The Agence Française de Securite Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (Afssaps; French Health Products Safety Agency) is responsible, through its hemovigilance unit, for the organization and the functioning of the national hemovigilance network. In accordance with the French law, it receives all data on adverse transfusion reactions regardless of their severity. With the aim of evaluating the tolerance of two kinds of labile blood products (LBP), pooled platelet concentrates (PP) and apheresis platelet concentrates (APC), we screened the French national database from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2006. We observed that the number of transfusion incident reports is more than twice as high with APC (8.61:1,000 LBP) than with PP (4.21:1,000 LBP). The difference between these two ratios is statistically significant as shown by chi-square test (e = 21.00 with α = 5%). The risk to suffer adverse reactions of any type, except for alloimmunization, is higher with APC, and the major type of diagnosis related to APC is allergic reaction (1:200 APC issued) even if those allergic reactions are rarely serious. The new French National Hemovigilance Commission should impel a working group evaluating this topic and above all the impact of additive solutions which have been used since 2005 to put forward preventives measures.
French hemovigilance; Apheresis platelet concentratece; Pooled platelet concentrate; Adverse reaction
In order to evaluate the benefit of risk minimisation measures, reporting rates of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections (TTBI) were calculated on the basis of annual reports and distributed blood components. Following the implementation of risk minimisation measures in 2003 and 2008, a comparison of pre- and post-implementation periods was performed.
During a period of 14 years, 90 cases of TTBI were confirmed, 34 were caused by red blood cell (RBC) concentrates, 5 by fresh frozen plasma, and 51 by platelet concentrates (PCs). The overall reporting frequency was 1 TTBI in 1.91 million RBC units; 1 TTBI in 0.094 million PC units, and 1 TTBI-associated fatality in 0.57 million PC units. From 2001-2004 the reporting rate was 13.7 per million PC units; 2005-2008, after the implementation of pre-donation sampling; it was 10.8 per million PC units (p > 0.5). After limitation of the shelf life (2008), the reporting rate decreased to 4.49 per million PC units (p = 0.12), and one case of related fatality was reported. Agents with low pathogenicity were reported in 14 of 41 immunosuppressed patients (34%) but only in 1 of 13 patients with non-haematological/oncological diseases.
TTBI and associated fatalities could be gradually reduced by the risk minimisation measures, but further strategies such as implementation of sensitive screening tests or pathogen-reducing approaches should be discussed.
TTBI; Frequency; Severity; Pre-donation sampling; Limitation of platelet shelf life; Blood components; Pathogenicity; Haemovigilance
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as new acute lung injury (ALI) that occurs during or within six hours of transfusion, not explained by another ALI risk factor. Transfusion of part of one unit of any blood product can cause TRALI. The mechanism may include factors in unit(s) of blood, such as antibody and biologic response modifiers. In addition, yet to be described factors in a patient’s illness may predispose to the condition. The current incidence is estimated to be 1 in 5,000 units. Patients present with acute dyspnea, or froth in the endotracheal tube in intubated patients. Hypertension, hypotension, acute leukopenia have been described. Management is similar to that for ALI and is predominantly supportive. When TRALI is suspected, Blood banks should be notified to quarantine other components from the same donation. No special blood product is required for subsequent transfusion of a patient who has developed TRALI.
Blood transfusion/ adverse effects; Pulmonary edema; Acute lung injury
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) mitigation strategies include the deferral of female donors from apheresis platelet (PLT) donations and the distribution of plasma for transfusion from male donors only. We studied the implications of these policies in terms of component loss at six blood centers in the United States.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS
We collected data from allogeneic blood donors making whole blood and blood component donations during calendar years 2006 through 2008. We analyzed the distribution of donations in terms of the sex, transfusion and pregnancy histories, and blood type.
A TRALI mitigation policy that would not allow plasma from female whole blood donors to be prepared into transfusable plasma components would result in nearly a 50% reduction in the units of whole blood available for plasma manufacturing and would decrease the number of type AB plasma units that could be made from whole blood donations by the same amount. Deferral of all female apheresis PLT donors, all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies, or all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies and positive screening test results for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) will result in a loss of 37.1, 22.5, and 5.4% of all apheresis PLT donations, respectively.
A TRALI mitigation policy that only defers female apheresis PLT donors with previous pregnancies and HLAs would result in an approximately 5% decrease in the inventory of apheresis PLTs, but would eliminate a large proportion of components that are associated with TRALI.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined clinically as acute lung injury occurring within six hours of the transfusion of any blood product. It is the leading cause of transfusion-related death in the United States, but under-recognition and diagnostic uncertainty have limited clinical research to smaller case control studies. In this review we will discuss the contribution of experimental models to the understanding of TRALI pathophysiology and potential therapeutic approaches. Experimental models suggest that TRALI occurs when a host, with a primed immune system, is exposed to an activating agent such as anti-leukocyte antibody or a biologic response modifier such as lysophosphatidylcholines. Recent work has suggested a critical role for platelets in antibody-based experimental models and identified potential therapeutic strategies for TRALI.
Transfusion of blood components is common in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, yet the incidence and risk factors for development of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) in these patients are unknown.
Patients admitted to a medical ICU for GI bleeding (n = 225) were analyzed for patient-and transfusion-specific risk factors for development of TRALI.
In transfused patients (n = 150), the incidence of TRALI was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI), 10–21%] and accounted for 76% (22/29) of all acute lung injury (ALI) cases. Transfused patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) (n = 72) developed TRALI more frequently than those without ESLD (29% versus 1%, p < 0.01). Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was temporally associated with TRALI in 86% of cases. Transfusion-specific risk factors for development of TRALI included number of transfused units of FFP and nonleukoreduced red blood cells. Patient-specific risk factors included Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, admission serum albumin level, and presence of ALI risk factors.
TRALI is common in critically ill ESLD patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Nonleukoreduced red blood cells and FFP are significant transfusion-specific risk factors and their use should be re-evaluated in bleeding patients with ESLD.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury; Transfusion complications; Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Variceal bleeding; Chronic liver disease; Plasma transfusion
This is a single center retrospective case control study of 7 Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) cases and 28 controls in the pediatric spinal surgery population.
To determine the association between maternal transfusion and risk of TRALI in pediatric spinal surgery patients.
Summary of Background Data
Previous studies support a “two-hit” model for the pathogenesis of TRALI – activation and sequestration of neutrophils in the pulmonary vasculature followed by transfusion of a biologic response modifier such as anti-leukocyte antibodies. Maternal donation of blood products is a potential risk factor for TRALI due to the development of anti-leukocyte antibodies during pregnancy. Until now there have been no studies specifically addressing the risk of TRALI following maternal transfusions.
This is a retrospective case control study of 7 TRALI cases with 4 controls per case, matched by strata for volume of plasma transfused. All cases identified by the Transfusion Biology and Medicine Specialized Center of Clinically Oriented Research (SCCOR) with a TRALI diagnosis were eligible for inclusion. Electronic medical records and operative notes were reviewed to obtain demographic data, diagnosis, surgical approach and number of spine levels for each operation.
An increased prevalence of maternal blood transfusion was found among the TRALI cases compared to the control cases: 43% (3 of 7) versus 7% (2 of 28), p = 0.044. There were otherwise no statistical differences between the groups, including age, gender, surgical approach, number of spinal levels, or type of blood product transfused.
Pediatric patients undergoing spinal surgery may be at increased risk for the development of TRALI following the transfusion of maternal blood products. Accordingly, we recommend that directed donation of maternal blood products should be avoided in this population. This study also found that TRALI may be under-recognized and under-reported to the transfusion service.
Antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in donated blood have been implicated as a cause of transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). A potential measure to reduce the risk of TRALI includes screening platelet apheresis donors for HLA antibodies. The prevalence of HLA antibodies and their relationship to previous transfusion or pregnancy in blood donors was determined.
Study design and methods
8171 volunteer blood donors were prospectively recruited by 6 U.S. blood centers from December 2006 to May 2007. Donors provided a detailed history of pregnancy and transfusion, and a sample for HLA class I and II antibody testing by multi-antigen bead flow analysis.
8171 donors were enrolled, 7920 (96.9%) had valid HLA antibody test results and 7841(99%) of those had complete pregnancy and transfusion information. The prevalence of any HLA antibody was similar in non-transfused (n=1138) and transfused (n=895) men, 1.0 vs. 1.7% (p=0.16). HLA antibodies were detected in 17.3% of all female donors (n=5834) and in 24.4 % of those with a history of previous pregnancy (n=3992). The prevalence of HLA antibodies increased in women with greater numbers of pregnancy: 1.7%(zero), 11.2%(one), 22.5%(two), 27.5%(three) and 32.2%(four or more pregnancies), p<0.0001.
HLA class I and class II antibodies are detectable at low prevalence in male donors regardless of transfusion and in female donors without known immunizing events. The prevalence of HLA antibodies increases significantly with more pregnancies. These data will allow blood centers to estimate the impact of HLA antibody testing as a potential TRALI risk-reduction measure.
HLA antibody; pregnancy; transfusion; transfusion related acute lung injury
Although transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is now appreciated as the most common cause of death from transfusion, its incidence remains unknown. The most frequently cited figure is 1:5,000 plasma-containing components. Certain patient groups may be at significantly higher risk. TRALI is both underdiagnosed and un-derreported. It is misdiagnosed as transfusion-associated circulatory overload. Several mechanisms have been proposed for its pathogenesis-leukocyte antibodies and the 2-hit model. These may overlap, and both involve transfusion of leukocyte antibodies. Passive transfusion of leukocyte antibodies is strongly associated with TRALI; these are identified in 60–85% of cases. Multiparous blood donors are the most frequent source of these antibody-containing components. The antibodies are HLA class I and II and/or granulocyte-specific. In 50% of cases the antibody corresponds to an epitope in the patient. HLA class I antibodies have been shown to prime and activate neutrophils. Clinical reports and animal models link HNA-3a antibodies with severe lung injury. A number of TRALI prevention and risk mitigation strategies have been proposed. In the UK and the USA, these strategies have centered upon excluding ‘high risk’ (HLA/HNA antibody containing) plasma from fresh frozen plasma and platelet products. Multicomponent apheresis collection of platelets, plasma and red blood cells is a means of accomplishing this objective.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury; Multicomponent collection; Apheresis
Blood safety must be maintained throughout the whole transfusion chain to prevent the transfusion of incorrect blood components. The estimated risk of an incorrect transfusion is in the order of 1 per 10,000 units of blood. Although several kinds of errors contribute to “wrong blood” events, 70% of errors occur in clinical areas with the most common being due to failure of the pre-transfusion bedside checking procedure.
Materials and Methods
Several methods are available to reduce such errors. The I-TRAC Plus system by Immucor consists of an identification bracelet which is a bar-coded wristband and a handheld portable computer that identifies patients and blood bags by a scanner and prints the information through a portable printer. The labels attached on the blood order forms and on the sample tubes are read and recorded in the blood bank’s informatics system (EmoNet INSIEL). Labels showing the bar-code of the assigned number, which includes the ID number of the patient, the ID number of the unit and a code identifying the kind of product and use (allogeneic or autologous), are generated and applied to the blood components. The transfusions are administered after checking the unit and the patient’s wristband using the scanner of a portable PC.
In 5 years a total of 71,400 units of blood components were transfused to 15,430 patients using the I-TRAC Plus system. The system prevented 12 cases of mis-identification of patients (5 in 2003, 0 in 2004, 1 in 2005, 1 in 2006 and 5 in 2007).
In 2003 we introduced the use of a bar-code matching system between a patient’s wristband and the blood bag to avoid mistakes at the bedside. In 5 years the system provided benefits by avoiding errors in the identification of patients, thus preventing “wrong blood” transfusions.
Recipient identification; transfusion safety; mistransfusion
The French Hemovigilance Network has been established in 1994 and records all adverse events associated with the transfusion of a labile blood products (LBP) regardless of their severity. From 1994 to 2006 35,423,172 LBP were issued, 85,812 adverse transfusion reactions notified, and 139 cases of transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) observed. The LBP most at risk is fresh frozen plasma (FFP), followed by platelets concentrates (PC) and packed red cells (PRC). However, because the use of FFP is not frequent in France, it only accounts for about 10% of TRALI, whereas PRC and PC are involved in the remaining cases. In no case, pooled FFP treated with solvent-detergent were involved. Patients’ profiles are peculiar with a high disease burden. Therefore, targeting a prevention policy only on FFP would result in a marginal reduction of TRALI in France.
TRALI; Hemovigilance; Blood transfusion; Sickle cell disease; Public health
We report two simultaneous cases of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis initially consistent with and diagnosed as transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). The sepsis in both cases resulted from transfusion of two split products from a single contaminated plateletpheresis unit. In each case the platelets were given along with numerous other blood products during posterior spine surgery. The discussion includes presentation, clinical course, diagnosis and similarities between sepsis and TRALI. The cases and discussion highlight the importance of considering sepsis as part of the differential for any patient believed to have TRALI with clinical features of sepsis.
Data were collected from the patients’ electronic medical records and the hospital laboratory medicine database.
Our cases highlight the importance of vigilant investigation in patients suspected of TRALI, as septic transfusions are easily missed and may mimic or coexist with TRALI. Sepsis should be strongly considered whenever clinical features such as hypotension, leucopenia and fever are noted in patients with suspected TRALI. In comparison to patients receiving red blood cells or plasma, platelet transfusion recipients are at a greater risk for sepsis from a contaminated unit. Patients developing sepsis from a contaminated blood product may meet the clinical definition of TRALI. In such cases, if the clinical syndrome is attributed solely to TRALI and bacterial sepsis is not suspected, the correct diagnosis may be missed or delayed. Consequently, appropriate treatment for sepsis would also be delayed or not provided and likely result in increased morbidity and mortality.
TRALI; sepsis; transfusion; platelets; bacterial contamination
In a manner partially independent of activating Fcγ receptors, antibody-mediated production of complement component C5a and recruitment of macrophages elicit transfusion-related acute lung injury in mice.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a form of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema that develops during or within 6 h after a blood transfusion, is the most frequent cause of transfusion-associated death in the United States. Because development of TRALI is associated with donor antibodies (Abs) reactive with recipient major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a mouse model has been studied in which TRALI-like disease is caused by injecting mice with anti–MHC class I monoclonal Ab (mAb). Previous publications with this model have concluded that disease is caused by FcR-dependent activation of neutrophils and platelets, with production of reactive oxygen species that damage pulmonary vascular endothelium. In this study, we confirm the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of this mouse model of TRALI and show ultrastructural evidence of pulmonary vascular injury within 5 min of anti–MHC class I mAb injection. However, we demonstrate that disease induction in this model involves macrophages rather than neutrophils or platelets, activation of complement and production of C5a rather than activation of FcγRI, FcγRIII, or FcγRIV, and binding of anti–MHC class I mAb to non-BM–derived cells such as pulmonary vascular endothelium. These observations have important implications for the prevention and treatment of TRALI.
TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related deaths. Donor HLA antibodies have been implicated in TRALI cases. Blood centers are implementing TRALI risk reduction strategies based on HLA antibody screening of some subpopulations of ever-pregnant apheresis platelet donors. However, if screening assay cutoffs are too sensitive, donation loss may adversely impact blood availability.
Pregnancy history and HLA antibody screening and single antigen bead (SAB) data from blood donors in the REDS-II Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study (LAPS) were evaluated for correlations between assay screening values, HLA antibody titer, and number of HLA antigen specificities. The probabilities of matching a cognate antigen in a recipient were calculated and examined in association with total number of specificities observed and screening values. The relative impact of imposing various screening assay cutoffs or pregnancy stratification was examined in relation to detection of HLA antibody reactive donations and loss of donors and donations.
We provide evidence that higher HLA Ab screening assay values are associated with maintaining higher screening signals upon dilution and an increased breadth of specificities compared with lower screening values; the latter correlated with an increased risk of a cognate antigen match in potential recipients. Depending upon the TRALI risk reduction strategy used, the potential loss of donations ranged between 0.9 and 6.0%.
This analysis should enable blood centers to decide upon a TRALI risk reduction strategy for apheresis platelets that is consistent with how much donation loss the blood center can tolerate.
TRALI; Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury; HLA antibodies; platelet transfusions
In recent years, pulmonary transfusion reactions have gained increasing importance as serious adverse transfusion events.
Review of the literature.
Pulmonary transfusion reactions are not extremely rare and, according to hemovigilance data, important causes of transfusion-induced major morbidity and death. They can be classified as primary with predominant pulmonary injury and secondary as part of another transfusion reaction. Primary reactions include transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion-associated dyspnea (TAD). Secondary pulmonary reactions are often observed in the wake of hemolytic transfusion reactions, hypotensive/anaphylactic reactions, and transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections.
Knowledge and careful management of cases of pulmonary transfusion reactions are essential for correct reporting to blood services and hemovigilance systems. Careful differentiation between TRALI and TACO is important for taking adequate preventive measures.
Acute lung injury; Transfusion reaction; Transfusion risks
Background: Many of the multiple traumatized patients who refer to the hospital need transfusion. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious clinical syndrome associated with the transfusion of plasma-containing blood components. In the article, we present a case of TRALI following transfusion of packed red blood cells
Case Presentation: A 24 year old male referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital due to multiple trauma with left femoral and humerus fractures. Due to severe anemia he received 3 units of packed red blood cells. The symptoms of TRALI began 2 hours after transfusion. He was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) due to metabolic acidosis and severe hypoxia. The TRALI was confirmed after ruling out the other probable pulmonary diseases. He recovered and was discharged.
Conclusion: Transfusion related acute lung injury should be considered in any case receiving transfusion of plasma containing blood components.
Transfusion; Lung injury; TRALI; Transfusion; Multiple traumas; Hazard
The incidence of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) in adults is approximately one per 5000 transfusions. The Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program undertook the present study to determine the incidence of TRALI in the paediatric population and to describe the characteristics and outcomes of children with TRALI.
The present surveillance study was conducted over a three-year period.
Four TRALI cases were reported, yielding an incidence rate of 1.8 per 100,000 transfusions. The degree of severity varied: in two patients, only supplemental oxygen was necessary, while the other two required mechanical ventilation.
TRALI was reported much less often in the present study compared with adult studies; therefore, it needs to be determined whether TRALI occurs less frequently in children, or alternatively, whether TRALI is recognized less often in children. The possibility that neonates who undergo cardiac surgery are at greater risk of TRALI than other patients should be addressed in future studies.
Acute lung injury; Blood transfusion; Child; Paediatrics; TRALI
The National Blood Policy in India relies heavily on voluntary blood donors, as they are usually assumed to be associated with low levels of transfusion‐transmitted infections (TTIs). In India, it is mandatory to test every unit of blood collected for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and malaria. Donors come to the blood bank with altruistic intentions. If donors test positive to any of the five infections, their blood is discarded. Although the blood policy advocates disclosure of TTI status, donors are not, in practice, informed about their results. The onus is on the donor to contact the blood bank. Out of approximately 16 000 donations in the past 2 years, 438 tested positive for TTI, including 107 for HIV. Only 20% of the donors contacted the blood bank; none of them were HIV positive. Disclosure by blood banks of TTI status by telephone or mail has resulted in serious consequences for some donors. Health providers face an ethical dilemma, in the absence of proper mechanisms in place for disclosure of test results, regarding notification to donors who may test positive but remain ignorant of their TTI status. Given the high cost of neglecting to notify infected donors, the authors strongly recommend the use of rapid tests before collecting blood, instead of the current practice, which takes 3 h to obtain results, and disclosure of results directly to the donor by a counsellor, to avoid dropouts and to ensure confidentiality.
Cardiopulmonary adverse events after transfusion include acute lung injury (TRALI) and circulatory overload (TACO), which are potentially lethal and incompletely understood.
Study Design and Methods
To determine whether the incidence of TRALI and TACO was affected by leukoreduction we conducted a retrospective, before and after study of acute transfusion reactions for the seven years prior to and after introduction of universal leukoreduction in 2000, involving 778,559 blood components.
Substantial decreases occurred in the rates of TRALI (−83%; from 2.8 cases per 100,000 components pre- to 0.48 post-universal leukoreduction; p=0.01), TACO (−49%; 7.4 to 3.8 cases per 100,000; p=0.03) and febrile reactions (−35%; 11.4 to 7.4 cases per 10,000; p<0.0001). The incidence of allergic reactions remained unchanged (7.0 per 100,000 pre- and post-universal leukoreduction). These outcomes were primarily attributable to decreased TRALI/TACO associated with RBC and platelet transfusions (−64%) with notably smaller decreases associated with FFP or cryoprecipitate transfusions (−29%). The incidence of TRALI/TACO after 28,120 washed red cell and 69,325 platelet transfusions was zero.
These data suggest novel hypotheses for further testing in animal models, in prospective clinical trials, and via the new US Hemovigilance System : (1) Is TACO or TRALI mitigated by leukoreduction? (2) Is the mechanism of TACO more complex than excessive blood volume? (3) Does washing mitigate TRALI and TACO due to platelet and RBC transfusions?
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a noncardiogenic pulmonary edema that occurs during or within 6 hours after transfusion. Risk factors for TRALI, which is relatively common in critically ill patients, include recent surgery, hematologic malignancy, and sepsis. Here, we report a case of TRALI induced by anti-human leukocyte antigen (anti-HLA) class II antibodies (HLA-DR) occurring after transfusion of platelet concentrates in a patient with acute leukemia. Although most patients with TRALI show improvement within 48-96 hours, our patient's condition rapidly worsened, and he did not respond to supportive treatment. TRALI is a relatively common and serious adverse transfusion reaction that requires prompt diagnosis and management.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI); Transfusion; Anti-human leukocyte antigen (anti-HLA) antibody
Transfusion of allogeneic blood products is given for correction of coagulation deficits and for the improvement in oxygen-carrying capacity or delivery. Blood transfusion has become safer following the advancement in blood testing using state-of-the-art viral assays; however, there continues to exist a variety of noninfectious transfusion risks that still remain and that cannot be entirely eliminated. Research is now directed towards understanding these lesser-known, but serious transfusion-related complications. This purpose of this review is to discuss a serious noninfectious cause of acute lung injury, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), which occurred in 2 recent cases in the intensive care unit, and to review the current literature of this syndrome.
Adult/etiology/immunology; blood transfusion/adverse effects; neutrophils/immunology; respiratory distress syndrome
Public awareness has long focused on the risks of the transmission of viral agents through blood product transfusion. This risk, however, pales in comparison to the less publicized danger associated with the transfusion of blood products contaminated with bacteria, in particular, platelet concentrates. Up to 1,000 cases of clinical sepsis after the transfusion of platelet concentrates are reported annually in the United States. The condition is characterized by acute reaction symptoms and the rapid onset of septicemia and carries a 20 to 40% mortality rate. The urgent need for a method for the routine screening of platelet concentrates to improve patient safety has long been recognized. We describe the development of a rapid and highly sensitive method for screening for bacteria in platelet concentrates for transfusion. No culture period is required; and the entire procedure, from the time of sampling to the time that the final result is obtained, takes less than 90 min. The method involves three basic stages: the selective removal of platelets by filtration following activation with a monoclonal antibody, DNA-specific fluorescent labeling of bacteria, and concentration of the bacteria on a membrane surface for enumeration by solid-phase cytometry. The method offers a universal means of detection of live, nondividing, or dead gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in complex cellular blood products. The sensitivity is higher than those of the culture-based methods available at present, with a detection limit of 10 to 102 CFU/ml, depending upon the bacterial strain.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. Clinically, TRALI presents as acute lung injury (ALI) (characterized by dyspnea and hypoxemia, with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates) within 6 hours after transfusion of one or more blood products. The pathophysiology of TRALI is incompletely understood, but in part is due to transfusion of certain anti-leukocyte antibodies, or possibly other bioactive substances, into susceptible recipients. Transfusion recipient risk factors are higher interleukin-8 levels, liver surgery, chronic alcohol abuse, shock, higher peak airway pressure while being mechanically ventilated, current smoking and higher positive fluid balance. Transfusion risk factors are female plasma, quantity of strong antibody that matches recipient class II human leukocyte antigens, and volume of plasma containing antibody to human neutrophil antigens. Diagnosing TRALI requires a high index of suspicion, and the exclusion of circulatory overload, heart failure or other major ALI risk factors as the cause of pulmonary edema. Treatment should include cessation of the offending transfusion, but is otherwise supportive. Reduced transfusion of female plasma has been associated with a lower TRALI incidence. Further prevention strategies may include reduced transfusion of platelets that contain leukocyte antibodies, and reduction of recipient susceptibility by improving treatment of shock and limiting peak airway pressure while being mechanically ventilated.
transfusion related acute lung injury; acute lung injury; transfusion reaction; multiple transfusions; pulmonary edema
Blood transfusion increases the risk of nosocomial infection in trauma patients. Specific patient- and transfusion-related risk factors are largely unknown. In this study, risk factors for developing a bacterial infection after transfusion of red blood cells (RBC) or platelets were determined in a cohort of transfused critically ill trauma patients.
Material and methods.
A retrospective study was conducted in a mixed medical-surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a level-1 university trauma centre, in trauma patients who received a RBC or platelet transfusion. Patients who developed a bacterial infection after transfusion were compared to transfused controls who did not develop such an infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for infection.
Of the 7,118 patients admitted to the ICU during the study period, 196 trauma patients met the inclusion criteria. An infection developed in 56 patients (29%). Infection occurred irrespective of the administration of antibiotics as part of selective digestive tract decontamination, surgery status or Injury Severity Score. Transfusion of RBC stored for more than 14 days was associated with infection in trauma patients (odds ratio 1.038, [95% CI: 1.01–1.07], p=0.036). Neither the amount of RBC nor that of platelets was associated with onset of infection.
Transfusion of RBC stored for more then 14 days is a risk factor for onset of bacterial infection after trauma, irrespective of the use of prophylactic antibiotics. Transfusion of platelets was not a risk factor. These results may contribute to designing prospective studies on transfusion of fresh RBC only in trauma patients.
trauma; transfusion; storage time; immunomodulation; infection
Transfusion of allogeneic blood is still common in orthopedic surgery. This analysis evaluates from the perspective of a German hospital the potential cost savings of Epoetin alfa (EPO) compared to predonated autologous blood transfusions or to a nobloodconservationstrategy (allogeneic blood transfusion strategy)during elective hip and knee replacement surgery.
Individual patients (N = 50,000) were simulated based on data from controlled trials, the German DRG institute (InEK) and various publications and entered into a stochastic model (Monte-Carlo) of three treatment arms: EPO, preoperative autologous donation and nobloodconservationstrategy. All three strategies lead to a different risk for an allogeneic blood transfusion. The model focused on the costs and events of the three different procedures. The costs were obtained from clinical trial databases, the German DRG system, patient records and medical publications: transfusion (allogeneic red blood cells: €320/unit and autologous red blood cells: €250/unit), pneumonia treatment (€5,000), and length of stay (€300/day). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine which factors had an influence on the model's clinical and cost outcomes.
At acquisition costs of €200/40,000 IU EPO is cost saving compared to autologous blood donation, and cost-effective compared to a nobloodconservationstrategy. The results were most sensitive to the cost of EPO, blood units and hospital days.
EPO might become an attractive blood conservation strategy for anemic patients at reasonable costs due to the reduction in allogeneic blood transfusions, in the modeled incidence of transfusion-associated pneumonia andthe prolongedlength of stay.