β-Carotene has been established as a known free radical scavenger with chain-breaking antioxidant properties. It has been documented for the treatment of epileptic convulsions at a 200 mg/kg body weight dose. The reported pathogenesis for epileptic convulsions is oxidative stress. Hence, experimental epileptic convulsions via oxidative stress was induced in albino mice epileptic models (maximal electroshock seizure and pentylenetetrazole [PTZ]). A dose concentration equivalent to 2 mg/kg was efficaciously administered in the form of brain-targeted polysorbate-80-coated poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation technique and further characterized for their physical parameters, in-vitro release kinetics, and in-vivo brain release via various standard methods. Normal β-carotene nanoparticles (BCNP) and polysorbate-80-coated β-carotene nanoparticles (P-80-BCNP) of 169.8 ± 4.8 nm and 176.3 ± 3.2 nm in size, respectively, were formulated and characterized. Their zeta potential and polydispersity index were subsequently evaluated after 5 months of storage to confirm stability. In vivo activity results showed that a 2 mg unformulated β-carotene dose was ineffective as an anticonvulsant. However, salutary response was reported from BCNP at the same dose, as the hind limb duration decreased significantly in maximal electroshock seizure to 9.30 ± 0.86 seconds, which further decreased with polysorbate-80 coating to 2.10 ± 1.16 seconds as compared to normal control (15.8 ± 1.49 seconds) and placebo control (16.50 ± 1.43 seconds). In the PTZ model, the duration of general tonic–clonic seizures reduced significantly to 2.90 ± 0.98 seconds by the use of BCNP and was further reduced on P-80-BCNP to 1.20 ± 0.20 seconds as compared to PTZ control and PTZ-placebo control (8.09 ± 0.26 seconds). General tonic–clonic seizures latency was increased significantly to 191.0 ± 9.80 seconds in BCNP and was further increased in P-80-BCNP to 231.0 ± 16.30 seconds, as compared to PTZ (120.10 ± 4.50 seconds) and placebo control (120.30 ± 7.4 seconds). The results of this study demonstrate a plausible novel anticonvulsant activity of β-carotene at a low dose of 2 mg/kg, with brain-targeted nanodelivery, thus increasing its bioavailability and stability.
anticonvulsant; blood–brain barrier (BBB); targeted brain delivery; polysorbate-80-coated β-carotene nanoparticles (P-80-BCNP); maximal electroshock seizure (MES); pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)
The aim of this study was to develop poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for delivery of a protein – tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) – across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to inhibit deleterious matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
Materials and methods
The NPs were formulated by multiple-emulsion solvent-evaporation, and for enhancing BBB penetration, they were coated with polysorbate 80 (Ps80). We compared Ps80-coated and uncoated NPs for their toxicity, binding, and BBB penetration on primary rat brain capillary endothelial cell cultures and the rat brain endothelial 4 cell line. These studies were followed by in vivo studies for brain delivery of these NPs.
Results showed that neither Ps80-coated nor uncoated NPs caused significant opening of the BBB, and essentially they were nontoxic. NPs without Ps80 coating had more binding to endothelial cells compared to Ps80-coated NPs. Penetration studies showed that TIMP-1 NPs + Ps80 had 11.21%±1.35% penetration, whereas TIMP-1 alone and TIMP-1 NPs without Ps80 coating did not cross the endothelial monolayer. In vivo studies indicated BBB penetration of intravenously injected TIMP-1 NPs + Ps80.
The study demonstrated that Ps80 coating of NPs does not cause significant toxic effects to endothelial cells and that it can be used to enhance the delivery of protein across endothelial cell barriers, both in vitro and in vivo.
PLGA nanoparticles; drug delivery; protein delivery; sustained release; brain delivery; BBB penetration; RBCEC culture
Polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) nanoparticles coated with polysorbate-80 have been extensively proposed for delivering drugs into the animal brain and have shown great potential for therapeutic applications. In this study, we made an attempt to deliver the chemotherapeutic drug, temozolomide, into the brain by using PBCA nanoparticles. The physicochemical characteristics, in vitro release, and brain targeting ability of the drug-loaded nanoparticles were investigated.
Our results show that a significantly higher concentration of temozolomide in the form of polysorbate-80-coated PBCA nanoparticles was observed in the brain (P < 0.05) in comparison with the free drug.
This study indicates that polysorbate-80 coated PBCA nanoparticles could be a feasible carrier for temozolomide delivery to the brain. It is anticipated that the developed formulation may improve on targeted therapy for malignant brain tumors in the future.
temozolomide; polybutylcyanoacrylate; nanoparticles; polysorbate-80; brain targeting
The article of Gasser et al. [Part Fibre Toxicol. 24; 9:17, 2012] describes the interaction of carbon nanotubes with cells within a complex cell culture model. Besides various toxicity parameters, the influence of coating with pulmonary surfactant was investigated. Pulmonary surfactant covers the entire alveolar region with the main function of decreasing the surface tension in the alveoli to prevent alveolar collapse. Although each inhaled nanoparticle, reaching the alveoli, will come into contact with pulmonary surfactant which will probably lead to a surfactant coating, pulmonary surfactant components are not commonly integrated in in vitro systems. Gasser and co-workers have shown that this surfactant coating is able to influence the further interaction with cellular systems. Hence, each scientist, working with in vitro systems and nanoparticles, should think of integrating pulmonary surfactant structures in order to harmonize the in vitro systems with the in vivo situation. In the present commentary we discuss the most important points of the manuscript of Gasser et al. and discuss where the usage of pulmonary surfactant can be further optimized.
Nanoparticle; Lung; Pulmonary surfactant; Coating
To investigate a nuclear factor-kappa B decoy oligonucleotides strategy on the inhibition of tissue factor (TF) expression in cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) by polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles delivery system and to evaluate this new vector for in vitro gene therapy. Nanoparticles were formulated using poly D,L-polylactic acid with surface modifying by polysorbates 80. 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assays showed that PLA nanoparticles were not toxic to the cultured BMECs.The decoy oligonuceotides (ODNs) loaded within nanoparticles was 6 μg/mg, encapsulation efficacy was (60.5±1.5)%. It was observed by flow cytometry that the cellular uptake of nanoparticles depended on the time of incubation and the concentration of nanoparticles in the medium. And confocal microscopy demonstrated that nanoparticles localized mostly in the BMECs cytoplasm. The released decoy oligonuceotides (ODNs) uptaked by BMECs retained their biologic activity and led to reduced level of tissue factor expression as compared to control cultures. These findings offer a potential therapeutic strategy in the control of TF expression in BMECs in vitro and suggest that PLA nanoparticles may be appropriate as delivery vehicles for decoy strategy in the gene therapy of cerebral thrombosis.
Tissue factor; decoy oligonucleotides; nanoparticles; nuclear factor-kappaB; polylactic acid
This study evaluated the use of isothermal microcalorimetry (ITMC) to detect macrophage–nanoparticle interactions. Four different nanoparticle (NP) formulations were prepared: uncoated poly(isobutyl cyanoacrylate) (PIBCA), polysorbate-80-coated PIBCA, gelatin, and mannosylated gelatin NPs. Changes in NP formulations were aimed to either enhance or decrease macrophage–NP interactions via phagocytosis. Alveolar macrophages were cultured on glass slabs and inserted in the ITMC instrument. Thermal activities of the macrophages alone and after titration of 100 μL of NP suspensions were compared. The relative interactive coefficients of macrophage–NP interactions were calculated using the heat exchange observed after NP titration. Control experiments were performed using cytochalasin B (Cyto B), a known phagocytosis inhibitor. The results of NP titration showed that the total thermal activity produced by macrophages changed according to the NP formulation. Mannosylated gelatin NPs were associated with the highest heat exchange, 75.4 ± 7.5 J, and thus the highest relative interactive coefficient, 9,269 ± 630 M-1. Polysorbate-80-coated NPs were associated with the lowest heat exchange, 15.2 ± 3.4 J, and the lowest interactive coefficient, 890 ± 120 M-1. Cyto B inhibited macrophage response to NPs, indicating a connection between the thermal activity recorded and NP phagocytosis. These results are in agreement with flow cytometry results. ITMC is a valuable tool to monitor the biological responses to nano-sized dosage forms such as NPs. Since the thermal activity of macrophage–NP interactions differed according to the type of NPs used, ITMC may provide a method to better understand phagocytosis and further the development of colloidal dosage forms.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-010-9240-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
flow cytometry; isothermal microcalorimetry; macrophages; nanoparticles; phagocytosis
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) pose a possible human health risk for lung disease as a result of inhalation exposure. Mice exposed to MWCNTs develop pulmonary fibrosis. Lung macrophages engulf MWCNTs and produce pro-fibrogenic cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and osteopontin (OPN). Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a novel process used to enhance functional properties of MWCNTs, yet the consequence of ALD-modified MWCNTs on macrophage biology and fibrosis is unknown.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether ALD coating with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) would alter the fibrogenic response to MWCNTs and whether cytokine expression in human macrophage/monocytes exposed to MWCNTs in vitro would predict the severity of lung fibrosis in mice. Uncoated (U)-MWCNTs or ALD-coated (A)-MWCNTs were incubated with THP-1 macrophages or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cell supernatants assayed for cytokines by ELISA. C57BL6 mice were exposed to a single dose of A- or U-MWCNTs by oropharyngeal aspiration (4 mg/kg) followed by evaluation of histopathology, lung inflammatory cell counts, and cytokine levels at day 1 and 28 post-exposure.
ALD coating of MWCNTs with Al2O3 enhanced IL-1β secretion by THP-1 and PBMC in vitro, yet reduced protein levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and OPN production by THP-1 cells. Moreover, Al2O3 nanoparticles, but not carbon black NPs, increased IL-1β but decreased OPN and IL-6 in THP-1 and PBMC. Mice exposed to U-MWCNT had increased levels of all four cytokines assayed and developed pulmonary fibrosis by 28 days, whereas ALD-coating significantly reduced fibrosis and cytokine levels at the mRNA or protein level.
These findings indicate that ALD thin film coating of MWCNTs with Al2O3 reduces fibrosis in mice and that in vitro phagocyte expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and OPN, but not IL-1β, predict MWCNT-induced fibrosis in the lungs of mice in vivo.
The rapid proliferation of many different engineered nanomaterials (defined as materials designed and produced to have structural features with at least one dimension of 100 nanometers or less) presents a dilemma to regulators regarding hazard identification. The International Life Sciences Institute Research Foundation/Risk Science Institute convened an expert working group to develop a screening strategy for the hazard identification of engineered nanomaterials. The working group report presents the elements of a screening strategy rather than a detailed testing protocol. Based on an evaluation of the limited data currently available, the report presents a broad data gathering strategy applicable to this early stage in the development of a risk assessment process for nanomaterials. Oral, dermal, inhalation, and injection routes of exposure are included recognizing that, depending on use patterns, exposure to nanomaterials may occur by any of these routes. The three key elements of the toxicity screening strategy are: Physicochemical Characteristics, In Vitro Assays (cellular and non-cellular), and In Vivo Assays.
There is a strong likelihood that biological activity of nanoparticles will depend on physicochemical parameters not routinely considered in toxicity screening studies. Physicochemical properties that may be important in understanding the toxic effects of test materials include particle size and size distribution, agglomeration state, shape, crystal structure, chemical composition, surface area, surface chemistry, surface charge, and porosity.
In vitro techniques allow specific biological and mechanistic pathways to be isolated and tested under controlled conditions, in ways that are not feasible in in vivo tests. Tests are suggested for portal-of-entry toxicity for lungs, skin, and the mucosal membranes, and target organ toxicity for endothelium, blood, spleen, liver, nervous system, heart, and kidney. Non-cellular assessment of nanoparticle durability, protein interactions, complement activation, and pro-oxidant activity is also considered.
Tier 1 in vivo assays are proposed for pulmonary, oral, skin and injection exposures, and Tier 2 evaluations for pulmonary exposures are also proposed. Tier 1 evaluations include markers of inflammation, oxidant stress, and cell proliferation in portal-of-entry and selected remote organs and tissues. Tier 2 evaluations for pulmonary exposures could include deposition, translocation, and toxicokinetics and biopersistence studies; effects of multiple exposures; potential effects on the reproductive system, placenta, and fetus; alternative animal models; and mechanistic studies.
The increasing manufacture and use of products based on nanotechnology raises concerns for both workers and consumers. Various studies report induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanoparticles, which can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Each of these aspects can affect their toxicity, although it is largely unknown to what extent. The aim of the current review is to analyse published data on inhalation of nanoparticles to identify and evaluate the contribution of their physicochemical characteristics to the onset and development of pulmonary inflammation. Many physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles affect their lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response that, in combination, ultimately determine whether pulmonary inflammation will occur and to what extent. Lung deposition is mainly determined by the physical properties of the aerosol (size, density, shape, hygroscopicity) in relation to airflow and the anatomy of the respiratory system, whereas clearance and translocation of nanoparticles are mainly determined by their geometry and surface characteristics. Besides size and chemical composition, other physicochemical characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation. As some nanoparticles dissolve, they can release toxic ions that can damage the lung tissue, making dissolution rate an important characteristic that affects lung inflammation. Fibre-shaped materials are more toxic to the lungs compared to spherical shaped nanoparticles of the same chemical composition. In general, cationic nanoparticles are more cytotoxic than neutral or anionic nanoparticles. Finally, surface reactivity correlates well with observed pulmonary inflammation. With all these characteristics affecting different stages of the events leading to pulmonary inflammation, no unifying dose metric could be identified to describe pulmonary inflammation for all nanomaterials, although surface reactivity might be a useful measure. To determine the extent to which the various characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation, the effect of these characteristics on lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response should be systematically evaluated. The results can then be used to facilitate risk assessment by categorizing nanoparticles according to their characteristics.
Nanoparticles; Inhalation exposure; Pulmonary toxicity; Particle characteristics; Surface reactivity; Risk assessment
Coating products are widely used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. However, on several occasions the use of these products has been associated with lung toxicity.
In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of an aerosolized tile-coating product.
Thirty-nine persons, who reported respiratory and systemic symptoms following exposure to the tile-coating product, were clinically examined. The product was analysed chemically and furthermore, the exposure scenario was reconstructed using a climate chamber and the toxicological properties of the product were studied using in vivo and by in vitro surfactometry.
The symptoms developed within few hours and included coughing, tachypnoea, chest pain, general malaise and fever. The physical examination revealed perihilar lung infiltrates on chest radiograph and reduced blood oxygen saturation. The acute symptoms resolved gradually within 1–3 days and no delayed symptoms were observed. By means of mass spectrometry and X-ray spectroscopy, it was shown that the product contained non-fluorinated alkylsiloxanes. The exposure conditions in the supermarket were reconstructed under controlled conditions in a climate chamber and particle and gas exposure levels were monitored over time allowing estimation of human exposure levels.
Mice exposed to the product developed symptoms of acute pulmonary toxicity in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. The symptoms of acute pulmonary toxicity likely resulted from inhibition of the pulmonary surfactant function as demonstrated by in vitro surfactometry. Among these patients only a partial association between the level of exposure and the degree of respiratory symptoms was observed, which could be because of a high inter-individual difference in sensitivity and time-dependent changes in the chemical composition of the aerosol.
Workers need to cautiously apply surface coating products because the contents can be highly toxic through inhalation, and the aerosols can disperse to locations remote from the worksite and affect bystanders.
Aerosols; Respiratory disorder; Sealing product; Coating product; Occupational exposure
In order to limit the adverse reactions caused by polysorbate 80 in Taxotere®, a widely used formulation of docetaxel, a safe and effective nanocarrier for this drug has been developed based on micelles formed by a new class of well-defined polyoxyethylene sorbitol oleate (PSO) with sorbitol as the matrix in aqueous solution. The physicochemical properties of the amphiphilic surfactant and the resulting micelles can be easily fine-tuned by the homogeneous sorbitol matrix and pure oleic acid. Composition, critical micelle concentration, and entrapment efficiency were investigated by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, fluorospectrophotometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro and in vivo evaluation revealed that PSO had exceptionally low hemolysis and histamine release rates compared with commercial polysorbate 80. Moreover, the tumor targeting delivery of PSO was investigated by in vivo imaging in S180 tumor-bearing mice. The results suggest that this novel delivery system, PSO, provides an acceptable alternative to polysorbate 80 for delivery of docetaxel. Further, due to the hypoallergenic nature of PSO, the mechanism of pseudoallergy caused by the polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactant was investigated. Based on in vitro cell analysis, it was assumed that the initial contact of polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactant with mast cells provoked pseudoallergy via polyamine receptor-mediated endocytosis.
polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactant; sorbitol; isosorbide; pseudoallergy; docetaxel
In spite of the extreme rise to the knowledge of nanotechnology in pharmaceutical sciences, there are currently limited experimental works studying the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and the biological system. Adjustment of size and surface area plays the main role in the reaction between NPs and cells leading to their increased entrance into cells through skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory system. Moreover, change in physicochemical reactivity of NPs causes them to interact with circulatory and cellular proteins differentially leading to the altered parameters of their biokinetics, including adsorption, distribution, translocation, transformation, and elimination. A direct relationship between the surface area, reactive oxygen species generating capability, and proinflammatory effects of NPs have been found in respiratory tract toxicity. Additionally, complement-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to liposomes and other lipid-based nanodrugs have been well defined. Inhalation studies of some NPs have confirmed the translocation of inhaled materials to extra pulmonary organs such as central nervous system (CNS) via olfactory neurons and induction of inflammatory response. Injectable uncoated NPs have a tendency to remain on the injection site while the poly ethanol glycol (PEG)-coated NPs can be notably drained from the injection site to get as far as the lymph nodes where they accumulate. This confirms the existence of channels within the extracellular matrix for NPs to move along. Furthermore, induction of DNA strand breaks and formation of micronuclei have been recorded for exposure to some NPs such as single-walled carbon nanotubes.
In the recent years, most of the studies have simply outlined better efficacy of nanodrugs, but few discussed their possible toxic reactions specially if used chronically. Therefore, we emphasize that this part of the nanoscience must not be undermined and toxicologists must be sensitive to set up suitable in vivo or in vitro toxicity models. A system for collecting data about the relationships between NPs’ structure-size-efficacy-toxicity (SSET) should be specified with special regard to portal of entry and target organ.
Nanomedicine; Biokinetics; Nanotoxicology; Review
There is increasing interest in the environmental and health consequences of silver nanoparticles as the use of this material becomes widespread. Although human exposure to nanosilver is increasing, only a few studies address possible toxic effect of inhaled nanosilver. The objective of this study was to determine whether very small commercially available nanosilver induces pulmonary toxicity in mice following inhalation exposure.
In this study, mice were exposed sub-acutely by inhalation to well-characterized nanosilver (3.3 mg/m3, 4 hours/day, 10 days, 5 ± 2 nm primary size). Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and the presence of silver. In contrast to published in vitro studies, minimal inflammatory response or toxicity was found following exposure to nanosilver in our in vivo study. The median retained dose of nanosilver in the lungs measured by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was 31 μg/g lung (dry weight) immediately after the final exposure, 10 μg/g following exposure and a 3-wk rest period and zero in sham-exposed controls. Dissolution studies showed that nanosilver did not dissolve in solutions mimicking the intracellular or extracellular milieu.
Mice exposed to nanosilver showed minimal pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity following sub-acute exposures. However, longer term exposures with higher lung burdens of nanosilver are needed to ensure that there are no chronic effects and to evaluate possible translocation to other organs.
Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation. We sought to determine whether ZnO NPs induce pulmonary toxicity in mice following sub-acute or sub-chronic inhalation exposure to realistic exposure doses.
Mice (C57Bl/6) were exposed to well-characterized ZnO NPs (3.5 mg/m3, 4 hr/day) for 2 (sub-acute) or 13 (sub-chronic) weeks and necropsied immediately (0 wk) or 3 weeks (3 wks) post exposure. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid as well as measurements of pulmonary mechanics. Generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed in the lungs. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and Zn content. Zn concentration in blood, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and BAL fluid was measured.
An elevated concentration of Zn2+ was detected in BAL fluid immediately after exposures, but returned to baseline levels 3 wks post exposure. Dissolution studies showed that ZnO NPs readily dissolved in artificial lysosomal fluid (pH 4.5), but formed aggregates and precipitates in artificial interstitial fluid (pH 7.4). Sub-acute exposure to ZnO NPs caused an increase of macrophages in BAL fluid and a moderate increase in IL-12(p40) and MIP-1α, but no other inflammatory or toxic responses were observed. Following both sub-acute and sub-chronic exposures, pulmonary mechanics were no different than sham-exposed animals.
Our ZnO NP inhalation studies showed minimal pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity or lung histopathologic changes. An elevated concentration of Zn in the lung and BAL fluid indicates dissolution of ZnO NPs in the respiratory system after inhalation. Exposure concentration, exposure mode and time post exposure played an important role in the toxicity of ZnO NPs. Exposure for 13 wks with a cumulative dose of 10.9 mg/kg yielded increased lung cellularity, but other markers of toxicity did not differ from sham-exposed animals, leading to the conclusion that ZnO NPs have low sub-chronic toxicity by the inhalation route.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles; Dissolution; Inhalation; Murine model; Pulmonary response; Toxicity
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of duloxetine hydrochloride (DLX) were prepared to circumvent the problems of DLX, which include acid labile nature, high first-pass metabolism, and high-dosing frequency. The DLX-SLNs were prepared by using two different techniques, viz. solvent diffusion method and ultrasound dispersion method, and evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, physical characteristics, and chemical stability. Best results were obtained when SLNs were prepared by ultrasound dispersion method using glyceryl mono stearate as solid lipid and DLX in ratio of 1:20 and mixture of polysorbate 80 and poloxamer 188 as surfactant in concentration of 3%. The mean particle size of formulation and entrapment efficiency was 91.7 nm and 87%, respectively, and had excellent stability in acidic medium. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction data showed complete amorphization of DLX in lipid. In vitro drug release from SLNs was observed for 48 h and was in accordance with Higuchi kinetics. In vivo antidepressant activity was evaluated in mice by forced swim test. DLX-SLNs showed significant enhancement in antidepressant activity at 24 h when administered orally in comparison to drug solution. These results confirm the potential of SLNs in enhancing chemical stability and improving the efficacy of DLX via oral route. The SLN dispersion was converted into solid granules by adsorbing on colloidal silicon dioxide and characterized for particle size after redispersion, morphology, and flow properties. Results indicated that nanoparticles were successfully adsorbed on the carrier and released SLNs when dispersed in water.
acid labile; adsorption; duloxetine HCl; lymphatic absorption; solid lipid nanoparticles
The inhalation of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) is believed to cause an oxidative stress response, which in turn may lead to pulmonary or even systemic inflammation.
Objective and Methods
In this study we assessed whether the in vivo inflammatory response—which is generally referred to as particle toxicity—of mice to CDNPs can be predicted in vitro by a cell-free ascorbate test for the surface reactivity or, more precisely, oxidative potency (OxPot) of particles.
For six types of CDNPs with widely varying particle diameter (10–50 nm), organic content (OC; 1–20%), and specific Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area (43–800 m2/g), OxPot correlated strongly with the in vivo inflammatory response (pulmonary polymorphonuclear neutrophil influx 24 hr after intratracheal particle instillation). However, for CDNPs with high organic content, OxPot could not explain the observed inflammatory response, possibly due to shielding of the OxPot of the carbon core of CDNPs by an organic coating. On the other hand, a pathway-specific gene expression screen indicated that, for particles rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) enzyme-mediated biotransformation of bio-available organics may generate oxidative stress and thus enhance the in vivo inflammatory response.
The compensatory nature of both effects (shielding of carbon core and biotransformation of PAHs) results in a good correlation between inflammatory response and BET surface area for all CDNPs. Hence, the in vivo inflammatory response can either be predicted by BET surface area or by a simple quantitative model, based on in vitro OxPot and Cyp1a1 induction.
air pollution; BET; biotransformation; carbonaceous particles; Cyp1a1; dose response; nanoparticles; nanotoxicity; organic compounds; oxidative stress; particle toxicity; soot particles; specific surface area; surface toxicity; ultrafine particles
Various nanoparticles have been designed and tested in order to select optimal carriers for the inhalation delivery of anticancer drugs to the lungs.
The following nanocarriers were studied: micelles, liposomes, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), poly propyleneimine (PPI) dendrimer-siRNA complexes nanoparticles, quantum dots (QDs), and poly (ethylene glycol) polymers. All particles were characterized using the following methods: dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, atomic force microscopy, in vitro cyto- and genotoxicity. In vivo organ distribution of all nanoparticles, retention in the lungs, and anticancer effects of liposomes loaded with doxorubicin were examined in nude mice after the pulmonary or intravenous delivery.
Significant differences in lung uptake were found after the inhalation delivery of lipid-based and non-lipid-based nanoparticles. The accumulation of liposomes and micelles in lungs remained relatively high even 24 h after inhalation when compared with MSNs, QDs, and PPI dendrimers. There were notable differences between nanoparticle accumulation in the lungs and other organs 1 and 3 h after inhalation or intravenous administrations, but 24 h after intravenous injection all nanoparticles were mainly accumulated in the liver, kidneys, and spleen. Inhalation delivery of doxorubicin by liposomes significantly enhanced its anticancer effect and prevented severe adverse side effects of the treatment in mice bearing the orthotopic model of lung cancer.
The results of the study demonstrate that lipid-based nanocarriers had considerably higher accumulation and longer retention time in the lungs when compared with non-lipid-based carriers after the inhalation delivery. These particles are most suitable for effective inhalation treatment of lung cancer.
Nanoparticles; drug delivery systems; intravenous administration; lung neoplasms; inhalation administration
Purpose of the study:
The antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically improved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment, prevention and also has been found to increase the lifespan of HIV/AIDS patients by providing durable control of the HIV replication in patients. Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of HIV-1. The purpose of this study is to formulate efavirenz-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles to improve efavirenz delivery into various organs.
Materials and Methods:
Nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation technique and coated with polysorbate 80. Ethanol, glutaraldehyde, and mannitol were used as desolvating, cross linking agent, and cryoprotectant, respectively. Drug to polymer ratio was chosen at five levels from 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, and 1:6 (by weight). The formulated nanoparticles were characterized for Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface charge, surface morphology, in vitro drug release, release kinetics, stability studies, and biodistribution studies.
Results and Major Conclusion:
The particle size of the prepared formulations was found below 250nm with narrow size distribution, spherical in shape and showed good entrapment efficiency (45.62-72.49%). The in vitro drug release indicated biphasic release and its data were fitted to release kinetics models and release pattern was Fickian diffusion controlled release profile. The prepared nanoparticles increased efavirenz delivery into various organs by several fold in comparison with the free drug.
Albumin nanoparticles; animal testing; desolvation technique; Efavirenz (NNRTIs); polysorbate 80
To overcome the limitations of in vitro exposure of submerged lung cells to nanoparticles (NPs), we validated an integrated low flow system capable of generating and depositing airborne NPs directly onto cells at an air–liquid interface (ALI). The in vitro exposure system was shown to provide uniform and controlled dosing of particles with 70.3% efficiency to epithelial cells grown on transwells. This system delivered a continuous airborne exposure of NPs to lung cells without loss of cell viability in repeated 4 h exposure periods. We sequentially exposed cells to air-delivered copper (Cu) NPs in vitro to compare toxicity results to our prior in vivo inhalation studies. The evaluation of cellular dosimetry indicated that a large amount of Cu was taken up, dissolved and released into the basolateral medium (62% of total mass). Exposure to Cu NPs decreased cell viability to 73% (p < 0.01) and significantly (p < 0.05) elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular reactive oxygen species and interleukin-8 that mirrored our findings from subacute in vivo inhalation studies in mice. Our results show that this exposure system is useful for screening of NP toxicity in a manner that represents cellular responses of the pulmonary epithelium in vivo.
Nanoparticles; Lung cells; Air–liquid interface; Deposition efficiency; Spatial uniformity; Cellular dose
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a novel approach for delivering drugs directly into brain tumors by intracranial infusion, enabling the distribution of high drug concentrations over large tissue volumes. This study was designed to present a method for binding methotrexate (MTX) to unique crystalline, highly ordered and superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles via human serum albumin (HSA) coating, optimized for CED treatments of gliomas. Naked nanoparticles and HSA- or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated nanoparticles with/without MTX were studied. In vitro results showed no toxicity and a similar cell-kill efficacy of the MTX-loaded particles via HSA coating to that of free MTX, while MTX-loaded particles via PEG coating showed low efficacy. In vivo, the PEG-coated nanoparticles provided the largest distributions in normal rat brain and long clearance times, but due to their low efficacy in vitro, were not considered optimal. The naked nanoparticles provided the smallest distributions and shortest clearance times. The HSA-coated nanoparticles (with/without MTX) provided good distributions and long clearance times (nearly 50% of the distribution volume remained in the brain 3 weeks post treatment). No MTX-related toxicity was noted. These results suggest that the formulation in which HSA was bound to our nanoparticles via a unique precipitation method, and MTX was bound covalently to the HSA, could enable efficient and stable drug loading with no apparent toxicity. The cell-kill efficacy of the bound MTX remained similar to that of free MTX, and the nanoparticles presented efficient distribution volumes and slow clearance times in vivo, suggesting that these particles are optimal for CED.
convection-enhanced delivery; nanoparticles; methotrexate; magnetic resonance imaging; rat brain
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nanoTiO2) are used in various applications including in paints. NanoTiO2 inhalation may induce pulmonary toxicity and systemic effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of inhaled surface-coated nanoTiO2 on pulmonary global messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse were characterized to provide insight into the molecular response. Female C57BL/6BomTac mice were exposed for 1 hr daily to 42.4 ± 2.9 (SEM) mg surface-coated nanoTiO2/m3 for 11 consecutive days by inhalation and were sacrificed 5 days following the last exposure. Physicochemical properties of the particles were determined. Pulmonary response to nanoTiO2 was characterized using DNA microarrays and pathway-specific PCR arrays and related to data on pulmonary inflammation from bronchial lavages. NanoTiO2 exposure resulted in increased levels of mRNA for acute phase markers serum amyloid A-1 (Saa1) and serum amyloid A-3 (Saa3), several C-X-C and C-C motif chemokines, and cytokine tumor necrosis factor genes. Protein analysis of Saa1 and 3 showed selective upregulation of Saa3 in lung tissues. Sixteen miRNAs were induced by more than 1.2-fold (adjusted P-value < 0.05) following exposure. Real time polymerase chain reaction confirmed the upregulation of miR-1, miR-449a and revealed dramatic induction of miR-135b (60-fold). Thus, inhalation of surface-coated nanoTiO2 results in changes in the expression of genes associated with acute phase, inflammation and immune response 5 days post exposure with concomitant changes in several miRNAs. The role of these miRNAs in pulmonary response to inhaled particles is unknown and warrants further research. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.†
nanotitanium dioxide; gene expression; microRNA; inflammation
Nine types of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulations were produced using tripalmitin (TPM), glyceryl monostearate (GM) or stearic acid (SA), stabilized with lecithin S75 and polysorbate 80. Formulations were prepared presenting PI values within 0.25 to 0.30, and the physicochemical properties, stability upon storage and biocompatibility were evaluated. The average particle size ranged from 116 to 306 nm, with a negative surface charge around −11 mV. SLN presented good stability up to 60 days. The SLN manufactured using SA could not be measured by DLS due to the reflective feature of this formulation. However, TEM images revealed that SA nanoparticles presented square/rod shapes with an approximate size of 100 nm. Regarding biocompatibility aspects, SA nanoparticles showed toxicity in fibroblasts, causing cell death, and produced high hemolytic rates, indicating toxicity to red blood cells. This finding might be related to lipid type, as well as, the shape of the nanoparticles. No morphological alterations and hemolytic effects were observed in cells incubated with SLN containing TPM and GM. The SLN containing TPM and GM showed long-term stability, suggesting good shelf-life. The results indicate high toxicity of SLN prepared with SA, and strongly suggest that the components of the formulation should be analyzed in combination rather than separately to avoid misinterpretation of the results.
solid lipid nanoparticles; cytotoxicity; surfactant; lipid; biocompatibility
Hydroxypropyl-sulfobutyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-SBE-β-CD) inclusion complex was developed and used as a drug delivery system for DTX (DTX/HP-SBE-β-CD). The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the biological properties of DTX/HP-SBE-Β-CD with Taxotere®. The pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, antitumor efficacy in vivo and in vitro, and safety evaluation of DTX/HP-SBE-β-CD were studied. The most significant finding was that it was possible to prepare a Polysorbate-80-free inclusion complex for DTX. Studies based on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and antitumor efficacy indicated that DTX/HP-SBE-β-CD had similar pharmacokinetic properties and antitumor efficacy both in vitro and in vivo as Taxotere®. Fortunately, this new drug delivery system attenuated the side effects when used in vivo. As a consequence, DTX/HP-SBE-β-CD may be a promising alternative to Taxotere® for cancer chemotherapy treatment with reduced side effects. The therapeutic potential against a variety of human tumors and low toxicity demonstrated in a stringent study clearly warrant clinical investigation of DTX/HP-SBE-β-CD for possible use against human tumors.
antitumor efficacy; biodistribution; DTX/HP-SBE-β-CD; pharmacokinetics; safety evaluation
A former 34-week-old female infant with Down syndrome underwent surgical correction of a congenital heart defect at 5 months of age. Her postoperative course was complicated by severe pulmonary hypertension and junctional ectopic tachycardia. Following treatment with amiodarone infusion, she developed laboratory indices of acute liver injury. At their peak, liver transaminase levels were 19 to 35 times greater than the upper limit of normal. Transaminitis was accompanied by coagulopathy, hyperammonemia, and high serum lactate and lipid levels. Hepatic laboratory abnormalities began to resolve within 48 hr of stopping amiodarone infusion. Heart rate control was achieved concurrently with discovery of laboratory test result abnormalities, and no further antiarrhythmic therapy was required. The intravenous formulation of amiodarone contains the diluent polysorbate 80, which may have hepatotoxic effects. Specifically, animal studies suggest that polysorbate 80 may destabilize cell membranes and predispose to fatty change within liver architecture. Polysorbate was implicated in infant fatalities from E-ferol use in the 1980s. This case illustrates a possible adverse event by the Naranjo probability scale. Given the extent of clinically apparent hepatic injury, this patient was not rechallenged with amiodarone during the remainder of her hospitalization. With amiodarone now used as first-line pharmacologic therapy for critical tachyarrhythmia in this population, the number of children exposed to this drug should be expected to increase. Laboratory indices of liver function should be evaluated at initiation of amiodarone therapy, as well as frequently throughout duration of therapy. Consideration should be given to polysorbate-free formulation of intravenous amiodarone for use in the cohort with congenital cardiac disease.
amiodarone; congenital heart disease; hepatotoxicity; junctional ectopic tachycardia; polysorbate 80
The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles has resulted in their widespread use in many consumer products. Yet, despite their many advantages, it is also important to determine whether silver nanoparticles may represent a hazard to the environment and human health.
Thus, to evaluate the genotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles, in vivo genotoxicity testing (OECD 474, in vivo micronuclei test) was conducted after exposing male and female Sprague-Dawley rats to silver nanoparticles by inhalation for 90 days according to OECD test guideline 413 (Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90 Day Study) with a good laboratory practice system. The rats were exposed to silver nanoparticles (18 nm diameter) at concentrations of 0.7 × 106 particles/cm3 (low dose), 1.4 × 106 particles/cm3 (middle dose), and 2.9 × 106 particles/cm3 (high dose) for 6 hr/day in an inhalation chamber for 90 days. The rats were killed 24 hr after the last administration, then the femurs were removed and the bone marrow collected and evaluated for micronucleus induction.
There were no statistically significant differences in the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes or in the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes among the total erythrocytes after silver nanoparticle exposure when compared with the control.
The present results suggest that exposure to silver nanoparticles by inhalation for 90 days does not induce genetic toxicity in male and female rat bone marrow in vivo.
Silver nanoparticles; Genotoxicity; OECD test guidelines; In vivo micronuclei test; Good laboratory practice; Inhalation toxicity