Infection of macrophages with bacteria induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α. TNF-α directly stimulates osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow macrophages in vitro as well as indirectly via osteoblasts. Recently, it was reported that bacterial components such as LPS inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in early stages, but promoted osteoclast differentiation in late stages. However, the contribution to osteoclast differentiation of TNF-α produced by infected macrophages remains unclear. We show here that Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the major pathogens in periodontitis, directly promotes osteoclastogenesis from RANKL-primed RAW-D (subclone of RAW264) mouse macrophages, and we show that TNF-α is not involved in the stimulatory effect on osteoclastogenesis. P. gingivalis infection of RANKL-primed RAW-D macrophages markedly stimulated osteoclastogenesis in a RANKL-independent manner. In the presence of the TLR4 inhibitor, polymyxin B, infection of RANKL-primed RAW-D cells with P. gingivalis also induced osteoclastogenesis, indicating that TLR4 is not involved. Infection of RAW-D cells with P. gingivalis stimulated the production of TNF-α, whereas the production of TNF-α by similarly infected RANKL-primed RAW-D cells was markedly down-regulated. In addition, infection of RANKL-primed macrophages with P. gingivalis induced osteoclastogenesis in the presence of neutralizing antibody against TNF-α. Inhibitors of NFATc1 and p38MAPK, but not of NF-κB signaling, significantly suppressed P. gingivalis-induced osteoclastogenesis from RANKL-primed macrophages. Moreover, re-treatment of RANKL-primed macrophages with RANKL stimulated osteoclastogenesis in the presence or absence of P. gingivalis infection, whereas re-treatment of RANKL-primed macrophages with TNF-α did not enhance osteoclastogenesis in the presence of live P. gingivalis. Thus, P. gingivalis infection of RANKL-primed macrophages promoted osteoclastogenesis in a TNF-α independent manner, and RANKL but not TNF-α was effective in inducing osteoclastogenesis from RANKL-primed RAW-D cells in the presence of P. gingivalis.
Extracellular proteinaceous factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, that influence receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages were investigated. The culture supernatant of P. gingivalis had the ability to inhibit RANKL-induced in vitro osteoclastogenesis. A major protein of the culture supernatant, hemoglobin receptor protein (HbR), suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent fashion. HbR markedly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis when present in the culture for the first 24 h after addition of RANKL, whereas no significant inhibition was observed when HbR was added after 24 h or later, implying that HbR might interfere with only the initial stage of RANKL-mediated differentiation. HbR tightly bound to bone marrow macrophages and had the ability to induce phosphorylation of ERK, p38, NF-κB, and Akt. RANKL-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and NF-κB was not suppressed by HbR, but that of Akt was markedly suppressed. HbR inhibited RANKL-mediated induction of c-Fos and NFATc1. HbR could induce beta interferon (IFN-β) from bone marrow macrophages, but the induction level of IFN-β might not be sufficient to suppress RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, implying presence of an IFN-β-independent pathway in HbR-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Since rapid and extensive destruction of the alveolar bone causes tooth loss, resulting in loss of the gingival crevice that is an anatomical niche for periodontal pathogens such as P. gingivalis, the suppressive effect of HbR on osteoclastogenesis may help the microorganism exist long in the niche.
Activated T and B lymphocytes in periodontal disease lesions express receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), which induces osteoclastic bone resorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of anti-RANKL antibody on periodontal bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans outer membrane protein 29 (Omp29) and A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were injected into 3 palatal gingival sites, and Omp29-specific T clone cells were transferred into the tail veins of rats. Rabbit anti-RANKL IgG antibody or F(ab′)2 antibody fragments thereof were injected into the palatal sites in each rat (days −1, 1, and 3). Anti-RANKL IgG antibody significantly inhibited soluble RANKL (sRANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner, but also gave rise to a rat antibody response to rabbit IgG in vivo, with no significant inhibition of periodontal bone resorption detected. Lower doses (1.5 and 0.15 μg/3 sites) of F(ab′)2 antibody were not immunogenic in the context of the experimental model. Periodontal bone resorption was inhibited significantly by injection of the anti-RANKL F(ab′)2 antibody into gingivae. The sRANKL concentrations for the antibody-treated groups were decreased significantly compared to those for the untreated group. Osteoclasts on the alveolar bone surface were also diminished significantly after antibody injection. Gingival sRANKL concentration and bone loss showed a significant correlation with one another in animals receiving anti-RANKL F(ab′)2 antibody. These results suggest that antibody to RANKL can inhibit A. actinomycetemcomitans-specific T cell-induced periodontal bone resorption by blockade and reduction of tissue sRANKL, providing an immunological approach to ameliorate immune cell-mediated periodontal bone resorption.
Periodontal disease characterized by alveolar bone resorption and bacterial pathogen-evoked inflammatory response has been believed to have an important impact on human oral health. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether magnolol, a main constituent of Magnolia officinalis, could inhibit the pathological features in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats and osteoclastogenesis. The sterile, 3–0 (diameter; 0.2 mm) black braided silk thread, was placed around the cervix of the upper second molars bilaterally and knotted medially to induce periodontitis. The morphological changes around the ligated molars and alveolar bone were examined by micro-CT. The distances between the amelocemental junction and the alveolar crest of the upper second molars bilaterally were measured to evaluate the alveolar bone loss. Administration of magnolol (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited alveolar bone resorption, the number of osteoclasts on bony surface, and protein expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), a key mediator promoting osteoclast differentiation, in ligated rats. Moreover, the ligature-induced neutrophil infiltration, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9, superoxide formation, and nuclear factor-κB activation in inflamed gingival tissues were all attenuated by magnolol. In the in vitro study, magnolol also inhibited the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans that are key pathogens initiating periodontal disease. Furthermore, magnolol dose dependently reduced RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from RAW264.7 macrophages, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of differentiated cells accompanied by a significant attenuation of resorption pit area caused by osteoclasts. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that magnolol significantly ameliorates the alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced experimental periodontitis by suppressing periodontopathic microorganism accumulation, NF-κB-mediated inflammatory mediator synthesis, RANKL formation, and osteoclastogenesis. These activities support that magnolol is a potential agent to treat periodontal disease.
Periodontitis is a bacterium-induced chronic inflammation that destroys tissues that attach teeth to jaw bone. Pathologically excessive matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) is among the key players in periodontal destruction by initiating type I collagen degradation. We studied MMP-8 in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontitis by using MMP-8-deficient (MMP8−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice. Alveolar bone loss, inflammatory mediator expression, serum immunoglobulin, and lipoprotein responses were investigated to clarify the role of MMP-8 in periodontitis and systemic inflammatory responses. P. gingivalis infection induced accelerated site-specific alveolar bone loss in both MMP8−/− and WT mice relative to uninfected mice. The most extensive bone degradation took place in the P. gingivalis-infected MMP8−/− group. Surprisingly, MMP-8 significantly attenuated (P < 0.05) P. gingivalis-induced site-specific alveolar bone loss. Increased alveolar bone loss in P. gingivalis-infected MMP8−/− and WT mice was associated with increase in gingival neutrophil elastase production. Serum lipoprotein analysis demonstrated changes in the distribution of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles; unlike the WT mice, the MMP8−/− mice underwent a shift toward a smaller HDL/VLDL particle sizes. P. gingivalis infection increased the HDL/VLDL particle size in the MMP8−/− mice, which is an indicator of lipoprotein responses during systemic inflammation. Serum total lipopolysaccharide activity and the immunoglobulin G-class antibody level in response to P. gingivalis were significantly elevated in both infected mice groups. Thus, MMP-8 appears to act in a protective manner inhibiting the development of bacterium-induced periodontal tissue destruction, possibly through the processing anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Bacterium-induced periodontitis, especially in MMP8−/− mice, is associated with systemic inflammatory and lipoprotein changes that are likely involved in early atherosclerosis.
The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and the proinflammatory cytokines are believed to play important roles in osteoclastogenesis. We recently reported that the innate immune recognition receptor, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), is crucial for inflammatory bone loss in response to infection by Porphyromonas gingivalis, the primary organism associated with chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. However, the contribution of macrophage-expressed TLRs to osteoclastogenesis has not been defined. In this study, we defined a requirement for TLR2 in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-elicited osteoclastogenesis in response to exposure to P. gingivalis. Culture supernatant (CS) fluids from P. gingivalis-stimulated macrophages induced bone marrow macrophage-derived osteoclastogenesis. This activity was dependent on TNF-α and occurred independently of RANKL, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6. CS fluids from P. gingivalis-stimulated TLR2−/− macrophages failed to express TNF-α, and these fluids induced significantly less osteoclast formation compared with that of the wild-type or the TLR4−/− macrophages. In addition, P. gingivalis exposure induced up-regulation of TLR2 expression on the cell surface of macrophages, which was demonstrated to functionally react to reexposure to P. gingivalis, as measured by a further increase in TNF-α production. These results demonstrate that macrophage-dependent TLR2 signaling is crucial for TNF-α-dependent/RANKL-independent osteoclastogenesis in response to P. gingivalis infection. Furthermore, the ability of P. gingivalis to induce the cell surface expression of TLR2 may contribute to the chronic inflammatory state induced by this pathogen.
IL-32 was recently found to be elevated in the tissue of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by polymicrobial infections that result in soft tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. Although IL-32 is also thought to be associated with periodontal disease, its expression and possible role in periodontal tissue remain unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the expression patterns of IL-32 in healthy and periodontally diseased gingival tissue. The expression of IL-32 in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) as well as effects of autocrine IL-32 on IL-8 production from HGF were also examined.
Periodontal tissue was collected from both healthy volunteers and periodontitis patients, and immunofluorescent staining was performed in order to determine the production of IL-32. Using real-time PCR and ELISA, mRNA expression and protein production of IL-32 in HGF, stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), were also investigated.
Contrary to our expectation, the production of IL-32 in the periodontitis patients was significantly lower than in the healthy volunteers. According to immunofluorescent microscopy, positive staining for IL-32 was detected in prickle and basal cell layers in the epithelium as well as fibroblastic cells in connective tissue. Addition of fixed Pg
in vitro was found to suppress the otherwise constitutive expression of IL-32 mRNA and protein in HGF. However, recombinant IL-32 in vitro inhibited the expression of IL-8 mRNA by HGF stimulated with Pg. Interestingly, anti-IL-32 neutralizing antibody upregulated the IL-8 mRNA expression in non-stimulated HGF, indicating that constitutive expression of IL-32 in HGF suppressed IL-8 mRNA expression in the absence of bacterial stimulation.
These results indicate that IL-32 is constitutively produced by HGF which can be suppressed by Pg and may play a role in the downregulation of inflammatory responses, such as IL-8 production, in periodontal tissue.
Interleukin-32; periodontal disease; Porphyromonas gingivalis; human gingival fibroblast; Interleukin-8
Leydig cells are the primary source of testosterone in male vertebrates. The biosynthesis of testosterone in Leydig cells is strictly dependent on luteinizing hormone (LH). On the other hand, it can be directly inhibited by excessive glucocorticoid (Corticosterone, CORT, in rats) which is beyond the protective capability of 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) and type 2 (11beta-HSD2; encoded by gene Hsd11b2 in rats) in Leydig cells. Our previous study found that LH increases 11beta-HSD1 expression in rat Leydig cells, but the effect of LH on the expression and activity of 11beta-HSD2 is not investigated yet.
The Leydig cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats (90 days of age). After Leydig cells were incubated either for 24 h with various concentrations of LH (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 ng/mL) or for different time periods (2, 8, 12 and 24 h) with 20 ng/mL LH, the mRNA expression of 11beta-HSD2 was measured by real-time PCR. 11beta-HSD2 protein levels in Leydig cells were assayed by Western Blot and 11beta-HSD2 enzyme activity was determined by calculating the ratio of conversion of [3H]CORT to [3H]11-dehydrocorticosterone by 24 h after stimulation with 20 ng/ml LH. Four reporter gene plasmids containing various lengths of Hsd11b2 promoter region were constructed and transfected into mouse Leydig tumor cells to investigate the effect of LH on Hsd11b2 transcription. A glucocorticoid-responsive reporter gene plasmid, GRE-Luc, was constructed. To evaluate influence of LH on intracellular glucocorticoid level, rat Leydig cells were transfected with GRE-Luc, and luciferase activities were measured after incubation with CORT alone or CORT plus LH.
We observed dose- and temporal-dependent induction of rat 11beta-HSD2 mRNA expression in Leydig cells subject to LH stimulation. The protein and enzyme activity of 11beta-HSD2 and the luciferase activity of reporter gene driven by promoter regions of Hsd11b2 were increased by LH treatment. LH decreased the glucocorticoid-induced luciferase activity of GRE-Luc reporter gene.
The results of the present study suggest that LH increases the expression and enzyme activity of 11beta-HSD2, and therefore enhances capacity for oxidative inactivation of glucocorticoid in rat Leydig cells in vitro.
Glycyrrhiza glabra, commonly known as licorice, is a popular herbal supplement used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions and as sweetener in the food industry. This species contains a myriad of phytochemicals including the major saponin glycoside glycyrrhizin (G) of Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) aglycone. In this study, 2D-ROESY NMR technique was successfully applied for distinguishing 18α and 18β glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). ROESY spectra acquired from G. glabra, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata crude extracts revealed the presence of G in its β-form. Anti-inflammatory activity of four Glycyrrhiza species, G, glabra, G. uralensis, G. inflata, and G. echinata roots was assessed against COX-1 inhibition revealing that phenolics rather than glycyrrhizin are biologically active in this assay. G. inflata exhibits a strong cytotoxic effect against PC3 and HT29 cells lines, whereas other species are inactive. This study presents an effective NMR method for G isomer assignment in licorice extracts that does not require any preliminary chromatography or any other purification step.
G. glabra; G. inflata; G. uralensis; Glycyrrhizin; Licorice; ROESY
Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the oral microorganisms associated with human chronic periodontitis. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in P. gingivalis infection-associated periodontal bone resorption. Inbred female Rowett rats were infected orally on four consecutive days (days 0 to 3) with 1 × 109
P. gingivalis bacteria (strain ATCC 33277). Separate groups of rats also received an injection of anti-RANKL antibody, osteoprotegerin fusion protein (OPG-Fc), or a control fusion protein (L6-Fc) into gingival papillae in addition to P. gingivalis infection. Robust serum IgG and salivary IgA antibody (P < 0.01) and T cell proliferation (P < 0.05) responses to P. gingivalis were detected at day 7 and peaked at day 28 in P. gingivalis-infected rats. Both the concentration of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) in rat gingival tissues (P < 0.01) and periodontal bone resorption (P < 0.05) were significantly elevated at day 28 in the P. gingivalis-infected group compared to levels in the uninfected group. Correspondingly, RANKL-expressing T and B cells in rat gingival tissues were significantly increased at day 28 in the P. gingivalis-infected group compared to the levels in the uninfected group (P < 0.01). Injection of anti-RANKL antibody (P < 0.05) or OPG-Fc (P < 0.01), but not L6-Fc, into rat gingival papillae after P. gingivalis infection resulted in significantly reduced periodontal bone resorption. This study suggests that P. gingivalis infection-associated periodontal bone resorption is RANKL dependent and is accompanied by increased local infiltration of RANKL-expressing T and B cells.
To study anti-inflammatory cytokine effects on RANKL+-T-cell-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vivo, we injected human interleukin-10 (hIL-10) into pathogen-infected HuPBL-NOD/SCID mice. The results show significantly decreased RANKL+ Th1-associated alveolar bone loss and coexpression of human gamma interferon (hIFN-γ) and human macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but not hIL-4, in RANKL+ Th cells compatible with those from successfully treated aggressive periodontitis subjects. Thus, there are critical cytokine interactions linking hIFN-γ+ Th1 cells to RANKL-RANK/OPG signaling for periodontal osteoclastogenesis in vivo.
Glucocorticoids profoundly influence immune responses, and synthetic glucocorticoids are widely used clinically for their potent antiinflammatory effects. Endogenous glucocorticoid action is modulated by the two isozymes of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD). In vivo, 11β-HSD1 catalyzes the reduction of inactive cortisone or 11-dehydrocorticosterone into active cortisol or corticosterone, respectively, thereby increasing intracellular glucocorticoid levels. 11β-HSD2 catalyzes the reverse reaction, inactivating intracellular glucocorticoids. Both enzymes have been postulated to modulate inflammatory responses. In the K/BxN serum transfer model of arthritis, 11β-HSD1-deficient mice showed earlier onset and slower resolution of inflammation than wild-type controls, with greater exostoses in periarticular bone and, uniquely, ganglion cysts, consistent with greater inflammation. In contrast, K/BxN serum arthritis was unaffected by 11β-HSD2 deficiency. In a distinct model of inflammation, thioglycollate-induced sterile peritonitis, 11β-HSD1-deficient mice had more inflammatory cells in the peritoneum, but again 11β-HSD2-deficient mice did not differ from controls. Additionally, compared with control mice, 11β-HSD1-deficient mice showed greater numbers of inflammatory cells in pleural lavages in carrageenan-induced pleurisy with lung pathology consistent with slower resolution. These data suggest that 11β-HSD1 limits acute inflammation. In contrast, 11β-HSD2 plays no role in acute inflammatory responses in mice. Regulation of local 11β-HSD1 expression and/or delivery of substrate may afford a novel approach for antiinflammatory therapy.
Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a recently discovered cytokine functionally overlapping macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), a mediator of inflammation and osteoclastogenesis in bone-degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to assess the expression of IL-34 in human gingival fibroblasts and investigate if the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-1Β (IL-1β) modulate its expression, and moreover if IL-34 could contribute to recruitment of bone-resorbing osteoclasts.
IL-34 expression was evaluated in gingival fibroblasts by real time PCR following stimulation by TNF-α, IL-1β, and treatment with inhibitors of intracellular pathways. The formation of osteoclasts was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining of bone marrow macrophages treated with IL-34 or M-CSF in addition to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL).
IL-34 was expressed in gingival fibroblasts. The expression was enhanced by TNF-α and IL-1β, regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κΒ) and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Further, IL-34 supports RANKL-induced osteoclastogensis of bone marrow macrophages, independently of M-CSF.
In conclusion, this study shows for the first time IL-34 expression in human gingival fibroblasts, stimulated by TNF-α and IL-1β, key mediators of periodontal inflammation. Furthermore, IL-34 can be substituted for M-CSF in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. IL-34 may contribute to inflammation and osteoclastogenesis in bone-degenerative diseases such as periodontitis.
► 11β-HSD1 converts inert glucocorticoids into active forms, amplifying glucocorticoid action. ► 11β-HSD1 is markedly induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. ► 11β-HSD1 deficiency/inhibition worsens acute inflammation. ► 11β-HSD1 inhibition reduces inflammation in obesity or atherosclerosis. ► An increased angiogenic response may underlie some of the benefits.
Since the discovery of cortisone in the 1940s and its early success in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoids have remained the mainstay of anti-inflammatory therapies. However, cortisone itself is intrinsically inert. To be effective, it requires conversion to cortisol, the active glucocorticoid, by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). Despite the identification of 11β-HSD in liver in 1953 (which we now know to be 11β-HSD1), its physiological role has been little explored until recently. Over the past decade, however, it has become apparent that 11β-HSD1 plays an important role in shaping endogenous glucocorticoid action. Acute inflammation is more severe with 11β-HSD1-deficiency or inhibition, yet in some inflammatory settings such as obesity or diabetes, 11β-HSD1-deficiency/inhibition is beneficial, reducing inflammation. Current evidence suggests both beneficial and detrimental effects may result from 11β-HSD1 inhibition in chronic inflammatory disease. Here we review recent evidence pertaining to the role of 11β-HSD1 in inflammation.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘CSR 2013’.
11β-HSD, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; H6PD, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; IL, interleukin; C/EBP, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; EGR-1, early growth response-1; HPA, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal; MCP, monocyte chemotactic protein; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule; Glucocorticoid; Mineralocorticoid; 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; Macrophage; Inflammation; Arthritis
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare inborn error of metabolism often complicated by a progressive bone impairment of uncertain etiology, as documented by both ionizing and non- ionizing techniques.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were performed to study osteoclastogenesis, in the presence or absence of recombinant human monocyte-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL). Flow cytometry was utilized to analyze osteoclast precursors (OCPs) and T cell phenotype. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were quantified in cell culture supernatants by ELISA. The effects of RANKFc and anti-TNF-α antibodies were also investigated to determine their ability to inhibit osteoclastogenesis. In addition, bone conditions and phenylalanine levels in PKU patients were clinically evaluated.
Several in vitro studies in PKU patients' cells identified a potential mechanism of bone formation inhibition commonly associated with this disorder. First, PKU patients disclosed an increased osteoclastogenesis compared to healthy controls, both in unstimulated and M-CSF/RANKL stimulated PBMC cultures. OCPs and the measured RANKL/OPG ratio were higher in PKU patients compared to healthy controls. The addition of specific antagonist RANKFc caused osteoclastogenesis inhibition, whereas anti-TNF-α failed to have this effect. Among PBMCs isolated from PKU patients, activated T cells, expressing CD69, CD25 and RANKL were identified. Confirmatory in vivo studies support this proposed model. These in vivo studies included the analysis of osteoclastogenesis in PKU patients, which demonstrated an inverse relation to bone condition assessed by phalangeal Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). This was also directly related to non-compliance to therapeutic diet reflected by hyperphenylalaninemia.
Our results indicate that PKU spontaneous osteoclastogenesis depends on the circulating OCP increase and the activation of T cells. Osteoclastogenesis correlates with clinical parameters, suggesting its value as a diagnostic tool for an early assessment of an increased bone resorption in PKU patients.
Periodontitis, a prime cause of tooth loss in humans, is implicated in the increased risk of systemic diseases such as heart failure, stroke, and bacterial pneumonia. The mechanisms by which periodontitis and antibacterial immunity lead to alveolar bone and tooth loss are poorly understood. To study the human immune response to specific periodontal infections, we transplanted human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HuPBLs) from periodontitis patients into NOD/SCID mice. Oral challenge of HuPBL-NOD/SCID mice with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a well-known Gram-negative anaerobic microorganism that causes human periodontitis, activates human CD4+ T cells in the periodontium and triggers local alveolar bone destruction. Human CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells or B cells, are identified as essential mediators of alveolar bone destruction. Stimulation of CD4+ T cells by A. actinomycetemcomitans induces production of osteoprotegerin ligand (OPG-L), a key modulator of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation. In vivo inhibition of OPG-L function with the decoy receptor OPG diminishes alveolar bone destruction and reduces the number of periodontal osteoclasts after microbial challenge. These data imply that the molecular explanation for alveolar bone destruction observed in periodontal infections is mediated by microorganism-triggered induction of OPG-L expression on CD4+ T cells and the consequent activation of osteoclasts. Inhibition of OPG-L may thus have therapeutic value to prevent alveolar bone and/or tooth loss in human periodontitis.
This article may have been published online in advance of the print edition. The date of publication is available from the JCI website, http://www.jci.org. J. Clin. Invest. 106:R59–R67 (2000).
Bone metabolism results from a balance between osteoclast-driven bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Diseases such as periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by increased bone destruction due to enhanced osteoclastogenesis1,2. Here we report that interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8), a transcription factor expressed in immune cells, is a key regulatory molecule for osteoclastogenesis. IRF8 expression in osteoclast precursors was downregulated during the initial phase of osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL, also called TRANCE, ODF, and OPGL), which is encoded by the Tnfsf11 gene. Mice deficient in IRF8 exhibited severe osteoporosis due to increased numbers of osteoclasts, and enhanced bone destruction following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Irf8–/– osteoclast precursors underwent increased osteoclastogenesis in response to RANKL and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). IRF8 suppressed osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting the function and expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). Our results show that IRF8 inhibits osteoclast formation under physiological and pathological conditions, and suggest a model where downregulation of inhibitory factors like IRF8 contributes to RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.
Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra). GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions.
IL-20 promotes osteoclast differentiation by inducing RANK and RANKL expression in osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts, respectively.
IL-20 is a proinflammatory cytokine of the IL-10 family that is involved in psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and stroke. However, little is known about the role of IL-20 in bone destruction. We explored the function of IL-20 in osteoclastogenesis and the therapeutic potential of anti–IL-20 monoclonal antibody 7E for treating osteoporosis. Higher serum IL-20 levels were detected in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis and in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. IL-20 mediates osteoclastogenesis by up-regulating the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) expression in osteoclast precursor cells and RANK ligand (RANKL) in osteoblasts. 7E treatment completely inhibited osteoclast differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL in vitro and protected mice from OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. Furthermore, IL-20R1–deficient mice had significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) than did wild-type controls. IL-20R1 deficiency also abolished IL-20–induced osteoclastogenesis and increased BMD in OVX mice. We have identified a pivotal role of IL-20 in osteoclast differentiation, and we conclude that anti–IL-20 monoclonal antibody is a potential therapeutic for protecting against osteoporotic bone loss.
The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) binds to IL-1 receptors and inhibits IL-1 activity. However, it is not clear whether IL-1Ra plays a protective role in periodontal disease. This study was undertaken to compare experimental periodontitis induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in IL-1Ra knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Computed tomography (CT) analysis and hematoxylin-and-eosin (H&E) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining were performed. In addition, osteoblasts were isolated; the mRNA expression of relevant genes was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR); and calcification was detected by Alizarin Red staining. Infected IL-1Ra KO mice exhibited elevated (P, <0.05) levels of antibody against A. actinomycetemcomitans, bone loss in furcation areas, and alveolar fenestrations. Moreover, protein for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6, mRNA for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in IL-1Ra KO mouse osteoblasts stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans were increased (P, <0.05) compared to in WT mice. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN)/bone gla protein (BGP), and runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) mRNA levels were decreased (P, <0.05). IL-1α mRNA expression was increased, and calcification was not observed, in IL-1 Ra KO mouse osteoblasts. In brief, IL-1Ra deficiency promoted the expression of inflammatory cytokines beyond IL-1 and altered the expression of genes involved in bone resorption in A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected osteoblasts. Alterations consistent with rapid bone loss in infected IL-Ra KO mice were also observed for genes expressed in bone formation and calcification. In short, these data suggest that IL-1Ra may serve as a potential therapeutic drug for periodontal disease.
Periodontal disease affects about 80% of adults in America, and is characterized by oral bacterial infection-induced gingival inflammation, oral bone resorption, and tooth loss. Periodontitis is also associated with other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and heart disease. Although many efforts have been made to develop effective therapies for this disease, none have been very effective and there is still an urgent need for better treatments and preventative strategies. Herein we explored for the first time the possibility that adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated RNAi knockdown could be used to treat periodontal disease with improved efficacy. For this purpose, we used AAV-mediated RNAi knockdown of Atp6i/TIRC7 gene expression to target bone resorption and gingival inflammation simultaneously. Mice were infected with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 (P. gingivalis) in the maxillary periodontium to induce periodontitis. We found that Atp6i depletion impaired extracellular acidification and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Furthermore, local injection of AAV-shRNA-Atp6i/TIRC7 into the periodontal tissues in vivo protected mice from P. gingivalis infection-stimulated bone resorption by >85% and decreased the T-cell number in periodontal tissues. Notably, AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown also reduced the expression of osteoclast marker genes and inflammation-induced cytokine genes. Atp6i+/− mice with haploinsufficiency were similarly protected from P. gingivalis infection-stimulated bone loss and gingival inflammation. This suggests that AAV-shRNA-Atp6i/TIRC7 therapeutic treatment may significantly improve the health of millions who suffer from P. gingivalis-mediated periodontal disease.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which initial vascular damage leads to extensive macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration. Although acutely glucocorticoids suppress inflammation, chronic glucocorticoid excess worsens atherosclerosis, possibly by exacerbating systemic cardiovascular risk factors. However, glucocorticoid action within the lesion may reduce neointimal proliferation and inflammation. Glucocorticoid levels within cells do not necessarily reflect circulating levels due to pre-receptor metabolism by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs). 11β-HSD2 converts active glucocorticoids into inert 11-keto forms. 11β-HSD1 catalyses the reverse reaction, regenerating active glucocorticoids. 11β-HSD2-deficiency/ inhibition causes hypertension, whereas deficiency/ inhibition of 11β-HSD1 generates a cardioprotective lipid profile and improves glycemic control. Importantly, 11β-HSD1-deficiency/ inhibition is atheroprotective, whereas 11β-HSD2-deficiency accelerates atherosclerosis. These effects are largely independent of systemic risk factors, reflecting modulation of glucocorticoid action and inflammation within the vasculature. Here, we consider whether evidence linking the 11β-HSDs to vascular inflammation suggests these isozymes are potential therapeutic targets in vascular injury and atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis; Neointima; Inflammation; Glucocorticoid; 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
Signaling by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) in
response to its ligand RANKL, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor
(TNF) superfamily of cytokines, stimulates osteoclast formation and bone
resorption. Thus, this ligand-receptor pair is a therapeutic target for various
disorders, such as osteoporosis and skeletal metastasis. RANKL exists as a
physiological homotrimer with each monomer recognizing a single molecule of RANK
or the anti-osteoclastogenic decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). We engineered
a RANKL protein in which all three monomers of RANKL were encoded as a single
polypeptide chain, which enabled us to independently control receptor-binding at
each binding interface. To generate an effective RANK inhibitor, we used an
unbiased forward genetic approach to identify mutations in RANKL that had a
500-fold increased affinity for RANK, but had decreased affinity for the natural
decoy receptor for RANKL, osteoprotegerin. Incorporating receptor-blocking
mutations into this high-affinity RANKL variant generated a mutant RANKL that
completely inhibited wild-type RANKL–induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro
and bone resorption in mice. Our approach may be generalized to enable the
inhibition of other TNF receptor signaling systems, which are implicated in wide
range of pathological conditions.
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen that contains a variety of virulence factors. The antibody titer to P. gingivalis GroEL, a homologue of HSP60, is significantly higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy control subjects, suggesting that P. gingivalis GroEL is a potential stimulator of periodontal disease. However, the specific role of GroEL in periodontal disease remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis GroEL on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro, as well as its effect on alveolar bone resorption in rats in vivo. First, we found that stimulation of PDL cells with recombinant GroEL increased the secretion of the bone resorption-associated cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, potentially via NF-κB activation. Furthermore, GroEL could effectively stimulate PDL cell migration, possibly through activation of integrin α1 and α2 mRNA expression as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Additionally, GroEL may be involved in osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) activation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA inhibition in PDL cells. Finally, we inoculated GroEL into rat gingiva, and the results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometric assays indicated that the administration of GroEL significantly increased inflammation and bone loss. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to osteoclastogenesis of PDL cells and resulting in periodontal disease with alveolar bone resorption.
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Monocytes and macrophages stimulated by periodontopathic bacteria induce inflammatory mediators that cause tooth-supporting structure destruction and alveolar bone resorption. In this study, using a DNA microarray, we identified the enhanced gene expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in human monocytic cells stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TSP-1 is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein that is upregulated during the inflammatory process. Recent studies have suggested that TSP-1 is associated with rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and osteoclastogenesis. TSP-1 is secreted from neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, which mediate immune responses at inflammatory regions. However, TSP-1 expression in periodontitis and the mechanisms underlying TSP-1 expression in human monocytic cells remain unknown. Here using real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrated that TSP-1 mRNA expression level was significantly upregulated in inflamed periodontitis gingival tissues and in P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated human monocytic cell line THP-1 cells. TSP-1 was expressed via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 pathways. In P. gingivalis LPS stimulation, TSP-1 expression was dependent upon TLR2 through the activation of NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, IL-17F synergistically enhanced P. gingivalis LPS-induced TSP-1 production. These results suggest that modulation of TSP-1 expression by P. gingivalis plays an important role in the progression and chronicity of periodontitis. It may also contribute a new target molecule for periodontal therapy.