Most hepatic hemangiomas (HHs) are small, asymptomatic and do not require clinical intervention. Surgical resection is only indicated for symptomatic hemangiomas. We report here cases of recurrent HHs in 2 women of 37 and 40 years old, who initially presented with abdominal pain and mass. Radiological examination of each tumor revealed a solitary tumor of 14 and 20 cm in diameter, respectively. Surgical liver segmental resections were performed in both, and the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma was confirmed. Both patients had recurrent tumor on subsequent radiological examination 4-5 years after the initial surgery. In the first patient, a 15 cm recurrent hemangioma was resected, but multiple hemangiomas were again detected 8 years later occupying the other hepatic lobe, which was not amendable for resection. In the second patient, a 16 cm hemangioma was seen on radiogram, and because the lesion was not symptomatic, conservative observation was offered. Recurrence after liver resection of giant hemangioma is extremely rare. The pathogenesis of tumor progression and recurrence is unknown, as is the management of these patients with recurrent hemangioma, particularly when it is extensive and unresectable.
Liver; Giant hemangioma; Recurrent hemangioma
In line with recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cavernous hemangioma (cavernoma) can be detected efficiently and reliably in patients with intractable epilepsy that surgical resection is a common treatment for them. Because these lesions are usually small and may be located near the eloquent areas, stereotactically-guided resection should be considered. This study aims to report the surgical features and outcomes of 6 patients underwent the stereotactically-guided craniotomy for excision of cavernoma.
A total of six patients (1 male and 5 female, aged 10-42 years, mean age of 29 years) with cavernoma underwent stereotactically-guided craniotomy surgery in the Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) for resection of cerebral cavernous hemangioma during September 2007 to May 2012. Clinical presentations were seizures, headache and hemorrhage. Two patients had a previous history of intracranial hemorrhage. Diagnosis was made using MRI and digital subtraction angiography. Locations of the lesions were parietal, frontal and temporoparietal. Size of lesion ranged from 0.7 to 3.1 cm (mean 1.7 cm). All those lesions were deep-seated or located near or within eloquent areas. Stereotactically-guided craniotomy was performed for excision of lesion. Clinical follow-up period ranged 5-48 months (mean 28 months). In all patients, complete surgical resection was achieved as demonstrated by postoperative image studies.
There was no associated morbidity or mortality. Histological diagnosis was consistent with cavernoma in all cases. Clinical follow-up revealed that all patients had complete recovery from preoperative symptoms and patients with seizures showed marked improvement.
In conclusion, stereotactic guided craniotomy in surgery of eloquent or deep-seated cerebral cavernous malformations represents a very accurate and safe approach.
Stereotactically-guided craniotomy, Cavernous hemangioma, Magnetic resonance imaging
Cavernous hemangiomas occur frequently in the intracranial structures but they are rare in the spine, with an incidence of 0.22 cases/million/year, which account for 5 – 12% of the spinal vascular lesions, 51% of which are extradural. Most of the epidural hemangiomas are secondary extensions from the vertebral lesions. The spinal cavernous hemangiomas which do not involve the vertebrae are referred to as “pure” types. The pure epidural hemangiomas are rare, which account for only 4% of all the epidural lesions.
A case of a Pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma in a 50 year old male, with the clinical picture of a slowly progressive compressive myelopathy, has been presented here.
The imaging studies showed a well-defined, enhancing epidural lesion at the T7 – T8 level, with dorsal cordedema and myelomalacic changes. A radiological diagnosis of a meningioma was considered. Histopathologically, the lesion was diagnosed as a hemangioma. The patient improved dramatically after the excision of the lesion.
Cavernous hemangioma; Spinal; Epidural
Cavernous hemangiomas represent the most common benign primary hepatic neoplasm, often being incidentally detected. Although the majority of hepatic hemangiomas remain asymptomatic, symptomatic hepatic hemangiomas can present with abdominal pain, hemorrhage, biliary compression, or a consumptive coagulopathy. The optimal surgical management of symptomatic hepatic hemangiomas remains controversial, with resection, enucleation, and both deceased donor and living donor liver transplantation having been reported.
We report the case of a patient found to have a unique syndrome of multiorgan cavernous hemangiomatosis involving the liver, lung, omentum, and spleen without cutaneous involvement. Sixteen years following her initial diagnosis, the patient suffered from intra-abdominal hemorrhage due to her giant cavernous hepatic hemangioma. Evidence of continued bleeding, in the setting of Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome and worsening abdominal compartment syndrome, prompted MELD exemption listing. The patient subsequently underwent emergent liver transplantation without complication.
Although cavernous hemangiomas represent the most common benign primary hepatic neoplasm, hepatic hemangioma rupture remains a rare presentation in these patients. Management at a center with expertise in liver transplantation is warranted for those patients presenting with worsening DIC or hemorrhage, given the potential for rapid clinical decompensation.
Hepatic hemangioma; Kasabach-Merritt syndrome; Liver transplantation
Hepatic hemangiomas are the most common benign tumor of the liver. Most hepatic hemangiomas remain asymptomatic and require no treatment. Giant hepatic hemangiomas with established complications, diagnostic uncertainty and incapacitating symptoms, however, are generally considered an absolute indication for surgical resection. We present a case of a giant hemangioma with intestinal obstruction following transcatheter arterial embolization, by which the volume of the hemangioma was significantly reduced, and it was completely resected by a left hepatectomy. A 21-year-old Asian man visited our hospital for left upper quadrant pain. Examinations at the first visit revealed a left liver hemangioma occupying the abdominal cavity, with a maximum diameter of 31.5 cm. Embolization of the left hepatic artery was performed and confirmed a decrease in its size. However, the patient was readmitted to our hospital one month after embolization for intestinal obstruction. A left hepatectomy was completed through a herringbone incision, and safely removed a giant hemangioma of 26.5 cm × 19.5 cm × 12.0 cm in size and 3690 g in weight. Pre-operative arterial embolization is effective for reducing tumor size, but a close follow-up to decide the time for hepatectomy is important.
Hepatic hemangioma; Transcatheter arterial embolization; Intestinal obstruction; Complications; Hepatectomy
Patient: Male, 38
Final Diagnosis: Cavernous hemangioma
Symptoms: Headache • parietal mass
Clinical Procedure: —
A rare disease
Bone hemangioma is a vascular hemartoma of bone structures. In general, this pathology is detected on incidentally investigated patients’ films. Bone hemangioma is most commonly seen in 4th decade of life and the male/female ratio is 1/1.5. The locations of these lesions are commonly long bones of the vertebral column and the skull.
Primary bone hemangiomas constitute less than 1% of all bone tumors, and they are seen at 0.2% in the calvarial region.
Cases with this pathology are seen on incidental radiological evaluations. We report the case of a 38-year-old man with localized headache and a palpable mass in the left parietal region, admitted and operated on after cranial CT and MRI. Pathology investigation revealed a cavernous hemangioma.
We suspected that in our case head trauma may have been the cause of cavernous hemangioma in the calvarial region, because cavernous hemangiomas are rarely located there. Localized headache and minor discomfort can be seen with this pathology. The best treatment for cavernous hemangiomas is the removal of the mass within the limits of safe surgery.
headache; trauma; cavernous hemangioma
To report late recurrence of orbital cavernous hemangioma in a patient ten years after complete resection of the primary tumor.
A 32-year-old woman with a history of progressive visual loss and proptosis underwent lateral orbitotomy for resection of a large cavernous hemangioma. Ten years later, proptosis recurred and the patient developed progressive ocular deviation. Imaging studies were in favor of a recurrent cavernous hemangioma and the tumor was excised via the previous incision site. Reassessment of previous orbital images suggested the presence of two separate tumors, only one of which had been excised at the time of initial surgery.
Recurrent orbital cavernous hemangioma may follow incomplete excision of multiple orbital lesions with gradual growth of unidentified residual tumors. Accordingly, when an encapsulated cavernous hemangioma is removed, exploration is recommended to rule out multiple lesions.
Cavernous Hemangioma; Multiple Orbital Tumors; Recurrent Orbital Tumors
Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size. Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life. Most cases are asymptomatic although a few patients may present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, with spontaneous or traumatic rupture being the most severe complication. In cases of spontaneous rupture, clinical manifestations consist of sudden abdominal pain, and anemia secondary to a haemoperitoneum. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy can also occur. Haemodynamic instability and signs of hypovolemic shock appear in about one third of cases. As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of rupture. Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies. In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination. Surgery should be restricted to specific situations. Absolute indications for surgery are spontaneous or traumatic rupture with hemoperitoneum, intratumoral bleeding and consumptive coagulopathy (Kassabach-Merrit syndrome). In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous rupture of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis.
Hepatic hemangioma; Giant hepatic hemangioma; Liver tumor; Spontaneous rupture; Surgery
Hepatic hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver. Most such hemangiomas are small, asymptomatic, and have an excellent prognosis. Giant hepatic hemangioma has been reported in the literature, but the exophytic and pedunculated forms of hepatic hemangioma are rare. A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital under the suspicion of having a gastric submucosal tumor. Abdominal computer tomography (CT) scans showed a pedunculated mass from the left lateral segment of the liver into the gastric fundus, exhibiting the atypical CT findings of hepatic hemangioma. We therefore decided to perform laparoscopic resection based on the symptoms, relatively large diameter, inability to exclude malignancy, and risk of rupture of the exophytic lesion. The pathology indicated it to be a cavernous hemangioma of the liver. Herein we report a case of pedunculated hepatic hemangioma mimicking a submucosal tumor of the stomach due to extrinsic compression of the gastric fundus.
Hemangioma; Liver; Laparoscopy; Stomach neoplasm
Cavernous hemangioma consists mainly of congenital vascular malformations present before birth and gradually increasing in size with skeletal growth. A small number of patients with cavernous hemangioma develop scoliosis, and surgical treatment for the scoliosis in such cases has not been reported to date. Here we report a 12-year-old male patient with severe progressive scoliosis due to a huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, who underwent posterior correction and fusion surgery. Upon referral to our department, radiographs revealed a scoliosis of 85° at T6-L1 and a kyphosis of 58° at T4-T10. CT and MR images revealed a huge hemangioma extending from the subcutaneous region to the paraspinal muscles and the retroperitoneal space and invading the spinal canal. Posterior correction and fusion surgery using pedicle screws between T2 and L3 were performed. Massive hemorrhage from the hemangioma occurred during the surgery, with intraoperative blood loss reaching 2800 ml. The scoliosis was corrected to 59°, and the kyphosis to 45° after surgery. Seven hours after surgery, the patient suffered from hypovolemic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to postoperative hemorrhage from the hemangioma. The patient developed sensory and conduction aphasia caused by cerebral hypoxia during the shock on the day of the surgery. At present, two years after the surgery, although the patient has completely recovered from the aphasia. This case illustrates that, in correction surgery for scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, intraoperative and postoperative intensive care for hemodynamics should be performed, since massive hemorrhage can occur during the postoperative period as well as the intraoperative period.
Hemangioma is a relatively common benign proliferation of blood vessels that primarily develops during childhood. Two main forms of hemangioma recognized: capillary and cavernous. The capillary form presents as a flat area consisting of numerous small capillaries. Cavernous hemangioma appears as an elevated lesion of a deep red color, and consists of large dilated sinuses filled with blood. The purpose of the study was to report the case of a capillary hemangioma in a patient and to describe the successful treatment of this case.
The patient was a 19-year-old female who presented herself to the Atatürk University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology, with the complaint of bleeding and slowly enlarging mass on the upper right molar region. The lesion was diagnosed as capillary hemangioma after clinical examination and biopsy. Treatment consisted of scaling, root planning and surgical excision. Four months after surgery healing was occurred and two years later area of the lesion appeared completely normal as clinically.
The surface is highly keratinized and no further growth was evidenced during the two year of follow-up. Early detection and biopsy is necessary to determine the clinical behavior of the tumor and potential dentoalveolar complications.
Hemangioma is a common benign tumor in the liver and usually asymptomatic. Scanty evidence concerning treatment modality of symptomatic hemangioma during pregnancy exists.
A 35 year-old woman with giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma developed consumption coagulopathy due to the enlarged tumor, and underwent danaparoid therapy from 5 weeks of gestation (GW). Magnetic resonance image revealed giant hemangioma with 20 cm in diameter in the right lobe of the liver. A surgical operation of liver resection was successfully performed at 16 GW. Thereafter, the coagulopathy disappeared. She delivered a healthy male infant at 36 GW.
This is the first case report of surgical resection therapy for giant liver hemangioma during pregnancy.
liver hemangioma; pregnancy; resection; danaparoid
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. It occurs in patients who do not consume alcohol in large amounts. Alanine aminotranferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are indicators of hepatocellular injury.
To determine correlation between histopathologic specifications of NAFLD in patients with little or no history of alcohol consumption and the serum level of ALT.
Patients and Methods
In a cross-sectional study carried out in two gastroenterology and hepatology clinics in Tehran, Iran, the medical records of those who had undergone liver biopsies between years 2005 and 2009 were reviewed. Clinical and laboratory information of biopsy-proven cases of NAFLD were obtained from 147 eligible medical records. The histopathologic, demographic, and laboratory data of the participants were also collected. Two groups of patients according to their serum ALT level (cut-point of 35 U/L) were defined. The quantitative pathologic grade of the biopsy specimens was determined based on Brunt scoring system.
We studied 147 NAFLD patients including 127 men (86.4%) and 20 women (13.6%) with a mean ± SD age of 41.4 ± 11.2 years. Considering serum ALT, the mean ± SD quantitative grade of hepatosteatosis was 1.50 ± 0.67 and 1.74 ± 0.73 (p=0.136); advanced fibrosis (consisted of grade III and cirrhosis) was found in 4.5% (1/22) and 5.6% (7/125) of patients (p=0.327).
We found that using the cut-off value of 35 U/L for serum ALT level, it has little contribution to predict NAFLD severity.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Serum alanine aminotranferase; Histopathology
Adrenal masses are being detected with increasing frequency due to the widespread use of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and even ultrasonography for the evaluation of diseases with abdominal involvement. It is estimated that adrenal masses are an accidental finding in 1% to 5% of all abdominal CT scans performed. Adrenal hemangiomas are rare and nonfunctioning benign tumors and their differential diagnosis preoperatively is rather challenging. Adrenal hemangiomas are most usually cavernous, unilateral lesions of the adrenal glands; bilateral involvement has been reported twice, which appears between the ages 50 and 70 years, with a 2:1 female-to-male ratio. Approximately 60 surgical cases have been reported in the literature. In general, this tumor is large, and all cases reported were treated with open surgery or retroperitoneoscopic procedure. We report a case of a 19-year-old female patient with adrenal hemangioma that was removed by laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
Hemangiomas are rare tumors in the calvarium and represent 2% of osseous calvarial lesions. Dynamic Tc-99m RBC blood pool scintigraphy has a high positive predictive value for cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. This scintigraphic technique can be used for identifying cavernous hemangiomas at other anatomic sites. We present a case in which a tagged RBC blood pool scan was used for further characterizing a symptomatic calvarial lesion as a cavernous hemangioma. This avoided an unnecessary workup for metastatic disease and was valuable in surgical planning for anticipated increased intra-operative blood loss. Histological confirmation of a cavernous hemangioma was made after surgical resection.
Calvarial cavernous hemangioma; tagged RBC scintigraphy
Two patients with extra-axial cavernous hemangioma who presented with headache and oculovisual disturbances were investigated with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The lesions masqueraded as basal meningioma, but this diagnosis was not supported by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in one patient. Cerebral angiography with embolization was indicated in one patient, but embolization was not justified in the other. Both patients underwent a pterional craniotomy. The lesions were extradural and highly vascular, necessitating excessive transfusion in one patient in whom gross total resection was achieved, and precluding satisfactory removal in the other. There was no mortality. Transient ophthalmoplegia, the only complication in one patient, was due to surgical manipulation of the cavernous sinus; it resolved progressively over 3 months. Extra-axial skull base cavernous hemangiomas are distinct entities with clinical and radiological characteristics that differ from those of intraparenchymal cavernous malformations. They can mimic meningiomas or pituitary tumors. In some cases, magnetic resonance spectroscopy may narrow the differential diagnoses. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice, facilitated by preoperative embolization to reduce intraoperative bleeding and by the application of the principles of skull base surgery. Fractionated radiotherapy is an alternative in partial or difficult resections and in high-risk and elderly patients.
Cavernous hemangioma; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; skull base surgery
We describe a 35-year-old man who had a pulmonary embolism with thrombosis of the inferior vena cava, apparently resulting from compression by a hepatic hemangioma. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was confirmed by pulmonary angiography; however, the hemangioma was detected only incidentally, as a hyperechoic mass, during an echocardiogram for intracardiac thrombosis. Abdominal sonography, computed tomography, celiac angiography, technetium 99m-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy, and ultrasound-guided liver biopsy all assisted in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma and its compression of the inferior vena cava. Because of the multisegmental and perihilar involvement of the tumor, surgery was not performed. For dissolution of the clots, the patient was given thrombolytic therapy followed by heparin administration. He was then placed on long-term warfarin therapy and is well after 5 years; the size of the hemangioma is unchanged. Cases of pulmonary embolism due to diseases of the upper abdominal organs are rare and probably underestimated. This case stresses the need for a systematic investigation of the abdomen when a pulmonary embolism is present without evidence of deep vein thrombosis.
Primary intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas (PICHs) of the skull base are extremely rare tumors. These lesions are most common in the frontal and parietal bones of the calvarium. The authors describe a 40–year–old female who presented with progressive headaches. Serial imaging revealed a contrast–enhancing intraosseous lesion of the lateral body of the sphenoid bone and the greater wing associated with encroachment of the inferior cavernous sinus and mild posterior displacement of the cavernous carotid artery. Follow–up imaging 9 years later revealed slow growth of the lesion. The patient underwent complete excision of the PICH through an extradural frontopolar approach. Pathological examination revealed an intraosseous cavernous hemangioma. PICHs of the skull base can mimic other more common skull base lesions and thus can be difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Diagnosis is usually made at surgery. The authors review the literature regarding the clinical presentation, radiological characteristics, pathological features, and surgical management of PICHs.
Cavernous hemangioma; skull base; intraosseous tumor
Objective/Importance: Hemangiomas of the cavernous sinus are rare lesions. Complete removal through a transcranial route often causes ocular motor palsies. Because the cranial nerves in the cavernous sinus are lateral to the carotid, a medial approach to the cavernous sinus may be less traumatic to the cranial nerves. Clinical Presentation: A 50-year-old man with headaches, dizziness, diplopia, and magnetic resonance imaging that demonstrated a right cavernous sinus mass expanding into the sella and sphenoid sinus. Intervention: A gross total removal of a cavernous sinus hemangioma was performed through an extended endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Conclusion: This is the first report of a complete removal of a cavernous sinus hemangioma using an endoscopic transnasal approach. The endoscopic transnasal approach to the medial cavernous sinus may be less traumatic than the transcranial route based on the lateral location of the cranial nerves.
Cavernous sinus hemangioma; gross total resection; transnasal; transsphenoidal; transthemoidal; endonasal surgery
Liver hemangiomas are the most common benign liver tumors, usually small in size and requiring no treatment. Giant hemangiomas complicated with consumptive coagulopathy (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome) or causing severe incapacitating symptoms, however, are generally considered an absolute indication for surgical resection. Here, we present the case of a giant hemangioma, which was, to the best of our knowledge, one of the largest ever reported.
A 38-year-old Asian man was referred to our hospital with complaints of severe abdominal distension and pancytopenia. Examinations at the first visit revealed a right liver hemangioma occupying the abdominal cavity, protruding into the right diaphragm up to the right thoracic cavity and extending down to the pelvic cavity, with a maximum diameter of 43 cm, complicated with "asymptomatic" Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Based on the tumor size and the anatomic relationship between the tumor and hepatic vena cava, primary resection seemed difficult and dangerous, leading us to first perform transcatheter arterial embolization to reduce the tumor volume and to ensure the safety of future resection. The tumor volume was significantly decreased by two successive transcatheter arterial embolizations, and a conventional right trisectorectomy was then performed without difficulty to resect the tumor.
To date, there have been several reports of aggressive surgical treatments, including extra-corporeal hepatic resection and liver transplantation, for huge hemangiomas like the present case, but because of its benign nature, every effort should be made to avoid life-threatening surgical stress for patients. Our experience demonstrates that a pre-operative arterial embolization may effectively enable the resection of large hemangiomas.
Cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland is a rare non-functioning benign neoplasm.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 62-year-old woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was diagnosed as having an incidental non-functioning adrenal tumor. Because of the impossibility of ruling out the presence of malignancy, conventional surgical resection was carried out. The histopathology revealed a 12.5 cm × 11.5 cm × 8 cm adrenal mass with large and lacunae vascular spaces lined with mature endothelial cells. These findings were compatible with cavernous hemangioma.
The majority of patients in the literature underwent surgical resection due to the impossibility of excluding malignancy, because of related symptoms in patients with large masses, or because of the risk of spontaneous tumoral rupture.
These tumors are quite infrequent. Due to the low frequency and the lack of specific symptoms, most adrenal hemangiomas are diagnosed postoperatively.
Hepatic and splenic hemangiomas are common benign tumors that mainly affect female patients. Giant splenic hemangiomas are extremely rare, especially when correlated with multiple hepatic hemangiomas. Pathogenetic mechanisms between hemangiomas and oral contraceptives, as well as therapeutic approaches, are analyzed in this case report, in particular for the management of synchronous splenic and hepatic hemangiomas.
We report here a 42-year-old woman with a giant splenic hemangioma, multiple hepatic hemangiomas and a history of oral estrogen intake for many years. At first it was difficult to determine the organ from which the giant hemangioma originated. Angiography proved extremely helpful in tracing its origin in the spleen. Hematomas in the giant hemangioma posed a significant threat of rupture and catastrophic hemorrhage. We left the small hepatic hemangiomas in place, and removed the spleen along with the giant splenic hemangioma.
Diagnostic pitfalls in the determination of the origin of this giant hemangioma, attribution of its origin to the spleen angiographically, the unusual co-existence of the giant splenic hemangioma with multiple hepatic ones, and the potential threat of rupture of the giant hemangioma are some of the highlights of this case report. Estrogen administration represents a pathogenic factor that has been associated with hemangiomas in solid organs of the abdominal cavity. The therapeutic dilemma between resection and embolization of giant hemangiomas is another point of discussion in this case report. Splenectomy for the giant splenic hemangioma eliminates the risk of rupture and malignant degeneration, whereas observation for the small hepatic ones (<4 cm) was the preferable therapeutic strategy in our patient.
Primary intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas (PICHs) of the cranium are rare benign vascular tumors that account for about 0.2 % of all bone tumors and 10 % of benign skull tumors. They generally present as osteolytic lesions with honeycomb pattern of calcification. Completely ossified cavernous hemangioma of the calvarium in an adult has not been reported previously. A 28-year-old female presented to us with a large right parietal skull mass that had been present since the last 15 years. Total resection of the lesion was performed. Pathological examination was suggestive of cavernous hemangioma of the skull bone. Cavernous hemangioma should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis in any case of bony swelling of the calvarium so that adequate preoperative planning can be made to minimize blood loss and subsequent morbidity.
Adult; cavernous hemangioma; ossified calvarial mass; skull lesion
Cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus are rare benign vascular lesions. Nine cases of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the gravid uterus have been reported, most of which diffusely involved the myometrium. These vascular malformations are clinically significant, and may cause pronounced bleeding resulting in maternal or fetal demise. Thrombosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus has been previously reported. We here report the first case in which a thrombosed cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium resulted in a fatal pulmonary embolism in a post-partum woman.
A 25-year-old obese African-American woman who had one pregnancy and was delivered of twins by cesarean section was admitted 1 week after the successful delivery. The 12-day clinical course included ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, systemic hypertension, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum, leukocytosis and asystole. A transabdominal ultrasound examination showed heterogeneous thickened and irregular products in the endometrial canal. The laboratory values were relevant for an increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, ferritin and a decrease in hemoglobin. The clinical cause of death was cited as acute respiratory distress syndrome. At autopsy, a 400g spongy, hemorrhagic uterus with multiple cystic spaces measuring approximately 0.5 × 0.4cm filled with thrombi within the myometrium was identified. Immunohistological examination with a CD31 stain for vascular endothelium associated antigen confirmed several endothelium-lined vessels, some of which contained thrombi. These histological features were consistent with cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium. A histological examination of the lungs revealed multiple fresh thromboemboli in small- and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in the right upper and lower lobes without organization, but with adjacent areas of fresh hemorrhagic infarction.
This case underscores the importance of a high index of suspicion in a pregnant or post-partum woman presenting with respiratory symptoms. Thrombosis of the cavernous hemangiomas of the gravid or post-partum uterus is a rare entity. This case is of interest because it indicates that this condition can be fatally complicated by embolization of the thrombi in the cavernous myometrial hemangiomas. Although delivery by conservative methods, as well as cesarean section, is possible without resorting to hysterectomy, occasionally, the consequences could be fatal as in this case.
Hemangioma; Cavernous; Myometrium; Thrombosis; Pulmonary emboli
To report the case of a patient with large-angle hypertropia of an intramuscular hemangioma of the right superior rectus muscle (SR).
A 63-year-old man with progressive vertical deviation of the right eye for the past 6 months visited our strabismus department; his condition was not painful. An examination indicated that he had 60PD of right hypertropia at distance and near in primary gaze. Additionally, a significant limitation of his downgaze was noted. The right eye appeared mildly proptotic, and the upper and lower eyelids were slightly edematous. Corrected vision was 20/20 in both eyes.
Orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies revealed fusiform enlargement of the right superior rectus muscle, with prominent but irregular enhancement following gadolinium administration. Incisional biopsy revealed an intramuscular hemangioma in the superior rectus muscle with cavernous-type vessels.
This case demonstrates that intramuscular hemangioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of isolated extraocular muscle enlargement and unusual strabismus.
Extraocular muscle enlargement; Intramuscular hemangioma; Large-angle hypertropia