin A or FK506 caused additive or synergistic suppression of T-cell proliferation, but not on IL-2 receptor expression. It seems that the mode of action of FOM on T-cell function involves a specific suppression of IL-2 production.